Rhys ap Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales (c.1040 - 1093) MP

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Nicknames: "King of Deheubarth"
Birthplace: Carmarthenshire, Wales
Death: Died in Brecon, UK
Cause of death: Killed In Battle of Brecon
Occupation: King of South Wales, king of Deheubarth in Wales and member of the Dinefwr dynasty, a branch descended from Rhodri the Great., King of Wales
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Rhys ap Tewdwr, Prince of South Wales

Rhys ap Tewdwr, King of Deheubarth

  • Also known as Rhys ap Gruffydd, Lord Rhys

born about 0997 Carmarthanshire, Wales died 1093 Brecknock, Breconshire, Wales

father: Tewdwr "Mawr" ap Cadell born about 0977 Dynevor, Llandyfeisant, Carmarthenshire, Wales died about 0997 probably in Brittany, France

mother: Gwenllian verch Gwyn born about 0977 Wales

spouse: Gwladys verch Rhiwallon born about 1041 Powys, Wales

children:

  • Goronwy I d. 1093
  • Nest verch Rhys Princess of Deuhebarth m. Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor
  • Gruffydd ap Rhys born about 1081 Llandilo, Carmarthshire, Wales died April 1137
  • Hywel d aft 1112

by unknown mistresses:

  • Cynan (Cadwgan?) d. 1093
  • Goronwy II d 1101

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Rhys ap Tewdwr (before 1065 – 1093) was a Prince of Deheubarth in south-west Wales and member of the Dinefwr dynasty, a branch descended from Rhodri the Great. He was born in the area which is now Carmarthenshire and died at the battle of Brecon in April 1093. He was the founder of the Second Royal Tribe of Wales.

Family

Rhys ap Tewdwr claimed the throne of Deheubarth following the death of his second cousin Rhys ab Owain in battle against Caradog ap Gruffydd in 1078.

He was a grandson of Cadell ab Einion ab Owain ab Hywel Dda. He married Gwladys ferch Rhiwallon daughter of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn of the Mathrafal dynasty of Powys, by whom he had four sons, Gruffudd, Hywel ap Rhys, Goronwy and Cadwgan, and a daughter Nest.

Early rule

In 1081 Caradog ap Gruffydd invaded Deheubarth and drove Rhys to seek sanctuary in the St David's Cathedral.

Rhys however made an alliance with Gruffydd ap Cynan who was seeking to regain the throne of the Kingdom of Gwynedd, and at the Battle of Mynydd Carn in the same year they defeated and killed Caradog ap Gruffydd and his allies Trahaearn ap Caradog of Gwynedd and Meilyr ap Rhiwallon.

Norman homage

The same year William the Conqueror visited Deheubarth, ostensibly on a pilgrimage to St David's, but with a major show of power as well, traversing the width of southern Wales, and it seems likely he came to an arrangement with Rhys, whereby Rhys paid him homage and was confirmed in possession of Deheubarth. Rhys paid William £40 a year for his kingdom, ensuring good future relations with William that lasted until the end of his lifetime. Rhys was content as the arrangement meant that he only had to deal with the jealousy of his fellow Welsh princes.

Internal conflict

In 1088 Cadwgan ap Bleddyn of Powys attacked Deheubarth and forced Rhys to flee to Ireland. However Rhys returned later the same year with a fleet from Ireland and defeated the men of Powys in a battle in which two of Cadwgan's brothers, Madog and Rhiryd, were killed.

In 1091 he faced another challenge in the form of an attempt to put Gruffydd, the son of Maredudd ab Owain, on the throne of Deheubarth. Rhys was able to defeat the rebels in a battle at St. Dogmaels, killing Gruffydd.

Death

Rhys was able to withstand the increasing Norman pressure following the end of William's reign in 1087 until 1093, when he was killed at Brecon by the Normans led by Bernard de Neufmarche.

Succession

Rhys's son Gruffydd inherited some of Deheubarth, but Rhys's death led to the Normans taking over much of the kingdom, with Gruffydd being left to rule a much smaller area.

