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Roald Dahl

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Llandaff, Cardiff, South Glamorgan, UK
Death: Died in Oxford, UK
Place of Burial: Oxford, UK
Immediate Family:

Son of Harald Dahl and Sofie Magdalene Dahl
Husband of Felicity Ann Dahl
Ex-husband of Patricia Louise Neal
Father of Olivia Dahl; Chantal "Tessa" Dahl; <private> Dahl; <private> Dahl and <private> Dahl
Brother of Alfhild Dahl; Else Dahl and Astri Dahl
Half brother of Louis Dahl and Ellen Dahl

Occupation: Author, British novelist, british writer
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:
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Immediate Family

About Roald Dahl

Roald Dahl (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short story writer, fighter ace and screenwriter of Norwegian parentage.

Born in Llandaff, Cardiff, Wales, to Norwegian parents, he served in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, in which he became a flying ace and intelligence agent, rising to the rank of Wing Commander. He rose to prominence in the 1940s with works for both children and adults, and became one of the world's bestselling authors. His short stories are known for their unexpected endings, and his children's books for their unsentimental, often very dark humour.

Some of his better-known works include James and the Giant Peach, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Fantastic Mr Fox, Matilda, The Witches, and The BFG.

Resources

NBL (Norsk Biografisk Leksikon)

Roald Dahl, født 13. september 1916, fødested Llandaff, Glamorgen (nå Cardiff) i Wales, Storbritannia, død 23. november 1990, dødssted Oxford. Britisk forfatter av norsk herkomst.

Foreldre: Skipsmegler Harald Dahl (1863–1920) og (Anne) Sofie Magdalene Hesselberg (1885–1967).

Gift 1) 1953 med skuespiller Patricia Neal (20.1.1926–), datter av daglig leder William Burdette (“Coot”) Neal (1895–1944) og Eura Mildred Petrey (1899–2003), ekteskapet oppløst 1983;

2) 1983 med treskjærer Felicity Ann (“Liccy”) Crosland f. d'Abreu (12.12.1938–), datter av professor Alphonsus Ligouri d'Abreu (1906–76) og Elizabeth Ursula Arienwen Throckmorton (1906–70). Fillenevø (kusines sønn) av Hans Theodor Hesselberg (1885–1966).

Roald Dahl var berømt både som novellist og som barnebokforfatter. Blant hans mest kjente titler er novellen Dypfryst, om den perfekte måten å bli kvitt et mordvåpen på, og barneboken Charlie og sjokoladefabrikken. 10 år etter hans død kåret britiske lesere ham til sin favorittforfatter.

Faren var fra Sarpsborg og etablerte seg etter et omflakkende liv i Cardiff som skipsmegler. Roald, som var oppkalt etter Roald Amundsen, var den tredje av 7 barn, de to eldste fra et tidligere ekteskap. Da Roald var fire år gammel, døde først hans 7 år eldre søster av blindtarmbetennelse og like etterpå faren – av sorg og lungebetennelse. Moren, etter alt å dømme et tårn av styrke, valgte å bli i Storbritannia. I Dahls to erindringsbøker, Gutt og På egne vinger finner vi imidlertid lyse skildringer av sommerferier i Norge.

Dahl fikk sin utdannelse på kostskoler. Hjemlengsel og korporlig avstraffelse var blant de sterkeste inntrykkene fra skoleårene; ifølge ham selv var det her han lærte om ondskap. Han har gitt en uhyggelig skildring av rektor ved den siste av skolene, Repton, hans velærverdighet Geoffrey Fisher. Han gjorde det likevel godt til eksamen, og utmerket seg i sport.

Etter eksamen ville han reise, ikke studere. Han fikk ansettelse i Shell og ble stasjonert i Tanganyika (nå Tanzania). Da den annen verdenskrig startet, meldte han seg til tjeneste i flyvåpenet. Han deltok i flere luftkamper og havarerte i Libya – han kom fra det med livet i behold, men var hardt skadd og mistet synet for lengre tid. Ulykken gjorde ham kampudyktig og påførte ham skader for livet, han måtte senere skifte ut begge hoftebena (det ene beholdt han og brukte som brevpresse).

1942 ble Dahl overført til Washington D. C. som såkalt stedfortredende flyattaché, i praksis etterretningsagent, og ble til slutt Wing Commander (oberstløytnant). I Washington møtte han jevnlig president Roosevelt og senator Truman, men vel så viktig for ham personlig var C. S. Forrester, forfatteren av Hornblower-bøkene. Han bad Dahl skrive ned noen av sine opplevelser, egentlig til bruk i propagandaen. Dahl gav til beste en beretning om havariet, Shot Down Over Libya, som Forrester sendte uendret til Saturday Evening Post som gav $900 for den, noe nær en arbeiders årslønn.

Nå begynte Dahl å skrive historier på grunnlag av sine krigsopplevelser. De ble samlet i Over to You, 1946. 1943 hadde han imidlertid skrevet barneboken The Gremlins, om slemme små skapninger som stod bak alt som gikk galt. Walt Disney kjøpte filmrettighetene, men prosjektet ble aldri noe av.

Etter krigen kom fortellingene som skulle skape Dahls første berømmelse. De ble publisert i amerikanske prestisjemagasiner, og et par stykker i året var nok til at han kunne leve godt. De fleste av dem ble samlet i bøkene Someone Like You og Kiss, Kiss. Totalt skrev han 73 noveller, publisert over et tidsrom på nærmere 50 år.

1953 giftet Dahl seg med filmstjernen Patricia Neal. De fikk fire døtre og en sønn. Den eldste datteren døde imidlertid som følge av komplikasjoner i forbindelse med meslinger. Sønnen Theo ble fire måneder gammel påkjørt i barnevognen og fikk vannhode, og Dahl var med på å utvikle en spesiell tappeventil til bruk ved slike lidelser. Han hadde utgitt barnebøkene James and the Giant Peach og Charlie and the chocolate factory, da hans kone, som var gravid med deres femte barn, fikk hjerneslag. Han tok seg personlig av rehabiliteringen og utviklet metoder som senere er blitt brukt i behandlingen av slagpasienter. Noen av dem kunne synes brutale, men Patricia fikk igjen både førlighet og taleevne og kunne ta opp igjen karrieren som skuespiller.

Interessen for den typen noveller han skrev, gikk imidlertid tilbake, og barnebøkene hadde ennå ikke slått ordentlig igjennom, så Dahl skrev flere filmmanus, bl.a. til Bond-filmen You Only Live Twice, en positiv opplevelse, mens filmversjonen av Charlie og sjokoladefabrikken, Willy Wonka og sjokoladefabrikken, var en enorm skuffelse.

Først med fjernsynsserien Tales of the Unexpected fikk hans diktning en adekvat fremstilling i et annet medium. Serien ble en formidabel suksess og skapte en renessanse for novellene hans. Roald Dahl innledet selv historiene sittende ved den grønne skriveplaten med bena i en sovepose slik han likte å arbeide.

