Raymond IV, comte de Toulouse

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Raymund IV 'de St. Gilles' de Tolosa, comte de Tolosa

Nicknames: "Raymond de St Gilles; Raimond", "Ramon; Guillaume IV", "William IV; Guilhèm IV;Count of Toulouse;", "Raymond de Saint-Gilles", "Count De Toulouse"
Birthdate:
Death: Died in Tripoli, Palestine
Place of Burial: Mount Pèlerin, Jerusalem
Immediate Family:

Son of Pons II Guillaume, comte de Toulouse and Almodis de la Marca, comtessa consort de Barcelona
Husband of N.N. de Tolosa and Elvira Alfonso, condesa de Tolosa
Ex-husband of Mathilde de Sicile
Father of Bertrand, comte de Toulouse; Alphonse I Jourdain, comte de Toulouse; Raymonde de Toulouse and N.N. de Toulouse
Brother of Almodis de Toulouse, comtesse consort de Melgueil; Hugues de Toulouse, abbé de Cluny and Guillaume IV, comte de Toulouse
Half brother of William de Rouergue; Pons the Younger; Hugues VI "le Diable", seigneur de Lusignan; Mélisende de Lusignan; Jourdain de Lusignan and 5 others

Occupation: Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne, Margrave of Provence, Count of Tripoli, Greve, Abbot of Saint-Gilles, Comte de Toulouse et Nîmes
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Raymund IV 'de St. Gilles' de Tolosa, comte de Tolosa

Raymond IV was the son of Pons II William of Toulouse, c.1020-1060, and Almodis de la Marche, c.1020-1071. He was married to Unknown, Matilda of Sicily and Elvira of Castile. His older brother was William IV.

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http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/TOULOUSE.htm#RaymondIVdied1105A :

RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of PONS Comte de Toulouse & his third wife Almodis de La Marche (-castle of Mount Pèlerin near Tripoli, Palestine 28 Feb 1105, bur Mount Pèlerin or Jerusalem). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Guilelmum et Raymundum" as the two sons of "Guilelmi…Tolose comitis" and his wife "Alymodis multinuba"[415]. "Wilelmo…Raimundo…Ugoni" are named as sons of "Pontio [comite Tolosano]" in a charter dated 9 Jun 1063[416]. Comte de Rouergue, de Nîmes et de Narbonne, presumably resulting from an agreement with his brother to partition their father's territories following his death in 1060. "Raimundum comitem de Rutenis, filium Almodis" and "Guifredum archiepiscopum de Narbona, filium Guille comitissæ" confirmed an agreement by charter dated to [1066], confirmed by "uxorem suam comitissam"[417]. "Raimundus comes Rutenensis et Nemosensis, Narbonensiumque filius meus" joined "Almodis comitissa" in a transaction with Cluny for the soul of "Poncii comitis" dated 15 Dec 1066[418]. "Raimundi comitis Rutenensis…" subscribed the charter dated 7 Sep 1071 which records an agreement between "Wuiellmum Tolosanum comitem" and "Raimundum comitem Barchinonensem et Carchanonensem et Raimundem filium eius" settling their dispute about "castello de Laurago" [Lauragais][419]. "Rogerius comes Fuxensis et coniux mea Sicardis comitissa" donated property to Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated to [1074], subscribed by "domni G. comitis Tolosani et domni Raymundi fratris eius comitis Ruthenæ"[420]. A charter dated 27 Jun 1078 records a hearing held by "Raymundo Ruthenensium comiti et Biterrensium vicecomitissæ Hermengardi" relating to a claim by "Petrus…Bermundi filius"[421]. "Guillelmus Tolonanensium, Albensium seu Caturcensium, Lutevensium, Petragorensium, Carcassonensium, Aginnensium necne Astarachensium comes et dux…cum uxore mea…Emma" confirmed donations by "proavuo…meo Pontio Aquitanorum duce" to Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated 16 Jun 1080, signed by "Regimundus comes frater eius, Bertrandus comes nepos Willelmi et filius Raimundi, Guillelmi de Rehenti, Ademari vicecomitis…"[422]. He took an active part in the crusade against the Moors in Spain. "Raymundus comes Rothenensis" abandoned rights in favour of the church of Béziers by charter dated 1084, signed by "…Guillelmi de Sabrano…"[423]. "Raymundus Ruthenensis, Gabalitanus, Ucetiensis, Nemausensis, Agathensis, Biterrensis necnon Narbonensis comes" confirmed the foundation of the abbey of Saint-Pons de Thomières by "proavo…meo Pontio Aquitanorum magno duce vel principe" by charter dated 1085[424]. He succeeded his brother in 1094 as RAYMOND IV "de Saint-Gilles" Comte de Toulouse. "Raimundus comes Tolosanæ, dux Narbonæ, marchio Provinciæ" donated property to Saint-André d´Avignon by charter dated 1088 (which presumably should be redated to after 1094), signed by "…Guillelmus de Sabrano, Alisiardus de Usetico, Rostagnus de Posqueriis, Gibellinus de Sabrano…"[425]. A bull of Pope Urban II dated 18 Feb 1095 announced that "Raimundus Tolosanus comes…cum uxore sua Hervira et filio Bertranno" abandoned his rights to altar offerings at the monastery of Saint-Gilles[426]. Presumably Comte Raymond's epithet "de Saint-Gilles" is attributable to his continuing public support for this monastery rather than use of a title such as "Comte de Saint-Gilles" before succeeding his brother in Toulouse. He was the first nobles to answer the call of Pope Urban IV for a crusade to relieve Jerusalem from occupation by the Muslim Arabs, asking to join the expedition 1 Dec 1095 only days after the Pope's rallying speech at the Council of Clermont. He succeeded as Marquis de Provence, no doubt after the death of Bernard [II] Comte de Provence in [1090/94] although the precise process by which this succession occurred has not yet been identified. "Raimundus…comes et Provincie marchio" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 28 Jul 1094, also confirming donations by "Dulcis comitissa", signed by "Alvira comitissa"[427]. A bull of Pope Urban II dated 22 Jul 1096 confirmed the rights of the monastery of Saint-André near Avignon after its abandonment by "comes Nimirum Tholosanorum ac Ruthenensium et marchio Provintie Raimundus"[428]. In Jul 1096, Comte Raymond transferred many of his possessions to the monastery of Saint-Gilles[429]. He left on crusade in Oct 1096, leaving the government of Toulouse in the hands of his older son Bertrand (not named but referred to as "naturali cuidam filio suo comitatu quem regebat relicto")[430]. Comte Raymond never returned to France. While crossing Byzantine territory, his army attacked Roussa in Thrace, but was defeated and dispersed by the Imperial army[431]. He played a decisive role in the capture of Antioch 28 Jun 1098 after a siege lasting eight months. The leaders of the crusade disagreed about who should control Antioch. After Comte Raymond finally marched south in Jan 1099 to continue the crusade[432], Bohémond of Apulia remained in possession of Antioch. Comte Raymond tried unsuccessfully to be accepted as overall leader of the crusade, but in Jul 1099 refused to be considered as a candidate to be "King of Jerusalem" knowing that he did not have enough support among the crusaders[433]. After the election as leader of his rival Godefroi de Bouillon 22 Jul 1099, Comte Raymond left Jerusalem for Jericho[434]. His objective was to create his own principality in central Syria[435]. He established his household at Lattakia[436]. The second wave of the First Crusade, Lombards who had left Italy under Alberto Conte di Biandrate in Sep 1100 and the French under Etienne Comte de Bourgogne who left in Spring 1101, appointed Comte Raymond as their leader when they arrived at Constantinople, where he was staying during the winter of 1100/01 as the guest of Emperor Alexios I[437]. After the combined armies left Constantinople in May 1101, they captured Ankara from the Seljuk Turks 23 Jun 1101 but were scattered after their defeat by the Turks at Mersivan[438]. Comte Raymond returned to Constantinople, left by ship for Lattakia, but in early 1102 was arrested in Tarsus for having "betrayed Christendom" and taken to Tancred Regent of Antioch who released him only after he swore an oath not to interfere further in affairs in Syria, In compliance, he evacuated his garrison from Lattakieh, which was besieged by Tancred in early Spring 1102[439]. He gained a notable victory against the Turks outside Tripoli in 1102, constructed the castle of Mount Pèlerin near Tripoli in 1103/04, and laid siege to the town itself. He died during the course of the siege[440], his death being recorded by William of Tyre[441]. Albert of Aix records that "comes Reimundus" died at "Mons Peregrinorum", which he had built, in February "post Purificationem sanctæ Mariæ" and was buried there[442]. Bar Hebræus records the death in A.H. 499 (1105/06) of "Hisn Sandjil", ten days after falling from a roof which had been set alight by "Abou-Ali Ibn Ammar, souverain de Tripoli", and his burial in Jerusalem[443].

m firstly ([1066] or before, [repudiated [1076/80]) ---. "Raimundum comitem de Rutenis, filium Almodis" and "Guifredum archiepiscopum de Narbona, filium Guille comitissæ" confirmed an agreement by charter dated to [1066], confirmed by "uxorem suam comitissam"[444]. The name of Raymond´s first wife is not known. It is assumed that the marriage was terminated, maybe for consanguinity, which could explain the doubts expressed in the sources quoted below about the legitimacy of Raymond´s son Bertrand, who is assumed to have been born from this first marriage. The Histoire Générale de Languedoc suggests that this wife was Raymond´s first cousin, the daughter of his paternal uncle Bertrand, suggesting that Raymond naming his first son Bertrand would then have been consistent with the contemporary convention of using the name of one of the child´s grandfathers for the first-born son[445]. The same source suggests that such a marriage could explain why Raymond was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII in 1076 and 1078. It also suggests that Comte Raymond´s right to the marquisate of Provence may have been based on the dowry of his first marriage. This may explain why Europäische Stammtafeln and other primary sources show Raymond´s first wife as --- de Provence, daughter of Geoffroy I Marquis de Provence, Comte d'Arles & his wife Etiennette [Douce] [de Marseille]. However, Raymond´s right could also have been hereditary through his paternal grandmother, who was the sister of Guillaume [V] Comte et Marquis de Provence.

