Rhodri Mawr ap Merfyn

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Rhodri Mawr ap Merfyn

Nicknames: "The Great", ""Roderick the Great" (King of the Britons)", "Rhodri Mawr", "Rhodi the Great"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Caer Seiont, Carnarvonshire, Wales
Death: Died in Anglesey, Wales
Cause of death: Killed by English under Alfred the Great
Immediate Family:

Son of Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad and Nesta verch Cadell
Husband of Angharad verch Meurig, Queen (Consort) of Wales and Angharad Verch Meurig
Father of Anarawd ap Rhodri Mawr; Merfyn / Meurig ou "King of Powys" ap Rhodri Mawr, Brenin Powys; Cadell ap Rhodri Mawr, King of Seisyllwg, Dyfed and Deheubarth; Aeddan ap Rhodri Mawr; Tudwal Gloff ap Rhodri Mawr and 5 others
Brother of Anarawd ap Merfyn; Gwriad ap Merfyn and Llewlyn

Occupation: King of Seisyllng, King of Powys, King of Gwynedd
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Rhodri Mawr ap Merfyn

Rhodri the Great (in Welsh, Rhodri Mawr; occasionally in English, Roderick the Great) (c. 820–878) was the first ruler of Wales to be called 'Great', and the first to rule most of present-day Wales. He was called King of the Britons by the Annals of Ulster. In some later histories, he is referred to as "King of Wales" but he did not rule all of Wales nor was this term used contemporaneously to describe him.

The son of Merfyn Frych, King of Gwynedd, and Nest ferch Cadell of the Royal line of Powys, he inherited the Kingdom of Gwynedd on his father's death in 844.

When his maternal uncle Cyngen ap Cadell ruler of Powys died on a pilgrimage to Rome in 855 Rhodri inherited Powys. In 872 Gwgon, ruler of Seisyllwg in southern Wales, was accidentally drowned, and Rhodri added his Kingdom to his domains by virtue of his marriage to Angharad, Gwgon's sister. This made him the ruler of the larger part of Wales.

Rhodri faced pressure both from the English and increasingly from the Danes, who were recorded as ravaging Anglesey in 854. In 856 Rhodri won a notable victory over the Danes, killing their leader Gorm (sometimes given as Horm). Two poems by Sedulius Scotus written at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Western Franks, celebrate the victory of "Roricus" over the Norsemen.

In 876 Rhodri fought another battle against the Norse invaders on Anglesey, after which he had to flee to Ireland.

On his return the following year, he and his son Gwriad were said to have been killed by the English under Alfred the Great, though the precise manner of his death is unknown. When his son, Anarawd ap Rhodri won a victory over the Mercians a few years later, it was hailed in the annals as "God's vengeance for Rhodri".

Historical Event: Tsar Simeon the Great was the ruler of Bulgaria, who reigned 893 - 927. He was 27 when he took the throne from his brother Vladimir, the son of Prince Boris, who was deposed and possibly blinded by his own father after his attempt to return Bulgaria to paganism. One of the first decisions which he took after taking over the throne was to move the capital of Bulgaria from Pliska to Preslav.

Lineage & inheritance

The son of Merfyn Frych, King of Gwynedd, and Nest ferch Cadell of the Royal line of Powys, he inherited the Kingdom of Gwynedd on his father's death in 844.

When his uncle Cyngen ap Cadell ruler of Powys died on a pilgrimage to Rome in 855 Rhodri inherited Powys. In 872 Gwgon, ruler of Seisyllwg in southern Wales, was accidentally drowned, and Rhodri added his Kingdom to his domains by virtue of his marriage to Angharad, Gwgon's sister. This made him the ruler of the larger part of Wales.

Resistance against Danes

Rhodri faced pressure both from the English and increasingly from the Danes, who were recorded as ravaging Anglesey in 854. In 856 Rhodri won a notable victory over the Danes, killing their leader Gorm (sometimes given as Horm). Two poems by Sedulius Scotus written at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Western Franks, celebrate the victory of "Roricus" over the Norsemen.

In 877 Rhodri fought another battle against the Norse invaders on Anglesey, this time being forced to flee to Ireland.

Defeat and death

On his return the following year, he and his son Gwriad were said to have been killed by the English under Alfred the Great, though the precise manner of his death is unknown. When his son, Anarawd ap Rhodri won a victory over the Mercians a few years later, it was hailed in the annals as "God's vengeance for Rhodri".

Succession

His son Cadell ap Rhodri conquered Dyfed, which was later joined with Seisyllwg by Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda to become Deheubarth. Like his grandfather, Hywel would come to rule most of Wales.

Source: Wikipedia

He united Gwynedd, Powys & Deheubarth thru war and marriage.

History: Dinefwr district, Dyfed county, southern Wales. Created in the administrative reorganization of 1974, it covers an area of 375 square miles (971 square km) and rises from an elevation of just over 100 feet (30 m) in the Tywi valley in central Dinefwr to heights of more than 2,000 feet (600 m) in the Black Mountains to the south. Dinefwr district is bordered by the districts of Ceredigion to the north, Brecknock to the east, Lliw Valley and Llanelli to the south, and Carmarthen to the west. The district's town of Llandovery was of strategic importance in Roman times, and the Church of Llanfair (restored 1915) nearby was built within the ramparts of a Roman fort. The ruins of the 13th-century Dynevor Castle are located just west of Llandeilo. Originally built in AD 876 by the Welsh nobleman Rhodri Mawr, the castle was taken by the English in the 13th century and rebuilt; the Welsh leader Owen Glendower tried to retake it in 1408 but failed.