1983 endte ekteskapet med Patricia Neal etter mange års turbulens, og Dahl giftet seg med Felicity Crosland. Det kan virke som det nye ekteskapet brakte mer harmoni inn i tilværelsen, og han skrev noen av sine beste barnebøker i årene som fulgte, bl.a. Heksene og Matilda. Sammen med Liccy utgav han en kokebok som også var en beretning om livet i det dahlske hjem.

Roald Dahl ferierte i Norge også som voksen – han besøkte hver sommer Fevik – og snakket norsk i yngre år. Han kjente norsk litteratur – Isak og Brønnøypresten av Jonas Lie er med i en antologi han redigerte, men forfatterskapet hans er solid plantet i en angloamerikansk fortellertradisjon.

Dahl skrev sakte og fulgte Hemingways råd om å gi seg når det gikk bra. Historiene hans er finslepne og blinkende som diamanter, med knapt et overflødig ord, alt rettet inn mot en overraskende slutt. Noen ganger kommer den som et sjokk, som i Mannen fra syden, noen ganger som en truende hvisking, som i Hybelvertinnen eller Dronninggelé, men leserne glemmer sjelden hvordan historiene ender.

Bak den glitrende fasaden kan alltid merkes en empati for “the underdog”, den underkuede hustruen, mobbeofferet, det naive byttet for tilværelsens rovdyr. Luringer blir selv lurt, jåleri og hovmod står for fall, mobberen får sin bekomst. Men de fleste av Dahls mørke historier er komisk diktning; han forener grøsset og latteren, selv om smilet iblant kan ligne på det som sitter frosset fast på et kranium.

Om Dahl selv, i hvert fall ifølge datteren Tessa, kunne virke fjern og kald og fysisk avvisende mot sine egne barn, så er det ingen tvil om at det var hos barn han hadde sin største empati. Han tok barn på alvor, han hadde skjønt at en vesentlig side ved å være barn er den konstante følelsen av maktesløshet, og han var helhjertet på deres side. Barndommen slik den skildres i hans bøker, er med få unntak en kamp mot troll, mot forvokste autoriteter og groteske tyranner, alt fortalt i et nedenfra-og-opp-perspektiv. Hans unge helter er fryktsomme vesener som det likevel går godt med – den stille, høflige Charlie Bucket, den foreldreløse James, den lynintelligente Matilda omgitt av stupide voksne. Og det går grundig galt med de slemme.

Grusomme barnebøker fantes som en egen tradisjon allerede på 1800-tallet og handlet om hvordan det gikk med barn som var ulydige. Dahls bøker er på mange vis antitesen til disse. De har følgelig også fått kritikk for sin opprørskhet og respektløshet; men leserne elsker dem og ser dem for hva de er, fabler som avspeiler deres egen fantasiverden og utvider den. Og selv om de fleste voksne i bøkene er grotesker, er det alltid én voksenperson som står på den unges side: den snille frøkenen i Matilda, den norske bestemoren i Heksene, pappaen til Danny i Danny og den store fasanjakten. Og tegneren Quentin Blake, som samarbeidet med Dahl de siste 20 årene, har med sin lette, humoristiske stil dannet en kontrast til historienes mørke, voldsomme understrømmer.

Roald Dahl var kontroversiell; han kom bl.a. med utsagn som førte til beskyldninger om antisemittisme og antifeminisme. Han kunne være fordomsfull og brysk, til og med mot unge lesere, men i det rette hjørnet var han elskverdigheten selv, uhøytidelig og rask til å le. Da han døde, fikk han på vikingmaner en rekke gjenstander med seg i graven: biljardkøer, en god burgunder, sjokolade, HB-blyanter og en motorsag.

Han opprettet Roald Dahl-stiftelsen, som gir økonomisk støtte til institusjoner og enkeltpersoner, spesielt innenfor feltene alfabetisme, nevrologi og blodsykdommer. 2005 ble hjemmet hans omskapt til et museum som er åpent en dag i året.

Verker

     Et utvalg
   * The Gremlins, London 1943
   * Someone like you, noveller, New York, 1953 (no. overs. Sånn er vi, 1955 og Et hode kortere og andre hårreisende historier, 1972)
   * Kiss kiss, London 1960 (no overs. Kiss kiss, 1970)
   * James and the Giant Peach, London 1961 (no. overs. Verdens største fersken, 1982)
   * Charlie and the chocolate factory, New York 1964 (no overs. Charlie og sjokoladefabrikken, 1972
   * The magic finger, New York 1966 (no. overs. Den magiske fingeren, 1990)
   * Fantastic Mr Fox, London 1970 (no. overs. Den fantastiske Mikkel Rev, 1978)
   * Charlie and the great glass elevator, London 1973 (no overs. Charlie og den store glassheisen, 1988)
   * Over to you. Ten stories of flyers and flying, New York 1946 (no. overs. Over og ut. Ti historier om flyvere og flyvning, 1975)
   * Switch bitch, New York 1974 (no overs. Bytt beite, 1975)
   * Danny, the champion of the world, London 1975 (no. overs. Danny og den store fasanjakten, 1977
   * My uncle Oswald, 1979 (no. overs. Onkel Oswald, 1980)
   * Tales of the unexpected, London 1979
   * The enormous crocodile, London 1980 (no. overs. Den kjempestore krokodillen, 1988)
   * George's marvellous medicine, London 1981 (no. overs. Georgs magiske medisin, 1982
   * The witches, 1983 (no. overs. Heksene, 1985)
   * Dirty beasts, London 1984 (no. overs. Fæle dyr, 1986)
   * Boy. Tales of childhood, London 1984 (no. overs. Gutt. Fortellinger fra barndommen, 1986)
   * Going solo, 1986 (no overs. På egne vinger, 1987)
   * Matilda, London 1988 (no overs. Matilda, 1989)
   * Memories with food at Gipsy House (sm.m. Felicity Dahl), London 1991 (no. overs. I Roald Dahls kjøkken, 1991

Kilder og litteratur

   * Treglown, J.: Roald Dahl. A biography, London 1995
   * SNL, bd. 3, 2005 (www.snl.no)

--------------------

(English pronunciation: /ˈroʊ.ɑːl ˈdɑːl/,[2] Norwegian: [ˈɾuːɑl dɑl]; 13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short story writer, and screenwriter.

Born in north Cardiff, Wales, to Norwegian parents, Dahl served in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, in which he became a flying ace and intelligence agent. He rose to prominence in the 1940s with works for both children and adults, and became one of the world's bestselling authors. His short stories are known for their unexpected endings, and his children's books for their unsentimental, often very dark humour.

Some of his better-known works include James and the Giant Peach, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Fantastic Mr Fox, Matilda, The Witches, and The BFG.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Career

2.1 World War II

3 Postwar life

3.1 Family

4 Death and legacy

4.1 Roald Dahl Day

5 Writing

5.1 Children's fiction

5.2 Screenplays

5.3 Influences

6 Television

6.1 Way Out

6.2 Tales of the Unexpected

7 List of works

7.1 Children's stories

7.2 Adult fiction

7.3 Non-fiction

7.4 Plays

7.5 Film scripts

7.6 Television

8 Controversies

9 References

10 External links

[edit] Early life

Roald Dahl was born in Llandaff, Cardiff, Wales in 1916, to Norwegian parents, Harald Dahl and Sofie Magdalene Dahl (née Hesselberg). Dahl's father had moved from Sarpsborg in Norway and settled in Cardiff in the 1880s, and his mother came over to marry his father in about 1910. Roald was named after the polar explorer Roald Amundsen, a national hero in Norway at the time. He spoke Norwegian at home with his parents and sisters, Astri, Alfhild, and Else. Dahl and his sisters were christened at the Norwegian Church, Cardiff, where their parents worshipped.