m secondly ([1080], divorced [1088]) as her second husband, MATHILDE of Sicily, repudiated wife of ROBERT Comte d'Eu, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his first wife Judith d'Evreux (1062-before 1094). Malaterra records the marriage of "Raimundus comes Provinciarum" and "Matildem filiam suam [Rogerii Siculorum comitis]…de prima uxore" which he dates to 1080[446]. According to Houben[447], Mathilde who married Robert Comte d'Eu was the daughter of Roger I Count of Sicily by his second wife, and a different person from Mathilde wife of Raymond de Toulouse. No source is quoted, but this seems unlikely from a chronological point of view as Roger's second marriage took place in [1077], and Robert Comte d'Eu died in [1089/93]. In addition, it seems unlikely that Roger, at the height of his power as count of Sicily in the late 1080s, would have agreed to his daughter's marriage to an obscure count in northern France while he was arranging royal marriages for his other daughters.

m thirdly (1094) as her first husband, doña ELVIRA Alfonso, illegitimate daughter of don ALFONSO VI King of Castile and León & his mistress doña Jimena Muñoz (-after 19 Jun [1156]). The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Jimena Muñoz" as the first of two concubines of King Alfonso, and their daughters "Elvira the wife of count Raymond of Toulouse…and Teresa the wife of Count Henry"[448]. "Raimundus…comes et Provincie marchio" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 28 Jul 1094, also confirming donations by "Dulcis comitissa", signed by "Alvira comitissa"[449]. The bull of Pope Urban II dated 18 Feb 1095 announces that "Raimundus Tolosanus comes…cum uxore sua Hervira et filio Bertranno" abandoned his rights to altar offerings at the monastery of Saint-Gilles[450]. Her birth date is estimated from the birth of her first child "before 1097". The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. According to Guibert, Comte Raymond left on the First Crusade with his wife and son (both unnamed) "Qui quidem, naturali cuidam filio suo comitatu quem regebat relicto, propriam conjugem cum filio, quem ab ea exegerat, unico secum duxit"[451]. She left Palestine after her husband's death, arriving back in Toulouse with her infant son in 1108[452]. She married secondly (before 8 Jul 1117, separated before 1121) as his first wife, don Fernando Fernández. Her second marriage is deduced from the charter dated 8 Jul 1117 under which "Fernanz Fernanniz…et uxor mea infanta donna Gelvira filia regis Alfonsi" donated "quartem partem de monasterio de Ferreries…in Gallicia in terra de Lemes juxta Pantonem" to Cluny[453]. It is also indicated by the charter dated 18 Apr 1127 under which her mother "Ximena Munniz" donated property in "Trebalio et Turres" to "nepotis mei…Garcie Fernandiz"[454], and also by the charter dated 1201 under which her great-granddaughter "Domna Xemena Osoriz" donated her property in Valdejunco, Valdunquillo, Villa Velasco, Fontamian, Villa Sanz, Carvajal, Villela, Otero, Mozos, Valdescapa, Barriales, Valle Vaniego, Ranero and in tierra de Cea to Sahagún monastery, naming "aviam tuam Infantem Gelviram"[455], although the second document does not clarify which of the two "Infantas Elvira" is referred to. On the other hand, Reilly[456] says that doña Elvira, wife of Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse, did not return to Castile until after the death of Queen Urraca. He maintains that the wife of don Fernando Fernández was Elvira who was the legitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI by his wife "Elisabeth". As discussed in the document CASTILE KINGS, it is more likely that the younger legitimate daughter Elvira was the wife of Roger King of Sicily. Canal Sánchez-Pangín[457] concludes that the wife of don Fernando Fernández was indeed the widow of Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse. One difficulty is that Alphonse Comte de Toulouse, son of Comte Raymond IV and doña Elvira, was declared of age only in 1121, although it is not known whether his mother remained in Toulouse acting as regent throughout his minority. . The dating clauses of charters dated 24 Oct 1137, 1 Nov 1137, 20 Nov 1137, 6 Nov 1139, 1 Oct 1143, 1 Nov 1149, 6 Jun [1153], and 19 Jun [1156], which record donations to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes, name "…Imperante Ribera donna Gelvira Infante"[458]. "Infante dompna Gelvira…domini Adefonsi regis filia" donated "in territorio de Ripeira…villa de Nozeta" to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes, confirmed by "Didacus Fernandiz…quod…mater mea prefata infante domina Gelvira facit" and by "Adefonsus…Yspanie imperator…mater tere mee et filiorum eius…infans domina Sancia soror ipsius imperatoris", by charter dated 29 Apr 1150, subscribed by "Poncius comes…Osorius Martiniz comes…Nunno Petriz armiger regis…Vela Guterriz dominante Capreyra, Petro Roderiquiz, Roderico Roderiquiz, Petro Didaz…"[459].