Rhys's daughter, Nest, was a legendary beauty, as her abduction from her husband's castle at Cenarth Bychan started a civil war.

Owain Tudur and James A. Garfield [citation needed] were among those who claimed descent from Rhys ap Tewdwr.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhys_ap_Tewdwr

References

Remfry, P.M., A Political Chronology of Wales 1066 to 1282 (ISBN 1-899376-46-1)

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From Charles Cawley's Medieval Lands database (http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WALES.htm):

RHYS ap Tewdr (-killed in battle near Brecknock Castle [Mar/Apr] 1093).

The Annales Cambriæ record that "filius Teudur Resus" started to rule in 1077[422]. The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr came from Llydaw and put in a claim to the principality of South Wales as lawful heir" in 1077[423]. He succeeded in 1078 as King of Deheubarth. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr began to reign" in 1077[424]. The Annales Cambriæ record that "Resus filius Teudur" was expelled from his kingdom by "filiis Bledint, scilicet Madauc, Cadugan et Ririt" in 1087[425]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr was expelled from his territory by the sons of Bleddyn, sons of Cynvyn, to wit Madog, and Cadwgan, and Rhirid, and he himself retreated into Ireland, and immediately afterwards he collected a fleet of the Gwyddelians and returned again, and then the battle of Llych Crei took place, and the sons of Bleddyn were slain" in 1087, adding that "Rhys son of Tewdwr gave an immense sum of money to the mariners, the Scots and Gwyddelians who had come to assist him"[426]. Florence of Worcester records that "Res Walanorum rex" was killed in battle during Easter week "iuxta castellum Brecheniean" in [1093], after which "kings ceased to reign in Wales"[427]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Rhys son of Tewdwr king of South Wales was killed by the French, who inhabited Brecheiniog, and then fell the kingdom to the Britons" in 1091[428].

m GWLADUS, daughter of RHIWALLON ap Cynfyn & his wife ---. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records in 1106 that "Cadwgan son of Bleddyn and Gwladus daughter of Rhiwallon, the mother of Nest were cousins, as Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, sons of Cynvyn, were brothers"[429].

Rhys & his wife had four children:

a) GORONW (-beheaded 1093). The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Goronwy son of Rhys" was beheaded after the death of his father, dated to 1091 in the text, but dateable to 1093 according to the other sources quoted above[430].

b) NEST . The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names, in 1106, "Nest daughter of Rhys son of Tewdwr and wife of Gerald the steward" and "Gwladus daughter of Rhiwallon, the mother of Nest", when recording that "Owain [son of Cadwgan son of Bleddyn]…accompanied by a small retinue [visited] her as his kinswoman" in the castle in which his father organised a feast and later reentered the castle and abducted her "with her two sons and daughter and also another son that he [=her husband] had by a concubine"[431]. Giraldus Cambrensis names "Henricus…regi Henrici primi filius…ex nobili Nesta, Resi filii Theodori filia" in South Wales[432]. She was abducted by Owain son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn from castle Ceanrth Bychan in 1109. m (1100) GERALD FitzWalter of Windsor, son of WALTER FitzOther of Windsor & his wife Beatrice --- (-before 1136). Custodian of Pembroke Castle. Mistress of HENRY I King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Château de Lyon-la-Forêt, near Rouen 1 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire). Mistress of STEPHEN Constable of Cardiff Castle, by whom she had one illegitimate child:

i) ROBERT FitzStephen . The Expugnatio Hibernica records that "Robertus filius Stephani" was freed from prison in Wales, naming "matre…Nesta, Resi magni filia"[433]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales names "Robert son of Stephen by Nest daughter of Rhys son of Tewdwr" when recording that "the lord Rhys" had removed him from "the castle of Aberteivi" which he had destroyed[434]. m ---.

c) GRUFFYDD ap Rhys ([1090]-murdered 1137). The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Rhys son of Tewdwr, king of South Wales, came from Ireland to Dyved…returned to his patrimony" in 1112 adding that he "passed about two years, sometimes with Gerald steward of Pembroke Castle, his brother-in-law who had married his sister Nest…"[437].

d) HYWEL (-after 1112). The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Rhys…and Howel his brother" went to "Gruffudd son of Cynan" in 1112, adding that "this same Howel had been in the prison of Ernulf son of Roger, the lord of Castle Baldwin" and "escaped in a maimed state with broken limbs out of the prison"[438].

