Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York

Is your surname Plantagenet?

Research the Plantagenet family

Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York's Geni Profile

Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love

  • Build your family tree online
  • Share photos and videos
  • Smart Matching™ technology
  • Free!

Share

Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Conisbrough Castle, Yorkshire, England
Death: Died in Wakefield, Yorkshire, England
Place of Burial: Fotheringhay Castle, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge and Anne de Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge
Husband of Cecily Neville, Duchess of York
Father of Edward IV of England; Joan of York; Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter; Henry of York; Edmund of York, Earl of Rutland and 8 others
Brother of Isabel Plantagenet, Countess of Essex; Alice Plantagenet; Edward Of York Plantagenet and Henry York

Managed by: Ofir Friedman
Last Updated:

About Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460), was a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother. He inherited vast estates and served in various offices of state in Ireland, France, and England, a country he ultimately governed as Lord Protector during the madness of King Henry VI. His conflicts with Henry's wife, Margaret of Anjou, and other members of Henry's court, as well as his competing claim on the throne, were a leading factor in the political upheaval of mid-fifteenth-century England, and a major cause of the Wars of the Roses. Richard eventually attempted to take the throne, but was dissuaded, although it was agreed that he would become king on Henry's death. But within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle.

Although Richard never became king himself, he was the father of King Edward IV and King Richard III.

Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, was born on 21 September 1411,[1] the son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge by his wife Anne Mortimer, the daughter of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, and Eleanor Holland. Anne Mortimer was the great- grand-daughter of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, the second surviving son of King Edward III (1327-1377). This ancestry supplied Anne Mortimer, and her descendants the Dukes of York, with a claim albeit not in a direct male line, to the English throne supposedly superior to that of the reigning House of Lancaster, descended from John of Gaunt the third son of King Edward III.

On his father's side, Richard had a claim to the throne in a direct male line of descent from his grandfather Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (1341-1402), fourth surviving son of King Edward III.

Richard's mother Anne Mortimer is said to have died giving birth to him, and his father, the Earl of Cambridge, was beheaded in 1415 for his part in the Southampton Plot against the Lancastrian King Henry V. Although the Earl's title was forfeited, he was not attainted, and the four-year-old orphan Richard became his father's heir.[2] Richard had an only sister, Isabel of Cambridge, who became Countess of Essex upon her second marriage in 1426.

Within a few months of his father's death, Richard's childless uncle, Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, was slain at the Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415. After some hesitation, King Henry V allowed Richard to inherit his uncle's title and (at his majority of 21) the lands of the Duchy of York. The lesser title but (in due course) greater estates of the Earldom of March also descended to him on the death of his maternal uncle Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, on 19 January 1425. The reason for King Henry V's hesitation was that Edmund Mortimer had been proclaimed several times by factions rebelling against him, to have a stronger claim to the throne than Henry's father, King Henry IV (1399-1413), son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster. However, during his lifetime, Mortimer remained a faithful supporter of the House of Lancaster.

Richard of York already held the Mortimer and Cambridge claims to the English throne; once he inherited the March claim, and the Earldom of Ulster, he also became the wealthiest and most powerful noble in England, second only to the king himself.The Valor Ecclesiasticus shows that York's net income from Mortimer lands alone was £3,430 in the year 1443-4.

As he was an orphan, Richard's income became the property of, and was managed by, the crown. Even though many of the lands of his uncle of York had been granted for life only, or to him and his male heirs, the remaining lands, concentrated in Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire, Yorkshire, Wiltshire and Gloucestershire were considerable. The wardship of such an orphan was therefore a valuable gift of the crown, and in October 1417 this was granted to Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, with the young Richard under the guardianship of Robert Waterton. Ralph Neville had fathered an enormous family (twenty-three children, twenty of whom survived infancy, through two wives) and had many daughters needing husbands. As was his right, in 1424 he betrothed the 13-year-old Richard to his daughter Cecily Neville, then aged 9.

