John Wheelwright (c.1592 - 1679) MP

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Birthplace: Saleby, Lincolnshire, England
Death: Died in Salisbury, Essex, Massachusetts
Occupation: Clergyman
Managed by: Eileen Patricia Burroughs
Last Updated:

About John Wheelwright

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wheelwright

WHEELWRIGHT, John, clergyman, born in Lincolnshire, England, about 1592; died in Salisbury, Massachusetts, 15 November, 1679. He was graduated at Cambridge in 1614, and, entering the ministry of the established church, was vicar of Bilsby, near Alford, but he became a Puritan, and in 1636 emigrated to Boston to escape persecution. He was made pastor of a church at Mount Wollaston (now Braintree), and his sympathy with the religious opinions of his sister-in-law, Anne Hutchinson, caused dissensions, which were increased by a sermon that he delivered in Boston on the occasion of a fast that had been appointed by the general court in January, 1637. A majority of the congregation approved it, but he was tried by the general court and pronounced guilty of sedition and contempt, "for that the court had appointed the fast as a means of reconciliation of differences, and he purposely set himself to kindle them." In November, 1637, he was banished, and in 1638, with a company of friends, he founded Exeter, New Hampshire, and became its pastor. Five years later, as the town came under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, he obtained a grant of land from Sir Ferdinand Gorges, in Wells, Maine, and removed thither with part of his church. In 1644 his sentence of banishment was revoked, on his admission that he had been partially in the wrong, and in 1646 he returned to Massachusetts, where he was for six years pastor at Hampton. About 1657 he returned to England, where he was well received by Oliver Cromwell, who had been his fellow-student and friend; but in 1660 he came again to this country, trod after 1662 he was pastor at Salisbury. The genuineness of an Indian deed to Mr. Wheelwright, dated 1629, has been the subject of much controversy. He published "Mercurius Americanus" in answer to Thomas Wilde's "Rise, Reign, and Ruin of the Familists, Libertines, etc., in New England" (London, 1645), and his "Vindication " (1654). The sermon that caused his banishment is in the possession of the Massachusetts historical society, and was published in its "Collections," edited by Charles Deane (1867). His "Writings, with a Paper on the Genuineness of the Indian Deed of 1629, and a Memoir," by Charles II. Bell, have been published by the Prince society (Boston, 1876).--His descendant, William, capitalist, born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1798; died in London, England, 26 September, 1873, was apprenticed to a printer, but early entered the merchant marine, and when he was nineteen years old commanded a bark that was bound to Rio Janeiro. In 1823 he was in charge of the "Rising Empire," which was wrecked near the mouth of La Plata river, and on his arrival in Buenos Ayres he became supercargo on a vessel bound for Valparaiso. Thenceforward his home was in South America. In 1824-'9 he was United States consul at Guayaquil, Ecuador, and in the latter year removed to Valparaiso. In 1829 he established a line of passenger vessels between Valparaiso and Cobija, and in 1835 began his efforts to establish a line of steamers on the west coast. He was three years in obtaining the necessary concessions from the Pacific coast countries. Chili granted him her permission in August, 1835, but the more northern countries were slow to see the advantages of his plan. In 1838, after vainly endeavoring to enlist American capital in his enterprise, he went to England, where he was more successful. His scheme embraced the adoption of the route across the Isthmus of Panama, and the result was the formation of the Pacific steam navigation company, with a capital of £250,000. In 1840 he accompanied his new steamers, the "Chili" and "Peru," through the Straits of Magellan. He was received with unbounded enthusiasm at Valparaiso and Callao, but the steamers were laid up for three months on account of lack of coal, and to supply them Wheelwright began to operate mines in Chili, which proved very productive. He met with trouble at every step, and it, was not until 1845 that his plan was completed by the extension of his line to Panama. The Pacific steam navigation company, of which he was the founder, operated fifty-four steamers in 1876. Mr. Wheelwright suggested in 1842, and afterward built, a railroad from Santiago to Valparaiso. In 1849-'52 he constructed the railroad from the port of Caldera, which he created, to Copiapo, and in 1855 he planned a railway from Caldera across the Andes to Rosario, on the Parana, 934 miles. This was opened from Rosario to Cordoba, in the Argentine Republic, in 1870, but, its completion was postponed for years by the action of the government, which rescinded its concessions on Wheelwright's refusal to negotiate a loan of $30,000,000, which he suspected was to be diverted to the construction of iron-clads, from its ostensible purpose of building the road. In 1872 he completed a railway, thirty miles long, from Buenos Ayres to the harbor of Ensenada, on the Atlantic coast, whose great advantages as a port he had long urged. Wheelwright also constructed the first telegraph line, the first gas and water works, and the first iron pier in South America. He gave for benevolent purposes during his life about $600,000, and left one ninth of his estate (about $100,000) to found a scientific school in Newburyport. His full-length portrait was placed in the Merchants' exchange at Valparaiso by his friends, and a bronze statue of him has been erected by the board of trade in the same city. He published "Statements and Documents relative to the Establishment of Steam Navigation in the Pacific" (London, 1838) and " Observations on the Isthmus of Panama" (London, 1844). His life was written by Juan B. Alberdi, minister of the Argentine Republic to England and France, under the title of "La Vida y los trabajos industriales de William Wheelwright en la America del Sud" (Paris, 1876; English translation, with introduction by Caleb Cushing, Boston, 1877). See also " Biographical Sketch of William Wheelwright, of Newburyport, Massachusetts," by Captain John Codman (Philadelphia, 1888).--William's cousin, John Tyler, lawyer, born in Roxbury, Massachusetts, 28 February, 1856, is the son of George W. Wheelwright. He was graduated at Harvard in 1876, and at the law-school in 1878, and practised his profession in Boston. Mr. Wheelwright was founder of the Harvard "Lampoon " in 1876, and has been a frequent contributor to "Life." He is the author of dramatic sketches, which have been read in public by George Riddle; " Rollo's Journey to Cambridge," with Frederick J. Stimson (Boston, 1880); "The King's Men," with Mr. Stimson, John Boyle O'Reilly, and Robert Grant (New York, 1882); and "A Child of the Century " (1886).

