Richard the Lionheart, King of England

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Richard I 'Cœur de Lion' Plantagenêt, Roi d'Angleterre

Nicknames: "Richard I "the Lion Hearted" King of England", "Ricardo I "Corazón de León"", "Richard d'Angleterre", "Richard the Lionheart", "Coeur De Lion", "Malek-Ric", "Malek al-Inkitar (King of England)", "Coeur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart", "King Richard I", "The Lion Heart..."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England
Death: Died in Châlus, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France
Cause of death: shot by an arrow at Chalus-Chabrol, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, Francecomplications from an arrow wound
Place of Burial: Fontevrault Abbey, Fontevrault, Maine-Et-Loire, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Henry II, King of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France and England
Husband of Berengaria of Navarre, Queen consort of England
Fiancé of Alix de France, comtesse de Vexin
Father of Philippe de Fauconbridge, seigneur de Cognac
Brother of William IX, Count of Poitiers; Henry "The Young King", King of England; Matilda Plantagenet, Abbess of Barking; Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany; Philip, Prince of England and 3 others
Half brother of Henry "The Young King", King of England; Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany; Matilda Plantagenet, Abbess of Barking; Hugh Plantagenet, Bishop of Wells; Geoffrey of Plantagenet, Archbishop of York and 6 others

Occupation: King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Maine and Anjou (1189 – 1199), 1189, Roi d'Angleterre, крал на Англия, King of the English, Kung av England från 1189, King of England and Crusader, King, King of England 1189-
Managed by: Private User
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About Richard I 'Cœur de Lion' Plantagenêt, Roi d'Angleterre

Richard I of England http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_I_of_England

Richard Ier d'Angleterre dit Cœur de Lion http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Ier_d%27Angleterre

Rikard I av England (Rikard Løvehjerte) http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rikard_I_av_England

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Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from July 6, 1189 until his death. He was known as Richard the Lionheart, or Cœur de Lion, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader. At only 16, Richard had his own command, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father, Henry II. Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, effectively leading the campaign after the departure of Philip Augustus, and scoring considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin. While he spoke very little English and spent very little time in his Kingdom, preferring to use it as a source of revenue to support his armies, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects. He remains one of the very few Kings of England remembered by his epithet, not number, and is an enduring, iconic figure in England.

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Outside the Houses of Parliament there stands a statue of Richard I seated on his horse as testimony that he was one of England’s bravest and greatest kings …or was he?

All English school children learn about this great king who reigned from 1189-1199. He earned the title ‘Coeur-de-Lion’ or 'Lion Heart' as he was a brave soldier, a great crusader, and won many battles against Saladin, the leader of the Saracens who were occupying Jerusalem at that time.

But was he really one of the greatest kings of England - or one of the worst?

It appears that he hadn’t much interest in being king …in his ten years as monarch he only spent a few months in England, and it is doubtful that he could actually speak the English language. He once remarked that he would have sold the whole country if he could have found a buyer. Fortunately he couldn’t find anyone with the necessary funds!

Richard was the son of King Henry II and Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine. He spent much of his youth in his mother's court at Poitiers. During the last years of Henry's reign, Queen Eleanor constantly plotted against him. Encouraged by their mother, Richard and his brothers campaigned against their father in France. King Henry was defeated in battle and surrendered to Richard, and so on the July 5th 1189, Richard became King of England, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou.

After his coronation Richard, having already taken the crusader’s vow, set out to join the Third Crusade to free the Holy Land from Saladin, the leader of the Turks.

Whilst wintering in Sicily, Richard was met by his mother along with a potential bride to-be…Berengaria of Navarre. He initially resisted the match.

On the way to the Holy Land, part of Richard’s fleet was wrecked off Cyprus. The island’s ruler Isaac I made the mistake of upsetting Richard by badly treating his surviving crews. Richard had landed in Rhodes but immediately sailed back to Cyprus where he defeated and deposed Isaac.

Whether it was the magic of the island, the heightened senses from his victory or something else entirely, it was in Cyprus that Richard relented and married Berengaria of Navarre. An unlikely place perhaps for an English king to get married, nevertheless Berengaria was crowned Queen of England and Cyprus.

Richard continued with the Crusade, landing and taking the city of Acre on 8 June 1191. Whilst reports of his daring deeds and exploits in the Holy Land excited the folks back home and in Rome, in reality he failed to achieve the main objective which was to regain control of Jerusalem.

So in September, after concluding a three years’ peace deal with Saladin he set off alone on the long journey home. During the journey Richard was shipwrecked in the Adriatic and eventually captured by the Duke of Austria. A heavy ransom was demanded for his release.

Kings apparently do not come cheap, and in England it took a quarter of every man’s income for a whole year to raise the funds for Richard’s release. He eventually returned to England in March 1194.

However he didn’t spend much time in England and spent the rest of his life in France doing what he seemed to enjoy most of all …fighting.

It was while besieging the castle at Chalus in France [Châlus, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, France] that he was shot by an arrow in the shoulder. Gangrene set in and Richard ordered the archer who had shot him, to come to his bed-side. The archer’s name was Bertram, and Richard gave him a hundred shillings and set him free. He was carried to Chinon to die.

King Richard died at the age of 41 from this wound. The throne passed to his brother John.

A sad end for the Lion-Heart, and alas, also for poor Bertram the archer. Despite the King’s pardon he was first flayed alive and then hanged.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_I_of_England

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21st great-granduncle to Queen Elizabeth II

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Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Ireland, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Anjou, Count of Nantes and Overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was known as Richard the Lionheart, or Cœur de Lion, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior.[1] [nb 1]At only 16, Richard was commanding his own army, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father, King Henry II.[2] Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, effectively leading the campaign after the departure of Philip Augustus, and scoring considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin.[3] [4] While he spoke very little English[5] and spent very little time in his Kingdom, preferring to use it as a source of revenue to support his armies,[6] he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects.[7] He remains one of the very few Kings of England remembered by his epithet, not number, and is an enduring, iconic figure in England.[6]

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King Richard"The Lionhearted, older brother of King John "Lackland" died without having any children. He was married to Barengra.

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King Richard - King of England from 1189-1199.


Henry's early years as king found him controlling the rebellious Barons who had used the chaos of the civil war to fortify their homes and illegally control their territories. The castles they built are known as the 'adulterine castles'. In Scotland and Wales Henry stamped his authority, and he began the process of subduing Ireland. Henry was also responsible for bringing in new legal reforms, including in 1166, the Assize of Clarendon which started the jury system.


Henry is most famous for his quarrels with his friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1164, Henry's Constitutions of Clarendon tried to bring the church into line with the state and one statement required that a member of the church should be tried in a state court, not in a church one. The rift between Henry and Becket forced Becket to leave England. When in 1170, Becket returned to England, an outburst of anger by Henry led to four knights murdering Becket at Canterbury. Although Henry was cleared of any direct involvement of the crime, he did penance before the Cathedral Avrances in Normandy.


Henry and his sons also quarrelled which led to conflicts in England and abroad, including a rebellion by his Barons in 1173. Two of his sons were to become kings of England, Richard (the Lion Heart) and John.


Conflicts with Eleanor and his sons, helped by Philip Ii of France continued until Henry died in 1189 at Chinon in France. He was succeeded by Richard, his third son.

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Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199. In his own time, the troubadour Bertran de Born called him Òc-e-Non ('Yes-and-No'), while some later writers referred to him as Richard the Lionheart, or Cœur de Lion. Richard spent more years of his reign away from his kingdom, since the greater part of his domain was in France. He also took part in the Third Crusade, with campaigns in Sicily and Cyprus on the way, and afterwards a period under arrest by Leopold V of Austria.

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Ascended the Throne, 6th July 1189

Coronation, Westminster Abbey 2/3 September 1189

Authority, King of England, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, other titles.

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See link:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_I_of_England

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RICHARD I "THE LIONHEARTED" ~

Richard I Lion-Heart (also called Richard the Lion-Hearted, and Coeur de Lion in French; 1157-1199), king of England (1189-1199), renowned for his courage in battle and exploits during the Thrid Crusade (1189-1192) and the personification of chivalric Knighthood. A formidable soldier, strategist, and fortification builder, he nevertheless failed to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims. Modern commentators regard his glory as tarnished by a streak of ruthlessness and arrogance in his character.

EARLY YEARS:

Richard was born in Oxford, England, the third child of the Angevin king Henry II of England, first of the Plantagenet dynasty, and of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Control of Normandy, Anjou, and Maine, as well as his claim to the English throne, had been bequeathed to Henry by his parents Geoffrey Plantagenet and Mathilda, granddaughter of William I the Conqueror. He enlared these holdings substantially, adding Brittany, the Vexin and other domains by military, diplomatic, and other expedient means. Eleanor herself controlled both Aquitaine and Poitou, where Richard was raised at Eleanor's splendid court at Poitier's. He was given an exceptionally good education in addition to being taught mastery of arms. Eleanor ensured his recognition as duke of Aquitaine in 1172. Angered by their father's humiliating refusal to accord them power they thought their due, Richard and his older brothers, Henry and Geoffrey, unsuccessfully rebelled against their father in 1173 and 1174. Geoffrey obtained the support of Eleanor, the king of Scotland, and King Louis VII of France, but to no avail. Knighted by Louis during this rebellion, Richard nevertheless secured his father's forgiveness. He became heir to the throne of England on the death of the younger Henry, who died of dysentary in 1183 in the midst of a bloody attempt (with the support of Geoffrey and the Aquitainian nobility) to assert precedence over Richard in Aquitaine.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_I_of_England

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Richard I of England

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from July 6, 1189 until his death. He was known as Richard the Lionheart, or Cœur de Lion, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader.[1] At only 16, Richard had his own command, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father, Henry II .[2] Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, effectively leading the campaign after the departure of Philip Augustus, and scoring considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin.[3] While he spoke very little English[4] and spent very little time in his Kingdom, preferring to use it as a source of revenue to support his armies,[5] he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects.[6] He remains one of the very few Kings of England remembered by his epithet, not number, and is an enduring, iconic figure in England.[7]

Family

Richard was a younger brother of William, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King and Matilda of England. As the third legitimate son of King Henry II of England, he was not expected to ascend the throne. He was also an older brother of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Leonora of England, Joan Plantagenet and John, Count of Mortain, who succeeded him as king. Richard was the younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. He is often depicted as having been the favourite son of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine.[8]

[edit]Life

Although born at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England, like other early Plantagenets Richard was essentially French. When his parents separated, he remained with his mother. He was invested with her duchy of Aquitaine in 1168 and with the county of Poitiers in 1172. In 1170, in accordance with custom, his elder brother Henry was crowned king of England during his father's lifetime, as Henry III. Historians have named this Henry "the Young King" so as not to confuse him with the later Henry III of England, who was his nephew.

Richard was an educated man who composed poetry, writing in French and Limousin. He was said to be very attractive; his hair was between red and blond, and he was light-eyed with a pale complexion. He was apparently of above average height,[9] but as his remains have been lost since at least the French Revolution, his exact height is unknown. From an early age he showed significant political and military ability, becoming noted for his chivalry and courage as he fought to control the rebellious nobles of his own territory.