In 1920, when Roald was still only three years old, his seven-year-old sister, Astri, died from appendicitis. Weeks later, his father died of pneumonia at the age of 57. Dahl's mother, however, decided not to return to Norway to live with her relatives, but to remain in Wales since it had been her husband's wish to have their children educated in British schools, as he felt they were the best in the world.

Dahl first attended The Cathedral School, Llandaff. At the age of eight, he and four of his friends (One named Thwaites) were caned by the headmaster after putting a dead rat in a jar of gobstoppers at the local sweet shop, which was owned by a "mean and loathsome" old woman called Mrs Pratchett who would always be forcing them to buy sweets.(wife of blacksmith David Pratchett). This was known amongst the five boys as the "Great Mouse Plot of 1924". This was Roald's own idea.

Thereafter, he was sent to several boarding schools in England, including Saint Peter's in Weston-super-Mare. His parents had wanted Roald to be educated at a British public school and, at the time, because of a then regular ferry link across the Bristol Channel, this proved to be the nearest. His time at Saint Peter's was an unpleasant experience for him. He was very homesick and wrote to his mother almost every day, but never revealed to her his unhappiness, being under the pressure of school censorship. Only after her death in 1967 did he find out that she had saved every single one of his letters, in small bundles held together with green tape. He later attended Repton School in Derbyshire, where, according to his autobiography Boy: Tales of Childhood, a friend named Michael was viciously caned by headmaster Geoffrey Fisher, the man who later became the Archbishop of Canterbury and crowned the Queen in 1953. (However, according to Dahl's biographer Jeremy Treglown,[3] the caning took place in May 1933, a year after Fisher had left Repton. The headmaster concerned was in fact J.T. Christie, Fisher's successor.) This caused Dahl to "have doubts about religion and even about God".[4]

Dahl was very tall, reaching 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) in adult life;[5] he was good at sports, being made captain of the school fives and squash teams, and also playing for the football team. He developed an interest in photography. During his years there, Cadbury, the chocolate company, would occasionally send boxes of new chocolates to the school to be tested by the pupils. Dahl apparently used to dream of inventing a new chocolate bar that would win the praise of Mr Cadbury himself, and this proved the inspiration for him to write his third book for children, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1963) and include references to chocolate in other books for children.[6]

Throughout his childhood and adolescent years, Dahl spent his summer holidays with his mother's family in their native Norway. His childhood and first job selling kerosene in Midsomer Norton and surrounding villages in Somerset are the subject of his autobiographical work, Boy: Tales of Childhood.

After finishing his schooling, he spent three weeks hiking through Newfoundland with the Public Schools' Exploring Society (now known as BSES Expeditions).

[edit] Career

In July 1934, Dahl joined the Shell Petroleum Company. Following two years of training in the UK, he was transferred to Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika (now Tanzania). Along with the only two other Shell employees in the entire territory, he lived in luxury in the Shell House outside Dar-es-Salaam, with a cook and personal servants. While out on assignments supplying oil to customers across Tanganyika, he encountered black mambas and lions, amongst other wildlife.[4]

[edit] World War II

Roald Dahl

Died 1990

Allegiance United Kingdom

Service/branch British Army (August-November 1939)

Royal Air Force (November 1939 – 1945)

Years of service 1939–1945

Rank Wing Commander

Battles/wars World War II

Other work Author

In August 1939, as World War II loomed, plans were made to round up the hundreds of Germans in Dar-es-Salaam. Dahl was made an officer in the King's African Rifles, commanding a platoon of Askaris, indigenous troops serving in the colonial army.

In November 1939, Dahl joined the Royal Air Force. After a 600-mile (970 km) car journey from Dar-es-Salaam to Nairobi, he was accepted for flight training with 20 other men, and was one of only three who survived the war, as the other 17 died in combat. With seven hours and 40 minutes experience in a De Havilland Tiger Moth, he flew solo; Dahl enjoyed watching the wildlife of Kenya during his flights. He continued on to advanced flying training in Iraq, at RAF Habbaniya, 50 miles (80 km) west of Baghdad. Following six months' training on Hawker Harts, Dahl was made a Pilot Officer.

He was assigned to No. 80 Squadron RAF, flying obsolete Gloster Gladiators, the last biplane fighter aircraft used by the RAF. Dahl was surprised to find that he would not receive any specialised training in aerial combat, or in flying Gladiators. On 19 September 1940, Dahl was ordered to fly his Gladiator from Abu Sueir in Egypt, on to Amiriya to refuel, and again to Fouka in Libya for a second refuelling. From there he would fly to 80 Squadron's forward airstrip 30 miles (48 km) south of Mersa Matruh. On the final leg, he could not find the airstrip and, running low on fuel and with night approaching, he was forced to attempt a landing in the desert. The undercarriage hit a boulder and the aircraft crashed, fracturing his skull, smashing his nose, and temporarily blinding him. He managed to drag himself away from the blazing wreckage and passed out. Later, he wrote about the crash for his first published work.

Dahl was rescued and taken to a first-aid post in Mersa Matruh, where he regained consciousness, but not his sight, and was then taken by train to the Royal Navy hospital in Alexandria. There he fell in and out of love with a nurse, Mary Welland. Dahl had fallen in love with her voice while he was blind, but once he regained his sight, he decided that he no longer loved her. An RAF inquiry into the crash revealed that the location to which he had been told to fly was completely wrong, and he had mistakenly been sent instead to the no man's land between the Allied and Italian forces.[7]

In February 1941, Dahl was discharged from hospital and passed fully fit for flying duties. By this time, 80 Squadron had been transferred to the Greek campaign and based at Eleusina, near Athens. The squadron was now equipped with Hawker Hurricanes. Dahl flew a replacement Hurricane across the Mediterranean Sea in April 1941, after seven hours flying Hurricanes. By this stage in the Greek campaign, the RAF had only 18 combat aircraft in Greece: 14 Hurricanes and four Bristol Blenheim light bombers. Dahl saw his first aerial combat on 15 April 1941, while flying alone over the city of Chalcis. He attacked six Junkers Ju-88s that were bombing ships and shot one down. On 16 April in another air battle, he shot down another Ju-88.

On 20 April 1941, Dahl took part in the "Battle of Athens", alongside the highest-scoring British Commonwealth ace of World War II, Pat Pattle and Dahl's friend David Coke. Of 12 Hurricanes involved, five were shot down and four of their pilots killed, including Pattle. Greek observers on the ground counted 22 German aircraft downed, but because of the confusion of the aerial engagement none of the pilots knew who they shot down. Dahl described it as "an endless blur of enemy fighters whizzing towards me from every side."

