Rabbi Yosef Yitzhak Schneerson [Rayatz 6th CHABAD Rebbe]

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Admor Yosef Yitzchak Schneerson [Rayatz 6th CHABAD Rebbe]

Hebrew: Admor Yosef Yitzchak הרי"יץ, אדמור יוסף יצחק שניאורסון
Also Known As: "6th ADMOR of Chabad", "The HaRayatz", "der Frierdiker Rebbe", "the Previous Rebbe", "האדמור הריי"ץ"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Lubavitch, Russia
Death: Died in New York, Brooklyn, United States
Place of Burial: Montefiore Cemetery, Queens, New York, United States
Immediate Family:

Son of Shalom Dovber Schneerson [RaShab 5th CHABAD Rebbe]; Shterna Sarah Schneerson [5th CHABAD Rbzn.] and Rebbetzin Shterna Sarah
Husband of Rebbetzin Nechama Dinah and Rbzn Nechama Dina Schneerson, [6th Rbzn of Chabad]
Father of Rbzn. Chaya Mushka Schneerson; Chana Gurary and Shayne Hornstein (Schneerson)

Occupation: 6th ADMOR of CHABAD, 6th Rebbe of Lubavich, Sixth Chabad Rebbe
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Rabbi Yosef Yitzhak Schneerson [Rayatz 6th CHABAD Rebbe]

[Wikipedia]

Yosef Yitzhak (Joseph Isaac) Schneersohn (Hebrew: יוסף יצחק שניאורסאהן; ‎ 9 June 1880 - 28 January 1950) was an Orthodox rabbi and the sixth Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad Lubavitch chasidic movement. He is also known as the Friediker Rebbe (Yiddish for "Previous Rebbe"), the Rebbe RaYYaTz, or the Rebbe Rayatz (an acronym for Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak). After many years of fighting to keep Orthodox Judaism alive from within the Soviet Union, he was forced to leave; he continued to conduct the struggle from Latvia, and then Poland, and eventually the United States, where he spent the last ten years of his life. He was one of the most influential world leaders of Jewry.

Early life

Yosef Yitzhak Schneersohn was born in Lyubavichi, Russia. He was appointed as his father's personal secretary at the age of fifteen; in that year, he represented his father in the conference of communal leaders in Kovno. The following year (1896) he participated in the Vilna Conference, where Rabbis and community leaders discussed issues such as: genuine Jewish education; permission for Jewish children not to attend public school on Shabbat; the creation of a united Jewish organization for the purpose of strengthening Judaism. He participated in this conference again in 1908.

On 13 Elul 5657 (1897) at the age of seventeen he married a distant cousin, Rebbetzin Nechama Dina Schneersohn, daughter of Rabbi Avraham Schneerson of Kishinev, son of Rabbi Yisroel Noach of Nizhyn, son of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn.

In 1898 he was appointed head of the Tomchei Temimim yeshiva network.

In 1901, with financial support from Yaakov and Eliezer Poliakoff he opened spinning and weaving mills in Dubrovna and Mogilev and established a Yeshiva in Bukhara.

As he matured, he campaigned for the rights of Jews by appearing before the Czarist authorities in Saint Petersburg and Moscow. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 he sought relief for Jewish conscripts in the Russian army by sending them kosher food and supplies in the Russian Far East. In 1905 he participated in organizing a fund to provide Passover needs for troops in the Far East.

With rising anti-semitism and pogroms against Jews, in 1906 he traveled with other prominent rabbis to seek help from Western European governments, especially Germany and Holland, and persuaded bankers there to use their influence to stop pogroms.

He was arrested four times between 1902 and 1911 by the Czarist police because of his activism, but was released each time.

Upon the death of his father, Rabbi Sholom Dovber Schneersohn, in 1920, Yosef Yitzhak became the sixth Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch. It was an age of great social and political upheaval following the Russian Revolution of 1917. The victorious anti-religious Bolsheviks, some of them Jews, were intent on uprooting and suppressing all religious life in the "new" Bolshevist Russia.

Following the takeover of Russia by the Communists, they created a special "Jewish affairs section" run by Jews known as the Yevsektsiya, which instigated anti-Jewish activities meant to strip orthodox Jews of their religious way of life. As Rebbe of a Russian-based Jewish movement, Schneersohn was vehemently outspoken against the atheistic Communist regime and its goal of forcibly eradicating religion throughout the land. He purposely directed his followers to set up religious schools, going against the dictates of the Marxist-Leninist "dictatorship of the proletariat".