Dinefwr is a rural district in which dairy farming is the main agricultural activity. Both Llandovery and Llandeilo are agricultural market towns, and Llandeilo is also the administrative seat for the district. Dinefwr's limited industry is located in Ammanford, a mining centre situated on an anthracite coalfield surrounded by scenic countryside. Many tourists visit the district as most of its eastern half lies within Brecon Beacons National Park. The County Agricultural College is in Llandeilo. A highway and a railway extend south from Llandovery through Llandeilo and Ammansford. Pop. (1986 est.) 37,200.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- First ruler of Wales to be called 'Great', and the first to rule most of present-day Wales. He is referred to as "King of the Britons" by the Annals of Ulster.

Rhodri faced pressure both from the English and increasingly from the Danes, who were recorded as ravaging Anglesey in 854. In 856 Rhodri won a notable victory over the Danes, killing their leader Gorm (sometimes given as Horm). Two poems by Sedulius Scotus written at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Western Franks, celebrate the victory of "Roricus" over the Norsemen.

In 877 Rhodri fought another battle against the Norse invaders on Anglesey, this time being forced to flee to Ireland.

On his return the following year, he and his son Gwriad were said to have been killed by the English under Alfred the Great, though the precise manner of his death is unknown. When his son, Anarawd ap Rhodri won a victory over the Mercians a few years later, it was hailed in the annals as "God's vengeance for Rhodri".

Family

Rhodri died leaving three sons:

His heir, Anarawd ap Rhodri, who became the new king of the britons, taking kingship of the Kingdom of Gwynedd;

His son Cadell ap Rhodri, who conquered Dyfed, which was later joined with Seisyllwg by Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda to become Deheubarth. Like his grandfather, Hywel would come to rule most of Wales; and

His son Merfyn ap Rhodri, who became the king of the Kingdom of Powys.

--------------------

Rhodri the Great

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rhodri the Great (in Welsh, Rhodri Mawr; occasionally in English, Roderick the Great) (c. 820–878) was the first ruler of Wales to be called 'Great', and the first to rule most of present-day Wales. He was called King of the Britons by the Annals of Ulster.

Lineage & Inheritance

The son of Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad King of Gwynedd and Nest ferch Cadell of the Royal line of Powys, he inherited the Kingdom of Gwynedd on his father's death in 844.

Inheritance Through Marriage

When his uncle Cyngen ap Cadell ruler of Powys died on a pilgrimage to Rome in 855 Rhodri inherited Powys. In 872 Gwgon, ruler of Seisyllwg in southern Wales, was accidentally drowned, and Rhodri added his Kingdom to his domains by virtue of his marriage to Angharad, Gwgon's sister. This made him the ruler of the larger part of Wales.

Danish Victor

Rhodri faced pressure both from the English and increasingly from the Danes, who were recorded as ravaging Anglesey in 854. In 856 Rhodri won a notable victory over the Danes, killing their leader Gorm (sometimes given as Horm). Two poems by Sedulius Scotus written at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Western Franks, celebrate the victory of "Roricus" over the Norsemen.

Flight to Ireland

In 877 Rhodri fought another battle against the Norse invaders on Anglesey, this time being forced to flee to Ireland.

Death at Saxon Hands

On his return the following year, he and his son Gwriad were said to have been killed by the English under Alfred the Great, though the precise manner of his death is unknown. When his son, Anarawd ap Rhodri won a victory over the Mercians a few years later, it was hailed in the annals as "God's vengeance for Rhodri".

Succession

His son Cadell ap Rhodri conquered Dyfed, which was later joined with Seisyllwg by Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda to become Deheubarth. Like his grandfather, Hywel would come to rule to bulk of Wales.

References

Nora K. Chadwick (1963). Celtic Britain. Thames and Hudson.

John Edward Lloyd (1911). A history of Wales: from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest. Longmans, Green & Co..

Rhodri the Great

In England the period from 800-1000 AD is often called the late Anglo-Saxon period, and in some measure the same can be said for Wales, in as much as the constant threat and tension created by the presence of powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to the east helped define and create a sense of separate identity and even nationalism - though that nationalism was often overshadowed by regional interests.

Numerous attempts were made throughout this period to create, if not a nation of Wales, then at least larger and more powerful kingdoms within Wales.

One of the early leaders of these tentative movements toward nationalism was Rhodri ap Merfyn, later to be known as Rhodri Mawr (Rhodri the Great).

Rhodri was the son of Merfyn, king of Gwynedd, and Nest of Powys. Through marriage more than conquest, Rhodri was ruler of a realm stretching from Anglesey to the Gower peninsula by the time of his death in 877. Although the extent of his kingdom would have been enough to make Rhodri's fame, he was more reknown as a warrior, a reknown that was noted in places as far afield as Ulster and Liege.

Rhodri's greatest triumph came in 856 against a force of Danes who made landing in Anglesey. The struggles of Rhodri and his fellow Welsh leaders were not all with the Danes. An equally potent threat lay to the east of Offa's Dyke in the form of the English. The English kings of Mercia made several attempts to take Powys - with temporary success in 822.

Just 7 years later Mercia itself succumbed to the growing might of Wessex, and from that point the southern kingdom posed an ongoing threat to Welsh independence. From 871 the leader of Wessex was Alfred the Great.

In 877 the two "Greats", Rhodri and Alfred clashed, and the Welsh leader and his son Gwriad were killed. In the vaccuum following Rhodri's death, Welsh kings, perhaps fearing the might of the Danes more than the threat of Alfred, and fearful of the power of Rhodri's sons, submitted to the overlordship of Wessex.

Eventually even Rhodri's sons Anarawd (king of Gwynedd and Powys) and Cadell (Seisyllwg) were forced to acknowledge Alfred as their overlord. This step was to have far-reaching consequences, for subsequent English leaders could claim overlordship of virtually all Wales.

