Rabban Gamliel II Hazaken of Yavneh (Ben Shimon II)
Hebrew: Rabban Gamliel II Hazaken רבן גמליאל השני נשיא הסנהדרין ביבנה
|Death:||Died in Yavne, Coastal Plain, Israel|
|Place of Burial:||Yavne, Coastal plain, Israel|
Son of Rabban Shimon II ben Gamliel
|Occupation:||President of Great Sanhedrin - in Yavne|
|Managed by:||Private User|
About Rabban Gamliel II of Yavne
Rabban Gamliel, רבן גמליאל דיבנה was the first person to lead the sanhedrin as nasi after the fall of the second temple, which occurred in 70 CE. Gamliel was appointed nasi approximately 10 years later.
Gamaliel II was the son of Shimon ben Gamaliel, one of Jerusalem's foremost men in the war against the Romans (vide Josephus, Bellum Judaicum iv. 3, 9, Vita 38), and grandson of Gamaliel I. To distinguish him from the latter he is also called Gamliel of Yavne.
In Yavne, during the siege of Jerusalem, the scribes of the school of Hillel had taken refuge by permission of Vespasian, a new centre of Judaism arose under the leadership of the aged Johanan ben Zakkai, a school whose members inherited the authority of the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem.
Gamaliel II became Johanan ben Zakkai's successor, and rendered immense service in the strengthening and reintegration of Judaism, which had been deprived of its former basis by the destruction of the Temple and by the entire loss of its political autonomy. He put an end to the division which had arisen between the spiritual leaders of Palestinian Judaism by the separation of the scribes into the two schools called respectively after Hillel and Shammai, and took care to enforce his own authority as the president of the chief legal assembly of Judaism with energy and often with severity. He did this, as he himself said, not for his own honor nor for that of his family, but in order that disunion should not prevail in Israel.
Gamaliel's position was recognized by the Roman government also. Towards, the end of Domitian's reign (c A. D. 95) he went to Rome in company with the most prominent members of the school of Jabneh, in order to avert a danger threatening the Jews from the action of the terrible emperor.
Many interesting particulars have been given regarding the journey of these learned men to Rome and their sojourn there. The impression made by the capital of the world upon Gamaliel and his companions was an overpowering one, and they wept when they thought of Jerusalem in ruins. In Rome, as at home, Gamaliel often had occasion to defend Judaism in polemical discussions with pagans, and also with professed Christians. In an anecdote regarding a suit which Gamaliel was prosecuting before a Christian judge, a converted Jew, he appeals to the Gospel and to the words of Jesus in Matthew 5:17 (Sabb. 116 a, b).
Rabbi Gamaliel II directed Simeon ha-Pakoli to edit the Amidah and make it a duty, incumbent on every one, to recite the prayer three times daily. Also, he directed Samuel ha-Katan to write another paragraph against informers and heretics. (Talmud Balvi, Megilah 17b, Berachos 28b)
He was on friendly terms with many who were not Jews, and was so warmly devoted to his slave Tabi that when the latter died he mourned for him as for a beloved member of his own family.
He loved discussing the sense of single portions of the Bible with other scholars, and made many fine expositions of the text. With the words of Deut. Xiii. 18 he associated the lesson: "So long as thou thyself art merciful, God will also be merciful to thee."
Gamaliel died before the insurrections under Trajan had brought fresh unrest into Palestine. At his funeral obsequies the celebrated proselyte Aquila (Akylas Onkelos), reviving an ancient custom, burned costly materials to the value of seventy minae. Gamaliel himself had given directions that his body was to be wrapped in the simplest possible shroud. By this he wished to check the extravagance which had become associated with arrangements for the disposal of the dead, and his end was attained; for his example became the rule, and it also became the custom to commemorate him in the words of consolation addressed to the mourners (Ketub. 8 ii).
Gamaliel's son, Simon, long after his father's death, and after the persecutions under Hadrian, inherited his office, which thenceforward his descendants handed on from father to son.
Rabbi Gamaliel’s overriding philosophy was: Whoever has mercy on other people, Heaven will have mercy upon him; whoever does not have mercy on other people, Heaven will not have mercy upon him (Sabb. 151b).
Gamaliel was a controversial leader. He excommunicated his own brother-in-law, Eliezer ben Hyrcanus. In a dispute about fixing the calendar, Rabban Gamaliel humiliated Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah and this led to a rabbinic revolt against Gamaliel's leadership of the Sanhedrin.
- Preceded by Shimon ben Gamliel
- Sanhedrin president: 80 (Est.) - 118 (Est.)
- Succeeded by Shimon ben Gamliel II
The following were Nesi'im, that is to say presidents of the Sanhedrin.
- Rabban Shimon ben Hillel, about whom very little is known
- Rabban Gamaliel Hazaken (Gamaliel the Elder)
- Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel
- Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai
- Rabban Gamaliel of Yavne
- Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah, who was Nasi for a short time after Rabban Gamliel was removed from his position
- Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel of Yavne
- Rabbi Judah haNasi (Judah the Nasi), known simply as "Rabbi", who compiled the Mishnah
About רבן גמליאל ד-יבנה נשיא הסנהדרין ביבנה (עברית)
רשימת נשיאי הסנהדרין בתקופת בית שני ואחריה
- יוסי בן יועזר איש צרדה: 170 לפנה"ס - 140 לפנה"ס לערך
- יהושע בן פרחיה: 140 לפנה"ס - 100 לפנה"ס לערך
- יהודה בן טבאי, ויש אומרים שמעון בן שטח: 100 לפנה"ס - 60 לפנה"ס
- שמעיה: 60 לפנה"ס - 30 לפנה"ס
- הלל הזקן: 30 לפנה"ס - 10 לערך
- שמעון (הראשון) בן הלל: 10 - 30 לערך
- רבן גמליאל (הראשון) הזקן: 30 - 50 לערך
- רבן שמעון (השני) בן גמליאל (הראשון) הזקן: 50 - 70 לערך - נהרג במרד הגדול
- רבן יוחנן בן זכאי - שימש כנשיא זמני לאחר המרד הגדול וחורבן בית המקדש
- רבן גמליאל (השני) דיבנה: 80 - 120 לערך. במקביל לו חלק מהזמן - רבי אלעזר בן עזריה
- אינטררגנום בשל היעדר הסכמה בין החכמים על יורשו של רבן גמליאל ובשל מרד בר כוכבא
- רבן שמעון (השלישי) בן גמליאל השני: 140 - 180 לערך
- רבי יהודה הנשיא: 180 - 220 לערך - חותם המשנה
- רבן גמליאל השלישי: 220 - 240 לערך
- רבי יהודה נשיאה הראשון: 240 - 270 לערך
- רבן גמליאל הרביעי: 270 - 300 לערך
- רבי יהודה נשיאה השני: 300 - 330 לערך
- הלל נשיאה: 330 - 365 לערך - תיקן את הלוח העברי
- רבן גמליאל החמישי: 365 - 380 לערך
- רבי יהודה נשיאה השלישי: 380 - 400 לערך
- רבן גמליאל השישי: 400 לערך - 425. הודח בהוראת הקיסרים תאודוסיוס השני והונוריוס, 17 אוקט' 415
Rabban Gamliel II of Yavne's Timeline
Yavne, Coastal Plain, Israel
Yavne, Coastal Plain, Israel
Yavne, Coastal plain, Israel