Comte Raymond IV & his first wife had one child:

1. BERTRAND de Toulouse ([1065]-in Palestine 21 Apr 1112). "Guillelmus Tolonanensium, Albensium seu Caturcensium, Lutevensium, Petragorensium, Carcassonensium, Aginnensium necne Astarachensium comes et dux…cum uxore mea…Emma" confirmed donations by "proavuo…meo Pontio Aquitanorum duce" to Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated 16 Jun 1080, signed by "Regimundus comes frater eius, Bertrandus comes nepos Willelmi et filius Raimundi, Guillelmi de Rehenti, Ademari vicecomitis…"[460]. Other sources suggest doubt regarding Bertrand's legitimacy. Caffaro names "Beltramo Çauata…bastardus comitis Raymundi comitis sancti Egidii" when recording that he captured Tripoli[461]. Guibert records that, in Oct 1096, his father left the government of Toulouse in the hands of "naturali cuidam filio suo comitatu quem regebat relicto" when he left on the First Crusade[462]. As suggested above, these problems could best be explained if Cotme Raymond was separated from his first wife, mother of Bertrand, on grounds of consanguinity, which may have affected some contemporary views about the legitimacy of their offspring. He succeeded his father in 1105 as BERTRAND Comte de Toulouse. A series of bulls of Pope Pascal II dated between 15 Apr 1105 and 14 May 1108 reveal that "Bertrannus comes" failed to respect his father's abandonment of rights concerning the altar offerings at the monastery of Saint-Gilles, that he was excommunicated, recanted but attacked the monastery again[463]. After the arrival in Toulouse of his step-mother and infant half-brother, Bertrand left for Palestine in Summer 1108, and swore fidelity to Emperor Alexis I at Constantinople. Albert of Aix records that "Bertrannus filius comitis Reimundi" arrived in Tortosa in March, dated to 1109 from the context, and demanded the territories formerly held by his father[464]. At a council of crusader rulers outside Tripoli in Jun 1109, it was decided that Bertrand should receive Jebail, and Tripoli once it was captured, under the suzerainty of Baudouin I King of Jerusalem, while Guillem Jordan retained Tortosa and Arqa. On the death of either, the other would inherit his lands[465]. Tripoli finally surrendered 12 Jul 1109, and he was installed as BERTRAND Count of Tripoli. Jebail was given to Ugo Embriaco, the Genoese admiral who had helped Bertrand[466]. Comte Bertrand inherited Tortosa and Arqa on the death of Guillem Jordan shortly after[467]. "Bertrandus…comes Raimundi Sancti Egidii filius" donated property for the soul of "Guillelmi Iordanis consanguinei mei" to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem with the consent of "Poncio filio suo", by undated charter[468].

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Raymond IV of Toulouse sometimes called Raymond of St Gilles (c. 1041 or 1042 – 1105) was Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne, and Margrave of Provence and one of the leaders of the First Crusade. He was a son of Pons of Toulouse and Almodis de La Marche. He received Saint-Gilles with the title of "count" from his father and succeeded his brother William IV in Toulouse in 1094.

According to an Armenian source, he had lost an eye on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem before the First Crusade, but this statement probably refers to the fact that he was one-eyed (monoculus). He also fought against the Moors in Spain before 1096, and he was the first to join the crusade after Pope Urban II's sermon at the Council of Clermont.

Early years

In 1094, William Bertrand of Provence died and his margravial title to Provence passed to Raymond. A bull of Urban's dated 22 July 1096 names Raymond comes Nimirum Tholosanorum ac Ruthenensium et marchio Provintie Raimundus.

The Crusader

Raymond was deeply religious, and wished to die in the Holy Land, and so when the call was raised for the First Crusade, he was one of the first to take the cross. The oldest and the richest of the crusaders, Raymond left Toulouse at the end of October 1096, with a large company that included his wife Elvira, his infant son (who would die on the journey) and Adhemar, bishop of Le Puy, the papal legate. He ignored requests by his niece, Philippa (the rightful heiress to Toulouse) to grant the rule of Toulouse to her in his stead; instead, he left Bertrand, his eldest son, to govern. He marched to Dyrrhachium, and then east to Constantinople along the same route used by Bohemond of Taranto. At the end of April, 1097, he was the only crusade leader not to swear an oath of fealty to Byzantine emperor Alexius I. Instead, Raymond swore an oath of friendship, and offered his support against Bohemond, mutual enemy of both Raymond and Alexius.