Rhys had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

e) CYNAN (-drowned Lake Cremlyn 1093). The Gwentian Chronicle records that, after the death of his father, "another, a bastard son of Rhys, called Cynan" attempted "to escape through a lake called Cremlyn where he was drowned"[439].

f) GORONW (-London 1101). The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Goronwy son of Rhys son of Tewdrwr died in London in the king´s prison" in 1101[440].

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RHYS ap TEWDWR (d. 1093), king of Deheubarth; grandson of Cadell ab Einion ab Owain ap Hywel Dda. In 1075 he took possession of Deheubarth on the death of his second-cousin, Rhys ab Owain ab Edwin (q.v.). In 1081 he was dislodged by Caradog ap Gruffydd (q.v.), but later in the year, with the help of Gruffudd ap Cynan (q.v.), he was firmly reinstated after the historic battle of Mynydd Cam. In the same year William the Conqueror made a demonstration of power in South Wales, traversing the land as far as S. Davids; it is reasonably certain that during the visit the two kings came to an agreement as to their future good relations, which lasted to the end of William's reign. A few years later it is recorded that Rhys is paying the king £40 a year for Deheubarth, thereby becoming a vassal of the Norman Crown and establishing a precedent with lasting consequences on Anglo-Welsh relations. Henceforth, with the exception of the closing tragedy of his career, Rhys had only to contend with the jealousies of his fellow princes. In 1088 he was attacked by the young rulers of Powys and was obliged to seek refuge in Ireland, but he soon returned and, with Danish help, decisively defeated his opponents (see Madog, Rhiryd, and Cadwgan ap Bleddyn). Again in 1091 he was opposed by a group of his own vassals in Dyfed, who sought to restore the kingship to the senior line of Hywel Dda in the person of Gruffydd ap Maredudd ab Owain. At Llandudoch (S. Dogmaels) on the Teifi the rebels were defeated and Gruffydd killed. Meanwhile the Norman conquest of the south had gathered a new momentum after William's death in 1087, and among the territories then being over-run was the old kingdom of Brycheiniog. It was while resisting the Norman advance in this all-important approach to his own dominions that Rhys was killed in uncertain circumstances near Aberhonddu (Brecon). He was virtually the last of the ancient kings of Deheubarth, and it was in a different political setting that the power of the dynasty was eventually revived by his grandson — Rhys ap Gruffydd (q.v.). He m. Gwladus, daughter of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn (q.v.). He was survived by two sons, Gruffydd ap Rhys (q.v.) and Hywel, and by a daughter, Nest (q.v.). Bibliography:

Hist. W.;D.N.B.; Hist. of Gruffydd ap Cynan. Author:

Professor Thomas Jones Pierce, M.A., F.S.A., (1905-1964), Aberystwyth

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Name: Rhys Ap (Tudor) Tewdor King Of South Wales 1 2 Sex: M Name: Mawrr the Great 2 Birth: ABT 1035 in Deheubarth, Wales 2 Death: ABT 1093 in Killed fighting Norman English in Brycheiniog, Wales 2 Reference Number: 7194 Note: The founder of the second royal tribe of Wales was Rhys, Ap Tewdor (Tudor), Distinguished by the Name of Mawr, or the Great. He was the son of Tewdor Enion Owain, eldest son of Hywel Dda, the legal Prince of South Wales, but was elected Prince of North Wales in preference to the sons of Idwal, the right heirs. He married the daughter of Rhynwallon and left two sons, Griffyd, who succeeded him, and Grono, who at the time of his father's death was a prisoner in England, where he died. Besides these two sons he left a daughter, Nesta. With Rhys sunk the sun of South Wales and all its glories, his successor, Gryffuyd, being styled Lord only of that country. Young Gryffud was sent for security into Ireland, where he remained till he was twenty-five years of age. He came then secretly to South Wales to visit his sister, Nesta, who was now the wife of Gerald of Windsor, also the beautiful mistress of Henry I, and who brought him his eminent son, Robert of Gloucester. Prince of North Wales [JohnFaye (8 Jun 05).FTW]