The wing returned back to Elevsis. Later on in the day, the aerodrome was strafed by Bf 109s, but none of them hit any of the Hawker Hurricanes. The Hurricanes were then evacuated on 21 April 1941 to a small, secret airfield near Megara, a small village, where the pilots hid. Approximately 50 miles (80 km) north the Luftwaffe was searching for the remaining Hurricanes. By approximately 6 or 7 a.m., about thirty Bf-109s and Stuka dive-bombers flew over the seven pilots who were hiding. The Stukas dived bombed a tanker in the Bay of Athens, and sank it. Dahl and his comrades were only 500 yards (460 m) away from the incident. Surprisingly, neither the bombers nor the fighters were able to spot the Hurricanes parked in the nearby field. At some time in the afternoon, an Air Commodore arrived at the airfield by car and asked if one of the seven could volunteer to fly and deliver a package to a man named Carter at Elevsis. Roald Dahl was the only one who volunteered to do it. The contents of the package were of vital importance, and Dahl was told that if he was shot down, or captured, he should burn the package immediately, so it would not fall into enemy hands, and once he had handed over the package, he was to fly to Argos, an airfield, with the rest of the seven pilots in the squadron.

For the rest of April, the situation was horrible for the RAF in Greece. If the Luftwaffe had destroyed the remaining seven planes, they would then have had complete control of the skies in Greece. They intended to wipe them out. If the squadron were to be found, it would mean the worst. According to Dahl's report, at about 4:30 p.m. a Bf 110 swooped over the airfield at Argos, and found them. The pilots discussed that it would take the 110 roughly half an hour to return to base, and then another half hour for the whole enemy squadron to get ready for take-off, and then another half hour for them to reach Argos. They had roughly an hour and thirty minutes until they would be strafed by enemy aircraft. However, instead of having the remaining seven pilots airborne and intercepting the 110s an hour ahead, the CO ordered them to escort ships evacuating their army in Greece at 6:00. The seven planes got up into the air, but the formation was quickly disorganised as the radios were not working. Dahl and Coke found themselves separated from the rest of the wing. They could not communicate with them, so they continued on flying, looking for the ships to escort. Eventually they ran out of fuel and returned back to Argos, where they found the entire airfield in smoke and flames, with tents flamed, ammunition destroyed, etc.; however there were few casualties. While Roald Dahl and David Coke took off, three other aircraft in the wing somehow managed to get away. The sixth pilot who was taking off was strafed by the enemy and killed. The seventh pilot managed to bail out. Everybody else in the camp was hiding in the slit trenches. Immediately after Dahl and Coke figured out what was going on, the squadron was sent to Crete. A month later they were evacuated to Egypt.

As the Germans were pressing on Athens, Dahl was evacuated to Egypt. His squadron was reassembled in Haifa. From there, Dahl flew sorties every day for a period of four weeks, shooting down a Vichy French Air Force Potez 63 on 8 June and another Ju-88 on 15 June, but he then began to get severe headaches that caused him to black out. He was invalided home to Britain; at this time his rank was Flight Lieutenant.

Dahl began writing in 1942, after he was transferred to Washington, D.C. as Assistant Air Attaché. His first published work, in the 1 August 1942 issue of The Saturday Evening Post was "Shot Down Over Libya", describing the crash of his Gloster Gladiator. C. S. Forester had asked Dahl to write down some RAF anecdotes so that he could shape them into a story. After Forester sat down to read what Dahl had given him, he decided to publish it exactly as it was. The original title of the article was "A Piece of Cake"—the title was changed to sound more dramatic, despite the fact that the he was not "shot down".[7]

During the war, Forester worked for the British Information Service and was writing propaganda for the Allied cause, mainly for American consumption.[8] This work introduced Dahl to espionage and the activities of the Canadian spymaster William Stephenson, known by the codename "Intrepid". During the war, Dahl supplied intelligence from Washington to Stephenson and his organisation, which was known as British Security Coordination. Dahl was sent back to Britain by British Embassy officials, supposedly for misconduct – "I got booted out by the big boys," he said. Stephenson sent him back to Washington—with a promotion.[9] After the war, Dahl wrote some of the history of the secret organisation and he and Stephenson remained friends for decades after the war.[10]

He ended the war as a Wing Commander. His record of five aerial victories, qualifying him as a flying ace, has been confirmed by post-war research and cross-referenced in Axis records, although it is most likely that he scored more than that during 20 April 1941 where 22 German aircraft were downed.[11]

He was also revealed in the 1980s to have been a clandestine agent for MI-6, the British Foreign Intelligence Service, serving in the United States to help promote Britain's interests and message in the United States and combat the "America First" movement, working with other well known men including Ian Fleming and David Ogilvy.[12]

[edit] Postwar life

[edit] Family

Patricia Neal and Roald DahlDahl married American actress Patricia Neal on 2 July 1953 at Trinity Church in New York City. Their marriage lasted for 30 years and they had five children: Olivia (who died of measles encephalitis in 1962, aged seven), Tessa, Theo, Ophelia, and Lucy. He dedicated The BFG to Olivia after her death, and subsequently became a proponent of immunisation.[13]

When he was four months old, Theo Dahl was severely injured when his baby carriage was hit by a taxi in New York City. For a time, he suffered from hydrocephalus, and as a result, his father became involved in the development of what became known as the "Wade-Dahl-Till" (or WDT) valve, a device to alleviate the condition.[14][15]

In 1965, Neal suffered three burst cerebral aneurysms while pregnant with their fifth child, Lucy; Dahl took control of her rehabilitation and she eventually relearned to talk and walk.[16] They were divorced in 1983 following Dahl's affair with Neal's friend, Felicity ("Liccy") d'Abreu Crosland, 22 years his junior (born 12 December 1938), whom he subsequently married. Ophelia Dahl is director and co-founder (with doctor Paul Farmer) of Partners in Health, a non-profit organisation. Lucy Dahl is a screenwriter in Los Angeles. Tessa's daughter Sophie Dahl (who was the inspiration for Sophie, the main character in her grandfather's book The BFG) is a model and author who remembers Roald Dahl as "a very difficult man – very strong, very dominant ... not unlike the father of the Mitford sisters sort of roaring round the house with these very loud opinions, banning certain types – foppish boys, you know – from coming round."[citation needed]

[edit] Death and legacy

Dahl's GravestoneRoald Dahl died in November 1990 at the age of 74 of a rare blood disease, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, or "pre-leukemia"), in Oxford,[17] and was buried in the cemetery at the parish church of Saint Peter and Paul in Great Missenden. According to his granddaughter, the family gave him a "sort of Viking funeral". He was buried with his snooker cues, some very good burgundy, chocolates, HB pencils and a power saw. In his honour, the Roald Dahl Children's Gallery was opened at Buckinghamshire County Museum in nearby Aylesbury.

In 2002, one of Cardiff Bay's modern landmarks, the historic Oval Basin plaza, was re-christened "Roald Dahl Plass". "Plass" means "place" or "square" in Norwegian, referring to the acclaimed late writer's Norwegian roots. There have also been calls from the public for a permanent statue of him to be erected in the city[18]

Dahl's charitable commitments in the fields of neurology, haematology and literacy have been continued by his widow since his death, through the Roald Dahl Foundation.[19] In June 2005, the Roald Dahl Museum and Story Centre opened in Great Missenden to celebrate the work of Roald Dahl and advance his work in literacy.