[edit]Revolt against Henry II

Like his brothers, Richard frequently challenged his father's authority. In spring 1174, at age 16, Richard joined both his elder brothers, Henry and Geoffrey, in a revolt against their father, whom they sought to dethrone. Initially, only Normandy remained faithful to Henry II; by August, however, Henry had largely crushed the rebellion in England. Crossing the channel to Normandy, he invaded Poitou and Aquitaine, the domains of Richard's mother, Eleanor, and captured and imprisoned her towards the end of the year.[10] Richard was the last of the brothers to hold out against Henry, but in the end he refused to fight him face to face and humbly begged his pardon.

Henry seemed unwilling to entrust any of his sons with resources that could be used against him. It was suspected that Henry had appropriated Princess Alys, Richard's betrothed, the daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife, as his mistress. This made a marriage between Richard and Alys technically impossible in the eyes of the Church, but Henry prevaricated: Alys's dowry, the Vexin, was valuable. Richard was discouraged from renouncing Alys because she was the sister of King Philip II of France, a close ally and possible lover.

After his failure to overthrow his father, Richard concentrated on putting down internal revolts by the nobles of Aquitaine, especially the territory of Gascony. The increasing cruelty of his reign led to a major revolt there in 1179. Hoping to dethrone Richard, the rebels sought the help of his brothers Henry and Geoffrey. The turning point came in the Charente Valley in spring 1179. The fortress of Taillebourg was well defended and was considered impregnable. The castle was surrounded by a cliff on three sides and a town on the fourth side with a three-layer wall. Richard first destroyed and looted the farms and lands surrounding the fortress, leaving its defenders no reinforcements or lines of retreat. The inhabitants of the fortress were so afraid of Richard at this point that they left the safety of their castle and attacked Richard outside its walls. Richard was able to subdue the army and then followed the defenders inside the open gates, where he easily took over the castle in two days. Richard’s victory at Taillebourg deterred many barons thinking of rebelling and forced them to declare their loyalty. It also won Richard a reputation as a skilled military commander.

In 1181-1182, Richard faced a revolt over the succession to the county of Angoulême. His opponents turned to Philip II of France for support, and the fighting spread through the Limousin and Périgord. Richard was accused of numerous cruelties against his subjects, including rape: "He carried off by force the wives, daughters and female relatives of his free men, and made them his concubines; and after he had extinguished the ardour of his lust on them, he handed them over to his soldiers for whoring."[11] However, with support from his father and from the Young King, Richard succeeded in bringing the Viscount Aimar V of Limoges and Count Elie of Périgord to terms.

After Richard subdued his rebellious barons, he again challenged his father for the throne. From 1180 to 1183 the tension between Henry and Richard grew, as King Henry commanded Richard to pay homage to Henry the Young King, but Richard refused. Finally, in 1183, Henry the Young King and Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany invaded Aquitaine in an attempt to subdue Richard. Richard’s barons joined in the fray and turned against their Duke. However, Richard and his army were able to hold back the invading armies and executed any prisoners. The conflict took a brief pause in June 1183 when the Young King died. However, Henry II soon gave his youngest son John permission to invade Aquitaine. With the death of Henry the Young King, Richard became the eldest son and heir to the English crown, but still he continued to fight his father.

To strengthen his position, in 1187 Richard allied himself with Philip II, who was the son of Eleanor's ex-husband Louis VII by his third wife, Adele of Champagne. Roger of Hoveden wrote:

"The King of England was struck with great astonishment, and wondered what [this alliance] could mean, and, taking precautions for the future, frequently sent messengers into France for the purpose of recalling his son Richard; who, pretending that he was peaceably inclined and ready to come to his father, made his way to Chinon, and, in spite of the person who had the custody thereof, carried off the greater part of his father's treasures, and fortified his castles in Poitou with the same, refusing to go to his father."[12]

Hoveden mentions how Richard and King Philip "ate from the same dish and at night slept in one bed" and had a "passionate love between them", which some historians have taken to imply a homosexual relationship. In addition, there are allusions to the Books of Samuel's depiction of Jonathan and David in this passage, though overall, Hoveden is chiefly concerned with the politics of the relationship. In March 2008, Professor John Gillingham, a former history professor at the London School of Economics, pointed out that theories that Richard was homosexual were first suggested in 1948 and stemmed from an official record announcing that, as a symbol of unity between the two countries, the kings of France and England had slept overnight in the same bed. He expressed the view that this was "an accepted political act, nothing sexual about it; ... a bit like a modern-day photo opportunity".[13]

In exchange for Philip's help against his father, Richard promised to concede to him his rights to both Normandy and Anjou. Richard did homage to Philip in November of the same year. With news arriving of the battle of Hattin, he took the cross at Tours in the company of other French nobles.

In 1188 Henry II planned to concede Aquitaine to his youngest son John. The following year, 1189 Richard attempted to take the throne of England for himself by joining Philip's expedition against his father. On July 4, 1189, Richard and Philip’s forces defeated Henry's army at Ballans. Henry, with John's consent, agreed to name Richard his heir. Two days later Henry II died in Chinon, and Richard succeeded him as King of England, Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou. Roger of Hoveden claimed that Henry's corpse bled from the nose in Richard's presence, which was taken as a sign that Richard had caused his death. He was officially crowned duke on July 20, 1189 and king in Westminster on September 3, 1189.

[edit]Anti-Semitic violence

When Richard I was crowned King of England, he barred all Jews and women from the ceremony (apparently a concession to the fact that his coronation was not merely one of a king but of a crusader), but some Jewish leaders arrived to present gifts for the new king. According to Ralph of Diceto, Richard's courtiers stripped and flogged the Jews, then flung them out of court. When a rumour spread that Richard had ordered all Jews to be killed, the people of London began a massacre. Many Jews were beaten to death, robbed, and burned alive. Many Jewish homes were burned down, and several Jews were forcibly baptised. Some sought sanctuary in the Tower of London, and others managed to escape. Among those killed was Jacob of Orléans, widely regarded as one of the most learned of the age.[citation needed] Roger of Howeden, in his Gesta Regis Ricardi, claimed that the rioting was started by the jealous and bigoted citizens, and that Richard punished the perpetrators, allowing a forcibly converted Jew to return to his native religion. Archbishop of Canterbury Baldwin of Exeter reacted by remarking, "If the King is not God's man, he had better be the devil's," a reference to the supposedly infernal blood in the Angevin line.

Realising that the assaults could destabilize his realm on the eve of his departure on crusade, Richard ordered the execution of those responsible for the most egregious murders and persecutions. (Most of those hanged were rioters who had accidentally burned down Christian homes.) He distributed a royal writ demanding that the Jews be left alone. However, the edict was loosely enforced, as the following March there was further violence, including a massacre at York.

[edit]Crusade plans

Richard had already taken the cross as Count of Poitou in 1187. His father and Philip II had done so at Gisors on January 21, 1188, after receiving news of the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin. Having become king, Richard and Philip agreed to go on the Third Crusade together, since each feared that, during his absence, the other might usurp his territories.

Richard swore an oath to renounce his past wickedness in order to show himself worthy to take the cross. He started to raise and equip a new crusader army. He spent most of his father's treasury (filled with money raised by the Saladin tithe), raised taxes, and even agreed to free King William I of Scotland from his oath of subservience to Richard in exchange for 10,000 marks. To raise even more money he sold official positions, rights, and lands to those interested in them. Even those already appointed were forced to pay huge sums to retain their posts. Even William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely and the King's Chancellor, made a show of bidding £3,000 to remain as Chancellor. He was apparently outbid by a certain Reginald the Italian, but his bid was refused.

Richard made some final arrangements on the continent. He reconfirmed his father's appointment of William Fitz Ralph to the important post of seneschal of Normandy. In Anjou, Stephen of Tours was replaced as seneschal and temporarily imprisoned for fiscal mismanagement. Payn de Rochefort, an Angevin knight, was elevated to the post of seneschal of Anjou. In Poitou, the ex-provost of Benon, Peter Bertin was made seneschal, and finally in Gascony, the household official Helie de La Celle was picked for the seneschalship there. After repositioning the part of his army he left behind to guard his French possessions, Richard finally set out on the crusade in summer 1190. (His delay was criticised by troubadours such as Bertran de Born). He appointed as regents Hugh, Bishop of Durham, and William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex — who soon died and was replaced by Richard's chancellor William Longchamp. Richard's brother John was not satisfied by this decision and started scheming against William.

Some writers have criticised Richard for spending only six months of his reign in England and siphoning the kingdom's resources to support his Crusade. According to William Stubbs (The Constitutional History of England, vol. 1, p. 550-1):

“ He was a bad king: his great exploits, his military skill, his splendour and extravagance, his poetical tastes, his adventurous spirit, do not serve to cloak his entire want of sympathy, or even consideration, for his people. He was no Englishman, but it does not follow that he gave to Normandy, Anjou, or Aquitaine the love or care that he denied to his kingdom. His ambition was that of a mere warrior: he would fight for anything whatever, but he would sell everything that was worth fighting for. The glory that he sought was that of victory rather than conquest. ”

Richard claimed that England was "cold and always raining," and when he was raising funds for his Crusade, he was said to declare, "I would have sold London if I could find a buyer." However, although England was a major part of his territories — particularly important in that it gave him a royal title with which to approach other kings as an equal — it faced no major internal or external threats during his reign, unlike his continental territories, and so did not require his constant presence there. Like most of the Plantagenet kings before the 14th century, he had no need to learn the English language. Leaving the country in the hands of various officials he designated (including his mother, at times), Richard was far more concerned with his more extensive French lands. After all his preparations, he had an army of 4,000 men-at-arms, 4,000 foot-soldiers, and a fleet of 100 ships.

[edit]Occupation of Sicily

In September 1190 both Richard and Philip arrived in Sicily. After the death of King William II of Sicily, his cousin Tancred of Lecce had seized power and been crowned early in 1190 as King Tancred I of Sicily, although the legal heir was William's aunt Constance, wife of the new Emperor Henry VI. Tancred had imprisoned William's widow, Queen Joan, who was Richard's sister, and did not give her the money she had inherited in William's will. When Richard arrived, he demanded that his sister be released and given her inheritance. The presence of foreign troops also caused unrest: in October, the people of Messina revolted, demanding that the foreigners leave. Richard attacked Messina, capturing it on October 4, 1190. After looting and burning the city, Richard established his base there. He remained there until Tancred finally agreed to sign a treaty on March 4, 1191. The treaty was signed by Richard, Philip and Tancred. Its main terms were:

Joan was to be released, receiving her inheritance and the dowry her father had given to her late husband.

Richard and Philip recognized Tancred as King of Sicily and vowed to keep the peace between all three of their kingdoms.

Richard officially proclaimed his nephew, Arthur of Brittany, son of Geoffrey, as his heir, and Tancred promised to marry one of his daughters to Arthur when he came of age.

Richard and Tancred exchanged gifts; Richard gave Tancred a sword which he claimed was Excalibur, the sword of King Arthur.

After signing the treaty Richard and Philip left Sicily. The treaty undermined England's relationships with the Holy Roman Empire and caused the revolt of Richard's brother John, who hoped to be proclaimed heir instead of their nephew. Although his revolt failed, John continued to scheme against his brother.