In October 1425, when Ralph Neville died, he bequeathed the wardship of York to his widow, Joan Beaufort. By now the wardship was even more valuable, as Richard had inherited the Mortimer estates on the death of the Earl of March. These manors were concentrated in Wales, and in the Welsh Borders around Ludlow.

Little is recorded of Richard's early life. On 19 May 1426 he was knighted at Leicester by John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, the younger brother of King Henry V. In October 1429 (or earlier) his marriage to Cecily Neville took place. On 6 November he was present at the formal coronation of King Henry VI in Westminster Abbey. He then followed Henry to France, being present at his coronation as king of France in Notre Dame on 16 December 1431. Finally, on 12 May 1432, he came into his inheritance and was granted full control of his estates.

.... etc.

While this was happening, the Lancastrian loyalists were rallying and arming in the north of England. Faced with the threat of attack from the Percys, and with Margaret of Anjou trying to gain the support of the new king James III of Scotland, York, Salisbury and York's second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, headed north on 2 December. They arrived at York's stronghold of Sandal Castle on 21 December to find the situation bad and getting worse. Forces loyal to Henry controlled the city of York, and nearby Pontefract Castle was also in hostile hands.

On 30 December, York and his forces sortied from Sandal Castle. Their reasons for doing so are not clear; they were variously claimed to be a result of deception by the Lancastrian forces, or treachery, or simple rashness on York's part.[11] The larger Lancastrian force destroyed York's army in the resulting Battle of Wakefield. York was killed in the battle. Edmund of Rutland was intercepted as he tried to flee and was executed, possibly by John Clifford, 9th Baron de Clifford, in revenge for the death of his own father at the First Battle of St Albans. Salisbury escaped, but was captured and executed the following night.

York was buried at Pontefract, but his head was put on a pike by the victorious Lancastrian armies and displayed over Micklegate Bar at York, wearing a paper crown. His remains were later moved to Church of St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay.[12]

Within a few weeks of Richard of York's death, his eldest surviving son was acclaimed King Edward IV and finally established the House of York on the throne following a decisive victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton. After an occasionally tumultuous reign, he died in 1483 and was succeeded by his son as Edward V; York's youngest son succeeded him as Richard III.

Richard of York's grandchildren included Edward V and Elizabeth of York. Elizabeth married Henry VII, founder of the Tudor dynasty, and became the mother of Henry VIII, Margaret Tudor, and Mary Tudor. All subsequent English monarchs have been descendants of Elizabeth of York, and, therefore, of Richard of York.

In literature, Richard appears in Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 1, in Henry VI, Part 2 and in Henry VI, Part 3.[13]

Richard of York is the subject of the popular mnemonic "Richard of York Gave Battle in Vain" to remember the colours of a rainbow.

His children with Cecily Neville include:

  • Joan of York (b. 1438, died young).
  • Anne of York (10 August 1439 – 14 January 1476). Married to Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter and Thomas St Leger.
  • Henry of York (b. 10 February 1441, died young).
  • Edward IV of England (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483). Married to Elizabeth Woodville.
  • Edmund, Earl of Rutland (17 May 1443 – 31 December 1460).
  • Elizabeth of York (22 April 1444 – after January 1503). Married to John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk (his first marriage, later annulled, was to Lady Margaret Beaufort when she was about 3 years old).
  • Margaret of York (3 May 1446 – 23 November 1503). Married to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.
  • William of York (b. 7 July 1447, died young).
  • John of York (b. 7 November 1448, died young).
  • George, Duke of Clarence (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478). Married to Lady Isabel Neville. Parents of Lady Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury.
  • Thomas of York (born c. 1451, died young).
  • Richard III of England (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485). Married to Lady Anne Neville, the sister of Lady Isabel, Duchess of Clarence.
  • Ursula of York (born 22 July 1455, died young).