In 2008, the UK charity Booktrust and Children's Laureate Michael Rosen inaugurated The Roald Dahl Funny Prize, an annual award to authors of humorous children's fiction.[20]

On 14 September 2009 (the day after what would have been Dahl's 93rd birthday) the first blue plaque in his honour was unveiled in Llandaff, Cardiff. Rather than commemorating his place of birth, however, the plaque was erected on the wall of the former sweet shop (and site of "The Great Mouse Plot of 1924") that features in the first part of his autobiography Boy. It was unveiled by his widow Felicity and son Theo.[21]

[edit] Roald Dahl Day

The anniversary of Dahl's birthday on 13 September is celebrated as "Roald Dahl Day" in Africa, Asia, and Latin America [22][23]

[edit] Writing

Roald Dahl's story "The Devious Bachelor" was illustrated by Frederick Siebel when it was published in Collier's (September 1953).Dahl's first published work, inspired by a meeting with C. S. Forester, was "Shot Down Over Libya." Today the story is published as "A Piece of Cake". The story, about his wartime adventures, was bought by The Saturday Evening Post for $900, and propelled him into a career as a writer.[citation needed] Its title was inspired by a highly inaccurate and sensationalised article about the crash that blinded him, which claimed he had been shot down instead of simply having to land due to low fuel.

His first children's book was The Gremlins, about mischievous little creatures that were part of RAF folklore. The book was commissioned by Walt Disney for a film that was never made, and published in 1943. Dahl went on to create some of the best-loved children's stories of the 20th century, such as Charlie and the Chocolate Factory,Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator, Matilda , James and the Giant Peach and Georges Marvellous Medicine.

He also had a successful parallel career as the writer of macabre adult short stories, usually with a dark sense of humour and a surprise ending. Many were originally written for American magazines such as Collier's, Ladies Home Journal, Harper's, Playboy and The New Yorker, then subsequently collected by Dahl into anthologies, gaining worldwide acclaim. Dahl wrote more than 60 short stories and they have appeared in numerous collections, some only being published in book form after his death (See List of Roald Dahl short stories). His stories also brought him three Edgar Awards: in 1954, for the collection Someone Like You; in 1959, for the story "The Landlady"; and in 1980, for the episode of Tales of the Unexpected based on "Skin".

One of his more famous adult stories, "The Smoker" (also known as "Man From the South"), was filmed twice as both 1960 and 1985 episodes of Alfred Hitchcock Presents, and also adapted into Quentin Tarantino's segment of the 1995 film Four Rooms. This bizarre, oft-anthologised suspense classic concerns a man residing in Jamaica who wagers with visitors in an attempt to claim the fingers from their hands; the 1960 Hitchcock version stars Steve McQueen and Peter Lorre.

His short story collection Tales of the Unexpected was adapted to a successful TV series of the same name, beginning with "Man From the South". When the stock of Dahl's own original stories was exhausted, the series continued by adapting stories by authors that were written in Dahl's style, including the writers John Collier and Stanley Ellin.

He acquired a traditional Romanichal Gypsy wagon in the 1960s and the family used it as a playhouse for his children. He later used the vardo as a writing room, where he wrote the book Danny, the Champion of the World.[24]

A number of his short stories are supposed to be extracts from the diary of his (fictional) Uncle Oswald, a rich gentleman whose sexual exploits form the subject of these stories. In his novel "My Uncle Oswald" the uncle engages a temptress to seduce 20th Century geniuses and royalty with a love potion secretly added to chocolate truffles made by Dahl's favourite chocolate shop, Prestat of Piccadilly.

Memories with Food at Gipsy House, written with his wife Felicity and published posthumously in 1991, was a mixture of recipes, family reminiscences and Dahl's musings on favourite subjects such as chocolate, onions, and claret.

Dahl ranks amongst the world's bestselling fiction authors, with sales estimated at 100 million.[25][26]

[edit] Children's fiction

Dahl's children's works are usually told from the point of view of a child. They typically involve adult villains or villainesses who hate and mistreat children, and feature at least one "good" adult to counteract the villain(s). These stock characters are possibly a reference to the abuse that Dahl stated that he experienced in the boarding schools he attended. They usually contain a lot of black humour and grotesque scenarios, including gruesome violence. The Witches, George's Marvellous Medicine and Matilda are examples of this formula. The BFG follows it in a more analogous way with the good giant (the BFG or "Big Friendly Giant") representing the "good adult" archetype and the other giants being the "bad adults". This formula is also somewhat evident in Dahl's film script for Chitty Chitty Bang Bang. Class-conscious themes – ranging from the thinly veiled to the blatant – also surface in works such as Fantastic Mr Fox and Danny, the Champion of the World.

Dahl also features in his books characters that are very fat, usually children. Augustus Gloop, Bruce Bogtrotter, and Bruno Jenkins are a few of these characters, although an enormous woman named Aunt Sponge is featured in James and The Giant Peach and the nasty farmer Boggis in Fantastic Mr Fox features as an enormously fat character. All of these characters (with the possible exception of Bruce Bogtrotter) are either villains or simply unpleasant gluttons. They are usually punished for this: Augustus Gloop drinks from Willy Wonka's chocolate river, disregarding the adults who tell him not to, and falls in, getting sucked up a pipe and nearly being turned into fudge. Bruce Bogtrotter steals cake from the evil headmistress, Miss Trunchbull, and is forced to eat a gigantic chocolate cake in front of the school. Bruno Jenkins is turned into a mouse by witches who lure him to their convention with the promise of chocolate and, it is speculated, possibly disowned or even killed by his parents because of this. Aunt Sponge is flattened by a giant peach.

Dahl's mother used to tell him and his sisters tales about trolls and other mythical Norwegian creatures and some of his children's books contain references or elements inspired by these stories, such as the giants in The BFG, the fox family in Fantastic Mr Fox and the trolls in The Minpins.

[edit] Screenplays

For a brief period in the 1960s, Dahl wrote screenplays. Two – the James Bond film You Only Live Twice and Chitty Chitty Bang Bang – were adaptations of novels by Ian Fleming, though both were rewritten and completed by other writers. Dahl also began adapting his own novel Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, which was completed and rewritten by David Seltzer after Dahl failed to meet deadlines, and produced as the film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971). Dahl later disowned the film, though it is not clear whether his reasons for doing so were connected to the quality of the film itself or his leaving its production.