Source

http://www.britainexpress.com/wales/history/rhodri.htm

Rhodri Mawr

King of Wales

Follow this link for a Welsh language version of this page!

Walker 1990; Davies 1990

According to legend, the first Dinefwr Castle (right) was built by Rhodri Mawr - King of Wales in the 9th century. It is unavoidable that attention should focus on those Welsh rulers who extended their power over much of Wales in the centuries prior to the Norman conquest. They foreshadowed the attempts by the princes of Gwynedd in the 13th century to create a unified Welsh state, and they matched contemporary developments in England, and similar, but later, developments in Scotland. So, Rhodri Mawr (844-78) is presented as one who set a pattern for the future. He either ruled or, by his personal qualities, dominated much of Wales.

Chroniclers of his generation hailed Rhodri ap Merfyn as Rhodri Mawr (Rhodri the Great), a distinction bestowed upon two other rulers in the same century - Charles the Great (Charlemagne, died 814) and Alfred the Great (died 899). The three tributes are of a similar nature - recognition of the achievements of men who contributed significantly to the growth of statehood among the nations of the Welsh, the Franks and the English. Unfortunately, the entire evidence relating to the life of Rhodri consists of a few sentences; yet he must have made a deep impression upon the Welsh, for in later centuries being of the line of Rhodri was a primary qualification for their rulers. Until his death, Rhodri was acknowledged as ruler of more than half of Wales, and that as much by diplomacy as by conquest.

Rhodri's fame sprang from his success as a warrior. That success was noted by The Ulster Chronicle and by Sedulius Scottus, an Irish scholar at the court of the Emperor Charles the Bald at Liege. It was his victory over the Vikings in 856 which brought him international acclaim. Wales was less richly provided with fertile land and with the navigable rivers that attracted the Vikings, and the Welsh kings had considerable success in resisting them. Anglesey bore the brunt of the attacks, and it was there in 856 that Rhodri won his great victory over Horn, the leader of the Danes, much to the delight of the Irish and the Franks.

It was not only from the west that the kingdom of Rhodri was threatened. By becoming the ruler of Powys, his mother's land, he inherited the old struggle with the kingdom of Mercia. Although Offa's Dyke had been constructed in order to define the territories of the Welsh and the English, this did not prevent the successors of Offa from attacking Wales. The pressure on Powys continued; after 855, Rhodri was its defender, and he and his son, Gwriad, were killed in battle against the English in 878.

Source

http://www.castlewales.com/rhodri.html

--------------------

ID: I105515

Name: Rhodri The Great Ap Merfyn

Prefix: Mawr

Sex: M

Birth: Bet 789 and 809 CE in Caer Seiont, Carnarvonshire, Wales

Death: 878 CE in , Anglesey, Wales of killed in battle against the English 1

Event: The First Dinefwr Castle (9th Century) Built

Event: Prince Of Wales Investiture 844

Occupation: Prince Of Wales, High King Of All Wales Bet 844 and 878 CE

Change Date: 13 Jan 2009 at 01:51

Note:

The Only King In Welsh History Called Great

Alias: Roderick II the Great of Wales/

"Chroniclers of his generation hailed Rhodri ap Merfyn as Rhodri Mawr (Rhodri the Great), a distinction bestowed upon two other rulers in the same century-Charles the Great (Charlemagne, died 814) and Alfred the Great (died 899)...Rhodri's fame sprang from his success as a warrior. That success was noted by THE ULSTER CHRONICLE and by Sedulius Scottus, an Irish scholar at the court of the Emperor Charles the Bald at Lüttich.

It was his victory over the Vikings in 856 which brought him

international acclaim ...He and his son, Gwriad, were killed in battle against the English in 878." (http://www.castlewales.com/rhodri.html)

Father: Merfyn The Freckled Ap Gwriad b: Bet 765 and 784 CE in , , Wales

Mother: Nesta Ferch Cadell b: Abt 742 CE in Powys, Montgomery, Wales

Marriage 1 Angharad ferch Meurig b: 825 CE in Ceredigion, , Wales

Married:

Change Date: 13 Jan 2009

Children

Cadell Ap Rhodri Mawr b: Bet 825 and 861 CE in Deheubarth, Wales
Merfyn Ap Rhodri Mawr b: 859 CE in Caer Seiont, Carnarvonshire, Wales
Anarawd Ap Rhodri Mawr b: Bet 853 and 857 CE in Gwynedd, Wales
Gwriad Ap Rhodri Mawr b: Bet 825 and 853 CE

Sources:

Abbrev: Sutton Folk Family Tree 3175463.ged

Title: Sutton Folk Family Tree

Sutton Folk Family Tree 3175463.ged

Author: Folk, Linda Sutton

Publication: www.worldconnect.rootsweb.com

--------------------

Rhodri the Great (in Welsh, Rhodri Mawr; occasionally in English, Roderick the Great) (c. 820–878) was the first ruler of Wales to be called 'Great', and the first to rule most of present-day Wales. He is referred to as "King of the Britons" by the Annals of Ulster. In some later histories, he is referred to as "King of Wales" but he did not rule all of Wales nor was this term used contemporaneously to describe him.

The son of Merfyn Frych, King of Gwynedd, and Nest ferch Cadell of the Royal line of Powys, he inherited the Kingdom of Gwynedd on his father's death in 844.

When his uncle Cyngen ap Cadell ruler of Powys died on a pilgrimage to Rome in 855 Rhodri inherited Powys. In 872 Gwgon, ruler of Seisyllwg in southern Wales, was accidentally drowned, and Rhodri added his Kingdom to his domains by virtue of his marriage to Angharad, Gwgon's sister. This made him the ruler of the larger part of Wales.