After the February Revolution, elections were called for Jewish city councils and a General Jewish Assembly. Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok's father, Rabbi Sholom Dovber Schneersohn, worked tirelessly to organize a religious front with a center and a special office that would deal with it all. For this reason, he called a unique conference of all the Torah giants throughout Russia. This conference was held in 1917 in Moscow, and was preceded by a meeting of the leading Rabbis, to decide which matters would be discussed there. This smaller meeting was held in Petrograd. However, because the participants in this meeting were few and in a hurry to return home, the Moscow conference failed to yield proper results. Thus, it was necessary to convene once again, this time in Kharkov in 1918, to discuss the elections for the General Jewish Assembly.

In 1921 he established a branch of Tomchei Temimim in Warsaw.

In 1924 he was forced by the Cheka (Russian secret police) to leave Rostov due to the Yevsektsiya's slander, and settled in Leningrad. In this time he labored to strengthen Torah observance through activities involving rabbis, Torah schools for children, yeshivot, shochtim, senior Torah-instructors and the opening of mikva’ot; he established a special committee to help manual workers be able to observe Shabbat. He established Agudat Chasidei Chabad in USA and Canada.

In 1927 he established a number of yeshivot in Bukhara.

He was primarily responsible for the maintenance of the now-clandestine Habad yeshiva system, which had ten branches throughout Russia by this time. He was under continual surveillance by agents of the NKVD.

In 1927 he was arrested and imprisoned in the Spalerno prison in Leningrad. He was tried by an armed council of revolutionaries, accused of counter-revolutionary activities, and sentenced to death. A world-wide storm of outrage and pressure from Western governments and the International Red Cross forced the communist regime to commute the death sentence and instead on 4 Tammuz it banished him to Kostroma in the Urals for an original sentence of three years. Yekaterina Peshkova, a prominent Russian human rights activist, helped from inside as well. This was also commuted following political pressure from the outside, and he was finally allowed to leave Russia for Riga in Latvia, where he lived from 1928 until 1929.

He then went to visit the Palestine where he visited holy gravesites and met with rabbis and community leaders. From there he travelled to the USA, where he was received in the White House by US President Herbert Hoover, who, as Republican presidential candidate had lobbied for his release. Lubavitch followers in America begged their Rebbe to leave Russia and stay in America, but Schneersohn declined, saying that America was an irreligious place where even rabbis shaved off their beards. From 1934 until the early part of the Second World War he lived in Warsaw, Poland.

Following Nazi Germany's attack against Poland in 1939 Rabbi Schneersohn refused to leave Warsaw. He remained in the city during the bombardments and its capitulation to Nazi Germany. He gave the full support of his organizations under Chabad Hasidism to assist as many Jews as possible to flee the invading armies. With the intercession of the United States Department of State in Washington, DC and with the lobbying of many Jewish leaders on behalf of the Rebbe (and, reputedly, with the help of Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, the head of the Abwehr), he was finally granted diplomatic immunity and given safe passage to go via Berlin to Riga, and then on to New York City, where he arrived on March 19, 1940.

When Schneersohn came to America, two of his chassidim came to him, and said not to start up all the activities in which Lubavitch had engaged in Europe, because America is different. To avoid disappointment, they advised him not even to try. Schneersohn wrote, "Out of my eyes came boiling tears", and undeterred, the next day he started the first Lubavitcher Yeshiva in America, declaring that "America is no different."

During the last decade of Schneersohn's life, from 1940 to 1950, he settled in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn in New York City. He was often too ill to stand. The community in Crown Heights remained small, and the synagogue records show that at some points during 1950 they struggled to form a regular minyan.

Schneersohn was already physically weak and ill from his suffering at the hands of the Communists and the Nazis, but he had a strong vision of rebuilding Orthodox Judaism in America and he wanted his movement to spearhead it. In order to do so he went on a building campaign to establish religious Jewish day schools and yeshivas for boys and girls, women and men. He established printing houses for the voluminous writings and publications of his movement, and started the process of spreading Jewish observance to the Jewish masses world-wide.

