Rénaud de Châtillon Princeps d'Antiochae, Lord d'Oultrejordain (1125 - 1187) MP

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Nicknames: "Reynaud", "Renaud", "Reynald", "Reynold", "Renald or Reginald de Chastillon", "Renald or Reginald of Chastillon", "-Renaud de Châtillon- né vers 1120- exécuté en 1187 à Hattin- prince consort d'Antioche (1153-1163)- puis seigneur d'Outre-Jourdain et d..."
Birthplace: Châtillon-sur-Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France
Death: Died in ~1097
Occupation: Sieur, de Châtillon-sur-Loing, d'Hébron, d'Outre-Jourdain, Prince, d'Antioche, Fransk korsriddare, Also Lord of Hebron, Moab, Montreal, St Abraham and Karak
Managed by: Nancy Sawalich
Last Updated:

About Rénaud de Châtillon Princeps d'Antiochae, Lord d'Oultrejordain

Reynold de Châtillon (1)

M, #114112

Last Edited=8 Jun 2003

Child of Reynold de Châtillon

Agnes de Châtillon+ (1) d. 1184

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p11412.htm#i114112

--------------------

Wikipedia:

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaud_de_Châtillon

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raynald_of_Châtillon

Raynald of Châtillon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Raynald of Châtillon tortures Patriarch Aimery of Antioch (From MS of William of Tyre's Historia and Old French Continuation, painted in Acre, 13th century Bibliothèque nationale de France.)

Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynald, Reynold, Renald, or Reginald; French: Renaud de Châtillon, old French: Reynaud de Chastillon) (c. 1125 – July 4, 1187) was a knight who served in the Second Crusade and remained in the Holy Land after its defeat. He ruled as Prince of Antioch from 1153 to 1160 and through his second marriage became Lord of Oultrejordain. He was a controversial character in his own lifetime and beyond.

Contents

[show]

   * 1 Background
   * 2 Rise to prominence
   * 3 Capture and execution
   * 4 Personal life
   * 5 In Media
   * 6 Sources
   * 7 References

[edit] Background

Raynald's origins are obscure; Du Cange believed he was from Châtillon-sur-Marne[1], but according to Jean Richard, he was a son of Hervé II of Donzy, and he inherited Châtillon-sur-Loing sometime before joining the Second Crusade in 1147. In the east, he entered the service of Constance of Antioch, whose first husband had died in 1149. She married Raynald in secret in 1153, without consulting her first cousin and liege lord, Baldwin III of Jerusalem. Neither King Baldwin nor Aimery of Limoges, the Latin Patriarch of Antioch, approved of Constance's choice of a husband of such low birth.

In 1156 Raynald claimed that the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus had reneged on his promise to pay Raynald a sum of money, and vowed to attack the island of Cyprus in revenge. When the Latin Patriarch of Antioch refused to finance this expedition, Raynald had the Patriarch seized, stripped naked, covered in honey, and left in the burning sun on top of the citadel. When the Patriarch was released, he collapsed in exhaustion and agreed to finance Raynald's expedition against Cyprus. Raynald's forces attacked Cyprus, ravaging the island and pillaging its inhabitants.

The Emperor Manuel I Comnenus raised an army and began a march into Syria. Faced with a much larger and more powerful force, Raynald was forced to grovel, barefoot and shabby, before the emperor's throne for forgiveness. In 1159 Raynald was forced to pay homage to Manuel as punishment for his attack, promising to accept a Greek Patriarch in Antioch. When Manuel came to Antioch later that year to meet with Baldwin III, King of Jerusalem, Raynald was forced to lead Manuel's horse into the city.

Soon after this, in 1160, Raynald was captured by the Muslims during a plundering raid against the Syrian and Armenian peasants of the neighbourhood of Marash. He was confined at Aleppo for the next seventeen years. As the stepfather of the Empress Maria, he was ransomed by Manuel for the extraordinary sum of 120,000 gold dinars (500 kg of gold-worth roughly US$12,500,000 today) in 1176.