He was present at the siege of Nicaea and the Battle of Dorylaeum in 1097, but his first major role came in October of 1097 at the siege of Antioch. The crusaders heard a rumour that Antioch had been deserted by the Seljuk Turks, so Raymond sent his army ahead to occupy it, offending Bohemond of Taranto who wanted the city for himself. The city was, however, still occupied, and was taken by the crusaders only after a difficult siege in June of 1098. Raymond took the palatium Cassiani (the palace of the emir, Yaghi-Siyan) and the tower over the Bridge Gate. He was ill during the second siege of Antioch by Kerbogha which culminated in the discovery of the Holy Lance by a monk named Peter Bartholomew.

The "miracle" raised the morale of the crusaders, and to their surprise they were able to rout Kerbogha outside Antioch. The Lance itself became a valuable relic among Raymond's followers, despite Adhemar of Le Puy's skepticism and Bohemond's disbelief and occasional mockery. Raymond also refused to relinquish his control of the city to Bohemond, reminding Bohemond that he was obligated to return to Antioch and the court of Emperor Alexius, as he had sworn to do. A struggle then arose between Raymond's supporters and the supporters of Bohemond, partly over the genuineness of the Lance, but mostly over the possession of Antioch.

Extending his territorial reach

Many of the minor knights and foot soldiers preferred to continue their march to Jerusalem, and they convinced Raymond to lead them there in the autumn of 1098. Raymond led them out to besiege Ma'arrat al-Numan, although he left a small detachment of his troops in Antioch, where Bohemond also remained. As Adhemar had died in Antioch, Raymond, along with the prestige given to him by the Holy Lance, became the new leader of the crusade. Bohemond however, expelled Raymond's detachment from Antioch in January of 1099. Raymond then began to search for a city of his own. He marched from Ma'arrat, which had been captured in December of 1098, into the emirate of Tripoli, and began the siege of Arqa on February 14, 1099, apparently with the intent of founding an independent territory in Tripoli that could limit the power of Bohemond to expand the Principality of Antioch to the south.

The siege of Arqa, a town outside Tripoli, lasted longer than Raymond had hoped. Although he successfully captured Hisn al-Akrad, a fortress that would later become the important Krak des Chevaliers, his insistence on taking Tripoli delayed the march to Jerusalem, and he lost much of the support he had gained after Antioch. Raymond finally agreed to continue the march to Jerusalem on May 13, and after months of siege the city was captured on July 15. Raymond was offered the crown of the new Kingdom of Jerusalem, but refused, as he was reluctant to rule in the city in which Jesus had suffered. He said that he shuddered to think of being called "King of Jerusalem". It is also likely that he wished to continue the siege of Tripoli rather than remain in Jerusalem. However, he was also reluctant to give up the Tower of David in Jerusalem, which he had taken after the fall of the city, and it was only with difficulty that Godfrey of Bouillon was able to take it from him.

Raymond participated in the battle of Ascalon soon after the capture of Jerusalem, during which an invading army from Egypt was defeated. However, Raymond wanted to occupy Ascalon himself rather than give it to Godfrey, and in the resulting dispute Ascalon remained unoccupied. It was not taken by the crusaders until 1153. Godfrey also blamed him for the failure of his army to capture Arsuf. When Raymond went north, in the winter of 1099-1100, his first act was one of hostility against Bohemond, capturing Laodicea from (Bohemond had himself recently taken it from Alexius). From Laodicea he went to Constantinople, where he allied with Alexius I, Bohemond's most powerful enemy. Bohemond was at the time attempting to expand Antioch into Byzantine territory, and blatantly refused to fulfill his oath to the Byzantine Empire.

Defeat

Raymond joined the minor and ultimately unsuccessful Crusade of 1101, where he was defeated at Mersivan in Anatolia. Raymond escaped and returned to Constantinople. In 1102 he travelled by sea from Constantinople to Antioch, where he was imprisoned by Tancred, regent of Antioch during the captivity of Bohemond, and was only dismissed after promising not to attempt any conquests in the country between Antioch and Acre. He immediately broke his promise, attacking and capturing Tartus, and began to build a castle on the Mons Peregrinus ("Pilgrim's Mountain") which would help in his siege of Tripoli. He was aided by Alexius I, who preferred a friendly state in Tripoli to balance the hostile state in Antioch.

Spouses and progeny

Raymond IV of Toulouse was married three times, and twice excommunicated for marrying within forbidden degrees of consanguinity. His first wife was his cousin, and the mother of his son Bertrand. His second wife was Matilda (Mafalda), the daughter of King Roger I of Sicily. Raymond's third wife was Elvira, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile, the Spanish king who also campaigned furiously against the Moors.

Raymond died in 1105, before Tripoli was captured. He was succeeded by his nephew William-Jordan, who, in 1109, with the aid of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem, finally captured the town and established the County of Tripoli. William was deposed in the same year by Raymond's eldest son Bertrand, and the county remained in the possession of the counts of Toulouse throughout the 12th century.

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FROM http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/TOULOUSE.htm#GuillaumeIIIdied1037B

   [PONS de Toulouse (-1063).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Pons was the oldest son of Pons II Comte de Toulouse according to Europäische Stammtafeln[382] but is not mentioned in Magné & Dizel[383].  The latter describes the succession of the brothers Guillaume IV and Raymond IV on the death of their father in 1060.  If Pons the younger did exist, it is not clear why he would have been excluded from the succession.  His existence is extremely doubtful.] 