Conquest of Cyprus

In April 1191, while on route to the Third Crusade, Richard stopped on the Byzantine island of Rhodes to avoid the stormy weather. It seems that Richard had previously met his fiancée Berengaria only once, years before their wedding. He had assigned his mother to represent him and convince her father, Sancho VI of Navarre, and her other relatives to agree to the wedding, and to bring the bride to him. Richard came to their rescue when they were shipwrecked on the coast of Cyprus. He left Rhodes in May but a new storm drove Richard's fleet to Cyprus.

On May 6, 1191, Richard's fleet arrived in the port of Lemesos (now Limassol) on Cyprus, and he captured the city. The island's despot Isaac Komnenos arrived too late to stop the Crusaders, and he retired to Kolossi. Richard called Isaac to negotiations, but Isaac demanded his departure. Richard and his cavalry met Isaac's army in battle at Tremetusia. The few Cypriot Roman Catholics and those nobles who opposed Isaac's rule joined Richard's army. Though Isaac and his men fought bravely, Richard's army was bigger and better equipped, assuring his victory. He also received military assistance from the King of Jerusalem and Guy of Lusignan. Isaac resisted from the castles of Pentadactylos, but after the siege of Kantara Castle, he finally surrendered. It was claimed that once Isaac had been captured Richard had him confined with silver chains, because he had promised that he would not place him in irons. Isaac's young daughter was kept in the household of Berengaria and Joan. Richard looted the island and massacred those trying to resist him. He and most of his army left Cyprus for the Holy Land in early June, having gained for the Crusade a supply base that was not under immediate threat from the Turks as was Tyre. In his absence Cyprus was governed by Richard Camville.

[edit]Richard's marriage

Before leaving Cyprus, Richard married Berengaria, first-born daughter of King Sancho VI of Navarre. The wedding was held in Limassol on May 12, 1191 at the Chapel of St. George. It was attended by his sister Joan, whom Richard had brought from Sicily. When Richard married Berengaria he was still officially betrothed to Alys, and Richard pushed for the match, in order to obtain Navarre as a fief like Aquitaine for his father. Further, Eleanor championed the match, as Navarre bordered on Aquitaine, thereby securing her ancestral lands' borders to the south. Richard took his new wife with him briefly on this episode of the crusade. However, they returned separately. Berengaria had almost as much difficulty in making the journey home as her husband did and did not see England until after his death. After his release from German captivity Richard showed some regret for his earlier conduct, but he was not reunited with his wife.

Richard had to be ordered to reunite with and show fidelity to Berengaria in the future, being told to "remember the destruction of Sodom and abstain from illicit acts." This may be further evidence that Richard engaged in homosexual activities, although it is argued that "the sin of Sodom" could be interpreted more broadly: the Biblical story concerns attempted male rape; Richard had already been accused of raping women. A common elaboration on that theory is that Berengaria's own brother, the future Sancho VII, was one of Richard's early lovers. Nevertheless, when Richard died in 1199, Berengaria was greatly depressed, apparently having loved her husband very much. The picture is further muddied by the fact that she had to sue the Church to be recognised as his widow. Historians remain divided on the issue of Richard's sexuality.

[edit]Richard in the Holy Land

King Richard landed at Acre on June 8, 1191. He gave his support to his Poitevin vassal Guy of Lusignan, who had brought troops to help him in Cyprus. Guy was the widower of his father's cousin Sibylla of Jerusalem and was trying to retain the kingship of Jerusalem, despite his wife's death during the siege of Acre the previous year. Guy's claim was challenged by Conrad of Montferrat, second husband of Sibylla's half-sister, Isabella: Conrad, whose defence of Tyre had saved the kingdom in 1187, was supported by Philip of France, son of his first cousin Louis VII of France, and by another cousin, Duke Leopold V of Austria. Richard also allied with Humphrey IV of Toron, Isabella's first husband, from whom she had been forcibly divorced in 1190. Humphrey was loyal to Guy and spoke Arabic fluently, so Richard used him as a translator and negotiator.

Richard and his forces aided in the capture of Acre, despite the king's serious illness. At one point, while sick from scurvy, Richard is said to have picked off guards on the walls with a crossbow, while being carried on a stretcher. Eventually, Conrad of Montferrat concluded the surrender negotiations with Saladin, and raised the banners of the kings in the city. Richard quarrelled with Leopold V of Austria over the deposition of Isaac Komnenos (related to Leopold's Byzantine mother) and his position within the Crusade. Leopold's banner had been raised alongside the English and French standards. This was interpreted as arrogance by both Richard and Philip, as Leopold was a vassal of the Holy Roman Emperor (although he was the highest-ranking surviving leader of the imperial forces). Richard's men tore the flag down and threw it in the moat of Acre. Leopold left the Crusade immediately. Philip also left soon afterwards, in poor health and after further disputes with Richard over the status of Cyprus (Philip demanded half the island) and the kingship of Jerusalem. Richard suddenly found himself without allies.

Richard had kept 2,700 Muslim prisoners as hostages against Saladin fulfilling all the terms of the surrender of the lands around Acre. Philip, before leaving, had entrusted his prisoners to Conrad, but Richard forced him to hand them over to him. Richard feared his forces being bottled up in Acre, as he believed his campaign could not advance with the prisoners in train. He therefore ordered all the prisoners executed. He then moved south, defeating Saladin's forces at the battle of Arsuf on September 7, 1191. He attempted to negotiate with Saladin, offering his widowed sister, Joan of Sicily, as a bride for Saladin's brother Al-Adil, but this was unsuccessful. In the first half of 1192, he and his troops refortified Ascalon.

An election forced Richard to accept Conrad of Montferrat as King of Jerusalem, and he sold Cyprus to his defeated protégé, Guy. However, only days later, on April 28, 1192, Conrad was stabbed to death by Hashshashin before he could be crowned. Eight days later, Richard's own nephew, Henry II of Champagne was married to the widowed Isabella, although she was carrying Conrad's child. The murder has never been conclusively solved, and Richard's contemporaries widely suspected his involvement.

Realising that he had no hope of holding Jerusalem even if he took it, Richard ordered a retreat. There then commenced a period of minor skirmishes with Saladin's forces while Richard and Saladin negotiated a settlement to the conflict, as both realized that their respective positions were growing untenable. Richard knew that both Philip and his own brother John were starting to plot against him. However, Saladin insisted on the razing of Ascalon's fortifications, which Richard's men had rebuilt, and a few other points. Richard made one last attempt to strengthen his bargaining position by attempting to invade Egypt — Saladin's chief supply-base — but failed. In the end, time ran out for Richard. He realised that his return could be postponed no longer, since both Philip and John were taking advantage of his absence. He and Saladin finally came to a settlement on September 2, 1192 — this included the provisions demanding the destruction of Ascalon's wall as well as an agreement allowing Christian access to and presence in Jerusalem. It also included a three-year truce.

Captivity and return

Bad weather forced Richard's ship to put in at Corfu, in the lands of the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos, who objected to Richard's annexation of Cyprus, formerly Byzantine territory. Disguised as a Knight Templar, Richard sailed from Corfu with four attendants, but his ship was wrecked near Aquileia, forcing Richard and his party into a dangerous land route through central Europe. On his way to the territory of Henry of Saxony, his brother-in-law, Richard was captured shortly before Christmas 1192, near Vienna, by Leopold V of Austria, who accused Richard of arranging the murder of his cousin Conrad of Montferrat. Richard and his retainers had been travelling in disguise as low-ranking pilgrims, but he was identified either because he was wearing an expensive ring, or because of his insistence on eating roast chicken, an aristocratic delicacy. The Duke kept him prisoner at Dürnstein, where he wrote Ja nus hons pris or Ja nuls om pres, a song in French and Occitan versions, expressing his feelings of abandonment by his people. The Duke then handed him over to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, who imprisoned him in Trifels Castle. Richard famously refused to show deference to the emperor and declared to him, "I am born of a rank which recognizes no superior but God". Despite his complaints, the conditions of his captivity were not severe.

His mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, worked to raise the ransom of 150,000 marks (2-3 times the annual income for the English Crown under Richard) demanded by Henry. Both clergy and laymen were taxed for a quarter of the value of their property, the gold and silver treasures of the churches were confiscated, and money was raised from the scutage and the carucage taxes. The emperor demanded that 150,000 marks be delivered to him before he would release the king, the same amount raised by the Saladin tithe only a few years earlier. At the same time, John, Richard's brother, and King Philip of France offered 80,000 marks for the Emperor to hold Richard prisoner until Michaelmas 1194. The emperor turned down the offer. The money to rescue the King was transferred to Germany by the emperor's ambassadors, but "at the king's peril" (had it been lost along the way, Richard would have been held responsible), and finally, on February 4, 1194 Richard was released. Philip sent a message to John: "Look to yourself; the devil is loose."

Later years and death

During his absence, John had come close to seizing the throne. Richard forgave him when they met again and, bowing to political necessity, named him as his heir in place of Arthur, whose mother Constance of Brittany was perhaps already open to the overtures of Philip II. Richard came into conflict with Philip. When the latter attacked Richard's fortress, Chateau-Gaillard ('The Saucy Castle'), he boasted that "if its walls were iron, yet would I take it," to which Richard replied, "If these walls were butter, yet would I hold them!"

Determined to resist Philip's designs on contested Angevin lands such as the Vexin and Berry, Richard poured all his military expertise and vast resources into war on the French King. He constructed an alliance against Philip, including Baldwin IX of Flanders, Renaud, Count of Boulogne, and his father-in-law King Sancho VI of Navarre, who raided Philip's lands from the south. Most importantly, he managed to secure the Welf inheritance in Saxony for his nephew, Henry the Lion's son Otto of Poitou, who was elected Otto IV of Germany in 1198.

Partly as a result of these and other intrigues, Richard won several victories over Philip. At Freteval in 1194, just after Richard's return from captivity and money-raising in England to France, Philip fled, leaving his entire archive of financial audits and documents to be captured by Richard. At the battle of Gisors (sometimes called Courcelles) in 1198 Richard took "Dieu et mon Droit" "God and my Right" as his motto, (still used by the British monarchy today) echoing his earlier boast to the Emperor Henry that his rank acknowledged no superior but God.

In March 1199, Richard was in the Limousin suppressing a revolt by Viscount Aimar V of Limoges. Although it was Lent, he "devastated the Viscount's land with fire and sword".[14] He besieged the puny, virtually unarmed castle of Chalus-Chabrol. Some chroniclers claimed that this was because a local peasant had uncovered a treasure trove of Roman gold,[15] which Richard claimed from Aimar in his position as feudal overlord.