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John Wheelwright (Whelewright) was born in Lincolnshire, England, in the year 1592, and died November 15, 1679 at Salisbury, New Hampshire. He was a classmate of Oliver Cromwell at Cambridge University. He arrived in Boston May 16, 1636. Was banished to Piscatuqua in 1637 for sedition. Along with 33 others, he signed the “Combination for a Government at Exeter, New Hampshire” in the year 1639.

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John Wheelwright (1592, Saleby, Lincolnshire, England–15 November 1679, Salisbury, Massachusetts) was a clergyman in England and America.

John Wheelwright was the son of Rebert Wheelwright of Cumberworth and Saleby. His grandfather was John Wheelwright of Mumby. He was educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, receiving his B.A. in 1614 and his M.A. in 1618.[1]

Cotton Mather, the celebrated American Puritan, wrote 'as to college athletics that when Wheelwright was a young spark at the University he was noted for more than an ordinary stroke at wrestling.' Mather further stated that 'he was a gentleman of the most unspotted morals and a man of unblemished reputation.' This was quite generous of Cotton, inasmuch as Rev. John had opposed many of the dogmatic principles of the Congregational Theocracy established by Cotton's grandfather, Richard Mather, in his A Platform of Church Discipline in 1649.

His first wife was Mary, daughter of the Rev. Thomas Storre of Bilsby, England, whom he married in 1621. She died a few years later in 1629. She as 31 when she died.

Rev. John Wheelwright became vicar of Bilsby from 1623 to 1633. A hiatus in the records of his English parish indicates that its pastor, John Wheelwright, was absent during the years 1628 and 1629. It may be inferred that he came to New England with Endicott in September of the former year, and lived with associates in Massachusetts during the succeeding winter. The conditions were favorable for Wheelwright, or any other congenial foreigner, to obtain a right of settlement within the limits of New Hampshire. The principal result of Wheelwright’s activities at this time appears to have been the execution of a settlement treaty or option with the Indian sagamores of southern New Hampshire, to which Oldham was a witness.[2] This document was later disputed as a forgery by many historians.