Raymond of Toulouse seems to have been driven both by religious and material motives. On the one hand he accepted the discovery of the Holy Lance and rejected the kingship of Jerusalem, but on the other hand he could not resist the temptation of a new territory. Raymond of Aguilers, a clerk in Raymond's army, wrote an account of the crusade from Raymond's point of view.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_IV_of_Toulouse

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Died in battle at Huesca.

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Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Raymond IV of Toulouse sometimes called Raymond of St Gilles (c. 1041 or 1042 – 1105) was Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne, and Margrave of Provence and one of the leaders of the First Crusade. He was a son of Pons of Toulouse and Almodis de La Marche. He received Saint-Gilles with the title of "count" from his father and succeeded his brother William IV in Toulouse in 1094.

According to an Armenian source, he had lost an eye on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem before the First Crusade, but this statement probably refers to the fact that he was one-eyed (monoculus). He also fought against the Moors in Spain before 1096, and he was the first to join the crusade after Pope Urban II's sermon at the Council of Clermont.

Early years

In 1094, William Bertrand of Provence died and his margravial title to Provence passed to Raymond. A bull of Urban's dated 22 July 1096 names Raymond comes Nimirum Tholosanorum ac Ruthenensium et marchio Provintie Raimundus.

[edit]The Crusader

Raymond was deeply religious, and wished to die in the Holy Land, and so when the call was raised for the First Crusade, he was one of the first to take the cross. The oldest and the richest of the crusaders, Raymond left Toulouse at the end of October 1096, with a large company that included his wife Elvira, his infant son (who would die on the journey) and Adhemar, bishop of Le Puy, the papal legate. He ignored requests by his niece, Philippa (the rightful heiress to Toulouse) to grant the rule of Toulouse to her in his stead; instead, he left Bertrand, his eldest son, to govern. He marched to Dyrrhachium, and then east to Constantinople along the same route used by Bohemond of Taranto. At the end of April, 1097, he was the only crusade leader not to swear an oath of fealty to Byzantine emperor Alexius I. Instead, Raymond swore an oath of friendship, and offered his support against Bohemond, mutual enemy of both Raymond and Alexius.

He was present at the siege of Nicaea and the Battle of Dorylaeum in 1097, but his first major role came in October of 1097 at the siege of Antioch. The crusaders heard a rumour that Antioch had been deserted by the Seljuk Turks, so Raymond sent his army ahead to occupy it, offending Bohemond of Taranto who wanted the city for himself. The city was, however, still occupied, and was taken by the crusaders only after a difficult siege in June of 1098. Raymond took the palatium Cassiani (the palace of the emir, Yaghi-Siyan) and the tower over the Bridge Gate. He was ill during the second siege of Antioch by Kerbogha which culminated in the discovery of the Holy Lance by a monk named Peter Bartholomew.

The "miracle" raised the morale of the crusaders, and to their surprise they were able to rout Kerbogha outside Antioch. The Lance itself became a valuable relic among Raymond's followers, despite Adhemar of Le Puy's skepticism and Bohemond's disbelief and occasional mockery. Raymond also refused to relinquish his control of the city to Bohemond, reminding Bohemond that he was obligated to return to Antioch and the court of Emperor Alexius, as he had sworn to do. A struggle then arose between Raymond's supporters and the supporters of Bohemond, partly over the genuineness of the Lance, but mostly over the possession of Antioch.

[edit]Extending his territorial reach

Many of the minor knights and foot soldiers preferred to continue their march to Jerusalem, and they convinced Raymond to lead them there in the autumn of 1098. Raymond led them out to besiege Ma'arrat al-Numan, although he left a small detachment of his troops in Antioch, where Bohemond also remained. As Adhemar had died in Antioch, Raymond, along with the prestige given to him by the Holy Lance, became the new leader of the crusade. Bohemond however, expelled Raymond's detachment from Antioch in January of 1099. Raymond then began to search for a city of his own. He marched from Ma'arrat, which had been captured in December of 1098, into the emirate of Tripoli, and began the siege of Arqa on February 14, 1099, apparently with the intent of founding an independent territory in Tripoli that could limit the power of Bohemond to expand the Principality of Antioch to the south.

The siege of Arqa, a town outside Tripoli, lasted longer than Raymond had hoped. Although he successfully captured Hisn al-Akrad, a fortress that would later become the important Krak des Chevaliers, his insistence on taking Tripoli delayed the march to Jerusalem, and he lost much of the support he had gained after Antioch. Raymond finally agreed to continue the march to Jerusalem on May 13, and after months of siege the city was captured on July 15. Raymond was offered the crown of the new Kingdom of Jerusalem, but refused, as he was reluctant to rule in the city in which Jesus had suffered. He said that he shuddered to think of being called "King of Jerusalem". It is also likely that he wished to continue the siege of Tripoli rather than remain in Jerusalem. However, he was also reluctant to give up the Tower of David in Jerusalem, which he had taken after the fall of the city, and it was only with difficulty that Godfrey of Bouillon was able to take it from him.

