Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury
|Birthplace:||Castle Raby, Staindrop, County Durham, England|
|Death:||Died in Wakefield, Yorkshire, England|
|Cause of death:||Died in battle|
|Place of Burial:||Bisham Abbey, Bisham, Berkshire, England|
Son of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland
|Managed by:||Ofir Friedman|
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Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury
Richard Neville, jure uxoris 5th Earl of Salisbury and 7th and 4th Baron Montacute, KG, PC (1400 – 31 December 1460) was a Yorkist leader during the early parts of the Wars of the Roses.
Richard Neville was born in 1400 at Raby Castle in County Durham. Although he was the third son (and tenth child) of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, Richard Neville was the first son to be born to Ralph's second wife, Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland. The Neville lands were primarily in Durham and Yorkshire, but both Richard II and Henry IV found the family useful to counterbalance the strength of the Percys on the Scottish Borders – hence Earl Ralph's title, granted in 1397, and his appointment as Warden of the West March in 1403. Ralph's marriage to Joan Beaufort, at a time when the distinction between royalty and nobility was becoming more important, can be seen as another reward; as a granddaughter of Edward III, she was a member of the royal family.
The children of Earl Ralph's first wife had made good marriages to local nobility, but his Beaufort children married into even greater families. Three of Richard's sisters married dukes (the youngest Cecily, marrying Richard, Duke of York), and Richard himself married Alice Montacute, daughter and heiress of Thomas Montacute, the Earl of Salisbury.
The date of Richard and Alice's marriage is not known, but it must have been before February 1421, when as a married couple they appeared at the coronation of Queen Catherine of Valois. At the time of the marriage, the Salisbury inheritance was not guaranteed, as not only was Earl Thomas still alive, but in 1424 he remarried (to Alice Chaucer, granddaughter of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer). However, this second marriage was without issue and when the Earl Thomas Montacute died in 1428, Richard Neville and Alice were confirmed as the Earl and Countess of Salisbury. From this point on, Richard Neville will be referred to as Salisbury.
Salisbury came into possession of greater estates than, as a younger son, he could reasonably have expected. Strangely, his elder half-brother John apparently agreed to many of the rights to the Neville inheritance being transferred to Joan Beaufort – Salisbury would inherit these on her death in 1440. He also gained possession of the lands and grants made jointly to Ralph and Joan. Ralph's heir (his grandson, also called Ralph) disputed the loss of his inheritance, and although the younger Ralph agreed to a settlement in 1443, it was on unequal terms – Salisbury kept the great Neville possessions of Middleham and Sheriff Hutton, as well as the more recent grant of Penrith. Only Raby Castle returned to the senior branch. The Neville-Neville dispute was later to become absorbed into the destructive Percy-Neville feud. Salisbury's marriage gained him his wife's quarter share of the Holland inheritance. Ironically, his Salisbury title came with comparatively little in terms of wealth, though he did gain a more southerly residence at Bisham Manor in Berkshire.
The defence of the Scottish Border was carried out by two Wardens – that of the East March (based at Berwick-upon-Tweed) and that of the West March at Carlisle. Both offices had been held by the Percy family in the fourteenth century, and their support of King Henry IV seemed to have paid off in 1399, when Henry Percy was appointed Warden of the West March and his son Hotspur as Warden of the East March. But Hotspur rebelled, and his father was held to be complicit in his treason. After Hotspur was killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, Ralph Neville was employed by King Henry V to capture the elder Percy. His reward was to succeed the Percys as Warden of both Marches. Under Henry V, the Percys were restored to their lands, and eventually, in 1417, to the East March. The West March, however, was to become an almost hereditary Neville appointment.
Salisbury became Warden of the West March in 1420. It was one of the most valuable appointments in England, worth £1,500 in peacetime and four times that if war broke out with Scotland. Although, unlike Calais, it did not require a permanent garrison, the incessant raiding and border skirmishes meant that there would always be a ready supply of trained and experienced soldiers at the Warden's command. Salisbury must have been high in Henry V's estimation, as he was also appointed Justice of the Peace in Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Durham. In 1431 he accompanied the young King Henry VI to France for his coronation, and on his return was made Warden of the East March.
In 1436 however, he resigned both posts, although this may have originally intended as a means of forcing the crown to make good its arrears of payment. When his resignation was accepted, he accompanied his brother-in-law Richard, Duke of York, to France, taking 1,300 men-at-arms and archers with him. He returned the following year, and in November became a member of the King's Council. He did not resume either of the Wardenships, as the Percy-Neville dispute took up most of his time, but when this was resolved in 1443 he resumed the Wardenship of the West March. Although this was at a reduced fee of just under £1,000, the money was secured on specific sources of Crown income, not on the frequently uncollectable tallies. This may reflect his experiences of 1436.
At the end of 1443, from his principal seat at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, Salisbury could look with some satisfaction at his position. He was a member of the King's Council and Warden of the West March. His brother Robert was the Bishop of Durham, and another of his brothers, William, had the custody of Roxburgh castle. He had seven children, four boys and three girls. In 1436 the two oldest children, Cicely and Richard, made excellent marriages to the son and daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.
However, it was becoming apparent that the rise of the Nevilles was coming to an end. The king, who during the late 1430s had started to exercise personal rule, was more concerned to promote the fortunes of his closest relatives – and Salisbury was only related by a junior, illegitimate and female line. In this context, the local rivalry between the Nevilles and the Percies in the north of England was likely to take on greater importance. A strong and capable ruler would be able to control such feuds, or even profit by them. A weak king could find the disputes spreading from local to regional or national conflict.