In the early evening of March 25, 1199, Richard was walking around the castle perimeter without his chainmail, investigating the progress of sappers on the castle walls. Arrows were occasionally shot from the castle walls, but these were given little attention. One defender in particular was of great amusement to the king — a man standing on the walls, crossbow in one hand, the other clutching a frying pan which he had been using all day as a shield to beat off missiles. He deliberately aimed an arrow at the king, which the king applauded. However, another arrow then struck him in the left shoulder near the neck. He tried to pull this out in the privacy of his tent but failed; a surgeon, called a 'butcher' by Hoveden, removed it, 'carelessly mangling' the King's arm in the process. However, the wound swiftly became gangrenous. Accordingly, Richard asked to have the crossbowman brought before him; called alternatively Peter Basile, John Sabroz, Dudo[16] and Bertran de Gurdun by chroniclers, the man turned out to be a boy. This boy claimed that Richard had killed the boy's father and two brothers, and that he had killed Richard in revenge. The boy expected to be executed; Richard, as a last act of mercy, forgave the boy his crime, saying, "Live on, and by my bounty behold the light of day," before ordering the boy to be freed and sent away with 100 shillings. Richard then set his affairs in order, bequeathing all his territory to his brother John and his jewels to his nephew Otto.

Richard died on Tuesday, April 6, 1199 in the arms of his mother; it was later said that "As the day was closing, he ended his earthly day." His death was later referred to as 'the Lion [that] by the Ant was slain'. His last act of chivalry proved pointless; In an orgy of medieval brutality, the infamous mercenary captain Mercadier had the crossbowman skinned alive and hanged as soon as Richard died.

Richard's brain was buried at the abbey of Charroux in Poitou, his heart was buried at Rouen in Normandy, and the rest of his body was buried at the feet of his father at Fontevraud Abbey in Anjou.

A thirteenth-century bishop of Rochester wrote that Richard spent 33 years in purgatory as expiation for his sins, eventually ascending to heaven in March 1232.[17]

Legacy

“ The reputation of Richard ... has fluctuated wildly. The Victorians were divided. Many of them admired him as a crusader and man of God, erecting an heroic statue to him outside the Houses of Parliament; Stubbs, on the other hand, thought him ‘a bad son, a bad husband, a selfish ruler, and a vicious man’. Though born in Oxford, he spoke no English. During his ten years' reign, he was in England for no more than six months, and was totally absent for the last five years. ”

—John Gillingham, Kings and Queens of Britain: Richard I[18]

Richard produced no legitimate heirs and acknowledged only one illegitimate son, Philip of Cognac. As a result, he was succeeded by his brother John as King of England. However, his French territories initially rejected John as a successor, preferring his nephew Arthur of Brittany, the son of their late brother Geoffrey, whose claim is by modern standards better than John's. Significantly, the lack of any direct heirs from Richard was the first step in the dissolution of the Angevin Empire. While Kings of England continued to press claims to properties on the continent, they would never again command the territories Richard I inherited.

Richard's legacy comprised several parts. First, he captured Cyprus, which proved immensely valuable in keeping the Frankish kingdoms in the Holy Land viable for another century. Second, his absence from the English political landscape meant that the highly efficient government created by his father was allowed to entrench itself, though King John would later abuse it to the breaking point. The last part of Richard's legacy was romantic and literary. No matter the facts of his reign, he left an indelible imprint on the imagination extending to the present, in large part because of his military exploits. This is reflected in Steven Runciman's final verdict of Richard I: "he was a bad son, a bad husband and a bad king, but a gallant and splendid soldier."

[edit]Medieval folklore

By 1260 a legend had developed that, after Richard's capture, his minstrel Blondel travelled Europe from castle to castle, loudly singing a song known only to the two of them (they had composed it together). Eventually, he came to the place where Richard was being held, and Richard heard the song and answered with the appropriate refrain, thus revealing where the king was incarcerated. The story was the basis of André Ernest Modeste Grétry's opera Richard Coeur-de-Lion (1784) and seems to be the inspiration for the opening to Richard Thorpe's film version of Ivanhoe (1952). It seems unconnected to the real Jean 'Blondel' de Nesle, an aristocratic trouvère.

In the Arab world, Richard became something of a bogeyman after his death. The mid-thirteenth-century Old French Continuation of William of Tyre claimed that Arab mothers would occasionally threaten unruly children with the admonition "King Richard will get you".

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Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. In his own time, the troubadour Bertran de Born called him Òc-e-Non ('Yes-and-No'), while some later writers referred to him as Richard the Lionheart, or Cœur de Leon. Richard spent more years of his reign away from his kingdom, since the greater part of his domain was in France. He also took part in the Third Crusade, with campaigns in Sicily and Cyprus on the way, and afterwards a period under arrest by Leopold V of Austria.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Family
   * 2 Life
         o 2.1 Revolt against Henry II
         o 2.2 Anti-Semitic violence
         o 2.3 Crusade plans
         o 2.4 Occupation of Sicily
         o 2.5 Conquest of Cyprus
         o 2.6 Richard's marriage
         o 2.7 Richard in Outremer
         o 2.8 Captivity and return
         o 2.9 Later years and death
   * 3 Legacy
   * 4 Medieval folklore
   * 5 Later literature
   * 6 Popular culture references
         o 6.1 Film
         o 6.2 Television
         o 6.3 Robin Hood
         o 6.4 Computer games
   * 7 See also
   * 8 Notes
   * 9 References
   * 10 External links

[edit] Family

The third legitimate son of King Henry II of England, Richard was never expected to ascend the throne. He is often depicted as having been the favourite son of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Richard was a younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. He was a younger brother of William, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King and Matilda of England. He was also an older brother of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Leonora of England, Joan Plantagenet and John, Count of Mortain (who succeeded him as king).

[edit] Life

Although born at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England, like most of the Royal Family at the time he was essentially French. When his parents effectively separated, he remained with Eleanor, and was invested with her duchy of Aquitaine in 1168, and county of Poitiers in 1172. Meanwhile, his eldest surviving brother, Henry the Young King, was simultaneously crowned as his father's successor.

As well as being an educated man, who composed poetry in French and Occitan, he was said to be very attractive; his hair between red and blond, light-eyed, with a pale complexion. He was apparently of above average height, but since his bones have been lost since at least the French Revolution, his exact height is unknown. By the end of his life, he was somewhat overweight. From an early age he appeared to have significant political and military abilities, became noted for his chivalry and courage, and fought hard to control the rebellious nobles of his own territory. Like his brothers, Richard frequently challenged his father's authority, and his sense of responsibility was open to question.

Eleanor's alleged favouritism of Richard was claimed by Matthew Paris to have been predicted by Merlin: "The eagle of the broken covenant shall rejoice in [Eleanor]'s third nesting." Paris only counted Eleanor's male children in these "nestings", ignoring Richard's older sisters Marie and Alix de France, and Matilda of England.

[edit] Revolt against Henry II

In 1170, his elder brother Henry the Young King was crowned king of England as Henry III. Historians know him as Henry "the Young King" so as not to confuse him with the later king of the same name who was his nephew. In 1173, Richard joined his brothers, Henry and Geoffrey, in a revolt against their father. They were planning to dethrone their father and leave the Young King as the only king of England. Henry II invaded Aquitaine twice. At the age of seventeen, Richard was the last of the brothers to hold out against Henry; though, in the end, he refused to fight him face to face and humbly begged his pardon. In 1174, after the end of the failed revolt, Richard gave a new oath of subservience to his father.

English Royalty

House of Plantagenet

Armorial of Plantagenet

Henry II

  William, Count of Poitiers
  Henry, Count of Anjou
  Richard I the Lionheart
  Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany
  John
  Matilda, Duchess of Saxony
  Leonora, Queen of Castile
  Joan, Queen of Sicily

Richard I

Though placated by titles such as Count of Poitou, Richard wanted more. Henry seemed unwilling to entrust any of his sons with resources that could be used against him, for obvious reasons. Second, it was suspected that Henry had appropriated Princess Alys Richard's betrothed, the daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife, as his mistress. This made a marriage between Richard and Alys technically impossible in the eyes of the church, but Henry prevaricated: Alys's dowry, the Vexin, was valuable. Richard himself was discouraged from renouncing Alys because she was the sister of King Philip II of France, a close ally.

After his failure to overthrow his father, Richard concentrated on putting down internal revolts by the nobles of Aquitaine, especially the territory of Gascony. The increasing cruelty of his reign led to a major revolt there in 1179. The rebels hoped to dethrone Richard and asked his brothers Henry and Geoffrey to help them succeed. The turning point came in the Charente Valley in spring 1179. The fortress of Taillebourg was extremely well defended and considered impregnable. The castle was surrounded by a cliff on three sides and a town on the fourth side with a three-layer wall. Richard first destroyed and looted the farms and lands surrounding the fortress, leaving its defenders no reinforcements or outs. The inhabitants of the fortress were so afraid of Richard at this point, that they left the safety of their castle and attacked Richard outside its walls. Richard was able to subdue the army and then followed the defenders inside the open gates, where he easily took over the castle in two days. Richard’s victory at Taillebourg deterred many barons thinking of rebelling and forced them to declare their loyalty. It also won Richard a reputation as a skilled military commander.

In 1181-1182, Richard faced a revolt over the succession to the county of Angoulême. His opponents turned to Philip II of France for support, and the fighting spread through the Limousin and Périgord. Richard was accused of numerous cruelties against his subjects, including rape: "He carried off by force the wives, daughters and female relatives of his free men, and made them his concubines; and after he had extinguished the ardour of his lust on them, he handed them over to his soldiers for whoring."[1] However, with support from his father and from the Young King, Richard succeeded in bringing the Viscount Aimar V of Limoges and Count Elie of Périgord to terms.

After Richard subdued his rebellious barons, he again challenged his father for the throne. From 1180 to 1183 the tension between Henry and Richard grew, as King Henry commanded Richard to pay homage to Henry the Young King, but Richard refused. Finally, in 1183, Henry the Young King and Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany invaded Aquitaine in an attempt to subdue Richard. Richard’s barons joined in the fray and turned against their Duke. However, Richard and his army were able to hold back the invading armies and executed any prisoners. The conflict took a brief pause in June of 1183 when the Young King died. However, Henry II soon gave his youngest son John permission to invade Aquitaine. With the death of Henry the Young King, Richard was now the eldest son and heir to the English crown, but still he continued to fight his father.

To strengthen his position, in 1187 Richard allied himself with Philip II, who was the son of Eleanor's ex-husband Louis VII by his third wife, Adele of Champagne. Roger of Hoveden wrote:

   "The King of England was struck with great astonishment, and wondered what [this alliance] could mean, and, taking precautions for the future, frequently sent messengers into France for the purpose of recalling his son Richard; who, pretending that he was peaceably inclined and ready to come to his father, made his way to Chinon, and, in spite of the person who had the custody thereof, carried off the greater part of his father's treasures, and fortified his castles in Poitou with the same, refusing to go to his father."[2]

Hoveden mentions how Richard and King Philip "ate from the same dish and at night slept in one bed" and had a "strong love between them", which some modern writers have construed to imply homosexual intimacy. There are allusions to the book of Samuel's depiction of Jonathan and David in this passage, but the politics of the relationship are Hoveden's chief concern.

In exchange for Philip's help against his father, Richard promised to concede to him his rights to both Normandy and Anjou. Richard did homage to Philip in November of the same year. With news arriving of the battle of Hattin, he took the cross at Tours, in the company of a number of other French nobles.