He began to teach publicly, and many came to seek out his teachings. He began gathering and sending out a small amount of his newly trained rabbis to other cities - a trend later emulated and amplified by his son-in-law and successor Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson.

In 1948 he established a Lubavitch village in the Land of Israel known as Kfar Chabad near Tel Aviv, on the site of an abandoned onetime Arab village of Safria.

He passed away in 1950 and was buried at Montefiore Cemetery in Queens, New York City. He had no sons, and his younger son-in-law, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson ("The Rebbe") succeeded him as Lubavitcher Rebbe, while the older son-in-law, Rabbi Shemaryahu Gurary led the Chabad Yeshiva network Tomchei Temimim. Established by philanthropist Rabbi Joseph Gutnick of Melbourne (Australia), the Ohel Chabad-Lubavitch Center on Francis Lewis Boulevard in Queens is located adjacent to the Ohel. His grave-site, known as the Ohel, became a central point of focus for his successor, who would visit it regularly for many hours of prayer, meditation, and supplication for Jews all over the world.

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Admorim of Chabad Lubavitch Chassidic Dynasty

1)

http://www.geni.com/people/Admor-Shneur-Zalman-of-Liadi-Boruchovitch-שניאור-זלמן-מליאדי-מייסד-חב-ד/6000000001480663764#/tab/overview

2)

http://www.geni.com/people/Dov-Ber-Shneuri-The-Mittler-Rebbe-דב-בער-שניאורי-האדמור-האמצעי/6000000001481205017#/tab/overview

3)

http://www.geni.com/people/Admor-Hatzemach-Tzedek-מנחם-מנדל-שניאורסון-הצמח-צדק/6000000001481810190#/tab/overview

4)

http://www.geni.com/people/Shmuel-Schneerson-4th-Admor-of-CHABAD-MaHaRash-שמואל-שניאורסון-מהר-ש/6000000001482805762#/tab/overview

5)

http://www.geni.com/people/Shalom-Dovber-Schneerson-RaShab-5th-Admor-of-CHABAD-הרש-אב/6000000001483207218#/tab/overview

6)

http://www.geni.com/people/Admor-Yosef-Yitzchok-Schneerson-Rayatz-6th-Admor-of-CHABAD-הרי-יץ/6000000001483982111#/tab/overview

7)

http://www.geni.com/people/Menachem-Mendel-Schneerson-7th-ADMOR-of-CHABAD-The-Lubavitcher-הלובביצ-ר/6000000001484129751#/tab/overview

About יוסף יצחק שניאורסון הרי"יץ (עברית)

רבי יוסף יצחק שניאורסון (י"ב בתמוז ה'תר"מ - י' בשבט ה'תש"י; 1880 - 1950), מכונה "האדמו"ר הריי"צ". האדמו"ר השישי בשושלת אדמו"רי חסידות חב"ד, שעמד בראשה משנת 1920 ועד לפטירתו בשנת 1950.

קורות חייו

הוא בנו של האדמו"ר החמישי רבי שלום דובער שניאורסון וחותנו של האדמו"ר האחרון, רבי מנחם מנדל שניאורסון. ידוע יותר בראשי התבות של שמו, האדמו"ר הריי"צ.

בי"ג באלול ה'תרנ"ז (1897), בגיל 17, התחתן עם הרבנית נחמה דינה, בת הרב החסיד אברהם שניאורסון. באותם ימים הוא נתמנה על ידי אביו למנהל ישיבת חב"ד "תומכי תמימים" - שנוסדה אז והפכה לרשת ישיבות עולמית לאחר מכן. השתתף באסיפות רבנים שהיו ברוסיה ובאירופה.

בשנת תרע"ג (1913) היה שותף לוועד הרבנים שסייע להגנה המשפטית במשפט עלילת הדם של מנחם בייליס.