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York

_____________

  • Sir Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, 6th Earl of March, 8th Earl of Ulster, Protector of England1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25
  • M, #16469, b. 21 September 1411, d. 31 December 1460
  • Father Sir Richard 'of Conisburgh' Plantagenet, Earl of Cambridge26,27,28 b. c 20 Jul 1385, d. 5 Aug 1415
  • Mother Anne Mortimer26,27,28 b. 27 Dec 1390, d. bt 21 Sep 1411 - 30 Sep 1411
  • Sir Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, 6th Earl of March, 8th Earl of Ulster, Protector of England was born on 21 September 1411; Age 3 or 4 in 1415.3,14,25 He married Cecily Neville, daughter of Sir Ralph Neville, 1st Earl Westmoreland, 4th Baron Neville and Joan Beaufort, before 18 October 1424; They had 12 children.2,3,4,5,9,11,16,17,21,23 Sir Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, 6th Earl of March, 8th Earl of Ulster, Protector of England died on 31 December 1460 at Battle of Wakefield, Wakefield, Yorkshire, England, at age 49; Buried on the north side of the high altar in the church at Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire.29,3,14,25
  • Family Cecily Neville b. 3 May 1415, d. 31 May 1495
  • Children
    • Anne Plantagenet+30,3,5,7,8,14,17,19,20,25 b. 10 Aug 1439, d. 12 Jan 1476
    • Henry Plantagenet29,14,25 b. 10 Feb 1441, d. b 1461
    • Edward IV Plantagenet, King of England, 4th Duke of York, 7th Earl of March, 9th Earl of Ulster+14,25 b. 28 Apr 1442, d. 9 Apr 1483
    • Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Rutland31,14,25 b. 17 May 1443, d. 29 Dec 1460
    • Elizabeth Plantagenet+4,6,10,12,13,14,15,16,18,22,24,25 b. 22 Apr 1444, d. 16 Nov 1503
    • Margaret Plantagenet14,25 b. 3 May 1446, d. 23 Nov 1503
    • William Plantagenet29,14,25 b. 7 Jul 1447, d. b 1461
    • John Plantagenet29,14,25 b. 4 Nov 1448, d. b 1461
    • Sir George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, Great Chamberlain of England, Lord of Glamorgan, Morgannwg, & Richmond, Earl of Warwick & Salisbury+32,9,33,14,21,25 b. 21 Oct 1449, d. 18 Feb 1478
    • Thomas Plantagenet29,14,25 b. c 1451, d. b 1461
    • Sir Richard III Plantagenet, King of England, Duke of Gloucester+14,25 b. 2 Oct 1452, d. 22 Aug 1485
    • Ursula Plantagenet29,14,25 b. 20 Jul 1455, d. bt 22 Jul 1455 - 1461
  • Citations
  • [S1742] Unknown author, Burke's Peerage (1963), p. lxii.
  • [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 540-544.
  • [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 794-795.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 48-49.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 136-137.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 173-174.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. II, p. 304-305.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 125.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 167.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 213.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. III, p. 249.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 15-16.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 211-212.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 403-405.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 276.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 424-425.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 540.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. II, p. 592.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. III, p. 160-162.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 24.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 128-129.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 193.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. IV, p. 236.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 189-190.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 451-453.
  • [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 793-794.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 400-401.
  • [S4] Douglas Richardson, Royal Ancestry, Vol. V, p. 448.
  • [S11569] Europaische Stammtafeln, by Wilhelm Karl, Prinz zu Isenburg, Vol. II, Tafel 86.
  • [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 300-301.
  • [S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. XI, p. 252.
  • [S5] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry, p. 584-585.
  • [S16] Douglas Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry, 2nd Edition, Vol. IV, p. 409.
  • From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p548.htm#i16469