In 1188 Henry II planned to concede Aquitaine to his youngest son John. The following year, 1189 Richard attempted to take the throne of England for himself by joining Philip's expedition against his father. On 4 July 1189, Richard and Philip’s forces defeated Henry's army at Ballans. Henry, with John's consent, agreed to name Richard his heir. On 6 July Henry II died in Chinon, and Richard I succeeded him as King of England, Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou. Roger of Hoveden claimed that Henry's corpse bled from the nose in Richard's presence, which was taken as a sign that Richard had caused his death. He was officially crowned duke on 20 July and king in Westminster on 3 September.

[edit] Anti-Semitic violence

When Richard I was crowned King of England, he barred all Jews and women from the ceremony (apparently a concession to the fact that his coronation was not merely one of a king but of a crusader), but some Jewish leaders arrived to present gifts for the new king. According to Ralph of Diceto, Richard's courtiers stripped and flogged the Jews, then flung them out of court. When a rumour spread that Richard had ordered all Jews to be killed, the people of London began a massacre. Many Jews were beaten to death, robbed, and burnt alive. Many Jewish homes were burned down and several Jews were forcibly baptised. Some sought sanctuary in the Tower of London, and others managed to escape. Among those killed was Jacob of Orléans, widely regarded as one of the most learned of the age. Roger of Howeden, in his Gesta Regis Ricardi, claimed that the rioting was started by the jealous and bigoted citizens, and that Richard punished the perpetrators, allowing a forcibly converted Jew to return to Judaism. Archbishop of Canterbury Baldwin of Exeter reacted by remarking, "If the King is not God's man, he had better be the devil's," a reference to the supposedly infernal blood in the Angevin line.

Realising that the assaults could destabilize his realm on the eve of his departure on crusade, Richard ordered the execution of those responsible for the most egregious murders and persecutions. (Most of those hanged were rioters who had accidentally burnt down Christian homes.) He distributed a royal writ demanding that the Jews be left alone. However, the edict was loosely enforced, as the following March there was further violence, including a massacre at York.

[edit] Crusade plans

Richard had already taken the cross as Count of Poitou in 1187. His father Henry II of England and Philip II of France had done so at Gisors on 21 January 1188, after receiving news of the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin. Having become king, Richard and Philip agreed to go on the Third Crusade together, since each feared that, during his absence, the other might usurp his territories.

Richard swore an oath to renounce his past wickedness in order to show himself worthy to take the cross. He started to raise and equip a new crusader army. He spent most of his father's treasury (filled with money raised by the Saladin tithe), raised taxes, and even agreed to free King William I of Scotland from his oath of subservience to Richard in exchange for 10,000 marks. To raise even more money he sold official positions, rights, and lands to those interested in them. Even those already appointed were forced to pay huge sums to retain their posts. Even William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely and the King's Chancellor, made a show of bidding £3,000 to remain as Chancellor. He was apparently outbid by a certain Reginald the Italian, but his bid was refused.

Richard made some final arrangements on the continent. He reconfirmed his father's appointment of William Fitz Ralph to the important post of seneschal of Normandy. In Anjou, Stephen of Tours was replaced as seneschal and temporarily imprisoned for fiscal mismanagement. Payn de Rochefort, an Angevin knight was elevated to the post of seneschal of Anjou. In Poitou, the ex-provost of Benon, Peter Bertin was made seneschal, and finally in Gascony, the household official Helie de La Celle was picked for the seneschalship there. After repositioning the part of his army he left behind to guard his French possessions, Richard finally set out on the crusade in summer 1190. (His delay was criticised by troubadours such as Bertran de Born). He appointed as regents, Hugh, Bishop of Durham, and William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex, who soon died and was replaced by Richard's chancellor William Longchamp. Richard's brother John was not satisfied by this decision and started scheming against William.

Some writers have criticised Richard for spending only six months of his reign in England and siphoning the kingdom's resources to support his Crusade and campaigns in what is now France. He claimed England was "cold and always raining," and when he was raising funds for his Crusade, was said to declare, "If I could have found a buyer I would have sold London itself." However, England was a minor part of his territories, only important in that it gave him a royal title with which to approach other kings as an equal. Like most of the Plantagenet kings before the 14th century, he had no need to learn the English language. Leaving the country in the hands of various officials he designated (including his mother, at times), Richard was far more concerned with his more extensive French lands.

Effigy on tomb in Fontevrault Abbey

Effigy on tomb in Fontevrault Abbey

[edit] Occupation of Sicily

In September 1190 both Richard and Philip arrived in Sicily. After the death of King William II of Sicily, his cousin Tancred of Lecce had seized power and been crowned early in 1190 as King Tancred I of Sicily, although the legal heir was William's aunt Constance, wife of the new Emperor Henry VI. Tancred had imprisoned William's widow, Queen Joan, who was Richard's sister, and did not give her the money she had inherited in William's will. When Richard arrived, he demanded that his sister be released and given her inheritance. The presence of foreign troops also caused unrest: in October, the people of Messina revolted, demanding that the foreigners leave. Richard attacked Messina, capturing it on 4 October 1190. After looting and burning the city Richard established his base there. He remained there until Tancred finally agreed to sign a treaty on 4 March 1191. The treaty was signed by Richard, Philip and Tancred. Its main terms were:

   * Joan was to be released, receiving her inheritance and the dowry her father had given to her late husband.
   * Richard and Philip recognized Tancred as King of Sicily and vowed to keep the peace between all three of their kingdoms.
   * Richard officially proclaimed his nephew, Arthur of Brittany, son of Geoffrey, as his heir, and Tancred promised to marry one of his daughters to Arthur when he came of age.
   * Richard and Tancred exchanged gifts; Richard gave Tancred a sword which he claimed was Excalibur, the sword of King Arthur.

After signing the treaty Richard and Philip left Sicily. The treaty undermined England's relationships with the Holy Roman Empire and caused the revolt of Richard's brother John, who hoped to be proclaimed heir instead of their nephew. Although his revolt failed, John continued to scheme against his brother.

[edit] Conquest of Cyprus

In April 1191, while on route to the Third Crusade, Richard stopped on the Byzantine island of Rhodes to avoid the stormy weather. It seems that Richard had previously met his fiancée Berengaria only once, years before their wedding. He had assigned his mother to represent him and convince her father, Sancho VI of Navarre, and her other relatives to agree to the wedding, and to bring the bride to him. Richard came to their rescue when they were shipwrecked on the coast of Cyprus. He left Rhodes in May but a new storm drove Richard's fleet to Cyprus.

On 6 May 1191, Richard's fleet arrived in the port of Lemesos (now Limassol) on Cyprus, and he captured the city. The island's despot Isaac Komnenos arrived too late to stop the Crusaders, and retired to Kolossi. Richard called Isaac to negotiations but Isaac demanded his departure. Richard and his cavalry met Isaac's army in battle at Tremetusia. The few Cypriot Roman Catholics and those nobles who opposed Isaac's rule joined Richard's army. Though Isaac and his men fought bravely, Richard's army was bigger and better equipped, assuring his victory. He also received military assistance from the King of Jerusalem, Guy of Lusignan. Isaac resisted from the castles of Pentadactylos but after the siege of Kantara Castle, he finally surrendered. It was claimed that, once Isaac had been captured Richard had him confined with silver chains, because he had promised that he would not place him in irons. Isaac's young daughter was kept in the household of Berengaria and Joan. Richard looted the island and massacred those trying to resist him. He and most of his army left Cyprus for the Holy Land in early June, having gained for the Crusade a supply base that was not under immediate threat from the Turks as was Tyre.In his absence Cyprus was governed by Richard Camville.

[edit] Richard's marriage

Before leaving Cyprus, Richard married Berengaria, first-born daughter of King Sancho VI of Navarre. The wedding was held in Limassol on 12 May 1191 at the Chapel of St. George. It was attended by his sister Joan, whom Richard had brought from Sicily. It should be noted that when Richard married Berengaria he was still officially betrothed to Alys and that Richard pushed for the match, in order to obtain Navarre as a fief like Aquitaine for his father. Further, Eleanor championed the match, as Navarre bordered on Aquitaine, thereby securing her ancestral lands' borders to the south. Richard took his new wife with him briefly on this episode of the crusade. However, they returned separately. Berengaria had almost as much difficulty in making the journey home as her husband did, and did not see England until after his death. Although after his release from German captivity, Richard showed some degree of regret for his earlier conduct, he was not joined by his wife.

Richard had to be ordered to reunite with and show fidelity to Berengaria in the future, being told to "remember the destruction of Sodom and abstain from illicit acts." This may be further evidence that Richard engaged in homosexual activities, although it is argued that "the sin of Sodom" could be interpreted more broadly: the Biblical legend concerns attempted male rape; Richard had already been accused of raping women. Some modern writers, elaborating on the theory, have alleged that Berengaria's own brother, the future Sancho VII, was one of Richard's early lovers. Nevertheless, when Richard died in 1199, Berengaria was greatly distressed, apparently having loved her husband very much (although that does not imply mutuality on Richard's part). The picture is further muddied by the fact that she had to sue the Church to be recognised as his widow. Historians remain divided on the issue.

[edit] Richard in Outremer

King Richard arrived at Acre in June 1191. He gave his support to his Poitevin vassal Guy of Lusignan, who had brought troops to help him in Cyprus. Guy was the widower of his father's cousin Sibylla of Jerusalem, and was trying to retain the kingship of Jerusalem, despite his wife's death during the siege of Acre the previous year. Guy's claim was challenged by Conrad of Montferrat, second husband of Sibylla's half-sister, Isabella: Conrad, whose defence of Tyre had saved the kingdom in 1187, was supported by Philip of France, son of his first cousin Louis VII of France, and by another cousin, Duke Leopold V of Austria. Richard also allied with Humphrey IV of Toron, Isabella's first husband, from whom she had been forcibly divorced in 1190. Humphrey was loyal to Guy, and spoke Arabic fluently, so Richard used him as a translator and negotiator.

Richard and his forces aided in the capture of Acre, despite the king's serious illness. At one point, while sick from scurvy, Richard is said to picked off guards on the walls with a crossbow, while being carried on a stretcher. Eventually, Conrad of Montferrat concluded the surrender negotiations with Saladin, and raised the banners of the kings in the city. Richard quarrelled with Leopold V of Austria over the deposition of Isaac Komnenos (related to Leopold's Byzantine mother) and his position within the Crusade. Leopold's banner had been raised alongside the English and French standards. This was interpreted as arrogance by both Richard and Philip, as Leopold was a vassal of the Holy Roman Emperor (although he was now the highest-ranking surviving leader of the imperial forces). Richard's men tore the flag down and threw it in the moat of Acre. Leopold left the Crusade immediately. Philip also left soon afterwards, in poor health and after further disputes with Richard over the status of Cyprus (Philip demanded half the island) and the kingship of Jerusalem. Richard suddenly found himself without allies.

Richard had kept 2700 Muslim prisoners as hostages against Saladin fulfilling all the terms of the surrender of the lands around Acre. Philip, before leaving, had entrusted his prisoners to Conrad, but Richard forced him to hand them over to him. Richard feared his forces being bottled up in Acre, as he believed his campaign could not advance with the prisoners in train. He therefore ordered all the prisoners killed. He then moved south, defeating Saladin's forces at the battle of Arsuf on 7 September. He attempted to negotiate with Saladin, offering his widowed sister, Joan of Sicily, as a bride for Saladin's brother Al-Adil, but this was unsuccessful. In the first half of 1192, he and his troops refortified Ascalon.