Raymond participated in the battle of Ascalon soon after the capture of Jerusalem, during which an invading army from Egypt was defeated. However, Raymond wanted to occupy Ascalon himself rather than give it to Godfrey, and in the resulting dispute Ascalon remained unoccupied. It was not taken by the crusaders until 1153. Godfrey also blamed him for the failure of his army to capture Arsuf. When Raymond went north, in the winter of 1099-1100, his first act was one of hostility against Bohemond, capturing Laodicea from (Bohemond had himself recently taken it from Alexius). From Laodicea he went to Constantinople, where he allied with Alexius I, Bohemond's most powerful enemy. Bohemond was at the time attempting to expand Antioch into Byzantine territory, and blatantly refused to fulfill his oath to the Byzantine Empire.

[edit]Defeat

Raymond was part of the doomed Crusade of 1101, where he was defeated at Mersivan in Anatolia. Raymond escaped and returned to Constantinople. In 1102 he travelled by sea from Constantinople to Antioch, where he was imprisoned by Tancred, regent of Antioch during the captivity of Bohemond, and was only dismissed after promising not to attempt any conquests in the country between Antioch and Acre. He immediately broke his promise, attacking and capturing Tartus, and began to build a castle on the Mons Peregrinus ("Pilgrim's Mountain") which would help in his siege of Tripoli. He was aided by Alexius I, who preferred a friendly state in Tripoli to balance the hostile state in Antioch.

[edit]Spouses and progeny

Raymond IV of Toulouse was married three times, and twice excommunicated for marrying within forbidden degrees of consanguinity. His first wife was his cousin, and the mother of his son Bertrand. His second wife was Matilda (Mafalda), the daughter of King Roger I of Sicily. Raymond's third wife was Elvira, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile, the Spanish king who also campaigned furiously against the Moors.

Raymond died in 1105, before Tripoli was captured. He was succeeded by his nephew William-Jordan, who, in 1109, with the aid of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem, finally captured the town and established the County of Tripoli. William was deposed in the same year by Raymond's eldest son Bertrand, and the county remained in the possession of the counts of Toulouse throughout the 12th century.

Raymond of Toulouse seems to have been driven both by religious and material motives. On the one hand he accepted the discovery of the Holy Lance and rejected the kingship of Jerusalem, but on the other hand he could not resist the temptation of a new territory. Raymond of Aguilers, a clerk in Raymond's army, wrote an account of the crusade from Raymond's point of view.

[edit]Sources

Payne, Robert. The Dream and the Tomb, 1984

Raymond of Aguilers

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse 1093-1105

"Raymond IV, of Saint-Gilles". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.

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RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND III Comte de Toulouse & his wife Gundinildis --- ([945/55]-killed "in Garazo" [972/79]). The Codex de Roda names "Regemundo…et domnus Ucus episcopus" as the children of "Regemundus" (son of "Pontio" and his wife "filia Garsie Sanzionis") and his unnamed wife, specifying that the younger Raymond was killed "in Garazo"[308]. As pointed out by Settipani[309], it is reasonable to suppose that Raymond was the same person as "…Raymundo filio Gundinildis nepoti meo" who is named in the codicil testament of "Gersindæ comitissæ", widow of Comte Raymond Pons, dated to [972][310]. Apart from these references, there appears to be no documentary record relating to this Comte Raymond. He succeeded his father [before 972] as RAYMOND IV Comte de Toulouse.

[m firstly (repudiated) ---. The Vita Fulcranni records that "comitem Tholosanum" (unnamed) repudiated his wife to marry another who had been repudiated by her first husband[311]. The Histoire Générale de Languedoc dates this passage to [975], although, because of the reconstruction of the family of the comtes de Toulouse which it has adopted, it assumes that the count in question was Comte Guillaume III "Taillefer"[312]. Even if the chronology had been favourable to this identification, it is unclear how the passage could refer to Comte Guillaume´s two marriages as there is no record of his second wife, Emma de Provence, having been married before. On the other hand, it is not impossible that the passage could refer to the comte de Toulouse who was the husband of Adelais d´Anjou. No record has been found which dates the death of Adelais´s first husband, and it is not impossible that their marriage was terminated by repudiation rather than his death. If this is correct, the passage could refer to an otherwise unrecorded first marriage of Comte Raymond IV.]