________________________

  • Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York1
  • M, #101632, b. 21 September 1411, d. 30 December 1460
  • Last Edited=22 Mar 2007
  • Consanguinity Index=2.37%
  • Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York was born on 21 September 1411.2 He was the son of Richard of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge and Lady Anne de Mortimer.3 He married Lady Cecily Neville, daughter of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Lady Joan de Beaufort, before 18 October 1424.4 He died on 30 December 1460 at age 49 at Wakefield, Yorkshire, England, killed in action.5 He was buried on 30 July 1476 at Collegiate Church of Fotheringhay, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, England. He was buried at Pontefract Castle, Pontefract, Yorkshire, West Riding, England.5
  • He was also known as Richard of York.2 He succeeded to the title of Lord Mortimer of Wigmore on 18 January 1424/25.6 He succeeded to the title of 6th Earl of March on 18 January 1424/25.6 He succeeded to the title of Earl of Ulster on 18 January 1424/25.6 He succeeded to the title of 16th Lord of Clare [feudal baron] on 19 January 1424/25.7 He was invested as a Knight on 19 May 1426.6 He succeeded to the title of 2nd Earl of Cambridge [E., 1414] on 19 May 1426.3 He succeeded to the title of 3rd Duke of York [E., 1385] on 19 May 1426, being restored in blood to the honours held by his uncle.2 He held the office of Constable of England on 20 January 1429/30.6 He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) on 22 April 1433.6 He fought in the Battle of Fécamp in 1436.6 He was Chief Commissioner to treat with France on 20 May 1436.8 He held the office of Lieutenant-General and Governor of France and Normandy in 1436/37.6 He fought in the storming of Pontoise in February 1436/37.6 He was Chief Commissioner to treat with France on 9 September 1442.8 He abdicated as Earl of March between September 1445 and December 1445.8 He held the office of Justice in Eyre of all Forests South of Trent between 14 July 1447 and July 1453.8 He held the office of Lieutenant of Ireland between 9 December 1447 and March 1453.8 In 1448 his name was legally changed to Richard Plantagenet.4 He held the office of Constable of Rockingham Castle on 21 March 1451. He held the office of Steward and Warden of Rockingham Forest on 21 March 1450/51.8 He held the office of Protector of the Realm between 3 April 1454 and February 1455.8 He held the office of Keeper of the King's Mines in Devon and Cornwall on 19 July 1454.8 He held the office of Captain of Calais between 28 July 1454 and 6 March 1455, and Lieutenant in the Matches there.8 He held the office of Lieutenant of Ireland between 1 December 1454 and 1459.8 He fought in the First Battle of St. Albans on 22 May 1455, where York defeated his rival, Somerset, and the King was taken prisoner.8 He held the office of Constable of Cararthen and Aberystwyth Castles, and of Careg Cennen Castle between 2 June 1455 and April 1457.8 He held the office of Protector of the Realm between 19 November 1455 and 25 February 1456.8 On 20 November 1459 he was attainted, and all his honours and titles were declared forfeit. He was restored to his titles and honours in October 1460.5 In September 1460 the attainder of the Coventry Parliament of 1459 was annulled, and so he was restored to his titles and estates. He claimed the right to the crown of England, however, this claim was not well recevied, and he had to be satisfied with a compromise, where he as declared heir after the demise of king Henry VI, with remainder to his own heirs.9 He was created Duke of Cornwall on 31 October 1460.9 He was created Prince Richard of Wales on 31 October 1460.9 On 9 November 1460 he was publically proclaimed as heir to King Henry VI, and was directed by the King to suppress all rebellions in England and Wales.9 He fought in the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460 at Wakefield, Yorkshire, England, where he met Queen Margaret and the Lancastrians, and his army was routed.5
  • Children of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Lady Cecily Neville
    • Joan Plantagenet b. 1438, d. 1438
    • Anne Plantagenet+ b. 10 Aug 1439, d. 12 Jan 1476
    • Henry of York b. 10 Feb 1441
    • Edward IV Plantagenet, King of England+ b. 28 Apr 1442, d. 9 Apr 1483
    • Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Rutland b. 27 May 1443, d. 30 Dec 1460
    • Elizabeth Plantagenet+ b. 22 Apr 1444, d. bt 7 Jan 1503 - 3 May 1504
    • Margaret Plantagenet b. 3 May 1446, d. 16 Apr 1503
    • William Plantagenet b. 7 Jul 1447
    • John Plantagenet b. 7 Nov 1448
    • Sir George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence+10 b. 21 Oct 1449, d. 18 Feb 1477/78
    • Thomas Plantagenet b. 1450/51
    • Richard III Plantagenet, King of England+ b. 2 Oct 1452, d. 22 Aug 1485
    • Ursula Plantagenet b. 22 Jul 1455
  • Citations
  • [S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), Volume 12, page 905. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
  • [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, Volume XII/2, page 905.
  • [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 495.
  • [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 132. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Families.
  • [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families, page 134.
  • [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, Volume XII/2, page 906.
  • [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 246.
  • [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 907.
  • [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 908.
  • [S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 260.
  • From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10164.htm#i101632