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Domesday Book contains evidence suggesting that King William and Rhys apTewdwr, king of Deheubarth (d. 1093), made a compact that recognized the Welsh ruler's authority in his own kingdom and perhaps also his influence in those other areas of southern Wales outside Deheubarth, particularly Morgannwg and Brycheiniog, that still lay outside Norman control.

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Rhys ap Tewdwr ruled from 1078 to 1093 and was able to fight off several attempts to dethrone him, considerably increasing the power of the kingdom. However the Normans were now encroaching on the eastern borders of Deheubarth, and in 1093 Rhys was killed in unknown circumstances while resisting their expansion in Brycheiniog. This led to the Norman conquest of most of his kingdom, with his son Gruffydd ap Rhys reduced to being a fugitive. Gruffydd did eventually become prince of a small part of his father's kingdom, but most was carved up into various Norman lordships.

There was a general Welsh revolt against the Normans in 1136, and Gruffydd formed an alliance with Gwynedd. Together with Owain Gwynedd and Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd of Gwynedd he won a victory against the Normans at the Battle of Crug Mawr near Cardigan. This liberated Ceredigion from Norman rule, but although it was historically part of Deheubarth it was taken over by Gwynedd as the senior partner in the alliance. Gruffydd was killed in unknown circumstances the following year.

The rule of Deheubarth now fell to Gruffydd's sons, of whom four, Anarawd, Cadell, Maredudd and Rhys ap Gruffydd ruled in turn. The death of a ruler frequently led to disunity and struggles for supremacy, but the four brothers worked together to win back their grandfather's kingdom from the Normans and to expel Gwynedd from Ceredigion. Of the first three only Cadell reigned for more than a few years, but the youngest of the four, Rhys ap Gruffydd (The Lord Rhys) ruled from 1155 to 1197 and after Owain Gwynedd's death in 1170 made Deheubarth the most powerful of the Welsh kingdoms.

On Rhys ap Gruffydd's death in 1197 the kingdom was split between several of his sons, and Deheubarth did not again rival the power of Gwynedd. The early 13th century princes of Deheubarth usually appear as clients of Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd. Following the defeat of the princes of Gwynedd and the division of their realm authorised by the Statute of Rhuddlan, Deheubarth was divided into the historic counties of Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire.

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 Arms: Gules, a lion rampant within a bordure indented or.3 Rhys II ap Tewdwr, Brenin Deheubarth was born circa 1060.1 He was the son of Tewdwr Mawr ap Cadell.2 Rhys II ap Tewdwr, Brenin Deheubarth married Gwladus verch Rhiwallon o Powys, daughter of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn, Prince of Powys, before 1073. King of Deheubarth at Wales between 1078 and 1093.4 Rhys II ap Tewdwr, Brenin Deheubarth died in 1093 at Wales. Fell in battle against the Normans who had occupied Brycheiniog.1,5 He was the predecessor of Gruffydd ap Rhys, Brenin Deheubarth; King of Deheubarth.4

Family

Gwladus verch Rhiwallon o Powys b. circa 1060

Children

   * Gruffydd ap Rhys, Brenin Deheubarth+ b. c 1075, d. 11376
   * Nesta verch Rhys o Deheubarth+ b. c 1085?1,7,8

http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p353.htm#i7339 -------------------- Rhys ap Tewdwr From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rhys ap Tewdwr (before 1065 – 1093) was a Prince of Deheubarth in south-west Wales and member of the Dinefwr dynasty, a branch descended from Rhodri the Great. He was born in the area which is now Carmarthenshire and died at the battle of Brecon in April 1093. Contents [hide]

   * 1 Family
   * 2 Early rule
   * 3 Norman homage
   * 4 Internal conflict
   * 5 Death
   * 6 Succession
   * 7 Footnotes
   * 8 References

[edit] Family

Rhys ap Tewdwr claimed the throne of Deheubarth following the death of his second cousin Rhys ab Owain in battle against Caradog ap Gruffydd in 1078.