[edit] Rise to prominence

Raynald depicted in captivity as part of a statue of Saladin in Damascus, Syria

Raynald served as Baldwin IV's envoy to Manuel and, because his wife Constance had died in 1163, was rewarded with marriage to another wealthy widow, Stephanie, the widow of both Humphrey III of Toron and Miles of Plancy and the heiress of the lordship of Oultrejordain, including the castles Kerak and Montreal to the southeast of the Dead Sea. These fortresses controlled the trade routes between Egypt and Damascus and gave Raynald access to the Red Sea. He became notorious for his wanton cruelty at Kerak, often having his enemies and hostages flung from its castle walls to be dashed to pieces on the rocks below.

In November 1177, at the head of the army of the kingdom, he helped King Baldwin defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard; Saladin narrowly escaped. In 1181 the temptation of the caravans which passed by Kerak proved too strong and, in spite of a truce between Saladin and the king, Raynald began to plunder. Saladin demanded reparations from Baldwin IV, but Baldwin replied that he was unable to control his unruly vassal. As a result, war broke out between Saladin and the Latin kingdom in 1182. In the course of the hostilities, Raynald launched ships on the Red Sea, partly for piracy, but partly as a threat against Mecca and Medina, challenging Islam in its own holy places. His pirates ravaged villages up and down the Red Sea, before being captured by the army of Al-Adil I only a few miles from Medina. Although Raynald's pirates were taken to Cairo and beheaded, Raynald himself escaped to the Moab. Saladin vowed to behead Raynald himself, and at the end of the year Saladin attacked Kerak, during the marriage of Raynald's stepson Humphrey IV of Toron to Isabella of Jerusalem. The siege was raised by Count Raymond III of Tripoli, and Raynald was quiet until 1186.

That year he allied with Sibylla and Guy of Lusignan against Count Raymond, and his influence contributed to the recognition of Guy as king of Jerusalem, although Raymond and the Ibelins were attempting to advance the claim of his stepson Humphrey's wife Princess Isabella. Humphrey remained loyal to his stepfather and Guy.

Later in 1186 Raynald attacked a caravan travelling between Cairo and Damascus, breaking the truce between Saladin and the Crusaders. Saladin sent troops to protect a later caravan (in March 1187) in which his sister was returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca. Later writers (such as the 13th century Old French Continuation of William of Tyre and the Latin Continuation of William of Tyre) conflated these two incidents, claiming erroneously that Saladin's sister, aunt, or even mother, had been taken prisoner, but this is contradicted by Arabic sources, such as Abu Shama and Ibn al-Athir. King Guy chastised Raynald in an attempt to appease Saladin, but Raynald replied that he was lord of his own lands and that he had made no peace with Saladin. Saladin swore that Raynald would be executed if he was ever taken prisoner.

[edit] Capture and execution

Raynald of Châtillon's death

Guillaume de Tyr, Historia (BNF, Mss.Fr.68, folio 399)

In 1187 Saladin invaded the kingdom, defeating the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin. The battle left Saladin with many prisoners. Most prominent among these prisoners were Raynald and King Guy, both of whom Saladin ordered brought to his tent. The chronicler Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani, who was present at the scene, relates:

“ Saladin invited the king [Guy] to sit beside him, and when Arnat [Raynald] entered in his turn, he seated him next to his king and reminded him of his misdeeds. "How many times have you sworn an oath and violated it? How many times have you signed agreements you have never respected?" Raynald answered through a translator: "Kings have always acted thus. I did nothing more." During this time King Guy was gasping with thirst, his head dangling as though drunk, his face betraying great fright. Saladin spoke reassuring words to him, had cold water brought, and offered it to him. The king drank, then handed what remained to Raynald, who slaked his thirst in turn. The sultan then said to Guy: "You did not ask permission before giving him water. I am therefore not obliged to grant him mercy." After pronouncing these words, the sultan smiled, mounted his horse, and rode off, leaving the captives in terror. He supervised the return of the troops, and then came back to his tent. He ordered Raynald brought there, then advanced before him, sword in hand, and struck him between the neck and the shoulder-blade. When Raynald fell, he cut off his head and dragged the body by its feet to the king, who began to tremble. Seeing him thus upset, Saladin said to him in a reassuring tone: "This man was killed only because of his maleficence and perfidy". ”

King Guy was spared and was taken to Damascus for a time, then allowed to go free.