[edit] Influences

Not surprisingly, a major part of Dahl's literary influences stemmed from his childhood. In his younger days, he was an avid reader, especially awed by fantastic tales of heroism and triumph. Amongst his favourite authors were Rudyard Kipling, William Thackeray, Frederick Marryat and Charles Dickens and their works went on to make a lasting mark on his life and writing. Dahl was also a huge fan of ghost stories and claimed that Trolls by Jonas Lie was one of the finest ghost stories ever written. While he was still a youngster, his mother, Sofie Dahl, would relate traditional Norwegian myths and legends from her native homeland to Dahl and his sisters. Dahl always maintained that his mother and her stories had a strong influence on his writing. In one interview he mentioned, "She was a great teller of tales. Her memory was prodigious and nothing that ever happened to her in her life was forgotten." When Dahl started writing and publishing his famous books for children, he created a grandmother character in The Witches and later admitted that she was based directly on his own mother as a tribute.[1][27]

[edit] Television

[edit] Way Out

In 1961, Dahl hosted and wrote for a science fiction and horror television anthology series called Way Out, which preceded the similar but less dark and edgy Twilight Zone series on the CBS network Saturday nights for 14 episodes[28] from March to July. Dahl's comedic monologues bookended the episodes, frequently explaining exactly how to murder one's spouse without getting caught. One of the last dramatic network shows done in New York City, the entire series is available for viewing at The Paley Center for Media in New York and Los Angeles.

[edit] Tales of the Unexpected

Tales of the Unexpected is a British television series that originally aired between 1979 and 1988, made by Anglia Television for ITV.

The series was an anthology of different tales, initially based on short stories, at one time compiled in a book of the same title, by the author Roald Dahl. The stories were sometimes sinister, sometimes wryly comedic, and usually had a twist ending. Dahl introduced on camera all the episodes of the first two series, which bore the full title Roald Dahl's Tales Of The Unexpected. Dahl also chose the stories not written by him to be adapted for the second series, and a small number of additional Dahl stories were adapted for the third series onwards following his departure.

[edit] List of works

[edit] Children's stories

The Gremlins (1943)

James and the Giant Peach (1961) — Film: James and the Giant Peach (live-action/animated) (1996)

Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964) — Films: Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971) and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005)

The Magic Finger (1 June 1966)

Fantastic Mr Fox (9 December 1970) — Film: Fantastic Mr. Fox (animated) (2009)

Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator (9 January 1972) A sequel to Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.

Danny, the Champion of the World (30 October 1975) — Film: Danny the Champion of the World (TV movie) (1989)

The Enormous Crocodile (24 August 1978)

The Twits (9 October 1980)

George's Marvellous Medicine (21 May 1981)

The BFG (14 October 1982) — Film: The BFG (animated) (1989)

The Witches (27 October 1983) — Film: The Witches (1990)

The Giraffe and the Pelly and Me (26 September 1985)

Matilda (21 April 1988) — Film: Matilda (1996)

Esio Trot (19 April 1990)

The Vicar of Nibbleswicke (9 May 1991)

The Minpins (8 August 1991)

Children's poetry

Revolting Rhymes (10 June 1982)

Dirty Beasts (25 October 1984)

Rhyme Stew (21 September 1989)

[edit] Adult fiction

Novels

Sometime Never: A Fable for Supermen (1948)

My Uncle Oswald (1979)

Short story collections

Over To You: Ten Stories of Flyers and Flying (1946)

Someone Like You (1953)

Lamb to the Slaughter (1953)

Kiss Kiss (1960)

Twenty-Nine Kisses from Roald Dahl (1969)

Switch Bitch (1974)

The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar and Six More (1977)

The Best of Roald Dahl (1978)

Tales of the Unexpected (1979)

More Tales of the Unexpected (1980)

Roald Dahl's Book of Ghost Stories (1983). Edited with an introduction by Dahl.

The Roald Dahl Omnibus (Dorset Press, 1986)

Two Fables (1986). "Princess and the Poacher" and "Princess Mammalia".

Ah, Sweet Mystery of Life: The Country Stories of Roald Dahl (1989)

The Collected Short Stories of Dahl (1991)

The Roald Dahl Treasury (1997)

The Great Automatic Grammatizator (1997). (Known in the USA as The Umbrella Man and Other Stories).

Skin And Other Stories (2000)

Roald Dahl: Collected Stories (2006)

See the alphabetical List of Roald Dahl short stories. See also Roald Dahl: Collected Stories for a complete, chronological listing.

[edit] Non-fiction

The Mildenhall Treasure (1946, 1977, 1999)

Boy – Tales of Childhood (1984) Recollections up to the age of 20, looking particularly at schooling in Britain in the early part of the 20th century.

Going Solo (1986) Continuation of his autobiography, in which he goes to work for Shell and spends some time working in Tanzania before joining the war effort and becoming one of the last Allied pilots to withdraw from Greece during the German invasion.

Measles, a Dangerous Illness (1986)[29]

Memories with Food at Gipsy House (1991)

Roald Dahl's Guide to Railway Safety (1991)

My Year (1993)

Roald Dahl's Revolting Recipes by Felicity Dahl, et al. (1994), a collection of recipes based on and inspired by food in Dahl's books, created by Roald & Felicity Dahl, and Josie Fison

Roald Dahl's Even More Revolting Recipes by Felicity Dahl, et al. (2001)

[edit] Plays

The Honeys (1955) Produced at the Longacre Theater on Broadway.

[edit] Film scripts

The Gremlins (1943)

36 Hours (1965)

You Only Live Twice (1967)

Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (1968)

The Night Digger (1971)

Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971)

[edit] Television

Way Out (1961) Horror series hosted by Roald Dahl and produced by David Susskind

Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Lamb to the Slaughter" (1958)

Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Dip in the Pool" (1958)

Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Poison" (1958)

Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Man from the South" (1960) with Steve McQueen and Peter Lorre

Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Mrs. Bixby and the Colonel's Coat" (1960)

Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "The Landlady" (1961)

Tales of the Unexpected (1979-88), episodes written and introduced by Roald Dahl.

[edit] Controversies

In 1983 Dahl reviewed Tony Clifton's God Cried, a picture book about the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon depicting Israelis killing thousands of Beirut inhabitants by bombing civilian targets. Dahl's review stated that this invasion was when "we all started hating Israel", and that the book would make readers "violently anti-Israeli", writing, "I am not anti-Semitic. I am anti-Israel."[30] Dahl told a reporter in 1983, "There’s a trait in the Jewish character that does provoke animosity ... I mean there is always a reason why anti-anything crops up anywhere; even a stinker like Hitler didn’t just pick on them for no reason."[30] Dahl maintained friendships with a number of Jews, including philosopher Isaiah Berlin, who said, "I thought he might say anything. Could have been pro-Arab or pro-Jew. There was no consistent line. He was a man who followed whims, which meant he would blow up in one direction, so to speak."[30] In later years, Dahl included a sympathetic episode about German-Jewish refugees in his book Going Solo, and professed to be opposed to injustice, not Jews.[30]

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^ הסיפור "A Piece of cake" ^ Roald Dahl Also Left a Legacy of Bigotry - New York Times ^ The Roald Dahl Museum and Story Centre ^ http://www.paperschildlit.com/index.php/papers/article/viewFile/39/37 ^ Loughborough University Institutional Repository: Author popularity: an exploratory study based on Roald Dahl ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_best-selling_fiction_authors ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_best-selling_books ^ RoaldDahlFans.com - Frequently Asked Questions ^ ALAN v26n1 - Roald Dahl and Sociology 101