__________________

  • Richard PLANTAGENET (3° D. York)
  • Born: 21 Sep 1411
  • Acceded: 19 May 1426
  • Died: 30 Dec 1460, battle of Wakefield
  • Buried: 30 Jul 1476, Collegiate Church of Fotheringhay, Northampton, England / Pontefract
  • Notes: Knight of the Garter. Protector of England, Earl of March & Ulster, Earl of Cambridge. The first to adopt the surname of Plantagenet. His laying claim to the throne of England led to the War of the Roses. The Complete Peerage v.XIIpII,pp.905-909. Son of Richard, Earl of Cambridge, a noble who had been executed for treason by Henry V of England in 1415, and of Anne Mortimer, who, like her husband, was a direct descendant of Edward III. Richard thus had an excellent claim on the throne of England, which he began to press in 1448 by assuming the long-disused surname of Plantagenet. In doing so, he made a direct challenge to the weak Henry VI. In about 1424, he married Cecily Neville, a descendant of John of Gaunt. Having had the attainder against his father reversed in 1426, he was himself attainted on 20 Nov 1459. This made him all the more determined to achieve the throne for the House of York, and he died fighting the Lancastrians at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 Dec 1460.
  • Father: Richard PLANTAGENET of Conisburgh (3º E. Cambridge)
  • Mother: Anne MORTIMER
  • Married: Cecily NEVILLE (D. York) BEF 18 Oct 1424, Yorkshire, England
  • Children:
    • 1. Edmund PLANTAGENET (E. Rutland)
    • 2. EDWARD IV PLANTAGENET (King of England)
    • 3. Anne PLANTAGENET (D. Exeter)
    • 4. Joan PLANTAGENET (b. ABT 1438)
    • 5. George PLANTAGENET (D. Clarence)
    • 6. RICHARD III PLANTAGENET (King of England)
    • 7. Elizabeth PLANTAGENET (D. Suffolk)
    • 8. Henry PLANTAGENET (b. 10 Feb 1440/41)
    • 9. Margaret PLANTAGENET (D. Burgundy)
    • 10. William PLANTAGENET (b. 7 Jul 1447)
    • 11. John PLANTAGENET (b. 7 Nov 1448)
    • 12. Thomas PLANTAGENET (b. ABT 1450)
    • 13. Ursula PLANTAGENET (b. 22 Jul 1455)
  • From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/PLANTAGENET3.htm#Richard PLANTAGENET (3° D. York)