Resistance against Danes

Rhodri faced pressure both from the English and increasingly from the Danes, who were recorded as ravaging Anglesey in 854. In 856 Rhodri won a notable victory over the Danes, killing their leader Gorm (sometimes given as Horm). Two poems by Sedulius Scotus written at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Western Franks, celebrate the victory of "Roricus" over the Norsemen.

In 877 Rhodri fought another battle against the Norse invaders on Anglesey, this time being forced to flee to Ireland.

Defeat and death

On his return the following year, he and his son Gwriad were said to have been killed by the English under Alfred the Great, though the precise manner of his death is unknown. When his son, Anarawd ap Rhodri won a victory over the Mercians a few years later, it was hailed in the annals as "God's vengeance for Rhodri".

Succession

Rhodri died leaving three sons:

His heir, Anarawd ap Rhodri, who became the new king of the britons, taking kingship of the Kingdom of Gwynedd;

His son Cadell ap Rhodri, who conquered Dyfed, which was later joined with Seisyllwg by Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda to become Deheubarth. Like his grandfather, Hywel would come to rule most of Wales; and

His son Merfyn ap Rhodri, who became the king of the Kingdom of Powys.

--------------------

   Also known as Roderick, Rhodri was the first ruler of Wales to receive the name Great. Little is known about his life, but being a descendent of Rhodri later became a primary qualification for Welsh rulers. It was his victory over Gorm (sometimes given as Horm), leader of the Danes, at Anglesey in 856 which brought him international acclaim. He inherited Powys from his mother's family in 855 and Seisyllwg by 871. In 878, however, he was driven out by Vikings.

Children:

   * Gwriad ap Rhodri, b. ca. 840, d. 878, cause of death was in battle.
   * Cadell ap Rhodri, b. ca. 843, d. ca. 909
   * Anarawd ap Rhodri, b. bef. 878, d. 916

--------------------

Name: Rhodri Mawr Ap Merfyn 1

Sex: M

Birth: ABT 809 in Caer Seiont, Carnarvonshire, Wales 1

Death: ABT 878 in Anglesey, Wales 1

Note:

Prince Of Wales. Died of battle wounds.[JohnFaye (8 Jun 05).FTW]

Prince Of Wales. Died of battle wounds.

Father: Merfyn Ap Geriad "Freckled" King Of Gwynedd b: ABT 784

Mother: Nesta Verch Cadell b: ABT 780 in Powys, Wales

Marriage 1 Angharad Verch Meurig b: ABT 825 in Ceredigion, Wales

Children

Cadell Ap Rhodri Mawr King Of South Wales b: ABT 861 in Deheubarth, Wales

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jcrow&id=I18423

--------------------

80. Rhodri ap Merfyn (Rhodri Mawr)

Leaders

820 – 878

Warrior, prince and the first Welsh ruler to be called “Great”.

The son of Merfyn Frych, Rhodri inherited the principality of Gwynedd on his father"s death in 844, and Powys from his uncle. He proceeded to marry Angharad, daughter of the ruler of Seisyllwg, which he duly inherited on the accidental death of his brother-in-law in 871.

This enlarged kingdom covered all of northern and central Wales, stretching down to the Gower peninsula in the south.

Rhodri"s fame sprang from his success as a warrior after his many battles with the Vikings. Anglesey bore the brunt of the attacks, and it was there in 856 that Rhodri won his great victory over Horn, the leader of the Danes.

It was not only from the west that the kingdom of Rhodri was threatened. By becoming the ruler of Powys, his mother"s land, he inherited the old struggle with the kingdom of Mercia and in 878 Rhodri and his son, Gwriad, were killed in battle against the English.

Apart from these bare facts, little information about Rhodri survives to the present. Yet his prestige was such that to be “of the line of Rhodri” was a powerful factor in later Welsh power struggles.

Rhodri’s grandson Hywel Dda built on the foundations he had laid, creating the kingdom of Deheubarth. This extensive geographical unit with its common legal system was, arguably, the closest there has ever been to a unified and independent Welsh state.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodri_the_Great

--------------------

Rhodri was the son of Merfyn, king of Gwynedd, and Nest of Powys. Through marriage more than conquest, Rhodri was ruler of a realm stretching from Anglesey to the Gower peninsula by the time of his death in 877. Although the extent of his kingdom would have been enough to make Rhodri's fame, he was more renown as a warrior, a renown that was noted in places as far afield as Ulster and Liege.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodri_Mawr

http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/kingdoms/805.html -------------------- King of Gwynedd from his father, Powys from his mother, Deheubarth from his wife. Nationlist & protagonist of contemporary anti-English poetry.

Sources:

many ~ see Descendants. -------------------- Rhodri the Great

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rhodri the Great (in Welsh, Rhodri Mawr; occasionally in English, Roderick the Great) (c. 820–878) was the first ruler of Wales to be called 'Great', and the first to rule most of present-day Wales. He is referred to as "King of the Britons" by the Annals of Ulster. In some later histories, he is referred to as "King of Wales" but he did not rule all of Wales nor was this term used contemporaneously to describe him.

Lineage & inheritance

The son of Merfyn Frych, King of Gwynedd, and Nest ferch Cadell of the Royal line of Powys, he inherited the Kingdom of Gwynedd on his father's death in 844.

When his maternal uncle Cyngen ap Cadell ruler of Powys died on a pilgrimage to Rome in 855 Rhodri inherited Powys. In 872 Gwgon, ruler of Seisyllwg in southern Wales, was accidentally drowned, and Rhodri added his Kingdom to his domains by virtue of his marriage to Angharad, Gwgon's sister. This made him the ruler of the larger part of Wales.

[edit]Resistance against Danes

Rhodri faced pressure both from the English and increasingly from the Danes, who were recorded as ravaging Anglesey in 854. In 856 Rhodri won a notable victory over the Danes, killing their leader Gorm (sometimes given as Horm). Two poems by Sedulius Scotus written at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Western Franks, celebrate the victory of "Roricus" over the Norsemen.