An election forced Richard to accept Conrad of Montferrat as King of Jerusalem, and he sold Cyprus to his defeated protégé, Guy. However, only days later, on 28 April 1192, Conrad was stabbed to death by Hashshashin (Assassins) before he could be crowned. Eight days later, Richard's own nephew, Henry II of Champagne was married to the widowed Isabella, although she was carrying Conrad's child. The murder has never been conclusively solved, and Richard's contemporaries widely suspected his involvement.

Realising that he had no hope of holding Jerusalem even if he took it, Richard ordered a retreat. There then commenced a period of minor skirmishes with Saladin's forces while Richard and Saladin negotiated a settlement to the conflict, as both realized that their respective positions were growing untenable. Richard knew that both Philip and his own brother John were starting to plot against him. However, Saladin insisted on the razing of Ascalon's fortifications, which Richard's men had rebuilt, and a few other points. Richard made one last attempt to strengthen his bargaining position by attempting to invade Egypt — Saladin's chief supply-base — but failed. In the end, time ran out for Richard. He realised that his return could be postponed no longer, since both Philip and John were taking advantage of his absence. He and Saladin finally came to a settlement on 2 September 1192 — this included the provisions demanding the destruction of Ascalon's wall as well as an agreement allowing Christian access to and presence in Jerusalem. It also included a three-year truce.

[edit] Captivity and return

Castle ruins at Durnstein

Castle ruins at Durnstein

Bad weather forced Richard's ship to put in at Corfu, in the lands of the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos, who objected to Richard's annexation of Cyprus, formerly Byzantine territory. Disguised as a Knight Templar, Richard sailed from Corfu with four attendants, but his ship was wrecked near Aquileia, forcing Richard and his party into a dangerous land route through central Europe. On his way to the territory of Henry of Saxony, his brother-in-law, Richard was captured shortly before Christmas 1192, near Vienna, by Leopold V of Austria, who accused Richard of arranging the murder of his cousin Conrad of Montferrat. Richard and his retainers had been travelling in disguise as low-ranking pilgrims, but he was identified either because he was wearing an expensive ring, or because of his insistence on eating roast chicken, an aristocratic delicacy. The Duke handed him over as a prisoner to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor after being held captive at Dürnstein. It was here that he wrote Ja nus hons pris or Ja nuls om pres, a song in French and Occitan versions, expressing his feelings of abandonment by his people. However, the conditions of his captivity were not severe. Richard declared to the emperor, "I am born of a rank which recognizes no superior but God".

His mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, worked to raise the ransom of 150,000 marks (perhaps five times the annual income for the English Crown under Richard) demanded by Henry. Both clergy and laymen were taxed for a quarter of the value of their property, the gold and silver treasures of the churches were confiscated, and money was raised from the scutage and the carucage taxes. The emperor demanded that 100,000 marks be delivered to him before he would release the king, the same amount raised by the Saladin tithe only a few years earlier. At the same time, John, Richard's brother, and King Philip of France offered 80,000 marks for the Emperor to hold Richard prisoner until Michaelmas 1194. The emperor turned down the offer. The money to rescue the King was transferred to Germany by the emperor's ambassadors, but "at the king's peril" (had it been lost along the way, Richard would have been held responsible), and finally, on 4 February 1194 Richard was released. Philip sent a message to John: "Look to yourself; the devil is loose."

[edit] Later years and death

Tomb at Fontevraud

Tomb at Fontevraud

During his absence, John had come close to seizing the throne. Richard forgave him when they met again, and, bowing to political necessity, named him as his heir in place of Arthur, whose mother Constance of Britanny was perhaps already open to the overtures of Philip II. Richard came into conflict with Philip. When the latter attacked Richard's fortress, Chateau-Gaillard ('The Saucy Castle'), he boasted that "if its walls were iron, yet would I take it," to which Richard replied, "If these walls were butter, yet would I hold them!"

Tomb at Rouen Cathedral

Tomb at Rouen Cathedral

Determined to resist Philip's designs on contested Angevin lands such as the Vexin and Berry, Richard poured all his military expertise and vast resources into war on the French King. He constructed an alliance against Philip, including Baldwin IX of Flanders, Renaud, Count of Boulogne, and his father-in-law King Sancho VI of Navarre, who raided Philip's lands from the south. Most importantly, he managed to secure the Welf inheritance in Saxony for his nephew, Henry the Lion's son Otto of Poitou, who was elected Otto IV of Germany in 1198.

Partly as a result of these and other intrigues, Richard won several victories over Philip. At Freteval in 1194, just after Richard's return from captivity and money-raising in England to France, Philip fled, leaving his entire archive of financial audits and documents to be captured by Richard. At the battle of Gisors (sometimes called Courcelles) in 1198 Richard took "Dieu et mon Droit" "God and my Right" as his motto, (still used by British Monarchs today) echoing his earlier boast to the Emperor Henry that his rank acknowledged no superior but God.

In March 1199, Richard was in the Limousin, suppressing a revolt by Viscount Aimar V of Limoges. Although it was Lent, he "devastated the Viscount's land with fire and sword"[3]. He besieged the puny, virtually unarmed castle of Chalus-Chabrol. Some chroniclers claimed that this was because a local peasant had uncovered a treasure trove of Roman gold, which Richard claimed from Aimar in his position of feudal overlord: however, modern historians are sceptical of the story, which has the flavour of an exemplum, or moralising fable.

In the early evening of the 25 March 1199, Richard was walking around the castle perimeter without his chainmail, investigating the progress of sappers on the castle walls. Arrows were occasionally fired from the castle walls, but these were given little attention. One defender in particular was of great amusement to the King - a man standing on the walls, crossbow in one hand, the other clutching a frying pan which he had been using all day as a shield to beat off missiles. He deliberately aimed an arrow at the King, which the King applauded. However, another arrow then struck him in the left shoulder near the neck. He tried to pull this out in the privacy of his tent, but failed; a surgeon, called a 'butcher' by Hoveden, removed it, 'carelessly mangling' the King's arm in the process. However, the wound swiftly became gangrenous. Accordingly, Richard asked to have the crossbowman brought before him; called alternatively Peter Basile, John Sabroz, Dudo[4] and Bertran de Gurdun by chroniclers, the man proved a boy. This boy claimed that Richard had slain the boy's father and two brothers, and that he had slain Richard in vengeance. The boy expected to be slain; Richard, as a last act of mercy, forgave the boy his crime, saying, "Live on, and by my bounty behold the light of day," before ordering the boy to be freed and sent away with 100 shillings. Richard then set his affairs in order, bequeathing all his territory to his brother John and his jewels to his nephew Otto.

Richard died on Tuesday, 6 April 1199 in the arms of his mother; it was later said that "As the day was closing, he ended his earthly day." His death was later referred to as 'the Lion [that] by the Ant was slain'. His last act of chivalry proved pointless: as soon as Richard was dead, his most infamous mercenary captain Mercadier had the boy who fired the fatal arrow flayed alive and then hanged.

Richard's brain was buried at the abbey of Charroux in Poitou (for the land's perfidy towards him), his heart was buried at Rouen in Normandy, while the rest of his body was buried at the feet of his father at Fontevraud Abbey in Anjou, on his deathbed he beqeathed all his posessions to his brother John, having no legitimate heir.

[edit] Legacy

This bronze equestrian statue of Richard I brandishing his sword by Carlo Marochetti stands outside the Palace of Westminster in London.

This bronze equestrian statue of Richard I brandishing his sword by Carlo Marochetti stands outside the Palace of Westminster in London.

Richard produced no legitimate heirs, and acknowledged only one illegitimate son, Philip of Cognac. As a result, he was succeeded by his brother John as King of England. However, his French territories initially rejected John as a successor, preferring his nephew Arthur of Brittany, the son of their late brother Geoffrey, whose claim is by modern standards better than John's. Significantly, the lack of any direct heirs from Richard was the first step in the dissolution of the Angevin Empire. While Kings of England continued to press claims to properties on the continent, they would never again command the territories Richard I inherited.

Richard's legacy comprised several parts. First, he captured Cyprus, which proved immensely valuable in keeping the Frankish kingdoms in the Holy Land viable for another century. Second, his absence from the English political landscape meant that the highly efficient government created by his father was allowed to entrench itself, though King John would later abuse it to the breaking point. The last part of Richard's legacy was romantic and literary. No matter the facts of his reign, he left an indelible imprint on the imagination extending to the present, in large part because of his military exploits. This is reflected in Steven Runciman's final verdict of Richard I: "he was a bad son, a bad husband and a bad king, but a gallant and splendid soldier."

[edit] Medieval folklore

By the 1260s a legend had developed that, after Richard's capture, his minstrel Blondel travelled Europe from castle to castle, loudly singing a song known only to the two of them (they had composed it together). Eventually, he came to the place where Richard was being held, and heard the song answered with the appropriate refrain, thus revealing where the king was incarcerated. The story was the basis of André Ernest Modeste Grétry's opera Richard Coeur-de-Lion (1784) and seems to be the inspiration for the opening to Richard Thorpe's film version of Ivanhoe (1952). It seems unconnected to the real Jean 'Blondel' de Nesle, an aristocratic trouvère.

In the Arabic world, Richard became something of a bogeyman after his death. The mid-thirteenth-century Old French Continuation of William of Tyre claimed that Arab mothers would occasionally threaten unruly children with the admonition "King Richard will get you".

[edit] Later literature

Richard has appeared frequently in fiction, as a result of the 'chivalric revival' of the Romantic era. In 1822, he was the subject of Eleanor Anne Porden's epic poem, Cœur de Lion. After Ivanhoe, where he is depicted as initially adopting the pseudonym of Le Noir Fainéant ("The Black Sluggard"), Sir Walter Scott portrayed Richard in The Talisman, a highly fictionalised treatment of the Third Crusade. He is also a major character in James Goldman's play The Lion in Winter, which depicts him as homosexual. He features in Graham Shelby's The Kings of Vain Intent and, more centrally, in The Devil is Loose, Norah Lofts' The Lute-Player, and Jean Plaidy (Eleanor Hibbert)'s The Heart of the Lion. He is portrayed as a merciless Muslim killer in a novel that follows Arn Magnusson in his Crusade Trilogy written by Swedish author Jan Guillou. He is generally represented in a heroic role in children's fiction, such as Ronald Welch's Knight Crusader.

[edit] Popular culture references

[edit] Film

Richard has been portrayed on film by:

   * Wallace Beery in Richard the Lion-Hearted (1923), based on The Talisman by Sir Walter Scott.
   * Henry Wilcoxon in Cecil B. DeMille's 1935 film The Crusades.
   * Norman Wooland in Ivanhoe (1952), starring Robert Taylor.
   * George Sanders in the 1954 film King Richard and the Crusaders (loosely based on The Talisman).
   * Hamdi Geiss in Egyptian director Youssef Chahine's 1963 film Al Nasser Salah Ad-Din.
   * Sir Anthony Hopkins in the 1968 film version of The Lion in Winter.
   * Andrew Howard in the 2003 remake of The Lion in Winter
   * Iain Glen played Richard briefly (and uncredited) at the end of the 2005 film Kingdom of Heaven.