____________________

  • Richard Plantagenet
  • Birth: Sep. 21, 1411
  • Death: Dec. 30, 1460 Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England
  • English nobleman, claimant to the throne. He was descended from Edward III through his father, Richard, earl of Cambridge, grandson of that king, and also through his mother, Anne Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Lionel, duke of Clarence, who was the third son of Edward III. Richard was brought up as a royal ward, having become Duke of York on the death of his uncle Edward in 1415. He inherited (1425) the vast estates of another uncle, Edmund de Mortimer, 5th earl of March, which made him the richest landholder in England. He served in the retinue of Henry VI in France (1431) and was lieutenant general of France and Normandy (1436–37). In 1438 he married Cecily Neville, daughter of the earl of Westmoreland. He served again as lieutenant general in France from 1441 to 1445 but became increasingly discontented with the English government, which diverted men and funds from his operations to those of John Beaufort, 1st duke of Somerset. The death of the king's uncle Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, in 1447 made York heir presumptive to the throne, and the government, to get him out of the way, promptly ordered him to Ireland as lieutenant. He did not go until 1449 and returned in 1450 to struggle against the growing power of Queen Margaret of Anjou and Edmund Beaufort, 2d duke of Somerset. In 1453 a son born to Henry VI displaced York as heir to the throne, but the onset of the king's insanity enabled York to secure control of the government as protector (1454). Dismissed when the king recovered, York resorted to arms (see Roses, Wars of the) and, with the help of his wife's relatives, most notably Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, won the first battle of St. Albans (1455), in which Somerset was killed. After this victory York once more became protector, but by 1456 the queen's faction had regained power. Forced to flee to Ireland in 1459, York returned after the victory of his supporters at Northampton (1460) and for the first time laid claim to the throne. A compromise was arranged by which York was recognized as protector and heir apparent to the throne, but Margaret (whose own son had thus been disinherited) gathered her forces and defeated the Yorkists at the battle of Wakefield, in which York was slain. His son, Edward of York, however, was to secure the throne as Edward IV. (bio by: Erik Lander)
  • Family links:
  • Parents:
  • Richard of Conisbrough (1385 - 1415)
  • Anne de Mortimer (1388 - 1411)
  • Spouse:
  • Cecily de Neville Plantagenet (1415 - 1495)*
  • Children:
    • Anne Plantagenet Saint Leger (1439 - 1475)*
    • Henry Plantagenet (1441 - ____)*
    • King Edward IV (1442 - 1483)*
    • Edmund Plantagenet (1443 - 1460)*
    • Elizabeth Plantagenet of York De la Pole (1444 - 1503)*
    • Duchess Margaret Of York (1446 - 1503)*
    • William Plantagenet (1447 - ____)*
    • John Plantagenet (1448 - ____)*
    • George Duke of Clarence (1449 - 1478)*
    • Thomas Plantagenet (1451 - ____)*
    • King Richard (1452 - 1485)*
    • Ursula Plantagenet (1455 - ____)*
  • Sibling:
  • Isabel Plantagenet Bourchier (1409 - 1484)*
  • Richard Plantagenet (1411 - 1460)
  • Burial: St Mary the Virgin and All Saints Churchyard, Fotheringhay, East Northamptonshire Borough, Northamptonshire, England
  • Find A Grave Memorial# 11543649
  • From: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=11543649