To a few Christians of his time, Raynald was considered a martyr killed at the hands of the Muslims. However, documentary evidence tends to refute this idealized picture, giving the impression of Raynald as a freebooter and pirate who had little concern for the welfare of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It could be argued that the successes of the Kingdom were undone in large measure by Raynald's recklessness, which had the effect of provoking needlessly the Muslim states surrounding Outremer.

Saladin's actions ultimately proved to be beneficial to his own interests. By killing Raynald while sparing Guy, the faction struggle in Jerusalem continued. This struggle would later greatly diminish the potency of the Third Crusade.

[edit] Personal life

   * Raynald and Constance had two daughters: Agnes de Châtillon, who married King Béla III of Hungary and Jeanne de Châtillon, probably the second wife of Marquis Boniface I of Montferrat.
   * From his second marriage with Stephanie de Milly, he had two children: a son, Raynald of Châtillon, who died young, and a daughter, Alix (Alice) de Châtillon, who married Azzo VI d'Este.

[edit] In Media

   * The Passio Raginaldi principis Antiochae, an account of Raynald's death, was written by Peter of Blois c. 1200.
   * Raynald is portrayed in the 1963 Egyptian movie Al Nasser Salah Ad-Din (film).
   * A largely fictionalized version of Raynald is played by Brendan Gleeson in the 2005 movie Kingdom of Heaven.
   * Raynald is featured as an NPC in the game Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings as one of Saladin's nemeses
   * In the novel The Knights of Dark Renown (1969), by author, Graham Shelby, Raynald is depicted as the malevolent 'Red Wolf of Kerak'.
   * Appears as a NPC in the computer game "Baldur's Gate 2", in the Bridge District of the city of Amn.
   * In the historical Knights Templar Trilogy by the Swedish author Jan Guillou, Raynald is depicted as a scheming, incompetent and selfish villain accelerating the loss of the Holy Land to Saladin.

[edit] Sources

   * Hamilton, Bernard, "The Elephant of Christ: Reynald of Châtillon", Studies in Church History 15 (Oxford, 1978), pp. 97–108.
   * Hamilton, Bernard, The Leper King and His Heirs, 2000.
   * Hillenbrand, Carole, "Some reflections on the imprisonment of Reynald of Châtillon", in Texts, Documents and Artefacts: Islamic Studies in Honour of D.S. Richards, ed. C.F. Robinson, Leiden, 2003.
   * Maalouf, Amin, Crusades Through Arab Eyes, 1985.
   * Peter of Blois Petri Blesensis tractatus duo: Passio Raginaldi principis Antiochie, Conquestio de dilatione vie Ierosolimitane, ed. R.B.C Huygens, in Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis vol. CXCIV, 2002.
   * Richard, Jean, "Aux origines d'un grand lignage: des palladii Renaud de Châtillon", in Media in Francia: Recueil de mélanges offert à Karl Ferdinand Werner, 1989.
   * Runciman, Steven, A History of the Crusades: Volume 2, The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East (1952)

[edit] References

  1. ^ Du Cange, Les Familles d'Outremer, ed. E. G. Rey (1869), p. 191
   * This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Preceded by

Raymond and Constance Prince of Antioch

1153–1160 Succeeded by

Constance

[hide]

v • d • e

Princes of the Principality of Antioch

Reigning Princes

(1098–1268)