His second wife was Mary, daughter of Edward and Sussana Hutchinson of Alford, Lincolnshire, England; whom he married in England about 1631. (Mary Hutchinson's sister Anne married in 1632 Wheelwright's friend Rev. Ralph Levett, a fellow Cambridge graduate and protege of John Cotton, who became the vicar of nearby Grainsby, Lincolnshire.)[3] While Rev. Wheelwright was vicar at Bilsby in 1636 he was driven from his Anglican church for non-conformity. With his second wife, her mother Sussana, and their five children and accompanied by Augustine Storer, brother of his first wife, he sailed for Boston where they arrived on 12 June 1636. Rev. John was well received and became pastor of the Eaxe Chapel at Mount Wollaston, Boston, for a few months.

All went well for a time, but he, with his sister-in-law Anne Hutchinson, and Henry Vane, Governor of the Colony, were soon in hot controversy with the conservative part—the “Covenant of Grace versus the Covenant of Works.” The party that Wheelwright stoutly defended stood for freedom of speech and opinion, but there was a great deal of political partisanship mixed with these theological disputes, and the controversy between Wheelwright and the conservatives was the principal issue in John Winthrop’s candidacy for governor of the colony against Vane. Winthrop was elected, and Vane returned to England, while Wheelwright was banished from Massachusetts along with Anne Hutchinson and other friends.

Wheelwright with some loyal friends removed to the Piscataqua region about 50 miles (80 km) north of Boston and purchased the rights of the Indian sagamore of Wehanownouit and his son and founded the town of Exeter, New Hampshire on 3 April 1638. He was the leader in the foundation of the town, where he filled the office of pastor of the church and active citizen. This little republic had a short life however, as the Massachusetts Bay Colony planted a settlement at Hampton, which included Wheelwright’s purchase in its jurisdiction. So he and his associates moved to the coast of Maine, where, by agreement with the agent of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, he was allowed to take up land and organize a church in Wells, Maine, in 1641.

He purchased 400 acres (1.6 km2) of land on the Ogunquit River and built a one-story house and sawmill. In 1643, after the murder of Anne Hutchinson by the Indians, Wheelwright wrote Governor Winthrop seeking pardon of the Bay Colony. His sentence was revoked by the general court in 1644, and he was restored to the freedom of the colony.

In 1656 he made a voyage to England where he remained for six years. This was during the period that his old schoolmate, Oliver Cromwell, was Lord Protector of England. Rev. John was well received by Cromwell—both having matriculated from that "nursery of Puritans", Sidney Sussex College Cambridge, in the same period. Cromwell, when he was describing Wheelwright to a group of gentlemen, stated that "he remembered the time when he had been more afraid of meeting him at football than of meeting an army since in the field." Wheelwright's relations with Cromwell are generally understood to have proved of service to the colony, and it has been suggested that the existence of his supposed portrait in the State house in Boston is connected with recognition by the Colony of his services at Court.

After his return to New England, he settled at Salisbury, Massachusetts. In October 1677, Wheelwright finally sold his property in Lincolnshire, England, "purchased of Francis Levett, gentleman," to Richard Crispe.[4] He died at Salisbury, Massachusetts, at age 87.

Wheelwright Hall at Phillips Exeter Academy is named for John Wheelwright. -------------------- Added by Elwin C. Nickerson about my Great Grandfather . Graduated Sidney Sussex College,Cambridge 1614 /BA. Note living Location in Relationship to Martha Dummer(Granddaughter)Shubael Wentworth - :John Wheelwright with some loyal friends removed to the Piscataqua region about 50 miles (80 km) north of Boston and purchased the rights of the Indian sagamore of Wehanownouit and his son and founded the town of Exeter, New Hampshire on 3 April 1638. He was the leader in the foundation of the town, where he filled the office of pastor of the church and active citizen. This little republic had a short life however, as the Massachusetts Bay Colony planted a settlement at Hampton, which included Wheelwright’s purchase in its jurisdiction. So he and his associates moved to the coast of Maine, where, by agreement with the agent of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, he was allowed to take up land and organize a church in Wells, Maine, in 1641.