Roald Dahl From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Page semi-protected Roald Dahl Roald Dahl.jpg Roald Dahl in 1954 Born 13 September 1916 Llandaff, Cardiff, Wales Died 23 November 1990 (aged 74) Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Occupation Novelist, poet, screenwriter Language English Nationality British Period 1942–90 Genres Children's, adults' literature, horror, mystery, fantasy Notable work(s) Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, James and the Giant Peach, Fantastic Mr Fox, Matilda, The Witches, The Twits, The BFG, The Gremlins, George's Marvellous Medicine, Danny, the Champion of the World, The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar and Six More Spouse(s) Patricia Neal (1953–83; divorced) Felicity Ann d'Abreu Crosland (1983–90; his death) Children Olivia Twenty (1955–1962) Chantal Tessa Sophia (b. 1957) Theo Matthew (b. 1960); Ophelia Magdalena (b. 1964) Lucy Neal (b. 1965) Military career Allegiance United Kingdom Service/branch British Army (August–November 1939)

Royal Air Force (November 1939–August 1946)

Years of service 1939–1946 Rank Wing Commander Battles/wars World War II www.roalddahl.com Roald Dahl (/ˈroʊ.ɑːl ˈdɑːl/;[1] Norwegian: [ˈɾuːɑl dɑl]; 13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short story writer, poet, fighter pilot and screenwriter. Born in Wales to Norwegian parents, Dahl served in the Royal Air Force during World War II, in which he became a flying ace and intelligence officer, rising to the rank of wing commander. He rose to prominence in the 1940s with works for both children and adults and became one of the world's best-selling authors.[2][3] He has been referred to as "one of the greatest storytellers for children of the 20th century".[4] In 2008 The Times placed Dahl 16th on its list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945".[5] His short stories are known for their unexpected endings and his children's books for their unsentimental, often very dark humour. Dahl's works include James and the Giant Peach, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Matilda, The Witches, Fantastic Mr Fox, The Twits, George's Marvellous Medicine and The BFG. Contents [hide] 1 Early life 2 Fighter ace 3 Diplomat, writer and intelligence officer 4 Post-war life 5 Death and legacy 6 Writing 6.1 Children's fiction 6.2 Screenplays 6.3 Influences 6.4 Television 7 Publications 7.1 Children's stories 7.2 Adult fiction 7.3 Non-fiction 7.4 Plays 7.5 Film scripts 7.6 Television 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Early life

Roald Dahl was born at Villa Marie, Fairwater Road in Llandaff, Cardiff, Wales, in 1916, to Norwegian parents, Harald Dahl and Sofie Magdalene Dahl (née Hesselberg).[6] Dahl's father had emigrated to the UK from Sarpsborg, Norway, and settled in Cardiff in the 1880s. His mother came over and married his father in 1911. Dahl was named after the polar explorer Roald Amundsen, a national hero in Norway at the time. He spoke Norwegian at home with his parents and his sisters Astri, Alfhild and Else. Dahl and his sisters were baptised at the Norwegian Church, Cardiff, where their parents worshipped.[7] In 1920, when Dahl was three years old, his seven-year-old sister, Astri, died from appendicitis. Weeks later, his father died of pneumonia at the age of 57 while on a fishing trip in the Antarctic. With the option of returning to Norway to live with relatives, Dahl's mother decided to remain in Wales because Harald had wished to have their children educated in British schools, which he considered the world's best.[8] Dahl first attended The Cathedral School, Llandaff. At the age of eight, he and four of his friends (one named Thwaites) were caned by the headmaster after putting a dead mouse in a jar of gobstoppers at the local sweet shop,[4] which was owned by a "mean and loathsome" old woman called Mrs Pratchett.[4] This was known amongst the five boys as the "Great Mouse Plot of 1924".[9] Thereafter, he transferred to a boarding school in England: Saint Peter's in Weston-super-Mare. Roald's parents had wanted him to be educated at an English public school and, because of a then regular ferry link across the Bristol Channel, this proved to be the nearest. His time at Saint Peter's was an unpleasant experience for him. He was very homesick and wrote to his mother every week but never revealed to her his unhappiness, being under the pressure of school censorship. Only after her death in 1967 did he find out that she had saved every single one of his letters, in small bundles held together with green tape.[10] Dahl wrote about his time at St. Peter's in his autobiography Boy: Tales of Childhood.[11] From 1929, he attended Repton School in Derbyshire, where, according to Boy: Tales of Childhood, a friend named Michael was viciously caned by headmaster Geoffrey Fisher, who later became the Archbishop of Canterbury and went on to crown Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. (However, according to Dahl's biographer Jeremy Treglown,[12] the caning took place in May 1933, a year after Fisher had left Repton. The headmaster concerned was in fact J.T. Christie, Fisher's successor.) This caused Dahl to "have doubts about religion and even about God".[13] He was never seen as a particularly talented writer in his school years, with one of his English teachers writing in his school report "I have never met anybody who so persistently writes words meaning the exact opposite of what is intended."[14] Dahl was exceptionally tall, reaching 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) in adult life.[15] He excelled at sports, being made captain of the school fives and squash teams, and also playing for the football team.[16] As well as having a passion for literature, he also developed an interest in photography[17] and often carried a camera with him. During his years at Repton, Cadbury, the chocolate company, would occasionally send boxes of new chocolates to the school to be tested by the pupils. Dahl apparently used to dream of inventing a new chocolate bar that would win the praise of Mr. Cadbury himself; and this proved the inspiration for him to write his third book for children, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964), and to include references to chocolate in other books for children.[18] Throughout his childhood and adolescent years, Dahl spent the majority of his summer holidays with his mother's family in Norway, and wrote about many happy memories from those expeditions in Boy: Tales of Childhood, such as when he replaced the tobacco in his half–sister's fiancé's pipe with goat droppings.[19] He only experienced one unhappy memory of his holidays in Norway at around the age of eight, when his adenoids were removed by a doctor.[20] His childhood and first job selling kerosene in Midsomer Norton and surrounding villages in Somerset, south West England are subjects in Boy: Tales of Childhood.[21] The main child character in his 1983 book The Witches is a British boy of Norwegian descent, whose grandmother is still living in Norway.[22] After finishing his schooling, in August 1934 Dahl crossed the Atlantic on the RMS Nova Scotia and hiked through Newfoundland with the Public Schools Exploring Society.[23][24] In July 1934, Dahl joined the Shell Petroleum Company. Following two years of training in the United Kingdom, he was transferred to first Mombasa, Kenya, then to Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika (now Tanzania). Along with the only two other Shell employees in the entire territory, he lived in luxury in the Shell House outside Dar-es-Salaam, with a cook and personal servants. While out on assignments supplying oil to customers across Tanganyika, he encountered black mambas and lions, amongst other wildlife.[13] Fighter ace