In 877 Rhodri fought another battle against the Norse invaders on Anglesey, this time being forced to flee to Ireland.

[edit]Defeat and death

On his return the following year, he and his son Gwriad were said to have been killed by the English under Alfred the Great, though the precise manner of his death is unknown. When his son, Anarawd ap Rhodri won a victory over the Mercians a few years later, it was hailed in the annals as "God's vengeance for Rhodri".

[edit]Succession

Rhodri died leaving three sons:

His heir, Anarawd ap Rhodri, who became the king of Gwynedd;

His son Cadell ap Rhodri, who conquered Dyfed, which was later joined with Seisyllwg by Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda to become Deheubarth. Like his grandfather, Hywel would come to rule most of Wales; and

His son Merfyn ap Rhodri, who became the king of the Powys.

[edit]External links

Rhodri the Great

Rhodri Mawr - King of Wales

[edit]References

Nora K. Chadwick (1963). Celtic Britain. Thames and Hudson.

John Edward Lloyd (1911). A history of Wales: from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest. Longmans, Green & Co..

Chroniclers of his generation hailed Rhodri ap Merfyn as Rhodri Mawr (Rhodri the Great), a distinction bestowed upon two other rulers in the same century - Charles the Great (Charlemagne, died 814) and Alfred the Great (died 899). The three tributes are of a similar nature - recognition of the achievements of men who contributed significantly to the growth of statehood among the nations of the Welsh, the Franks and the English. Unfortunately, the entire evidence relating to the life of Rhodri consists of a few sentences; yet he must have made a deep impression upon the Welsh, for in later centuries being of the line of Rhodri was a primary qualification for their rulers. Until his death, Rhodri was acknowledged as ruler of more than half of Wales, and that as much by diplomacy as by conquest.

Rhodri's fame sprang from his success as a warrior. That success was noted by The Ulster Chronicle and by Sedulius Scottus, an Irish scholar at the court of the Emperor Charles the Bald at Liege. It was his victory over the Vikings in 856 which brought him international acclaim. Wales was less richly provided with fertile land and with the navigable rivers that attracted the Vikings, and the Welsh kings had considerable success in resisting them. Anglesey bore the brunt of the attacks, and it was there in 856 that Rhodri won his great victory over Horn, the leader of the Danes, much to the delight of the Irish and the Franks.

It was not only from the west that the kingdom of Rhodri was threatened. By becoming the ruler of Powys, his mother's land, he inherited the old struggle with the kingdom of Mercia. Although Offa's Dyke had been constructed in order to define the territories of the Welsh and the English, this did not prevent the successors of Offa from attacking Wales. The pressure on Powys continued; after 855, Rhodri was its defender, and he and his son, Gwriad, were killed in battle against the English in 878.

Rhodri (Mawr, The Great) ap Merfyn

Rhodri, known as Mawr, The Great, was born about 0820 in Caer Seiont, Carnarvonshire, Wales.1 Mawr, The Great's father was Merfyn (The Freckled) Frych ap Gwriad and his mother was Nest verch Cadell. His paternal grandparents were Gwriad ap Elidir and Esyllt verch Cynan; his maternal grandparents were Cadell ap Brochwel and <Unknown>. He was an only child. He died about 0878 in Anglessey, Wales.1

Rhodri (Mawr, The Great) ap Merfyn & Angharad verch Meurig 

They had nine sons and two daughters, named Anarawd, Merfyn, Cadell, Aeddan, Tudwal, Meurig, Rhodri, Gwriad, Gwyddelig, Nest and Angharad.

Personal Details

Rhodri (Mawr, The Great) ap Merfyn

Rhodri, known as Mawr, The Great, was born about 0820 in Caer Seiont, Carnarvonshire, Wales.1 He died about 0878 in Anglessey, Wales.1

Angharad verch Meurig

Angharad was born about 0825 in Ceredigion, Wales.1

Children

 King of Gwynedd Anarawd ap Rhodri

Anarawd was born about 0857 in Gwynedd, Wales.2 He died in 0916.3

 Merfyn ap Rhodri

Merfyn was born about 0859.2 He died in 0901.4

 Cadell ap Rhodri

Cadell was born about 0861 in Deheubarth, Wales.1 He died in 0909.1

 Aeddan ap Rhodri

Aeddan was born about 0862.2

 Tudwal ap Rhodri

Tudwal was born about 0863.2

 Meurig ap Rhodri

Meurig was born about 0865.2

 Rhodri ap Rhodri

Rhodri was born about 0866.2

 Gwriad ap Rhodri

Gwriad was born about 0867.2

 Gwyddelig ap Rhodri

Gwyddelig was born about 0869.2

 Nest verch Rhodri

Nest was born about 0870.2

 Angharad verch Rhodri

Angharad was born about 0871.2

-------------------- Rhodri the Great (in Welsh, Rhodri Mawr; occasionally in English, Roderick the Great) (c. 820–878) was the first ruler of Wales to be called 'Great', and the first to rule most of present-day Wales. He is referred to as "King of the Britons" by the Annals of Ulster. In some later histories, he is referred to as "King of Wales" but he did not rule all of Wales nor was this term used contemporaneously to describe him.

The son of Merfyn Frych, King of Gwynedd, and Nest ferch Cadell of the Royal line of Powys, he inherited the Kingdom of Gwynedd on his father's death in 844.

When his uncle Cyngen ap Cadell ruler of Powys died on a pilgrimage to Rome in 855 Rhodri inherited Powys. In 872 Gwgon, ruler of Seisyllwg in southern Wales, was accidentally drowned, and Rhodri added his Kingdom to his domains by virtue of his marriage to Angharad, Gwgon's sister. This made him the ruler of the larger part of Wales.