Bohemond I · Tancred (regent) · Bohemond II · Roger (regent) · Baldwin (regent) · Constance · Fulk (regent) · Raymond I (by marriage) · Raynald (by marriage) · Bohemond III · Raymond II (regent) · Bohemond IV · Raymond-Roupen · Bohemond IV (restored) · Bohemond V · Bohemond VI

Armoiries Bohémond VI d'Antioche.svg

Titular Princes

(1268–1457)

Bohemond VI · Bohemond VII · Lucia · Philip · Marguerite · John I · John II · John III

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raynald_of_Ch%C3%A2tillon"

Categories: Princes of Antioch | Christians of the Second Crusade | French knights | 1120s births | 1187 deaths | People executed by decapitation | French people executed abroad

Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica

   * This page was last modified on 10 May 2010 at 14:46.

--------------------

Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynaud, Renaud, Reynald, Reynold, Renald or Reginald of Chastillon) (c. 1125 – July 4, 1187) was a knight who served in the Second Crusade and remained in the Holy Land after its defeat. He ruled as Prince of Antioch from 1153 to 1160 and through his second marriage became Lord of Oultrejordain. He was a controversial character in his own lifetime and beyond.

Raynald and Constance had one daughter: Agnes de Châtillon, who married king Béla III of Hungary

From his second marriage with Stephanie de Milly, he had two children: a son, Raynald of Châtillon, who died young, and a daughter, Alix (Alice) de Châtillon, who married Azzo VI d'Este.

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Raynald of Chatillon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynaud, Renaud, Reynald, Reynold, Renald or Reginald of Chastillon) (c. 1125 – July 4, 1187) was a knight who served in the Second Crusade and remained in the Holy Land after its defeat. He ruled as Prince of Antioch from 1153 to 1160 and through his second marriage became Lord of Oultrejordain. He was a controversial character in his own lifetime and beyond.

Background

Raynald's origins are obscure; Du Cange believed he was from Châtillon-sur-Marne, but according to Jean Richard, he was a son of Hervé II of Donzy, and he inherited Châtillon-sur-Loing sometime before joining the Second Crusade in 1147. Other sources, however, say he was a second son of Henri I de Châtillon, Lord of Châtillon-sur-Loing, and wife Ermengarde de Montjay, dame and heiress of Montjay[1]. In the east, he entered the service of Constance of Antioch, whose first husband had died in 1149. She married Raynald in secret in 1153, without consulting her first cousin and liege lord, Baldwin III of Jerusalem. Neither King Baldwin nor Aimery of Limoges, the Latin Patriarch of Antioch, approved of Constance's choice of a husband of such low birth.

In 1156 Raynald claimed that the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus had reneged on his promise to pay Raynald a sum of money, and vowed to attack the island of Cyprus in revenge. When the Latin Patriarch of Antioch refused to finance this expedition, Raynald had the Patriarch seized, stripped naked, covered in honey, and left in the burning sun on top of the citadel. When the Patriarch was released, he collapsed in exhaustion and agreed to finance Raynald's expedition against Cyprus. Raynald's forces attacked Cyprus, ravaging the island and pillaging its inhabitants.

The Emperor Manuel I Comnenus raised an army and began a march into Syria. Faced with a much larger and more powerful force, Raynald was forced to grovel, barefoot and shabby, before the emperor's throne for forgiveness. In 1159 Raynald was forced to pay homage to Manuel as punishment for his attack, promising to accept a Greek Patriarch in Antioch. When Manuel came to Antioch later that year to meet with Baldwin III, King of Jerusalem, Raynald was forced to lead Manuel's horse into the city.

Soon after this, in 1160, Raynald was captured by the Muslims during a plundering raid against the Syrian and Armenian peasants of the neighbourhood of Marash. He was confined at Aleppo for the next seventeen years. As the stepfather of the Empress Maria, he was ransomed by Manuel for the extraordinary sum of 120,000 gold dinars (500 kg of gold-worth of 12 500 000 US $ today) in 1176.