The Percys had lands throughout northern England, while the Nevilles northern lands were concentrated in north Yorkshire and in Durham. However, as Warden of the West March, Salisbury was in a position to exert great power in the north-west, in spite of holding only Kendal and Penrith. The Percys resented the fact that their tenants in Cumberland and Westmorland were being recruited by Salisbury, who even with the reduced grant of 1443 still had great spending power in the region. The senior Neville line (now related by marriage to the Percys) still resented the inequitable settlement of their inheritance dispute.
The fifteenth century could be regarded as the peak of "bastard feudalism" – when every subject needed a "good lord". In return for a commitment by the retained man to provide (usually) military support, the lord would give his retainer a small annual fee, a badge or item of clothing to mark his loyalty (livery) and provide help for him in his disputes with his neighbours (maintenance). Northern England was a long way from Westminster, and rapid legal redress for wrongs was impossible. With his economic power as warden, Salisbury could provide better support for Percy tenants than Northumberland, unpaid for the East March for years, could hope to.
In 1448, during the renewal of the war with Scotland, Northumberland took his forces through Salisbury's West March – a grave breach of etiquette. Northumberland was defeated at the Battle of Sark, and his son Lord Poynings was captured. The fact that Salisbury lost 2,000 horses trying to respond to this attack, and was then excluded (along with Northumberland) from the subsequent peace negotiations, can only have inflamed relations between the two families. Over time, the ill will might have receded, but Northumberland's second son, Lord Egremont, spent the next few years stirring up trouble in Yorkshire – particularly York, situated between the Percy estates of Spofforth and Healaugh, and Neville's castle at Sheriff Hutton.
On 24 August 1453, Thomas Percy, Lord Egremont assembled a force of men-at-arms and archers perhaps as large as 1,000 strong, intending to waylay Salisbury and his family at Heworth Moor, outside York, as he made for Sheriff Hutton. Salisbury had been attending the wedding of his son Thomas in Tatteshall Castle, Lincolnshire, and although his escort would have been smaller, it would have been better armed than Egremont's York craftsmen and tradesmen. Salisbury and his retinue fought them back, arriving unscathed at Sheriff Hutton, but the episode marked the beginning of what was virtually a private war. The bride, Maud Stanhope was the widow of Lord Willoughby of Eresby, his son would become a Yorkist. Another of the Yorkist party, John Neville, was later Lord Montagu. Maud was due to inherit the manors of Wressle and Burwell from her uncle, Lord Cromwell, who had obtained them from the Percies through litigation. Historian John Sadler argues this was the first incident in the Yorkist/Lancastrian affinities lawless squabble leading to civil war.
However Salisbury turned to the cause of Richard, Duke of York, who made him Lord Chancellor in 1455. When King Henry tried to assert his independence and dismiss Richard as Protector, Salisbury joined him in fighting at the First Battle of St Albans, claiming that he was acting in self-defence. After the Battle of Blore Heath, in which he was notably successful, Salisbury escaped to Calais, having been specifically excluded from a royal pardon. He was slain on 30 December 1460, the day of the Battle of Wakefield.
An alabaster effigy is in Burghfield Church in Berkshire. He was buried first at Pontefract, but his sons transferred his body to the family mausoleum at Bisham Priory and erected this effigy. It was brought to Burghfield after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The effigy of a lady alongside him wears a headdress which is not thought to be of the right date to be his wife, but she may be one of the earlier Countesses of Salisbury buried at Bisham.
With Alice Montague he fathered ten children:
- Cecily Neville (1424–1450), who married Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, had one daughter, Anne Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick. On her death, her title passed to her paternal aunt Lady Anne, wife of her maternal uncle, Richard Neville.
- Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (1428–1471), known as the 'Kingmaker', married Lady Anne Beauchamp and had issue.
- Alice Neville (c.1430–1503), who married Henry FitzHugh, 5th Baron FitzHugh. Their daughter, Elizabeth, married William Parr, 1st Baron Parr of Kendal, thus making them great-grandparents of Catherine Parr, sixth wife of King Henry VIII.
- John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu (?1431–1471), married Isabel Ingaldesthorpe, had issue.
- George Neville (1432–1476), who became Archbishop of York and Chancellor of England
- Joan Neville (1434–1462), who married William FitzAlan, 16th Earl of Arundel, and had issue.
- Katherine Neville (1442–1503), who married first William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington, and second William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings, had issue.
- Sir Thomas Neville (1443–1460), who was knighted in 1449 and died at the Battle of Wakefield. He was the second husband of Maud Stanhope (30 August 1497, who married firstly Robert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby (d. 25 July 1452), and thirdly Sir Gervase Clifton, beheaded 6 May 1471 after the Battle of Tewkesbury.
- Eleanor Neville (1447–<1471), who married Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby, and had issue.
- Margaret Neville (c.1450–1506), who married John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford.
- Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 40
- Neville, Richard (1400-1460) by James Tait
- NEVILLE, RICHARD, Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460), was the eldest son of Ralph Neville, first earl of Westmorland [q. v.], by his second wife Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt. His brothers, Edward, first baron Bergavenny [q. v.], and William, lord Fauconberg [q. v.], are separately noticed. Richard, duke of York, was his brother-in-law, having married his sister Cecilia. In 1420, or earlier, he succeeded his eldest half-brother, John Neville, as warden of the west march of Scotland, an office which frequently devolved upon the Nevilles, they being, with the exception of the Percies, who had a sort of claim upon the wardenship of the east march, the greatest magnates of the north country (Fœdera, ix. 913; Ord. Privy Council, iii. 139). Richard Neville figured at the coronation feast of Henry V's queen, Catherine of France (February 1421), in the capacity of a carver (Doyle, Official Baronage). He was still warden of the west march in 1424 when he assisted in the final arrangements for the liberation of James I of Scotland, so long a captive in England (Fœdera, x. 325). In January 1425 he was made constable of the royal castle of Pontefract, and in the following October lost his father (Doyle). Westmorland left him no land, as he was already provided for by his marriage earlier in that year to Alice, only child of Thomas de Montacute, fourth earl of Salisbury [q. v.], who was then eighteen years of age. Salisbury died before the walls of Orleans on 3 Nov. 1428, and his daughter at once entered into possession of his lands, which lay chiefly on the western skirts of the New Forest in Hampshire and Wiltshire, with a castle at Christ Church (Dugdale, Baronage, i. 302; cf. Doyle). Six months after his father-in-law's death (3 May 1429) Neville's claim to the title of Earl of Salisbury in right of his wife was approved by the judges, and provisionally confirmed by the peers in great council until the king came of age (Ord. Privy Council, iii. 325; cf. Gregory, p. 163). On 4 May 1442 Henry VI confirmed his tenure of the dignity for his life.
- At the coronation of the young king on 6 Nov. 1429 the new earl acted as constable for the absent Duke of Bedford (ib. p. 168). He did not, however, accompany Henry to France in the next year, his services being still required on the Scottish border. He was a member of an embassy to Scotland in May 1429, and of a second in the following January instructed to offer James King Henry's hand for his daughter, whom he was about to marry to the dauphin (afterwards Louis XI). But a truce for five years was the only result of his mission (Fœdera, x. 428, 447; Ord. Privy Council, iv. 19–27). It enabled him, however, to spend part of 1431 in France, for which he departed with a ‘full faire mayny’ on 2 June, and he entered Paris with the king in December (ib. iv. 79; Ramsay, Lancaster and York, i. 432; Gregory, p. 172). Returning, probably with Henry in February 1432, Salisbury seems not to have approved of the change of ministry effected by Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, the king's uncle, for on 7 May he was warned, with other nobles, not to bring more than his usual retinue to the parliament which was to meet on the 12th (Ord. Privy Council, iv. 113). In November he took the oath against maintenance, and in December arbitrated in a quarrel between the abbot and convent of St. Mary, York, and the commons of the adjoining forest of Galtres (Rot. Parl. iv. 422, 458). Either in this year or more probably in the next he was once more constituted warden of the west march towards Scotland; on 18 Feb. 1433 he was made master-forester of Blackburnshire, and already held the position of warden of the forests north of Trent (Swallow, De Nova Villa, p. 145; cf. Dugdale, i. 302; Doyle). In the parliament which met in July of this year he acted as a trier of petitions (Rot. Parl. iv. 420; cf. p. 469; Ord. Privy Council, iv. 189). In the summer of 1434, James of Scotland having strongly remonstrated touching the misgovernment on the east marches, of which the Earl of Northumberland was warden, it was decided, probably on the advice of Bedford, to place the government of both marches in Salisbury's hands (ib. iv. 273). He only undertook the post on the council promising to send more money and ammunition to the borders. But for one reason or another the new arrangement did not work, and in February 1435 Salisbury resigned the wardenship of the east march and the captaincy of Berwick, ‘great and notable causes in divers behalfs moving him’ (ib. iv. 295). They were restored to the Earl of Northumberland on the old conditions, and the attempt to put the administration of the borders on a better footing was abandoned. The failure must doubtless be ascribed to the removal of Bedford's influence. When Bedford died, and the Duke of York, who had married Cecily Neville, Salisbury's sister, went out to France as his successor in May 1436, he took his brother-in-law with him (Gregory, p. 178; Dugdale, i. 302). On his return he entered the privy council in November 1437 (Ord. Privy Council, v. 71).
- When in London in attendance at the council he lived in ‘the Harbour,’ a Neville residence in Dowgate. But he must have often been drawn into the north by the duties of his wardenship, which was periodically renewed to him, and by his inheritance of the Yorkshire estates of his father round Middleham and Sheriff-Hutton Castles on the death (13 Nov. 1440) of his mother, who had held them in jointure since the Earl of Westmorland's death in 1425 (Dugdale, i. 302; Swallow, p. 137). Middleham Castle, in Wensleydale, became his chief residence. Westmorland's grandson by his first wife, Margaret, daughter of Hugh, earl of Stafford, and successor in the earldom, had for some years been vainly endeavouring to prevent the diversion of these lands to the younger branch. The two families had made open war upon each other in the north, Westmorland being supported by his brothers Sir John, afterwards Lord Neville, and Sir Thomas Neville, and the Dowager Countess by Salisbury and his younger brother, George Neville, lord Latimer of Danby, in Cleveland; bloodshed had ensued, and the government had had to interfere (Excerpta Historica, pp. 1–3; Ord. Privy Council, v. 90, 92; cf. 282). Salisbury had the advantage of being connected both with the opposition through York and with the court party through the Beauforts. This double connection is reflected in the somewhat undecided position which for a time he took up between the court and the opposition parties. He helped to arrest Humphrey duke of Gloucester, at Bury St. Edmunds in 1447, and, though Suffolk's peace policy endangered his interests in France, held aloof from the Duke of York when he resorted to an armed demonstration in February 1452 (Ramsay, ii. 74, 81). Along with his eldest son, now Earl of Warwick and his colleague as warden of the western marches of Scotland, Salisbury helped to persuade York at Dartford to lay down his arms (Paston Letters, i. cxlviii). But the continuance of Somerset in power, in defiance of the arrangement Salisbury had helped to mediate, must have irritated him, and he seems to have ignored the orders of the government in regard to the war which now broke out between the Neville and Percy clans in Yorkshire.