He also appears in many filmic versions of the Robin Hood legend (see below).

[edit] Television

On television, Richard was the subject of a 1962 television series, Richard the Lionheart, in which he was played by Dermot Walsh. The 1965 Doctor Who television serial The Crusade is set during Richard's conflict with Saladin; Richard is played by Julian Glover, who portrayed him again in a television film of Ivanhoe in 1982; Rory Edwards played him in the 1997 TV miniseries Ivanhoe. Andrew Howard appeared as Richard in a 2003 television adaptation of The Lion in Winter. He is also portrayed in television versions of the Robin Hood legend.

[edit] Robin Hood

The Scots philosopher and chronicler John Mair was the first to associate Richard with the Robin Hood legends in his Historia majoris Britannae, tam Angliae quam Scotiae (1521). In the earliest Robin Hood ballads the only king mentioned is "Edward our comely king", most probably Edward II or III. However, Walter Scott's Ivanhoe popularised Mair's linking of the Hood legends to Richard's reign, and it was taken up by later novelists and by cinema. Typically Robin is depicted upholding justice in Richard's name against John and his officials during the king's imprisonment.

John Rhys-Davies played Richard in one episode of the 1980s television series Robin of Sherwood, "The King's Fool". He is frequently mentioned as an offscreen character in the BBC's 2006 Robin Hood series. His return from Crusade was set as the condition for Maid Marian's marriage to Guy of Gisbourne and intimated to be imminent in the episode The Return of the King but in the following episode this was revealed to be a plot by the sheriff, with an imposter king 'returning' as a plot by the sheriff to winkle out the sheriff's enemies.

In films of the Robin Hood legend, Richard has been portrayed by:

   * Wallace Beery, in the 1922 silent film, Robin Hood, with Douglas Fairbanks.
   * Richard Harris in Robin and Marian (1976).
   * Ian Hunter in the 1938 film The Adventures of Robin Hood, with Errol Flynn.
   * Peter Ustinov in Disney's animated Robin Hood (1973).
   * Sean Connery, uncredited, at the end of the 1991 film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, with Connery later commenting mischievously that it was the only role of his career in which he had played a homosexual. (This role was parodied two years later by Patrick Stewart in Mel Brooks's comedic Robin Hood: Men in Tights.)

[edit] Computer games

In the Robin Hood-inspired adventure game from Sierra, Conquests of the Longbow, Richard is featured as a prisoner of Leopold of Austria. As in the previously-mentioned legends, Robin Hood is working to raise 100,000 marks in ransom to release Richard. The strategy game Medieval Total War features two battles based on his encounters with his rival Saladin: the battle of Jaffa and the battle of Arsuf. The sequel, Medieval II: Total War shows Richard on the box cover, indicating that players will have another opportunity to relive his campaign. In Empires: Dawn of the Modern World his campaign is pre-1190 and sees him fight French King Phillip II. He also appears in the real-time strategy game Stronghold: Crusader. In Age of Empires 2, Richard can be played in battle against Saladin.

[edit] See also

   * Crusade and Death of Richard I

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Roger of Hoveden, Gesta Henrici II Benedicti Abbatis, vol. 1, p. 292
  2. ^ The Annals of Roger of Hoveden, vol. 2, trans. Henry T. Riley, London, 1853
  3. ^ Ralph of Coggeshall, Chronicon Anglicanum, p. 94
  4. ^ Gillingham, John, "Richard the Lionheart", p.16 published by butler and tanner ltd second edition 1989

[edit] References

   * 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
   * Roger of Hoveden, Gesta Regis Henrici II & Gesta Regis Ricardi Benedicti Abbatis, ed. William Stubbs, 2 vols, (London, 1867), available at Gallica.
   * Roger of Hoveden, Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, ed. William Stubbs, 4 vols, (London, 1868-71), available at Gallica.
   * Ralph of Diceto, Radulfi de Diceto Decani Lundoniensis Opera Historica, ed. William Stubbs, 2 vols (London, 1876)
   * Edbury, Peter W. The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Ashgate, 1996. [Includes letters by Richard reporting events of the Third Crusade (pp. 178-182).] ISBN 1-84014-676-1
   * Gabrieli, Francesco. (ed.) Arab Historians of the Crusades, English translation 1969, ISBN 0-520-05224-2
   * Gillingham, John. Richard the Lionheart, 1978, 2nd ed. 1989
   * Gillingham, John, Richard Coeur de Lion: Kingship, Chivalry and War in the Twelfth Century, 1994, ISBN 1-85285-084-1
   * Gillingham, John. Richard I, 1999, ISBN 0-300-07912-5
   * Nelson, Janet L. (ed.) Richard Coeur de Lion in History and Myth, 1992, ISBN 0-9513085-6-4
   * Nicholson, Helen J. (ed.) The Chronicle of the Third Crusade: The Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, 1997, ISBN 0-7546-0581-7
   * Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, 1951-54, vols. 2-3.
   * Stubbs, William (ed.), Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi (London, 1864), available at Gallica. (PDF of anon. translation, Itinerary of Richard I and others to the Holy Land (Cambridge, Ontario, 2001))
   * William of Tyre, French continuation of. Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum (external link to text in mediæval French).
   * Williams, Patrick A. "The Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat: Another Suspect?", Traditio, vol. XXVI, 1970.

[edit] External links

   * Roger of Hoveden on Richard the Lion-Hearted and King Philip II of France
   * Richard and Saladin: Warriors of the Third Crusade
   * Medieval and Modern Passages Supporting the Theory of Richard I's Homosexuality
   * Richard I, Ja nuls om pres non dira sa razon (Occitan version of lyric)
   * Richard I, Ja nus hons pris ne dira sa reson (French version of lyric, with English translation by James H. Donalson)
   * King Richard a Middle English metrical romance from the The Auchinleck Manuscript (edited by David Burnley and Alison Wiggins) at the National Library of Scotland
   * Illustrated history of Richard I
   * Genealogy of Richard I

House of Anjou (Plantagenet)

Born: 1157, 8 September

Died: 1199, 6 April

Preceded by

Henry II King of England

1189 – 1199 Succeeded by

John

Duke of Normandy

1189 – 1199

Count of Maine

1189 – 1199

Duke of Aquitaine

1189 – 1199

Count of Anjou

1189 – 1199 Succeeded by

Arthur

Direct Ancestry

Richard I of England Henry II of England Geoffrey V of Anjou

Anjou

Matilda of England

Normandy

Eleanor

Duchess of Aquitaine William X of Aquitaine

Poitiers

Aenor de Châtellerault

References

1. Van de Pas, Leo, Genealogics.org (2007).

2. Tompsett, Brian, Directory of Royal Genealogical Data (Hull, UK: University of Hull, 2005).

3. Ross, Kelley L., The Proceedings of the Friesian School (Los Angeles, US: Los Angeles Valley College, 2007).

--------------------

Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Ireland, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Anjou, Count of Nantes and Overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was known as Richard the Lionheart, or Cœur de Lion, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior.[1] [nb 1]At age 16, Richard was already commanding his own army, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father, King Henry II.[2] Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, effectively leading the campaign after the departure of Philip Augustus, and scoring considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin.[3] [4] While he spoke very little English[5] and spent very little time in his Kingdom, preferring to use it as a source of revenue to support his armies,[6] he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects.[7] He remains one of the very few Kings of England remembered by his epithet, not number, and is an enduring, iconic figure in England.[6]

Contents [hide]

1 Family

2 Life

2.1 Revolt against Henry II

2.2 Anti-Semitic violence

2.3 Crusade plans

2.4 Occupation of Sicily

2.5 Conquest of Cyprus

2.6 Richard's marriage

2.7 Richard in the Holy Land

2.8 Captivity and return

2.9 Later years and death

3 Legacy

3.1 Medieval folklore

4 Ancestors

5 See also

6 Notes

7 References

8 Further reading

9 External links


[edit] Family

Richard was a younger brother of William IX, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King and Matilda, Duchess of Saxony. As the third legitimate son of King Henry II of England, he was not expected to ascend the throne. He was also an older brother of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Leonora of England, Joan Plantagenet and John, Count of Mortain, who succeeded him as king. Richard was the younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. He is often depicted as having been the favourite son of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine.[nb 2]


Richard I of England

[edit] Life

Although born at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England, like other early Plantagenets Richard was essentially French. When his parents separated, he remained with his mother. He was invested with her duchy of Aquitaine in 1168 and with the county of Poitiers in 1172. In 1170, in accordance with custom, his elder brother Henry was crowned king of England during his father's lifetime, as Henry III. Historians have named this Henry "the Young King" so as not to confuse him with the later Henry III of England, who was his nephew.

Richard was an educated man who composed poetry, writing in French and Limousin. He was said to be very attractive; his hair was between red and blond, and he was light-eyed with a pale complexion. He was apparently of above average height,[nb 3] but as his remains have been lost since at least the French Revolution, his exact height is unknown. From an early age he showed significant political and military ability, becoming noted for his chivalry and courage as he fought to control the rebellious nobles of his own territory.

[edit] Revolt against Henry II

Like his brothers, Richard frequently challenged his father's authority. In spring 1174, at age 16, Richard joined both his brothers, Henry and Geoffrey, in a revolt against their father, whom they sought to dethrone. Initially, only Normandy remained faithful to Henry II; by August, however, Henry had largely crushed the rebellion in England. Crossing the channel to Normandy, he invaded Poitou and Aquitaine, the domains of Richard's mother, Eleanor, and captured and imprisoned her towards the end of the year.[8] Richard was the last of the brothers to hold out against Henry, but in the end he refused to fight him face to face and humbly begged his pardon.

Henry seemed unwilling to entrust any of his sons with resources that could be used against him. It was suspected that Henry had appropriated Princess Alys, Richard's betrothed, the daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife, as his mistress. This made a marriage between Richard and Alys technically impossible in the eyes of the Church, but Henry prevaricated: Alys's dowry, the Vexin, was valuable. Richard was discouraged from renouncing Alys because she was the sister of King Philip II of France, a close ally.

After his failure to overthrow his father, Richard concentrated on putting down internal revolts by the nobles of Aquitaine, especially the territory of Gascony. The increasing cruelty of his reign led to a major revolt there in 1179. Hoping to dethrone Richard, the rebels sought the help of his brothers Henry and Geoffrey. The turning point came in the Charente Valley in spring 1179. The fortress of Taillebourg was well defended and was considered impregnable. The castle was surrounded by a cliff on three sides and a town on the fourth side with a three-layer wall. Richard first destroyed and looted the farms and lands surrounding the fortress, leaving its defenders no reinforcements or lines of retreat. The inhabitants of the fortress were so afraid of Richard at this point that they left the safety of their castle and attacked Richard outside its walls. Richard was able to subdue the army and then followed the defenders inside the open gates, where he easily took over the castle in two days. Richard’s victory at Taillebourg deterred many barons thinking of rebelling and forced them to declare their loyalty. It also won Richard a reputation as a skilled military commander.