He purchased 400 acres (1.6 km2) of land on the Ogunquit River and built a one-story house and sawmill. In 1643, after the murder of Anne Hutchinson by the Indians, Wheelwright wrote Governor Winthrop seeking pardon of the Bay Colony. His sentence was revoked by the general court in 1644, and he was restored to the freedom of the colony. -------------------- (I) Augustine Storr or Storer was the son of the Rev. Thomas Storr, vicar of Bilsby. Augustine Storr was a brother of Marie, the wife of the Rev. John Wheelwright (1592-1679), who came to New England in 1636. William Hutchinson, brother-in-law of the Rev. John Wheelwright, married Ann Marbury about 1612 and came with her to New England in 1634. He came from Alford, Lincolnshire, and in New England his wife gained great notoriety as a religious teacher and leader of the doctrine of the Antinomians (vide Anne Hutchinson 1590-1643). Augustine Storr suffered persecution with John Wheelwright, and Anne Hutchinson and he became one of the combination of Exeter and a founder of the church at Dover, New Hampshire. He died before 1643.

Sources

  1. Burrage, Sweetser Henry, and Stubbs, Albert Roscoe. "Genealogical and family history of the state of Maine, Volume 4"" Lewis Historical Publishing Co., 1909 - Maine

Links

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John Wheelwright (c.1592 – 1679), was a Puritan clergyman in England and America, and was most noted for being banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Antinomian Controversy, and for subsequently establishing the town of Exeter, New Hampshire. Born in Lincolnshire, England, he was raised in a family with substantial means, and received both a B.A. and M.A. at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge where he was a noted athlete and where Oliver Cromwell was a college mate of his. Ordained in 1619, he became the vicar of the church in Bilsby, Lincolnshire, and held this position for ten years until removed for simony. Leaving for New England in 1636, he was warmly welcomed in Boston, where his brother-in-law's wife, Anne Hutchinson, was beginning to attract negative attention for her religious outspokenness. Soon he and Hutchinson, as adherents of Reverend John Cotton's "covenant of grace" theology, accused the majority of the colony's ministers and magistrates of espousing a "covenant of works." As the pitch of this controversy reached a peak, both Hutchinson and Wheelwright were banished from the colony. Wheelwright went north with a group of followers during the harsh winter of 1637– 1638, and in April 1638 established the town of Exeter in the Province of New Hampshire. Wheelwright's stay in Exeter lasted only a few years, because Massachusetts activated an earlier claim on the lands there, forcing the banished Wheelwright to leave. He went further east, to Wells, Maine, where he was living when his order of banishment was retracted, though it was done in a way that still placed guilt upon him. From Wells he returned to Massachusetts to preach at Hampton (then in the Bay Colony, but later in New Hampshire), where in 1654 his parishioners helped him get the complete vindication that he sought from the Massachusetts Court for the events of 17 years earlier. In 1655 Wheelwright moved back to England with his family, and preached near his home in Lincolnshire. While in England he was entertained by two of his very powerful friends, Oliver Cromwell, who became England's Lord Protector, and Sir Henry Vane, who occupied several key positions in the government. The political tide turned markedly during the more than six years he was there, and following Cromwell's death and Vane's execution, Wheelwright returned to New England to become the minister in Salisbury, Massachusetts, where he spent the remainder of his life. He was characterized as being contentious and unbending, but also forgiving, energetic and courageous. His sincere piety was never called into question, even by those whose opinions differed greatly from his. …

http://capecodhistory.us/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I77081&tree=Nauset --------------------

John Wheelwright:
Birth: 1540 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England. 
Death: 1620 in Alford, Lincolnshire, England. 
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Rev. John Wheelwright's Timeline

1592
1592
Saleby, Lincolnshire, England
1614
1614
Age 22
England
1614
Age 22
Degree of A.B.
1618
April 26, 1618
Age 26
England, United Kingdom
1618
Age 26
Degree of A.M.
1621
November 8, 1621
Age 29
England
November 8, 1621
Age 29
Bilsby, Lincolnshire, England
1622
1622
Age 30
Bilsby, Lincoln, England
1623
April 2, 1623
- present
Age 31
Bilsby, Lincoln, England
1624
1624
Age 32
Banks, Lancashire, England