- William Worcester (p. 770) dates the beginning of all the subsequent troubles from an incident which was a sequel to the marriage of Salisbury's second son, Sir Thomas Neville, to Maud Stanhope, niece of Ralph, lord Cromwell, and widow of Lord Willoughby de Eresby, at Tattershall, Cromwell's Lincolnshire seat. As Salisbury was returning to Middleham his followers came into collision with those of Thomas Percy, lord Egremont, third son of the Earl of Northumberland, and his brother Richard, and a pitched battle ensued. If, as seems most probable, this took place in August 1453, it only brought to a head a quarrel which had already broken out between the two families. For as early as 7 June the privy council had ordered Egremont and Salisbury's second son, Sir John Neville (afterwards Marquis of Montagu), to keep the peace and come at once to court (Ramsay, ii. 165; Ord. Privy Council, v. 140–1). Parliament less than a month later passed a statute enacting that any lord persisting in refusing to appear at the royal summons should lose estate, name, and place in parliament (Rot. Parl. v. 266). Nevertheless the offending parties ignored repeated summonses, and Salisbury, who had been called upon to keep his sons in order, was strongly reproached in October with conniving at these ‘great assemblies’ and ‘riotous gatherings’ (Ord. Privy Council, v. 146–61). The king's seizure with madness in August supplied York with an opportunity of getting control of the government without the use of force against the king, and Salisbury and Warwick definitely gave him their support, while Egremont and the Percies were adherents of the queen (Paston Letters, i. cxlviii. 264). When the lords came up to London early in 1454 with great retinues, Salisbury brought ‘seven score knights and squires besides other meyny’ (ib.) An indenture has been preserved by which Salisbury in September 1449 had retained the services of Sir Walter Strickland and 290 men for the term of his life against all folk, saving his allegiance to the king.
- As soon as he became protector, the Duke of York on 1 April gave the great seal vacated by the death of Archbishop Kemp to Salisbury (Fœdera, xi. 344; Ord. Privy Council, vi. 168). Salisbury appears to have asked for the vacant bishopric of Ely for his son George, and the council promised to recommend him for the next available see (ib.). Salisbury's eldest son, ‘the King-maker,’ and his brothers William, lord Fauconberg [q. v.], and Edward, lord Bergavenny [q. v.], were also regular members of the governing council (ib. p. 169). The available proceeds of tonnage and poundage were assigned to Salisbury and others for three years for the keeping of the sea (Rot. Parl. v. 244). When Henry's recovery drove York from power, the great seal was taken from Salisbury on Friday, 7 March 1455, between eleven and twelve of the clock, in a certain small chapel over the gate at Greenwich, and given to Archbishop Bourchier (Ord. Privy Council, vi. 358). He apparently retired to Middleham, whence he joined York, when he took up arms in May in self-defence, as he alleged, against the summons of a great council to meet at Leicester to provide for the king's ‘surety.’ Both Salisbury and Warwick accompanied York in his march on London with their retainers. They alone signed his letters of protestation addressed to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the king, which they afterwards charged Somerset with keeping from the king's eye (Rot. Parl. v. 280). The honours of the battle which followed (22 May) at St. Albans, and placed Henry in their power, rested not with Salisbury, but with Warwick, and from that day he was far less prominent in the Yorkist councils than his more energetic and popular son. The renunciation of all resort to force was exacted from York and Warwick only, when Queen Margaret recovered control of the king in October 1456, though Salisbury is said to have been present and to have retired to Middleham when York betook himself to Wigmore (Rot. Parl. v. 347; Paston Letters, i. 408; Fabyan, p. 632). The armed conflicts between his younger sons and the Percies in Yorkshire were renewed in 1457, and Egremont was carried prisoner to Middleham; but in March 1458 a general reconciliation was effected, and Salisbury agreed to forego the fines which he had got inflicted on the Percies, and to contribute to the cost of a chantry at St. Albans for the souls of those who had fallen in the battle (ib.; Chron. ed. Giles, p. 45; Whethamstede, i. 298, 303). In the procession of the ‘dissimuled loveday’ (25 March) Salisbury was paired off with Somerset (Fabyan, p. 633; Hall, p. 238; Political Poems, Rolls Ser. ii. 254).