In 1181-1182, Richard faced a revolt over the succession to the county of Angoulême. His opponents turned to Philip II of France for support, and the fighting spread through the Limousin and Périgord. Richard was accused of numerous cruelties against his subjects, including rape: "He carried off by force the wives, daughters and female relatives of his free men, and made them his concubines; and after he had extinguished the ardour of his lust on them, he handed them over to his soldiers for whoring."[9] However, with support from his father and from the Young King, Richard succeeded in bringing the Viscount Aimar V of Limoges and Count Elie of Périgord to terms.

After Richard subdued his rebellious barons, he again challenged his father for the throne. From 1180 to 1183 the tension between Henry and Richard grew, as King Henry commanded Richard to pay homage to Henry the Young King, but Richard refused. Finally, in 1183, Henry the Young King and Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany invaded Aquitaine in an attempt to subdue Richard. Richard’s barons joined in the fray and turned against their Duke. However, Richard and his army were able to hold back the invading armies and executed any prisoners. The conflict took a brief pause in June 1183 when the Young King died. However, Henry II soon gave his youngest son John permission to invade Aquitaine. With the death of Henry the Young King, Richard became the eldest son and heir to the English crown, but still he continued to fight his father.

To strengthen his position, in 1187 Richard allied himself with Philip II, who was the son of Eleanor's ex-husband Louis VII by his third wife, Adele of Champagne. Roger of Hoveden wrote:

"The King of England was struck with great astonishment, and wondered what [this alliance] could mean, and, taking precautions for the future, frequently sent messengers into France for the purpose of recalling his son Richard; who, pretending that he was peaceably inclined and ready to come to his father, made his way to Chinon, and, in spite of the person who had the custody thereof, carried off the greater part of his father's treasures, and fortified his castles in Poitou with the same, refusing to go to his father."[10]

Hoveden mentions how Richard and King Philip "ate from the same dish and at night slept in one bed" and had a "passionate love between them", which some historians have taken to imply a homosexual relationship. In addition, there are allusions to the Books of Samuel's depiction of Jonathan and David in this passage, though overall, Hoveden is chiefly concerned with the politics of the relationship. The historian, John Gillingham, has suggested that theories that Richard was homosexual were probably stemmed from an official record announcing that, as a symbol of unity between the two countries, the kings of France and England had slept overnight in the same bed. He expressed the view that this was "an accepted political act, nothing sexual about it; ... a bit like a modern-day photo opportunity".[11]

In exchange for Philip's help against his father, Richard promised to concede to him his rights to both Normandy and Anjou. Richard paid homage to Philip in November of the same year. With news arriving of the battle of Hattin, he took the cross at Tours in the company of other French nobles.

In 1188 Henry II planned to concede Aquitaine to his youngest son John. The following year, 1189 Richard attempted to take the throne of England for himself by joining Philip's expedition against his father. On 4 July 1189, Richard and Philip’s forces defeated Henry's army at Ballans. Henry, with John's consent, agreed to name Richard his heir. Two days later Henry II died in Chinon, and Richard succeeded him as King of England, Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou. Roger of Hoveden claimed that Henry's corpse bled from the nose in Richard's presence, which was taken as a sign that Richard had caused his death. He was officially crowned duke on 20 July 1189 and king in Westminster Abbey on 13 September 1189.[12]

[edit] Anti-Semitic violence

When Richard I was crowned King of England, he barred all Jews and women from the ceremony (apparently a concession to the fact that his coronation was not merely one of a king but of a crusader), but some Jewish leaders arrived to present gifts for the new king. According to Ralph of Diceto, Richard's courtiers stripped and flogged the Jews, then flung them out of court. When a rumour spread that Richard had ordered all Jews to be killed, the people of London began a massacre. Many Jews were beaten to death, robbed, and burned alive. Many Jewish homes were burned down, and several Jews were forcibly baptised. Some sought sanctuary in the Tower of London, and others managed to escape. Among those killed was Jacob of Orléans, one of the most learned of the age.[13] Roger of Howeden, in his Gesta Regis Ricardi, claimed that the rioting was started by the jealous and bigoted citizens, and that Richard punished the perpetrators, allowing a forcibly converted Jew to return to his native religion. Archbishop of Canterbury Baldwin of Exeter reacted by remarking, "If the King is not God's man, he had better be the devil's," a reference to the supposedly infernal blood in the Angevin line.

Realising that the assaults could destabilize his realm on the eve of his departure on crusade, Richard ordered the execution of those responsible for the most egregious murders and persecutions. (Most of those hanged were rioters who had accidentally burned down Christian homes.) He distributed a royal writ demanding that the Jews be left alone. However, the edict was loosely enforced, as the following March there was further violence, including a massacre at York.

[edit] Crusade plans

Richard had already taken the cross as Count of Poitou in 1187. His father and Philip II had done so at Gisors on 21 January 1188, after receiving news of the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin. Having become king, Richard and Philip agreed to go on the Third Crusade together, since each feared that, during his absence, the other might usurp his territories.

Richard swore an oath to renounce his past wickedness in order to show himself worthy to take the cross. He started to raise and equip a new crusader army. He spent most of his father's treasury (filled with money raised by the Saladin tithe), raised taxes, and even agreed to free King William I of Scotland from his oath of subservience to Richard in exchange for 10,000 marks. To raise even more money he sold official positions, rights, and lands to those interested in them. Even those already appointed were forced to pay huge sums to retain their posts. Even William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely and the King's Chancellor, made a show of bidding £3,000 to remain as Chancellor. He was apparently outbid by a certain Reginald the Italian, but his bid was refused.

Richard made some final arrangements on the continent. He reconfirmed his father's appointment of William Fitz Ralph to the important post of seneschal of Normandy. In Anjou, Stephen of Tours was replaced as seneschal and temporarily imprisoned for fiscal mismanagement. Payn de Rochefort, an Angevin knight, was elevated to the post of seneschal of Anjou. In Poitou, the ex-provost of Benon, Peter Bertin was made seneschal, and finally in Gascony, the household official Helie de La Celle was picked for the seneschalship there. After repositioning the part of his army he left behind to guard his French possessions, Richard finally set out on the crusade in summer 1190. (His delay was criticised by troubadours such as Bertran de Born). He appointed as regents Hugh, Bishop of Durham, and William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex — who soon died and was replaced by Richard's chanc

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Richard the Lionheart, King of England's Timeline

1096
1096
Or Ewshott,Hampshire, England
1157
September 8, 1157
Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England
1169
1169
Age 11

Early in the 1160s there had been suggestions Richard should marry Alys (Alice), second daughter of Louis VII; because of the rivalry between the kings of England and France, Louis obstructed the marriage. A peace treaty was secured in January 1169 and Richard’s betrothal to Alys was confirmed. Henry II planned to divide his kingdom between his sons, of which there were three at the time; Henry would become King of England and have control of Anjou, Maine, and Normandy, while Richard would inherit Aquitaine from his mother and become Count of Poitiers, and Geoffrey would get Brittany through marriage alliance with Constance, the heiress to the region. At the ceremony where Richard's betrothal was confirmed, he paid homage to the King of France for Aquitaine, thus securing ties of vassalage between the two.[

1171
1171
Age 13

Richard left for Aquitaine with his mother and Henry II gave him the duchy of Aquitaine at the request of Eleanor. Richard and his mother embarked on a tour of Aquitaine in 1171 in an attempt to placate the locals. Together they laid the foundation stone of St Augustine's Monastery in Limoges.

1172
1172
- 1199
Age 14
Duke of Acquitaine

Richard was formally recognised as the Duke of Aquitaine when he was granted the lance and banner emblems of his office; the ceremony took place in Poitiers and was repeated in Limoges where he wore the ring of St Valerie, who was the personification of Aquitaine.

1173
1173
Age 15

In March 1173, aggrieved at his lack of power and egged on by his father's enemies, the younger Henry launched the Revolt of 1173–1174. He fled to Paris. From there 'the younger Henry, devising evil against his father from every side by the advice of the French King, went secretly into Aquitaine where his two youthful brothers, Richard and Geoffrey, were living with their mother, and with her connivance, so it is said, he incited them to join him'. The Queen sent her younger sons to France 'to join with him against their father the King'. Once her sons had left for Paris, Eleanor encouraged the lords of the south to rise up and support them. Sometime between the end of March and the beginning of May, Eleanor left Poitiers to follow her sons to Paris but was arrested on the way and sent to the King in Rouen. The King did not announce the arrest publicly. For the next year, her whereabouts were unknown. On 8 July 1174, Henry took ship for England from Barfleur. He brought Eleanor on the ship. As soon as they disembarked at Southampton, Eleanor was taken away either to Winchester Castle or Sarum Castle and held there.

1174
September 8, 1174
Age 17

When Henry II and Louis VII made a truce on 8 September 1174, Richard was specifically excluded. Abandoned by Louis and wary of facing his father's army in battle, Richard went to Henry II's court at Poitiers on 23 September and begged for forgiveness, weeping and falling at Henry's feet, who gave Richard the kiss of peace. Several days later, Richard's brothers joined him in seeking reconciliation with their father. The terms the three brothers accepted were less generous than those they had been offered earlier in the conflict (when Richard was offered four castles in Aquitaine and half of the income from the duchy) and Richard was given control of two castles in Pitou and half the income of Aquitaine; Henry the Young King was given two castles in Normandy; and Geoffrey was permitted half of Brittany. Eleanor would remain Henry II's prisoner until his death, partly as insurance for Richard's good behaviour.

1175
January 1175
Age 17

Richard was dispatched to Aquitaine to punish the barons who had fought for him. According to Roger of Howden's chronicle of Henry's reign, most of the castles belonging to rebels were to be returned to the state they were in 15 days before the outbreak of war, while others were to be razed to the ground. Given that by this time it was common for castles to be built in stone, and that many barons had expanded or refortified their castles, this was not an easy task. Gillingham notes that Roger of Howden's chronicle is the main source for Richard's activities in this period, although he notes that it records the successes of the campaign; it was on this campaign that Richard acquired the name "Richard the Lionheart". The first such success was the siege of Castillon-sur-Agen. The castle was "notoriously strong", but in a two-month siege the defenders were battered into submission by Richard's siege engines.

1179
May 1179
Age 21
Taillebourg, Gascony, France
1179
Age 21

After his failure to overthrow his father, Richard concentrated on putting down internal revolts by the nobles of Aquitaine, especially the territory of Gascony. The increasing cruelty of his reign led to a major revolt there in 1179. Hoping to dethrone Richard, the rebels sought the help of his brothers Henry and Geoffrey. The turning point came in the Charente Valley in spring 1179. The fortress of Taillebourg was well defended and was considered impregnable. The castle was surrounded by a cliff on three sides and a town on the fourth side with a three-layer wall. Richard first destroyed and looted the farms and lands surrounding the fortress, leaving its defenders no reinforcements or lines of retreat. The garrison sallied out of the castle and attacked Richard; he was able to subdue the army and then followed the defenders inside the open gates, where he easily took over the castle in two days. Richard’s victory at Taillebourg deterred many barons thinking of rebelling and forced them to declare their loyalty. It also won Richard a reputation as a skilled military commander.