בשנת ה'תר"פ (1920), זמן קצר לאחר פרוץ המהפכה הקומוניסטית, נפטר אביו והוא הפך למנהיגה של חסידות חב"ד. כתגובה למלחמה שהכריזו הקומוניסטים נגד היהדות, הוא פתח רשת חשאית ברוסיה הקומוניסטית, שדאגה לשמר את הגחלת היהודית. בשל מעשים אלו הוא נאסר בשנת ה'תרפ"ז (1927) על ידי הנ.ק.ו.ד. ונידון למוות, לאחר לחצים בינלאומיים - ביניהם התניית חידוש חוזה הסחר עם לטביה בשיחרורו (מאחורי פעולה זו עמד חבר הפרלמנט היהודי בלטביה מרדכי דובין) - בוטל עונש המוות והוחלף לעונש גלות. הוא שוחרר מהכלא ונשלח לגלותו בעיר קוסטרמה - ביום ג' בתמוז (19 ביוני) - ולבסוף שוחרר סופית בתאריך י"ב בתמוז (28 ביוני). עקב חג מקומי הוא קיבל על כך את ההודעה רק ביום שלמחרת, י"ג בתמוז. כתוצאה ממאסרו - נאלץ לעזוב את רוסיה בשנת ה'תרפ"ח (שלהי 1927) כשהוא חולה מהיסורים שסבל בבית הסוהר הרוסי. לפני שעלה לרכבת, נאם אל אלפי החסידים שנאספו להפרד ממנו ונקודת דבריו היתה: "רק הגוף היהודי נמצא בגלות אך הנשמה היא חופשית". דברים אלו זכו לתפוצה רחבה וצוטטו על ידי רבנים בתקופת השואה כמקור השראה ועידוד.

בשנת ה'תרפ"ט (1929) ערך מסע לארץ ישראל ולארצות הברית. בין השאר, ביקר בקהילה היהודית בחברון, בה הייתה קהילה של חסידי חב"ד. הוא אף זכה בזכות מיוחדת להיכנס למערת המכפלה.

בשנת ה'תרצ"ט (1939) ייסד את אגודת חסידי חב"ד.

במרץ 1940 הצליח לצאת מאירופה ולעבור לארצות הברית. מאז פעל לחיזוק היהדות בארצות הברית. בשבת פרשת בא ה'תש"י (1950) נפטר, ונקבר בניו יורק. את מקומו בנשיאות חב"ד ירש חתנו, רבי מנחם מנדל שניאורסון.

נשא לאשה את בת דודתו נחמה דינה. ממנה נולדו לו 3 בנות. חנה שנישאה לרב שמריהו גור-ארי, חיה מושקא, שנישאה לרב מנחם מנדל שניאורסון (לימים - האדמו"ר השביעי מחב"ד). בת נוספת - שיינדל נישאה לרב מנחם מנדל הורנשטיין, שניהם ניספו בשואה.

חיבוריו
   * ספר המאמרים - סדרה המונה כ-18 כרכים. מסודרת על פי סדר השנה (זאת אומרת, על פי זמני אמירתם, כל כרך לערך שנה או שנתיים).
   * אגרות קודש - סדרה של כ-16 כרכים ממכתביו.
   * לקוטי דיבורים - שיחותיו ברבים שהוגהו על ידו. שתי כרכים (באידיש). (בתרגום ללה"ק הם שלשה כרכים).
   * ספר השיחות - סדרה של 8 כרכים משיחותיו ברבים (כולל אלה שלא הוגהו על ידו).
   * ספר הזכרונות - שני כרכים תיעודיים הכתובים בסגנון פרוזה המתארים את הרקע לצמיחת תנועת החסידות באירופה. גיבור הספר הוא אביו של רבי שניאור זלמן מלאדי מייסד חסידות חב"ד.
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Rabbi Yosef Yitzhak Schneerson [Rayatz 6th CHABAD Rebbe]'s Timeline

1880
June 21, 1880
Lubavitch, Russia
1897
September 10, 1897
Age 17
Lubavitch, י"ג אלול ה'תרנ"ז, Russia
1899
August 1, 1899
Age 19
Lyubavichi, Rudnyansky District, Smolenskaya oblast, Russia
1901
March 16, 1901
Age 20
נולדה כ"ה אדר ה'תרס"א, Russia
1904
January 9, 1904
Age 23
Lubavitch, Ukraine
1920
1920
- 1927
Age 39
Lubavitch, Russia
1927
1927
- 1940
Age 46
Warsaw, Poland
1940
1940
Age 59
New York, America
1940
- 1950
Age 59
Brooklyn, NY, United States
1950
January 28, 1950
Age 69
New York, Brooklyn, United States