- When this deceitful lull came to an end, and both parties finally sprang to arms in the summer of 1459, Salisbury left Middleham Castle early in August with an armed force whose numbers are variously reckoned from five hundred (Gregory, p. 204) to seven thousand (Chron., ed. Davies, p. 80), and marched southwards to effect a junction with York, who was in the Welsh marches, and Warwick, who had been summoned from Calais (Rot. Parl. v. 348; Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 72). If the original intention of the confederates had been to surprise the king in the midlands, it was foiled by Henry's advance to Nottingham; and as Queen Margaret had massed a considerable force, raised chiefly in Cheshire, on the borders of Shropshire and Staffordshire, round Market Drayton, Salisbury seemed entirely cut off from York, who was now at Ludlow (Rot. Parl. v. 348, 369). The royal forces at Market Drayton under two Staffordshire peers—James Touchet, lord Audley, and John Sutton, lord Dudley—were estimated by a contemporary to have reached ten thousand men, and at any rate outnumbered the earl's ‘fellowship’ (Whethamstede, i. 338; Gregory, p. 204). The queen was only a few miles eastwards, at Eccleshall. Fortunately for Salisbury, his son-in-law, Lord Stanley, remained inactive at Newcastle-under-Lyme with the Lancashire levies he had brought at the queen's command; and his brother William Stanley, with other local magnates, joined the earl (Rot. Parl. v. 369). On Saturday, 22 Sept., he occupied a strong position on Blore Heath, three miles east of Market Drayton, on the Newcastle road, with his front completely protected by a small tributary of the Tern. Here he was attacked next morning by Lord Audley, whom Salisbury, according to Hall (p. 240), tempted across the brook by a feigned retreat, and then drove him in confusion down the slope before the rest of his troops had crossed the stream. The slaughter at all events was great. Of sixty-six men brought by Sir Richard Fitton of Gawsworth to the royal side, thirty-one perished (Earwaker, East Cheshire, ii. 2). Audley himself was slain. Salisbury's two sons, Sir John Neville and Sir Thomas Neville, either pursuing the fugitives or returning home wounded, were captured near Tarporley, and imprisoned in Chester Castle (Gregory, p. 204; Fabyan, p. 634; cf. Chron. ed. Davies, p. 80, and Wavrin, 1447–71, p. 277). Salisbury got away before the royal forces could be brought up from the east, and effected his junction with York at Ludlow (Gregory, p. 204). He and his associates at Blore Heath were excluded from the offer of pardon which Henry sent to the Yorkist leaders at Ludlow (Rot. Parl.). He nevertheless joined the others in protesting ‘their true intent’ to the prosperity and augmentation of the king's estate and to the common weal of the realm (Chron. ed. Davies, p. 81). In the flight of the Yorkist chiefs from Ludford on the night of 12 Oct., Salisbury made his way, with Warwick and the Earl of March, into Devonshire, and thence by sea to Guernsey and Calais, where they arrived on 2 Nov. (Gregory, p. 205; Fabyan, p. 634; Wavrin, p. 277; Chron. ed. Davies, p. 80; Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 72). In the parliament which met at Coventry on 20 Nov. Salisbury, his three sons, and his wife, who was accused of compassing the king's death at Middleham on 1 Aug., and urging her husband to ‘rearing of war’ against him, were all attainted, along with York and the other Yorkist leaders at Blore Heath and Ludford (Rot. Parl. v. 349).
- On 26 June 1460 Salisbury recrossed the Channel with Warwick and March, landed at Sandwich, and on 2 July entered London with them (Ellis, Letters, 3rd ser., i. 91; Chron. ed. Davies, p. 94). Warwick and March leaving London a few days after to meet the king, who had advanced from Coventry to Northampton, Salisbury was left in charge of the city with Edward Brook, lord Cobham, and laid siege to the royal garrison in the Tower (ib. p. 95; Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 74; Wavrin, p. 295). When the victors of Northampton brought the captive king into London on 16 July, Salisbury rode to meet him ‘withe myche rialte’ (Chron. ed. Davies, p. 98; Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 74). Salisbury does not appear prominently in the proceedings of the next four months. His attainder was removed, and he was made great chamberlain of England. When the Lancastrians concentrated in Yorkshire and ravaged the lands of York and Salisbury, the protector, taking with him his brother-in-law, left London on 9 Dec., reached Sandal Castle, by Wakefield, on the 21st, and spent Christmas there. The night after the fatal battle fought there, on 30 Dec., in which his second son, Thomas, was one of the slain, Salisbury was captured by a servant of Sir Andrew Trollope, and conveyed to Pontefract Castle. According to one account he was murdered in cold blood next day by the bastard of Exeter, his head cut off, and set up with others on one of the gates of York (Worcester, p. 775; cf. Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, p. 156). But in another version, ‘for a grete summe of money that he shuld have payed he had graunt of hys lyfe. But the commone peple of the cuntre, whych loved hym not, tooke hym owte of the castelle by violence and smote of his hed’ (Chron. ed. Davies, p. 107; cf. Monstrelet). Salisbury had made a will on 10 May 1459, ordering, among other legacies, the distribution of forty marks among poor maids at their marriages (Dugdale, i. 303; cf. Swallow, p. 146). He left Sheriff-Hutton and three neighbouring manors to his wife for life. But his nephew John, lord Neville, brother of the second Earl of Westmorland, who had fought against him at Wakefield, was rewarded for his loyalty with the office of constable of Sheriff-Hutton and Middleham Castles, along with other revenues from the Wensleydale estates of Salisbury (Dugdale, i. 299; Fœdera, xi. 437). In his will he also gave instructions that he should be buried in the priory of Bisham, near Great Marlow, in Berkshire, among the ancestors of his wife, the Montacutes, earls of Salisbury. Warwick conveyed the bodies of his father and brother to Bisham early in 1463, and buried them, with stately ceremony, in the presence of the Duke of Clarence and other great peers (Swallow, p. 146).
- Salisbury's abilities were not of a high order, but he possessed great territorial and family influence as the head of the younger branch of the Neville house. He never became popular, like his son. A Yorkist ballad-maker in 1460 referred to him coldly as ‘Richard, earl of Salisbury, called Prudence’ (Chron., ed. Davies, p. 93). Wavrin calls him rather conventionally ‘sage et imaginatif’ (iv. 271, ed. Hardy).