[edit]Rise to prominence

Raynald served as Baldwin IV's envoy to Manuel and, because his wife Constance had died in 1163, was rewarded with marriage to another wealthy widow, Stephanie, the widow of both Humphrey III of Toron and Miles of Plancy and the heiress of the lordship of Oultrejordain, including the castles Kerak and Montreal to the southeast of the Dead Sea. These fortresses controlled the trade routes between Egypt and Damascus and gave Raynald access to the Red Sea. He became notorious for his wanton cruelty at Kerak, often having his enemies and hostages flung from its castle walls to be dashed to pieces on the rocks below.

In November 1177, at the head of the army of the kingdom, he helped King Baldwin defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard; Saladin narrowly escaped. In 1181 the temptation of the caravans which passed by Kerak proved too strong and, in spite of a truce between Saladin and the king, Raynald began to plunder. Saladin demanded reparations from Baldwin IV, but Baldwin replied that he was unable to control his unruly vassal. As a result, war broke out between Saladin and the Latin kingdom in 1182. In the course of the hostilities, Raynald launched ships on the Red Sea, partly for piracy, but partly as a threat against Mecca and Medina, challenging Islam in its own holy places. His pirates ravaged villages up and down the Red Sea, before being captured by the army of Al-Adil I only a few miles from Medina. Although Raynald's pirates were taken to Cairo and beheaded, Raynald himself escaped to the Moab. Saladin vowed to behead Raynald himself, and at the end of the year Saladin attacked Kerak, during the marriage of Raynald's stepson Humphrey IV of Toron to Isabella of Jerusalem. The siege was raised by Count Raymond III of Tripoli, and Raynald was quiet until 1186.

That year he allied with Sibylla and Guy of Lusignan against Count Raymond, and his influence contributed to the recognition of Guy as king of Jerusalem, although Raymond and the Ibelins were attempting to advance the claim of his stepson Humphrey's wife Princess Isabella. Humphrey remained loyal to his stepfather and Guy.

Later in 1186 Raynald attacked a caravan travelling between Cairo and Damascus, breaking the truce between Saladin and the Crusaders. Saladin sent troops to protect a later caravan (in March 1187) in which his sister was returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca. Later writers (such as the 13th century Old French Continuation of William of Tyre and the Latin Contination of William of Tyre) conflated these two incidents, claiming erroneously that Saladin's sister, aunt, or even mother, had been taken prisoner, but this is contradicted by Arabic sources, such as Abu Shama and Ibn al-Athir. King Guy chastised Raynald in an attempt to appease Saladin, but Raynald replied that he was lord of his own lands and that he had made no peace with Saladin. Saladin swore that Raynald would be executed if he was ever taken prisoner.

[edit]Raynald's death

In 1187 Saladin invaded the kingdom, defeating the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin. The battle left Saladin with many prisoners. Most prominent among these prisoners were Raynald and King Guy, both of whom Saladin ordered brought to his tent. The chronicler Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani, who was present at the scene, relates:

“ Saladin invited the king [Guy] to sit beside him, and when Arnat [Raynald] entered in his turn, he seated him next to his king and reminded him of his misdeeds. "How many times have you sworn an oath and violated it? How many times have you signed agreements you have never respected?" Raynald answered through a translator: "Kings have always acted thus. I did nothing more." During this time King Guy was gasping with thirst, his head dangling as though drunk, his face betraying great fright. Saladin spoke reassuring words to him, had cold water brought, and offered it to him. The king drank, then handed what remained to Raynald, who slaked his thirst in turn. The sultan then said to Guy: "You did not ask permission before giving him water. I am therefore not obliged to grant him mercy." After pronouncing these words, the sultan smiled, mounted his horse, and rode off, leaving the captives in terror. He supervised the return of the troops, and then came back to his tent. He ordered Raynald brought there, then advanced before him, sword in hand, and struck him between the neck and the shoulder-blade. When Raynald fell, he cut off his head and dragged the body by its feet to the king, who began to tremble. Seeing him thus upset, Saladin said to him in a reassuring tone: "This man was killed only because of his maleficence and perfidy". ”

King Guy was spared and was taken to Damascus for a time, then allowed to go free.