______________

  • Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 45
  • Plantagenet, George by James Tait
  • PLANTAGENET, GEORGE, Duke of Clarence (1449–1478), was the sixth son, the third surviving infancy, of Richard, duke of York (1412–1460) [q. v.], by Cecily Neville, daughter of Ralph, first earl of Westmorland [q. v.] He was born at Dublin during his father's residence in Ireland as lord lieutenant on 21 Oct. 1449 and baptised in the church of St. Saviour's (Worcester, p. 527; Complete Peerage, ii. 271; cf. Chron. of White Rose, p. 6). After his father's death, in December 1460, he and his younger brother Richard were sent for safety to Utrecht, whence he was brought back on his brother Edward's accession, in March 1461, and created (in June?) Duke of Clarence, a title emphasising the hereditary claims of the House of York, with a grant of many forfeited Percy manors and (September 1462) the honour of Richmond for its support. About the same time he was made knight of the Bath and of the Garter, and in February 1462 lord lieutenant of Ireland.
  • The commissioners appointed in March 1466 to conclude a marriage between his sister Margaret and Charles, count of Charolais, heir to the duchy of Burgundy, were also empowered to arrange a match for Clarence with the count's only child Mary (Fœdera, xi. 565). But the chief commissioner, Warwick ‘the Kingmaker,’ finding Edward IV bent on throwing off his control, had other plans for the disposal of the younger brother's hand. Clarence, still heir-presumptive and involved in a quarrel of his own with the queen's kinsmen, readily lent himself to Warwick's intrigues, which included the duke's marriage to the elder of Warwick's two daughters who would inherit his vast domains. But this could only be managed by a papal dispensation, for Clarence's mother was both great-aunt and godmother to Isabella Neville, and Edward put every possible obstacle in the way of its being granted. Warwick, however, succeeded in throwing dust in the king's eyes, secretly obtained the dispensation from Paul II (14 March 1468 according to Dugdale, ii. 163), and in July 1469 suddenly summoned Clarence to Calais, where the ceremony was performed on the 11th by Warwick's brother, Archbishop Neville, in the church of Notre Dame. Clarence at once joined his father-in-law and the archbishop in issuing a manifesto to the English announcing their speedy coming, and calling upon all true subjects to assist them in an armed demonstration, nominally to call the king's attention to necessary reforms [see Neville, Richard, Earl of Warwick].
  • .... etc.
  • .... In the course of the winter (1470–1), if not before, during his stay in France, his mother and sisters secretly reconciled him with his exiled brother, and obtained his promise to join Edward as soon as he should land (ib.) When that happened in the spring of 1471, Clarence took care to wait until Edward was blockading Warwick in Coventry and he could bring over a force that would give weight to his accession. After, it is said, preventing Warwick from fighting by urging him to wait his arrival, he ordered the four thousand men he had levied for Henry VI to mount the white rose of York and marched them to Edward's camp at Warwick, where the two brothers had ‘right kind and loving language’ between their armies, and swore ‘perfect accord for ever hereafter’ (ib.; Warkworth, p. 15). They fought together at Barnet and at Tewkesbury, where Polydore Vergil (p. 152) represents Clarence as joining Gloucester and Hastings in murdering his brother-in-law, the unfortunate Prince Edward, in cold blood after the battle. The only support the story finds, however, in the strictly contemporary writers is Warkworth's statement that he ‘cried for succour’ to Clarence.
  • The crime, if crime it was, brought its own punishment in the resolute determination of Gloucester to marry the widowed Anne Neville and share her mother's inheritance with Clarence. The two brothers quarrelled bitterly, and their strife threatened the peace of the kingdom for several years. Clarence did not hesitate to carry off his young sister-in-law, over whom he perhaps claimed rights of wardship, and place her in hiding disguised as a kitchenmaid; but Gloucester discovered her in London, and put her in sanctuary at St. Martin's. The two dukes argued their case in person before the king in council with a skill and pertinacity which astonished even lawyers (Croyl. Cont. p. 557). In February 1472 Clarence was reported to be now willing to let his brother have the lady, but resolved to ‘parte no lyvelod’ (Paston Letters, iii. 38). .... etc.
  • By Isabella Neville, Clarence had four children, of whom two only survived infancy: Margaret Plantagenet (afterwards Countess of Salisbury, and wife of Sir Richard Pole, born 14 Aug. 1473) [see Pole, Margaret]; and Edward Plantagenet [see Edward, Earl of Warwick], born 25 Feb. 1475. The son, unnamed, born at sea in the spring of 1470, and Richard Plantagenet, born in December 1476, both died quite young.
  • [Rotuli Parliamentorum; Rymer's Fœdera, orig. edit.; Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas; William Worcester, at end of Stevenson's Wars in France, in Rolls Ser. and ed. Hearne; Warkworth's Chronicle, Arrivall of Edward IV, and Polydore Vergil (Camden Soc.); Chronicles of the White Rose, 1845; Bentley's Excerpta Historica, 1831; Grafton (embodying More) with Hardyng, and Fabyan, ed. Ellis, 1811–12; Croyland Continuator, ed. Fulman, 1684; Commines, ed. Lenglet du Fresnoy, 1747, and Mdlle. Dupont, 1840; Dugdale's Baronage; Complete Peerage, by G. E. C[okayne]; Ramsay's Lancaster and York; other authorities in text.]
  • From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Plantagenet,_George_(DNB00)