Resistance against Danes

Rhodri faced pressure both from the English and increasingly from the Danes, who were recorded as ravaging Anglesey in 854. In 856 Rhodri won a notable victory over the Danes, killing their leader Gorm (sometimes given as Horm). Two poems by Sedulius Scotus written at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Western Franks, celebrate the victory of "Roricus" over the Norsemen.

In 877 Rhodri fought another battle against the Norse invaders on Anglesey, this time being forced to flee to Ireland.

Defeat and death

On his return the following year, he and his son Gwriad were said to have been killed by the English under Alfred the Great, though the precise manner of his death is unknown. When his son, Anarawd ap Rhodri won a victory over the Mercians a few years later, it was hailed in the annals as "God's vengeance for Rhodri".

Succession

Rhodri died leaving three sons:

His heir, Anarawd ap Rhodri, who became the new king of the britons, taking kingship of the Kingdom of Gwynedd;

His son Cadell ap Rhodri, who conquered Dyfed, which was later joined with Seisyllwg by Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda to become Deheubarth. Like his grandfather, Hywel would come to rule most of Wales; and

His son Merfyn ap Rhodri, who became the king of the Kingdom of Powys.

-------------------- Also known as Roderick, Rhodri was the first ruler of Wales to receive the name Great. Little is known about his life, but being a descendent of Rhodri later became a primary qualification for Welsh rulers. It was his victory over Gorm (sometimes given as Horm), leader of the Danes, at Anglesey in 856 which brought him international acclaim. He inherited Powys from his mother's family in 855 and Seisyllwg by 871. In 878, however, he was driven out by Vikings.

Children:

  • Gwriad ap Rhodri, b. ca. 840, d. 878, cause of death was in battle.
  • Cadell ap Rhodri, b. ca. 843, d. ca. 909
  • Anarawd ap Rhodri, b. bef. 878, d. 916

-------------------- Rhodri the Great (in Welsh, Rhodri Mawr; occasionally in English, Roderick the Great) (c. 820–878) was the first ruler of Wales to be called 'Great', and the first to rule most of present-day Wales. He is referred to as "King of the Britons" by the Annals of Ulster. In some later histories, he is referred to as "King of Wales" but he did not rule all of Wales nor was this term used contemporaneously to describe him.

The son of Merfyn Frych, King of Gwynedd, and Nest ferch Cadell of the Royal line of Powys, he inherited the Kingdom of Gwynedd on his father's death in 844.

When his uncle Cyngen ap Cadell ruler of Powys died on a pilgrimage to Rome in 855 Rhodri inherited Powys. In 872 Gwgon, ruler of Seisyllwg in southern Wales, was accidentally drowned, and Rhodri added his Kingdom to his domains by virtue of his marriage to Angharad, Gwgon's sister. This made him the ruler of the larger part of Wales.

Resistance against Danes

Rhodri faced pressure both from the English and increasingly from the Danes, who were recorded as ravaging Anglesey in 854. In 856 Rhodri won a notable victory over the Danes, killing their leader Gorm (sometimes given as Horm). Two poems by Sedulius Scotus written at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Western Franks, celebrate the victory of "Roricus" over the Norsemen.

In 877 Rhodri fought another battle against the Norse invaders on Anglesey, this time being forced to flee to Ireland.

Defeat and death

On his return the following year, he and his son Gwriad were said to have been killed by the English under Alfred the Great, though the precise manner of his death is unknown. When his son, Anarawd ap Rhodri won a victory over the Mercians a few years later, it was hailed in the annals as "God's vengeance for Rhodri".

Succession

Rhodri died leaving three sons:

His heir, Anarawd ap Rhodri, who became the new king of the britons, taking kingship of the Kingdom of Gwynedd;

His son Cadell ap Rhodri, who conquered Dyfed, which was later joined with Seisyllwg by Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda to become Deheubarth. Like his grandfather, Hywel would come to rule most of Wales; and

His son Merfyn ap Rhodri, who became the king of the Kingdom of Powys.

-------------------- Also known as Roderick, Rhodri was the first ruler of Wales to receive the name Great. Little is known about his life, but being a descendent of Rhodri later became a primary qualification for Welsh rulers. It was his victory over Gorm (sometimes given as Horm), leader of the Danes, at Anglesey in 856 which brought him international acclaim. He inherited Powys from his mother's family in 855 and Seisyllwg by 871. In 878, however, he was driven out by Vikings.

Children:

  • Gwriad ap Rhodri, b. ca. 840, d. 878, cause of death was in battle.
  • Cadell ap Rhodri, b. ca. 843, d. ca. 909
  • Anarawd ap Rhodri, b. bef. 878, d. 916

-------------------- Rhodri the Great (in Welsh, Rhodri Mawr; occasionally in English, Roderick the Great) (c. 820–878) was the first ruler of Wales to be called 'Great', and the first to rule most of present-day Wales. He is referred to as "King of the Britons" by the Annals of Ulster. In some later histories, he is referred to as "King of Wales" but he did not rule all of Wales nor was this term used contemporaneously to describe him.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodri_the_Great -------------------- King Rhodri the Great (in Welsh, Rhodri Mawr; occasionally in English, Roderick the Great), was the first ruler of Wales to be called "Great," and the first to rule most of present-day Wales. He was called King of the Britons by the Annals of Ulster.

Rhodri inherited the Kingdom of Gwynedd on his father's death in 844. When his uncle Cyngen ap Cadell ruler of Powys died on a pilgrimage to Rome in 855 Rhodri inherited Powys. In 872 Gwgon, ruler of Seisyllwg in southern Wales, was accidentally drowned, and Rhodri added his Kingdom to his domains by virtue of his marriage to Angharad, Gwgon's sister. This made him the ruler of the larger part of Wales.