- By his wife Alice, daughter of Thomas de Montacute or Montagu, fourth earl of Salisbury [q. v.], Salisbury had ten children, four sons and six daughters: (1) Richard, earl of Warwick and Salisbury, ‘the King-maker’ [q. v.] (2) Thomas, married in August 1453 to Maud, widow of Robert, sixth lord Willoughby de Eresby (d. 1452), a niece of Lord Cromwell; Thomas was killed in the battle of Wakefield in 1460, and left no children. (3) John [q. v.], created Baron Montagu (1461), Marquis of Montagu (1470), and Earl of Northumberland (1464–70); killed at Barnet in 1471. (4) George [q. v.], bishop of Exeter, archbishop of York, and lord-chancellor (d. 1476). (5) Joan, married William Fitzalan, earl of Arundel (1417–1487). (6) Cicely, married, first, in 1434, Henry Beauchamp, duke of Warwick [q. v.]; secondly, John Tiptoft, earl of Worcester, whom she predeceased, dying on 28 July 1450 (Leland, Itin. vi. 81). (7) Alice, married Henry, lord Fitz-Hugh of Ravensworth Castle, near Richmond (1429–72), head of a powerful local family between Tees and Swale. (8) Eleanor, married Thomas Stanley, first lord Stanley, and afterwards (1485) first earl of Derby. (9) Catherine, betrothed before 10 May 1459 to the son and heir of William Bonvile, lord Harington, who, if he had outlived his father, would have been Lord Bonvile as well; Lord Harington was killed at Wakefield, and his son either predeceased him or at all events died before 17 Feb. 1461 (Complete Peerage, by G. E. C[okayne]; Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Ramsay, ii. 238); Catherine Neville was subsequently married to William, lord Hastings (executed 1483). (10) Margaret, married, after 1459, John de Vere III (1443–1513), thirteenth earl of Oxford, who predeceased her.
- A portrait of Salisbury, from the Earl of Warwick's tomb (1453) at Warwick, is reproduced after C. Stothard in Doyle's ‘Official Baronage.’ He is represented without beard or moustache, and wearing a cap and hood.
- [For authorities see under Neville, John, Marquis of Montagu; and Neville, Richard, Earl of Warwick.]
- From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Neville,_Richard_(1400-1460)_(DNB00)
- https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati40stepuoft#page/279/mode/1up to https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati40stepuoft#page/283/mode/1up
- Sir Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, Lord Monthermer, Constable of Pontefract Castle & Portchester Castle, Great Chamberlain of England, Joint Chamberlain of the Exchequer, Lord Chancellor1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31
- M, #13893, b. circa 1401, d. 31 December 1460
- Father Sir Ralph Neville, 1st Earl Westmoreland, 4th Baron Neville2,3,11,32,25,33 b. bt 1364 - 1367, d. 21 Oct 1425
- Mother Joan Beaufort2,3,11,32,25,33 b. c 1379, d. 13 Nov 1440
- Sir Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, Lord Monthermer, Constable of Pontefract Castle & Portchester Castle, Great Chamberlain of England, Joint Chamberlain of the Exchequer, Lord Chancellor was born circa 1401; Age 40+ in 1441.2,11,25 He married Alice Montagu, daughter of Sir Thomas de Montagu, Lord Montagu, 4th Earl Salisbury, Count of Alencon & Perche, Lord of Auvilliers, Courville, La Rivière-Thibouville, La Fertè-Frênel, & Neubourg, Lt. Gen. of Normandy & Maine, Governor of Champagne & Brie and Eleanor Holand, circa February 1421 at Orleans, Loiret, Centre, France; They had 6 sons (Sir Richard, Earl of Warwick & Salisbury; Sir Thomas; Sir John, Earl of Northumberland, Marquess of Montagu; George, Bishop of Exeter, Archbishop of York; Ralph; & Robert) and 6 daughters (Joan, wife of Sir William FitzAlan, 16th Earl of Arundel; Cecily, wife of Sir Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick, & of Sir John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester, 2nd Lord Tiptoft; Alice, wife Sir Henry, 5th Lord FitzHugh; Eleanor, wife of Sir Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl Derby; Katherine, wife of Sir William Bonville, 6th Lord Harington, & of Sir William, 1st Lord Hastings; & Margaret, wife of Sir John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford).34,2,3,4,5,6,7,10,11,12,15,16,18,20,22,23,24,25,26,29,30 Sir Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, Lord Monthermer, Constable of Pontefract Castle & Portchester Castle, Great Chamberlain of England, Joint Chamberlain of the Exchequer, Lord Chancellor left a will on 10 May 1459.11,25 He died on 31 December 1460 at Battle of Wakefield, Yorkshire, England; Beheaded at Pontefract the day after the battle. Buried at Bisham Priory, Berkshire.2,11,25 His estate was probated on 23 June 1461.11,25
- Family Alice Montagu b. c 1406, d. bt 3 Apr 1462 - 9 Dec 1462
- Joan Neville+35,2,4,11,18,25 b. c 1423, d. c 9 Sep 1462
- Cecily Neville36,37,2,5,11,38,24,25 b. c 1426, d. 28 Jul 1450
- Sir Richard 'the King Maker' Neville, 1st Earl Warwick, 2nd Earl Salisbury, Lord Bergavenny, Glamorgan, & Morgannwg, Sheriff of Worcestershire, Admiral of England, Ireland, & Aquitaine, Chamberlain of the Exchequer+2,11,25 b. 22 Nov 1428, d. 14 Apr 1471
- Sir Thomas Neville39 b. c 1429, d. 30 Dec 1460
- Alice Neville+40,2,7,11,13,14,19,20,25,27,28 b. c 1431, d. a 22 Nov 1503
- Sir John Neville, Earl of Northumberland, Marquess of Montague, Lord Neville de Montagu, Sheriff of Northumberland+2,10,11,23,25 b. c 1431, d. 14 Apr 1471
- George de Neville, Archbishop of York, Canon of Salisbury, York, Lincoln, & Ripon2,11,25 b. 1432, d. 8 Jun 1476
- Katherine Neville+41,42,2,6,8,9,11,43,21,22,25 b. c 1435
- Eleanor Neville+2,44,11,15,17,25,29,31 b. c 1438, d. a 6 Apr 1464
- Ralph de Neville b. c 1440
- Margaret Neville2,11,16,25,30 b. c 1444, d. bt 20 Nov 1506 - 10 Apr 1509
- Robert de Neville b. c 1446
- [S3792] Unknown author, Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles by Paget, Vol. II, p. 439; Stemmata Robertson, p. 241.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 510-511.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 540-544.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 36.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 149.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. I, p. 257.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 200-201.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 304-305.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 370-372.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 453-454.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 161-162.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 248.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 290-291.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 298-299.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 91-92.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 274.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 348-349.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 155-156.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 285.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 632-633.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 160-162.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 367-368.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 393-394.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 391.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 123-124.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 236.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 295-296.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 305.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 28-29.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 264.