To a few Christians of his time, Raynald was considered a martyr killed at the hands of the Muslims. However, documentary evidence tends to refute this idealized picture, giving the impression of Reynald as a freebooter and pirate who had little concern for the welfare of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It could be argued that the successes of the Kingdom were undone in large measure by Raynald's recklessness, which had the effect of provoking needlessly the Muslim states surrounding Outremer.

Saladin, however, acted well in accordance with his own interests. He killed Raynald, his bitter enemy, and spared the life of Guy knowing that to kill him was to end the faction struggle in the remnants of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He kept him in Damascus until he was sure that he would not be able to destroy all of the Kingdom outright. The factional struggle later greatly diminished the potency of the Third Crusade.

[edit]Personal life

Raynald and Constance had one daughter: Agnes de Châtillon, who married king Béla III of Hungary

From his second marriage with Stephanie de Milly, he had another daughter: Alix de Châtillon, who married Azzo V d'Este. (Perhaps she was a daughter by Constance[2].)

[edit]In Literature and Film

The Passio Raginaldi principis Antiochae, an account of Raynald's death, was written by Peter of Blois c. 1200.

Raynald is portrayed in the 1963 Egyptian movie Al Nasser Salah Ad-Din.

A largely fictionalized version of Raynald is played by Brendan Gleeson in the 2005 movie Kingdom of Heaven.

Raynald is featured as an NPC in the game Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings as one of Saladin's nemeses

In the novel The Knights of Dark Renown (1969), by author, Graham Shelby, Raynald is depicted as the malevolent 'Red Wolf of Kerak'.

Appears as a NPC in the computer game "Baldur's Gate 2", in the Bridge District of the city of Amn.

In the historical Knights Templar Trilogy by the Swedish author Jan Guillou, Raynald is depicted as a scheming, incompetent and selfish villain accelerating the loss of the Holy Land to Saladin.

[edit]Sources

Hamilton, Bernard, "The Elephant of Christ: Reynald of Châtillon", Studies in Church History 15 (Oxford, 1978), pp. 97-108.

Hamilton, Bernard, The Leper King and His Heirs, 2000.

Maalouf, Amin, Crusades Through Arab Eyes, 1985.

Peter of Blois Petri Blesensis tractatus duo: Passio Raginaldi principis Antiochie, Conquestio de dilatione vie Ierosolimitane, ed. R.B.C Huygens, in Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis vol. CXCIV, 2002.

Richard, Jean, "Aux origines d'un grand lignage: des palladii Renaud de Châtillon", in Media in Francia: Recueil de mélanges offert à Karl Ferdinand Werner, 1989.

Runciman, Steven, A History of the Crusades: Volume 2, The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East (1952)

References

^ web.genealogie

^ web.genealogie

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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Raymond, Prince of Antioch

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Raymond of Poitiers (c. 1115 – June 29, 1149) was Prince of Antioch 1136–1149. He was the younger son of William IX, Duke of Aquitaine and his wife Philippa, Countess of Toulouse, born in the very year that his father the Duke began his infamous liaison with Dangereuse de Chatelherault.

Assumes control

Following the regencies of Baldwin II of Jerusalem (1130-1131) and Fulk of Jerusalem (1131-1136), Raymond assumed control of the principality of Antioch by his marriage in 1136 to the heiress of Bohemund II of Antioch, Constance, a child of ten years of age. The marriage had the blessing of the Patriarch of Antioch, but not of Alice of Antioch, the mother of the bride, who believed that Raymond was intended to be her husband.