Rhodri faced pressure both from the English and increasingly from the Danes, who were recorded as ravaging Anglesey in 854. In 856 Rhodri won a notable victory over the Danes, killing their leader Gorm (sometimes given as Horm). Two poems by Sedulius Scotus written at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Western Franks, celebrate the victory of "Roricus" over the Norsemen.

In 877 Rhodri fought another battle against the Norse invaders on Anglesey, this time being forced to flee to Ireland.

On his return the following year, he and his son Gwriad were said to have been killed by the English under Alfred the Great, though the precise manner of his death is unknown. When his son, Anarawd ap Rhodri won a victory over the Mercians a few years later, it was hailed in the annals as "God's vengeance for Rhodri."

Rhodri was our ancestor through two distinct descent lines--through his son Anarawad and through his son Cadell, each of whom was independently our ancestor. We have documentation of the complete descent line through Cadell, but there are gaps in what we know of the line through Anarawad. Anarawd ap Rhodri (died 916) was King of Gwynedd (northern Wales), and his son (our ancestor) was Foel ap Anarawd (Idwal the Bald), who died 942; then there is a gap: We have no documentation on Foel's son or grandson. His great-grandson was Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig, King of Gwynedd (died 1039), and we have documentation of each generation from him to you. The two lines meet when Marared, descended from Cadell, married King Iorweth ap Owain of Wales (1145-1174), descended from Anarawad, and their offspring was King Llewelyn the Great of Wales (1173-1240).

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodri_the_Great for more information. -------------------- http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~summer/Owen.htm

Rhodri the Great (in Welsh, Rhodri Mawr; occasionally in English, Roderick the Great) (c. 820–878) was the first ruler of Wales to be called 'Great', and the first to rule most of present-day Wales. He was called King of the Britons by the Annals of Ulster.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Lineage & Inheritance
   * 2 Inheritance Through Marriage
   * 3 Danish Victor
   * 4 Flight to Ireland
   * 5 Death at Saxon Hands
   * 6 Succession
   * 7 External links
   * 8 References

[edit] Lineage & Inheritance

The son of Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad King of Gwynedd and Nest ferch Cadell of the Royal line of Powys, he inherited the Kingdom of Gwynedd on his father's death in 844.

[edit] Inheritance Through Marriage

When his uncle Cyngen ap Cadell ruler of Powys died on a pilgrimage to Rome in 855 Rhodri inherited Powys. In 872 Gwgon, ruler of Seisyllwg in southern Wales, was accidentally drowned, and Rhodri added his Kingdom to his domains by virtue of his marriage to Angharad, Gwgon's sister. This made him the ruler of the larger part of Wales.

[edit] Danish Victor

Rhodri faced pressure both from the English and increasingly from the Danes, who were recorded as ravaging Anglesey in 854. In 856 Rhodri won a notable victory over the Danes, killing their leader Gorm (sometimes given as Horm). Two poems by Sedulius Scotus written at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the Western Franks, celebrate the victory of "Roricus" over the Norsemen.

[edit] Flight to Ireland

In 877 Rhodri fought another battle against the Norse invaders on Anglesey, this time being forced to flee to Ireland.

[edit] Death at Saxon Hands

On his return the following year, he and his son Gwriad were said to have been killed by the English under Alfred the Great, though the precise manner of his death is unknown. When his son, Anarawd ap Rhodri won a victory over the Mercians a few years later, it was hailed in the annals as "God's vengeance for Rhodri".

[edit] Succession

His son Cadell ap Rhodri conquered Dyfed, which was later joined with Seisyllwg by Rhodri's grandson Hywel Dda to become Deheubarth. Like his grandfather, Hywel would come to rule to bulk of Wales.

[edit] External links

   * Rhodri the Great
   * Rhodri Mawr - King of Wales

[edit] References

   * Nora K. Chadwick (1963). Celtic Britain. Thames and Hudson. 
   * John Edward Lloyd (1911). A history of Wales: from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest. Longmans, Green & Co.. 

wikipedia.com -------------------- King of Gwynedd, Powys and Seisyllwg.

Rhodri was the first ruler of Wales to be called "the Great" and the first to rule most of present day Wales. He inherited the kingdom of Gwynedd on his father's death in 844 and the kingdom of Powys in 855 when hi uncle Cyngen ap Cadell, Ruler of Powys, died on pilgimage to Rome. In 872 when Gwygon, the ruler of Seisyllwg accidentally drowned, Rhodri added his kingdom to his domain by virtue of his marriage to Angharad, Gwgon's sister. -------------------- http://familytrees.genopro.com/Azrael/default.htm?page=apMerfyn-Rhodri-ind04935.htm -------------------- Died in 877 or 878, killed in battle with the English as was his son Gwriad.