- S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 374-375.
- [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 246-247.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 232.
- [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. XI, p. 395.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 43.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 75.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 200.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 301.
- [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. XII/2, p. 666.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 326.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 127.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 385-386.
- [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. I, p. 435.
- [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 680.
- From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p462.htm#i13893
- Richard de Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury1
- M, #101984, b. 1400, d. 31 December 1460
- Last Edited=23 Jan 2011
- Consanguinity Index=0.03%
- Richard de Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury was born in 1400 at Raby Castle, Durham, County Durham, England.2 He was the son of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Lady Joan de Beaufort.3 He married Alice Montagu, Countess of Salisbury, daughter of Thomas Montagu, 4th Earl of Salisbury and Eleanor de Holand, before February 1421 at Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.2 He died on 31 December 1460 at Wakefield, Yorkshire, England, beheaded.1,2
- He gained the title of 5th Earl of Salisbury. He was invested as a Knight in 1420.3 He held the office of Warden of the West Marches towards Scotland between 1420 and 1434.3 He held the office of Keeper of the Forests beyond the Trent in 1424.3 He held the office of Constable of England in 1429.3 He held the office of Constable of Pontefract Castle in 1432.3 He held the office of Warden of the East and West Marches towards Scotland from 1434 to 1435.3 He was Commissioner to treat for peace with France in the Hundred Years War in 1436.3 He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) in 1436.3 He was invested as a Privy Counsellor (P.C.) in 1437.3 He held the office of Keeper of the Forests beyond the Trent in 1443.3 He held the office of Governor of Barnard Castle in 1446.3 He held the office of Joint Keeper of the West March in 1453.3 He held the office of Keeper of Porchester Castle in 1454.3 He held the office of Chancellor of England in 1454.3 He was the leading Yorkist in the early years of the War of the Roses.3 He fought in the First Battle of St. Albans on 22 May 1455.3 In November 1459 he was attainted.3 On 7 October 1460 he was pardoned.3 He held the office of Lord Great Chamberlain on 29 October 1460, for life.3
- Children of Richard de Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury and Alice Montagu, Countess of Salisbury
- Eleanor Neville+4 d. b Nov 1482
- Katherine Neville+4 d. b 22 Nov 1503
- Alice Neville+4 d. a 22 Nov 1503
- Lady Margaret Neville4 d. a 20 Nov 1506
- Sir Thomas Neville4 d. 30 Dec 1460
- Lady Joan Neville+4 d. b 9 Sep 1462
- Cicely Neville+5 d. 28 Jul 1450
- Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick+3 b. 22 Nov 1428, d. 14 Apr 1471
- Sir John Neville, 1st and last Marquess of Montagu+4 b. c 1431, d. 14 Apr 1471
- George Neville4 b. 1432 or 1433, d. 8 Jun 1476
- [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 108. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
- [S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online <e-mail address>, Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005.
- [S8] BP1999 volume 1, page 15. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S8]
- [S8] BP1999. [S8]
- [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume XII/2, page 845. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
- From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10199.htm#i101984
- Richard NEVILLE (1º E. Salisbury)
- Born: ABT 1400, Raby, Durham, England
- Died: 30 Dec 1460, Wakefield, Yorkshire, England/ Pontefract
- Notes: Knight of the Garter. Lord Chancellor. cr 1429, revival of his wife's family title, Yorkist leader in War of Roses with his son Warwick, Yorkist victory at St.Albans 1455, captured at Battle of Wakefield (Lancastrian victory). Beheaded.
- Father: Ralph NEVILLE (1° E. Westmoreland)
- Mother: Joan BEAUFORT (C. Westmoreland)
- Married: Alice MONTAGUE (C. Salisbury) BEF Feb 1420/21, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England
- 1. Joan NEVILLE (C. Arundel)
- 2. Cecily NEVILLE (D. Warwick / C. Worcester)
- 3. Richard "King Maker" NEVILLE (1º E. Warwick)
- 4. Thomas NEVILLE (Sir Knight)
- 5. Alice NEVILLE (B. Fitzhugh of Ravensworth)
- 6. John NEVILLE (1º M. Montagu)
- 7. George NEVILLE (Archbishop of York)
- 8. Catherine NEVILLE (B. Ashby-Zouch)
- 9. Eleanor NEVILLE
- 10. Ralph NEVILLE
- 11. Margaret NEVILLE (C. Oxford)
- 12. Robert NEVILLE
- From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/NEVILLE2.htm#Richard NEVILLE (1º E. Salisbury)
- Richard Neville
- Birth: 1400 Durham, County Durham, England
- Death: Dec. 31, 1460
- This is a Cenotaph for Richard Neville. His actual burial is in Bisham Priory
- Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, was a Yorkist leader during the early parts of the Wars of the Roses.