The first years of Raymond and Constance's joint rule were spent in conflicts with the Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus, who had come south partly to recover Cilicia from Leo of Armenia, and to reassert his rights over Antioch. Raymond was forced to pay homage, and even to promise to cede his principality as soon as he was recompensed by a new fief, which John promised to carve out for him in the Muslim territory to the east of Antioch. The expedition of 1138, in which Raymond joined with John, and which was to conquer this territory, naturally proved a failure. Raymond was not anxious to help the emperor to acquire new territories, when their acquisition only meant for him the loss of Antioch. John Comnenus returned unsuccessful to Constantinople, after demanding from Raymond, without response, the surrender of the citadel of Antioch.

[edit]Struggles

There followed a struggle between Raymond and the patriarch. Raymond was annoyed by the homage which he had been forced to pay to the patriarch in 1135 and the dubious validity of the patriarch's election offered a handle for opposition. Eventually Raymond triumphed, and the patriarch was deposed (1139). In 1142 John Comnenus returned to the attack, but Raymond refused to recognize or renew his previous submission, and John, though he ravaged the neighborhood of Antioch, was unable to effect anything against him. When, however Raymond demanded from Manuel, who had succeeded John in 1143, the cession of some of the Cilician towns, he found that he had met his match. Manuel forced him to a humiliating visit to Constantinople, during which he renewed his oath of homage and promised to acknowledge a Greek patriarch.

In the last year of Raymond's life Louis VII and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine (Raymond's niece) visited Antioch. Raymond sought to prevent Louis from going south to Jerusalem and to induce him to stay in Antioch and help in the conquest of Aleppo and Caesarea. Raymond was also suspected of having an incestuous affair with his beautiful niece Eleanor. According to John of Salisbury, Louis became suspicious of the attention Raymond lavished on Eleanor, and the long conversations they enjoyed. William of Tyre claims that Raymond seduced Eleanor to get revenge on her husband, who refused to aid him in his wars against the Saracens, and that "contrary to [Eleanor's] royal dignity, she disregarded her marriage vows and was unfaithful to her husband." Most modern historians dismiss such rumours, however, pointing out the closeness of Raymond and his niece during her early childhood, and the effulgent Aquitainian manner of behaviour.

Louis hastily left Antioch and Raymond was balked in his plans. In 1149 he was killed in the Battle of Inab during an expedition against Nur ad-Din. He was beheaded by Shirkuh, the uncle of Saladin, and his head was placed in a silver box and sent to the Caliph of Baghdad as a gift.

[edit]Personality and family

Raymond is described by William of Tyre (the main authority for his career) as "a lord of noble descent, of tall and elegant figure, the handsomest of the princes of the earth, a man of charming affability and conversation, open-handed and magnificent beyond measure"; pre-eminent in the use of arms and military experience; litteratorum, licet ipse illiteratus esset, cultor ("although he was himself illiterate, he was a cultivator of literature" - he caused the Chanson des chétifs to be composed); a regular churchman and faithful husband; but headstrong, irascible and unreasonable, with too great a passion for gambling (bk. xiv. c. xxi.). For his career see Rey, in the Revue de l'orient latin, vol. iv.

With Constance, Raymond had three children, a son and heir Bohemund III of Antioch and daughters Maria of Antioch and Philippa of Antioch.

[edit]Sources

Maalouf, Amin. The Crusades Through Arab Eyes, 1984

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

--------------------

Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynaud, Renaud, Reynald, Reynold, Renald or Reginald of Chastillon) (c. 1125 – July 4, 1187) was a knight who served in the Second Crusade and remained in the Holy Land after its defeat. He ruled as Prince of Antioch from 1153 to 1160 and through his second marriage became Lord of Oultrejordain. He was a controversial character in his own lifetime and beyond.

Raynald and Constance had one daughter: Agnes de Châtillon, who married king Béla III of Hungary

From his second marriage with Stephanie de Milly, he had two children: a son, Raynald of Châtillon, who died young, and a daughter, Alix (Alice) de Châtillon, who married Azzo VI d'Este. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raynald_of_Ch%C3%A2tillon