Rhodri Mawr ap Merfyn became King of Gwynedd in 844 on the death of his father Merfyn Frych; King of Powys in 855 on the death of his uncle Caell ap Brochwell; and King of Seisyllwg in 871 on the death of his brother-in-law Gwgon. Rhodri Mawr was the first ruler recognised as Prince of Wales. He defeated the Danish leader Horn in 856. Rhodri Mawr ap Merfyn married Angharad, daughter of Meuric ap Dyfnwal ap Asthi, King of Seisyllwg, and they had the following sons:

Anarawd ap Rhodri Mawr, King of Gwynedd. Click on Gwynedd for his descent. Cadell ap Rhodri Mawr, King of Seisyllwg had a son: Hywel Dda (the Good) ap Cadell, Prince of Deheubarth who united much of Wales. Click on Deheubarth for his descent. Merfyn ap Rhodri Mawr, King of Powys. Gwriad ap Rhodri Mawr, killed in battle in 877 or 878, as was his father. Two sons.

also see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodri_the_Great -------------------- RHODRI MAWR (Rhodri the Great; est b.820 – d.878) succeeded his father MERFYN as king of Gwynedd at a relatively peaceful time when the neighboring kingdom of Mercia was distracted from Wales by pressure from another English tribe, so that he had time to consolidate his kingdom. He may have taken possession of Powys in 855 when its ruler died on a pilgrimage to Rome. Later pedigrees say that he married the sister of the last of the kings of Ceredigion (Cardiganshire) who died in 872, whereupon RHODRI added Ceredigion and Carmarthenshire to his realm. More than any other Welsh king, RHODRI was revered and given a unique place in history with his epithet MAWR as RHODRI the Great. Lloyd said that he earned the title in part by his success in uniting most of Wales, which had been so long divided into petty states (p. 325). It was difficult to achieve this unity, because Wales does not form a natural geographic unit: it has no natural center, as more than half of the country lies at over 600ft, and the population was concentrated in separate regions around the coasts, along the eastern border, and in the river valleys. The unified kingdom RHODRI founded, though it did not retain its unity for long, afforded future ages an instance of what could be achieved. Even though historical sources are slight, later generations kept fresh his lasting significance. Henceforth, it became necessary for anyone who aspired to rule over Wales to claim descent from RHODRI the Great.

RHODRI’S second great role, however, lay in his resistance against the Danes, which Lloyd called strenuous and gallant. Vikings had been attacking and ravaging the seacoasts of Britain, Ireland, and Normandy for at least seven decades, and had begun colonizing inland. John Davies says that it was RHODRI’S “great victory over the Northmen in 856 which brought him international acclaim” as seen in French and Irish chronicles (p.81). The Danes had ravaged Anglesey in 853, but in 856 RHODRI avenged himself by killing their leader Horn, and this loss may have discouraged further attacks. The Irish Chronicles tell us that in 877 he was briefly expelled from his kingdom by Viking raiders, but he was back in Wales the following year. Like the two other European kings of his time who were given the same epithet, the English Alfred the Great and the Germanic Charlemagne, RHODRI united his people and also defended them against the pagan tribes threatening his united homeland. He died in battle, apparently fighting the traditional enemies from Mercia in England in 878.

RHODRI was also renowned for the cultural level of his court and that of his sons. It is claimed that the poems of Aneurin and Taliesin and the histories of Nennius were first written down at this time (J.Davies p.84). An anecdote was told as an example of the high linguistic level of the court, when Irish visitors were given for entertainment a cryptogram which could be solved only by transposing the letters from Latin into Greek. Clearly Wales was experiencing a high level of education and culture by 880 when King Alfred summoned a scholar from St David’s to become his advisor and biographer and “help to civilize his kingdom” (J.Davies p.85). -------------------- Rhodri [Mawr: "The Great"] was the son of Merfyn, king of Gwynedd Gwriad-2, and Nest Cadell-47 [verch Cadell] of Powys. Through marriage more than conquest, Rhodri was ruler of a realm stretching from Anglesey to the Gower peninsula by the time of his death in 877/78. Although the extent of his kingdom would have been enough to make Rhodri's fame, he was more reknown as a warrior, a reknown that was noted in places as far afield as Ulster and Liege.

Rhodri's greatest triumph came in 856 against a force of Danes who made landing in Anglesey. The struggles of Rhodri and his fellow Welsh leaders were not all with the Danes. An equally potent threat lay to the east of Offa's Dyke in the form of the English. The English kings of Mercia made several attempts to take Powys - with temporary success in 822.[1]

The first leader of importance to emerge among the Welsh was the warrior king Rhodri Mawr (Rhodri the Great). In 855, through skilful alliances and practical marriages, he became king of Powys as well as much of the rest of Wales. Successful in warding off Danish attacks, even killing in battle the Viking leader Gorm, Rhodri gave his country a short but welcome period of unity and stability.

Unfortunately for the future of an independent Wales, Rhodri Mawr's death in 878 was followed by a period of internal strife, and the alliance of his sons with Alfred led to Wales' dependence upon the English king for protection. Dependence upon its stronger neighbor to the east was to be a permanent feature for the rest of the history of Wales, always struggling, but seldom able to break its chains.

Rhodri was killed in battle fighting an English army; it was left to his grandson, Hywel Dda (Howell the Good) to re-establish some sort of predominance among the various petty kingdoms of Wales by wisely keeping the peace with his English neighbors through a policy of conciliation. In his reign, lasting from 904-50, Hywel's territories were known as Deheubarth, which united with Gwynedd and Powys to cover most of Wales with the exception of Glamorgan, in the southeast. The only Welsh king to have earned the title "The Good," he is described in the great medieval history, "The Brut Y Tywysogion" (The Chronicle of the Princes) as "the chief and most praiseworthy of all the Britons." [2]

http://www.britannia.com/wales/whist3.html

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Rhodri Mawr ap Merfyn's Timeline

814
814
Gwynedd, Wales
820
820
Caer Seiont, Carnarvonshire, Wales
856
856
Age 36

King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd & Powys repels a major Viking invasion of Wales and kills their king, Gorm.

857
857
Age 37
Caer Seiont, Caernarvonshire, Wales
859
859
Age 39
Caer Selonet, Carnarvonshire, Wales
861
861
Age 41
Deheubarth, Wales, UK
862
862
Age 42
Wales
863
863
Age 43
Caer Seiont, Caernarvon, Gwynedd, Wales
863
Age 43
Caer Seiont, Carnarvonshire, Wales
866
866
Age 46
Caer Seiont, Carnarvonshire, Wales