_______________

  • The Making of the Neville Family in England, 1166-1400 By Charles Robert Young
  • https://books.google.com/books?id=GqmtCq3I5zsC&pg=PA120&lpg=PA120&dq=William+Neville+1369&source=bl&ots=Wg9efOQomH&sig=6KH87jxictiPdshIzsU_vy3gya0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAzgeahUKEwj81JCk79jHAhWMMIgKHdHNCYI#v=onepage&q=elizabeth&f=false
  • Pg.x
    • BRANCHES OF THE NEVILLE FAMILY Pg.x - xi
  • Gilbert de Neville (1086) ; ch: Gilbert (1169), Ralph (1115) de Neville
    • Gilbert de Neville (1169 ; ch: Geoffrey (m. Emma de Bulmer), William, Walter de Neville.
      • Geoffrey de Neville (Burreth) d.ca.1193 = Emma de Bulmer ; ch: Henry (d.1226), Isabel (m. Robert fitz Melred) de Neville
        • Isabel de Neville = Robert fitz Melred ; ch: Geoffrey de Neville Raby d.ca.1242 ; ch: Robert (m. Ida ), Geoffred (m. Margaret de Lungvillers), John de Neville
          • Geoffrey de Neville c.1285 = Margaret de Lungvillers ; ch: John (1332), Geoffrey, Robert, Edmund (1315-44), William Neville
            • John de Neville Hornby (1332) ch: John d.1335
            • Robert ; ch: Robert de Neville Hornby
          • Robert de Neville d.1282 = Ida ; ch: Robert (m. Mary fitz Randolph), John de Neville
            • Robert de Neville d.1271 = Mary fitz Randolph Middleham d.1320 ; ch: Ranulph de Neville Lord of Raby d.1331 = Eupheme ; ch: Robert (m. Elena ), Ralph (m. Alice ), Alexander de Neville
              • Robert de Neville d.1319 = Elena ; ch: Thomas de Neville
              • Ralph de Neville Lord of Raby d.1367 = Alice ; ch: John (m. Matilda Percy & Elizabeth Latimer), William (d.1391), Robert, Thomas, Euphemia de Neville, (Pg.xi Alexander (Archbishop of York), Ralph de Neville)
                • John de Neville Lord of Raby d.1388 (1) = Matilda Percy ; ch: Ralph (m. Margaret Stafford & Joan Beaufort), Thomas de Neville; (2) = Elizabeth Latimer
                  • Ralph de Neville Lord of Raby Earl of Westmorland d.1425 (1) = Margaret Stafford ; ch: Ralph (Earl of Westmorland d.1484), John Lord of Raby d.1461) de Neville ; (2) = Joan Beaufort dau. of John of Gaunt ; ch: Richard (m. Alice (Salisbury)), William (Lord Fauconberg d.1463), George (Lord Latimer d.1469) de Neville (Pg.xi Robert (Bishop of Durham d.1457), Edward (Lord Abergavenny d.1476), Katherine (m. John, Duke of Norfolk d.1432), Anne (m. Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham d.1460), Cicely (m. Richard, Duke of York d.1460), Eleanor (m. Henry, Earl of Northumberland d.1455) de Neville)
                    • Richard de Neville Earl of Salisbury d.1460 = Alice (Salisbury) ; ch: Richard (m. Anne Beauchamp), Thomas, John, George, Eleanor de Neville
                      • Richard de Neville Earl of Warwick d.1471 = Anne Beauchamp Warwick d.1492.
  • Pg.xi
    • Ralph de Neville (1115) .... etc.

_______________________

Links:

https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Plantagenet,_Family_of_(DNB00)

http://www.geneall.net/U/per_page.php?id=1681

http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I658&tree=EuropeRoyalNobleHous

http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I289&tree=Nixon

http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I116182&tree=Welsh

_______________________________

view all 30

Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York's Timeline

1411
September 20, 1411
Conisbrough Castle, Yorkshire, England
1437
October 18, 1437
Age 26
Yorkshire,England
1438
1438
Age 26
1439
August 10, 1439
Age 27
Fotheringhay, Northhampton, England
1441
February 10, 1441
Age 29
Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England
1442
April 28, 1442
Age 30
Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
1443
May 17, 1443
Age 31
Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
1444
April 22, 1444
Age 32
Rouen, Normandie, France
1446
May 3, 1446
Age 34
Fotheringhay Castle, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, England
1447
July 7, 1447
Age 35
Fotheringhay Castle, Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire, England