m [secondly] ([970/75]) as her second husband, ADELAIS d'Anjou, widow of ETIENNE de Brioude, daughter of FOULQUES II "le Bon" Comte d’Anjou & his first wife Gerberge --- ([940/50]-1026, bur Montmajour, near Arles). Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Saint-Pierre du Puy which names "comes Gaufridus cognomento Grisogonella…Pontius et Bertrandus eius nepotes…matre eorum Adalaide sorore ipsius"[313], the brothers Pons and Bertrand being confirmed in other sources as the sons of Etienne de Brioude, for example the charter dated 1000 under which "duo germani fratres…Pontius, alter Bertrandus" donated property to Saint-Chaffre for the souls of "patris sui Stephani matrisque nomine Alaicis"[314]. Adelais's second and third marriages are confirmed by Richer who records the marriage of Louis and "Adelaidem, Ragemundi nuper defuncti ducis Gothorum uxorem" and their coronation as king and queen of Aquitaine[315]. She married thirdly Vieux-Brioude, Haute-Loire 982, divorced 984) Louis associate King of the Franks [who later succeeded as Louis V King of the Franks]. The Chronicon Andegavensi names "Blanchiam filiam Fulconis Boni comitis Andegavensis" as wife of the successor of "Lotharius rex Francorum", but confuses matters by stating that the couple were parents of "filiam Constantiam" wife of Robert II King of France[316]. The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "Blanchiam" as the wife of "Lotharius rex…Ludovicum filium" but does not give her origin[317]. She was crowned Queen of Aquitaine with her third husband on the day of their marriage. The Libro de Otiis Imperialibus names "Blanchiam" as wife of "Ludovicus puer [filius Lotharii]"[318]. Rodulfus Glaber refers to the unnamed wife of "Ludowicum" as "ab Aquitanis partibus uxorem", recounting that she tricked him into travelling to Aquitaine where "she left him and attached herself to her own family"[319]. Adelais married fourthly ([984/86]) as his second wife, Guillaume II "le Libérateur" Comte d'Arles Marquis de Provence. Richer records her marriage with "Wilelmum Arelatensem" after her divorce from Louis[320]. Her fourth marriage is confirmed by the Historia Francorum which names "Blanca sorore Gaufridi comitis Andegavensis" as wife of "Guillelmi comitis Arelatensis"[321]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Blanche comitisse Arelatensis" as mother of "Constantia [uxor Robertus rex]", specifying that she was "soror Gaufridi Grisagonelli"[322]. The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "Blanca sorore eius" ("eius" referring incorrectly to Foulques "Nerra" Comte d'Anjou) as wife of "Guillelmi Arelatensis comitis" and as mother of Constance, wife of Robert II King of France[323]. "Adalaiz comitissa" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1003 subscribed by "Emma comitissa…Wilelmus comes"[324]. "Pontius…Massiliensis ecclesie pontifex" issued a charter dated 1005 with the consent of "domni Rodhbaldi comitis et domne Adalaizis comitisse, domnique Guillelmi comitis filii eius"[325]. "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively by charter dated 1018[326]. [Adelais may have married fifthly (before 1016) as his second wife, Othon Guillaume Comte de Mâcon et de Nevers [Bourgogne-Comté]]. Her supposed fifth marriage is deduced from the following: Count Othon-Guillaume's wife is named Adelais in several charters[327], and Pope Benedict VIII refers to "domnæ Adeleidi comitissæ cognomento Blanchæ" with "nuruique eius domnæ Gerbergæ comitissæ" when addressing her supposed husband in a document dated Sep 1016[328], Gerberga presumably being Count Othon-Guillaume's daughter by his first wife who was the widow of Adelaide-Blanche d´Anjou's son by her fourth husband. However, the document in question appears not to specify that "domnæ Adeleidi…" was the wife of Othon Guillaume and the extracts seen (the full text has not yet been consulted) do not permit this conclusion to be drawn. It is perfectly possible that the Pope named Adelais-Blanche in the letter only in reference to her relationship to Othon Guillaume´s daughter. If her fifth marriage is correct, Adelais would have been considerably older than her new husband, and probably nearly sixty years old when she married (Othon-Guillaume's first wife died in [1002/04]), which seems unlikely. Another difficulty is presented by three entries dated 1018, 1024 and 1026 which appear to link Adelais to Provence while, if the fifth marriage was correct, she would have been with her husband (whose death is recorded in Sep 1026) in Mâcon. These entries are: firstly, "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively by charter dated 1018[329]; secondly, "Vuilelmus filius Rodbaldi" donated property "in comitatu Aquense in valle…Cagnanam" to Marseille Saint-Victor by charter dated 1024, signed by "Adalaiz comitissa, Vuilelmus comes filius Rodbaldi"[330]; and thirdly, a manuscript written by Arnoux, monk at Saint-André-lès-Avignon, records the death in 1026 of "Adalax comitissa"[331].] The necrology of Saint-Pierre de Mâcon records the death "IV Kal Jun" of "Adalasia comitissa vocata regali progenie orta"[332]. An enquiry dated 2 Jan 1215 records that "comitissa Blanca" was buried "apud Montem Majorem"[333]. No explanation has been found for her having been named Adelais in some sources and Blanche in others, as it is difficult to interpret these documents to mean that they referred to two separate individuals.

(Foundation for Medieval Genealogy)