- He was the 3rd son (and tenth child) of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, Richard was the first child to be born to Ralph's second wife, Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmoreland. The Neville lands were primarily in Durham and Yorkshire, but both Richard II and Henry IV found the family useful to counterbalance the strength of the Percys on the Scottish Borders. Ralph's marriage to Joan Beaufort, at a time when the distinction between royalty and nobility was becoming more important can be seen as another reward, for as a granddaughter of Edward III she was a member of the royal family.
- The children of Earl Ralph's first wife had made good marriages to local nobility, but his Beaufort children married into much greater families. Three of Richard's sisters married dukes (the youngest Cecily, marrying Richard, Duke of York), and Richard himself married Alice Montacute, daughter and heiress of Thomas Montacute, the Earl of Salisbury.
- The date of Richard and Alice's marriage is not known, but believed to be before February 1421, when as a married couple they appeared at the coronation of Queen Catherine of Valois. When Earl Thomas Montacute died in 1428, Richard Neville and Alice were confirmed as the Earl and Countess of Salisbury.
- From now on, Richard Neville will be referred to as Salisbury.
- Salisbury came into possession of greater estates than, as a younger son, he could reasonably have expected. Strangely, his elder half-brother John apparently agreed to many of the rights to the Neville inheritance being transferred to Joan Beaufort — Salisbury would inherit these on her death in 1440. He also gained possession of the lands and grants made jointly to Ralph and Joan. Ralph's heir (his grandson, also called Ralph) disputed the loss of his inheritance, and although the younger Ralph agreed to a settlement in 1443, it was on unequal terms — Salisbury kept the great Neville possessions of Middleham and Sheriff Hutton, as well as the more recent grant of Penrith. Only Raby returned to the senior branch. The Neville-Neville dispute was later to become absorbed into the destructive Percy-Neville feud.
- When King Henry tried to assert his independence and dismiss Richard as Protector, Salisbury joined him in fighting at the First Battle of St Albans. After the Battle of Blore Heath, Salisbury escaped to Calais, having been specifically excluded from a royal pardon. He was beheaded the day after the Battle of Wakefield.
- His alabaster effigy is in Burghfield Church in Berkshire. He was buried first at Pontefract, but his son transferred his body to the family mausoleum at Bisham Priory and erected this effigy. It was brought to Burghfield after the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
- With Alice Montague he fathered ten children:
- Cecily Neville, 1424 - 1450, who married Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick
- Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick 1428 - 1471
- John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu 1431 - 1471
- George Neville 1432 - 1476, who became Archbishop of York and Chancellor of England
- Joan Neville, 1434 - 1462, who married William FitzAlan, 16th Earl of Arundel
- Katherine Neville, 1442 - 1503, who married first William Bonville, 6th Baron Harington and second William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings
- Thomas Neville, 1443 - 1460, who was knighted in 1449 and died at the Battle of Wakefield
- Eleanor Neville, 1447 - 1482, who married Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby
- Alice Neville, c. 1450 - 1503, who married Henry FitzHugh, 6th Lord FitzHugh. They were parents of Elizabeth Fitzhugh, grandparents of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal and great-grandparents of Katherine Parr. Katherine was the sixth Queen consort of Henry VIII of England.
- Margaret Neville, c 1450 - 1506, who married John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
- Family links:
- Ralph de Neville (1364 - 1425)
- Joan Beaufort Neville (1375 - 1440)
- Richard Neville (1428 - 1471)*
- Phillippa Neville Dacre**
- William de Neville (____ - 1463)*
- John de Neville (1387 - 1420)**
- Ralph De Neville (1392 - 1458)**
- Elizabeth Ferrers Greystoke (1393 - 1434)**
- Mary de Ferrers de Neville (1394 - 1458)**
- Margaret Neville Scrope (1396 - 1463)**
- Katherine Neville Mowbray Strangeways Beaumont Woodville (1397 - ____)*
- Eleanor de Neville de Percy (1398 - 1472)*
- Richard Neville (1400 - 1460)*
- Richard Neville (1400 - 1460)
- Robert de Neville (1404 - 1457)*
- George Neville, Lord Latimer (1407 - 1469)*
- George de Neville (1407 - 1469)*
- Anne de Neville Stafford (1411 - 1480)*
- Edward Neville (1412 - 1476)*
- Cecily de Neville Plantagenet (1415 - 1495)*
- *Calculated relationship
- Burial: St Marys Church *, Burghfield, West Berkshire Unitary Authority, Berkshire, England
- *Cenotaph [?]
- Find A Grave Memorial# 62611066
- From: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=62611066
- https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati40stepuoft#page/279/mode/1up to https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati40stepuoft#page/283/mode/1up
Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury's Timeline
Staindrop, County Durham, England
Wiltshire , England
November 22, 1428
Salisbury, Wiltshire, England
Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, (Present UK)
Probably Salisbury, Wilthsire, England, (Present UK)
Probably Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, (Present UK)
Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, United Kingdom
Salisbury, Wiltshire, England
Salisbury, Wiltshire, England