He was a grandson of Cadell ab Einion ab Owain ab Hywel Dda, and a great-grandson of Einon ab Owain ap Hywel Dda, who fell in 984.[1] He married Gwladys ferch Rhiwallon daughter of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn of the Mathrafal dynasty of Powys, by whom he had four sons, Gruffudd, Hywel ap Rhys, Goronwy and Cadwgan, and a daughter Nest.

The English variant of Tewdwr is Tudor. Henry Tudor, King of England, descended patrilineally from the rulers of the Welsh principality of Deheubarth. [edit] Early rule

In 1081 Caradog ap Gruffydd invaded Deheubarth and drove Rhys to seek sanctuary in the St David's Cathedral.

Rhys however made an alliance with Gruffydd ap Cynan who was seeking to regain the throne of the Kingdom of Gwynedd, and at the Battle of Mynydd Carn in the same year they defeated and killed Caradog ap Gruffydd and his allies Trahaearn ap Caradog of Gwynedd and Meilyr ap Rhiwallon. [edit] Norman homage

The same year William the Conqueror visited Deheubarth, ostensibly on a pilgrimage to St David's, but with a major show of power as well, traversing the width of southern Wales, and it seems likely he came to an arrangement with Rhys, whereby Rhys paid him homage and was confirmed in possession of Deheubarth. Rhys paid William £40 a year for his kingdom, ensuring good future relations with William that lasted until the end of his lifetime. Rhys was content as the arrangement meant that he only had to deal with the jealousy of his fellow Welsh princes. [edit] Internal conflict

In 1088 Cadwgan ap Bleddyn of Powys attacked Deheubarth and forced Rhys to flee to Ireland. However Rhys returned later the same year with a fleet from Ireland and defeated the men of Powys in a battle in which two of Cadwgan's brothers, Madog and Rhiryd, were killed.

In 1091 he faced another challenge in the form of an attempt to put Gruffydd, the son of Maredudd ab Owain, on the throne of Deheubarth. Rhys was able to defeat the rebels in a battle at St. Dogmaels, killing Gruffydd. [edit] Death

Rhys was able to withstand the increasing Norman pressure following the end of William's reign in 1087 until 1093, when he was killed at Brecon by the Normans led by Bernard de Neufmarche. [edit] Succession

Rhys's son Gruffydd inherited some of Deheubarth, but Rhys's death led to the Normans taking over much of the kingdom, with Gruffydd being left to rule a much smaller area.

Rhys's daughter, Nest, was a legendary beauty, as her abduction from her husband's castle at Cenarth Bychan started a civil war.

Owain Tudur and James A. Garfield[citation needed] were among those who claimed descent from Rhys ap Tewdwr. [edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest, Volume 2

[edit] References

   * The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, University of Wales Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6
   * Remfry, P.M., A Political Chronology of Wales 1066 to 1282 (ISBN 1-899376-46-1)
   * A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest, Volume 2, John Edward Lloyd, 1911
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Rhys ap Tewdwr, King of Deheubarth's Timeline

1040
1040
Wales
1055
1055
Age 15
Carmarthenshire, Wales
1068
1068
Age 28
Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, , Wales
1070
1070
Age 30
Carew Castle, Pembrokeshire, , Wales
1070
Age 30
Castle Dynevor, Carmarthenshire, Wales
1072
1072
Age 32
Of, Essex, , England
1073
1073
Age 33
Dynevor, Llandyfesisant, Carmarthenshire, Wales
1075
1075
Age 35
Of, , Carmarthenshire, Wales
1077
1077
Age 37
Dynevor Castle, Carmarthenshire, Wales
1078
1078
Age 38