In August 1939, as World War II loomed, plans were made to round up the hundreds of Germans in Dar-es-Salaam. Dahl was made a lieutenant in the King's African Rifles, commanding a platoon of Askaris, indigenous troops serving in the colonial army.[25] In November 1939, Dahl joined the Royal Air Force as an aircraftman. After a 600-mile (970 km) car journey from Dar-es-Salaam to Nairobi, he was accepted for flight training with 16 other men, of whom only three others survived the war. With seven hours and 40 minutes experience in a De Havilland Tiger Moth, he flew solo;[26] Dahl enjoyed watching the wildlife of Kenya during his flights. He continued to advanced flying training in Iraq, at RAF Habbaniya, 50 miles (80 km) west of Baghdad. He was promoted to leading aircraftman on 24 August 1940.[27] Following six months' training on Hawker Harts, Dahl was made an acting pilot officer. He was assigned to No. 80 Squadron RAF, flying obsolete Gloster Gladiators, the last biplane fighter aircraft used by the RAF. Dahl was surprised to find that he would not receive any specialised training in aerial combat, or in flying Gladiators. On 19 September 1940, Dahl was ordered to fly his Gladiator from Abu Sueir in Egypt, on to Amiriya to refuel, and again to Fouka in Libya for a second refuelling. From there he would fly to 80 Squadron's forward airstrip 30 miles (48 km) south of Mersa Matruh. On the final leg, he could not find the airstrip and, running low on fuel and with night approaching, he was forced to attempt a landing in the desert.[28] The undercarriage hit a boulder and the aircraft crashed, fracturing his skull, smashing his nose and temporarily blinding him.[29] He managed to drag himself away from the blazing wreckage and passed out. Later, he wrote about the crash in his first published work.[29] Dahl was rescued and taken to a first-aid post in Mersa Matruh, where he regained consciousness, but not his sight, and was then taken by train to the Royal Navy hospital in Alexandria. There he fell in and out of love with a nurse, Mary Welland. An RAF inquiry into the crash revealed that the location to which he had been told to fly was completely wrong, and he had mistakenly been sent instead to the no man's land between the Allied and Italian forces.[30] In February 1941, Dahl was discharged from hospital and passed fully fit for flying duties. By this time, 80 Squadron had been transferred to the Greek campaign and based at Eleusina, near Athens. The squadron was now equipped with Hawker Hurricanes. Dahl flew a replacement Hurricane across the Mediterranean Sea in April 1941, after seven hours flying Hurricanes. By this stage in the Greek campaign, the RAF had only 18 combat aircraft in Greece: 14 Hurricanes and four Bristol Blenheim light bombers. Dahl saw his first aerial combat on 15 April 1941, while flying alone over the city of Chalcis. He attacked six Junkers Ju-88s that were bombing ships and shot one down. On 16 April in another air battle, he shot down another Ju-88.[31] On 20 April 1941, Dahl took part in the "Battle of Athens", alongside the highest-scoring British Commonwealth ace of World War II, Pat Pattle and Dahl's friend David Coke. Of 12 Hurricanes involved, five were shot down and four of their pilots killed, including Pattle. Greek observers on the ground counted 22 German aircraft downed, but because of the confusion of the aerial engagement, none of the pilots knew which aircraft they had shot down. Dahl described it as "an endless blur of enemy fighters whizzing towards me from every side".[32][33] In May, as the Germans were pressing on Athens, Dahl was evacuated to Egypt. His squadron was reassembled in Haifa. From there, Dahl flew sorties every day for a period of four weeks, shooting down a Vichy French Air Force Potez 63 on 8 June and another Ju-88 on 15 June, but he then began to get severe headaches that caused him to black out. He was invalided home to Britain. Though at this time Dahl was only a Pilot Officer on probation, in September 1941 he was simultaneously confirmed as a Pilot Officer and promoted to war substantive Flying Officer.[34] Diplomat, writer and intelligence officer

After being invalided home, Dahl was posted to an RAF training camp in Uxbridge while attempting to recover his health enough to become an instructor.[35] In late March 1942, while in London, he met the Under-Secretary of State for Air, Major Harold Balfour (later Lord Balfour), at his club. Impressed by his war record and conversational abilities, Balfour appointed Dahl as assistant air attaché at the British Embassy in Washington, D.C.. Initially resistant, he was finally persuaded by Balfour to accept, and took passage on the SS Batori from Glasgow a few days later. He arrived in Halifax on 14 April, after which he took a sleeper train to Montreal. Coming from war-starved Britain, Dahl was amazed by the wealth of food and amenities to be had in North America.[36] Arriving in Washington a week later, Dahl found he liked the atmosphere of the U.S. capital, but was unimpressed by his office in the British Air Mission, attached to the embassy. Nor was he impressed by the ambassador, Lord Halifax, whom he sometimes played tennis with and described as "a courtly English gentleman." As part of his duties as assistant air attaché, Dahl was to help neutralise the isolationist views many Americans still held by giving pro-British speeches and discussing his war service; the US had only entered the war the previous December, following the attack on Pearl Harbor. After only ten days in his new posting, Dahl strongly disliked it, feeling he had taken on "a most ungodly unimportant job."[37] As he later said: "I'd just come from the war. People were getting killed. I had been flying around, seeing horrible things. Now, almost instantly, I found myself in the middle of a pre-war cocktail party in America."[38] However, at this time Dahl met the noted novelist C. S. Forester, who was also working to aid the British war effort. The Saturday Evening Post had asked Forester to write a story based on Dahl's flying experiences; Forester asked Dahl to write down some RAF anecdotes so that he could shape them into a story. After Forester read what Dahl had given him, he decided to publish the story exactly as Dahl had written it. The original title of the article was "A Piece of Cake" but the title was changed to "Shot Down Over Libya" to make it sound more dramatic, despite the fact that Dahl had not actually been shot down; it appeared in the 1 August issue of the Post. He shared a house at 1610 34th Street, NW, in Georgetown, with another attaché. Dahl socialized with Texas publisher and oilman Charles E. Marsh at his house at 2136 R Street, NW, and the Marsh country estate in Virginia.[30][39] Dahl was promoted to flight lieutenant (war-substantive) in August.[40] During the war, Forester worked for the British Information Service and was writing propaganda for the Allied cause, mainly for American consumption.[41] This work introduced Dahl to espionage and the activities of the Canadian spymaster William Stephenson, known by the codename "Intrepid".[42] During the war, Dahl supplied intelligence from Washington to Stephenson and his organisation known as British Security Coordination,[39] which was part of MI6. He was revealed in the 1980s to have been serving to help promote Britain's interests and message in the United States and to combat the "America First" movement, working with such other well-known officers as Ian Fleming and David Ogilvy.[43] Dahl was once sent back to Britain by British Embassy officials, supposedly for misconduct – "I got booted out by the big boys," he said. Stephenson promptly sent him back to Washington—with a promotion to Wing Commander.[44] Towards the end of the war, Dahl wrote some of the history of the secret organisation and he and Stephenson remained friends for decades after the war.[45] Upon the war's conclusion, Dahl held the rank of a temporary wing commander (substantive flight lieutenant). Owing to the seriousness of his accident in 1940, he was pronounced unfit for further service and was invalided out of the RAF in August 1946. He left the service with the substantive rank of squadron leader.[46] His record of five aerial victories, qualifying him as a flying ace, has been confirmed by post-war research and cross-referenced in Axis records, although it is most likely that he scored more than that during 20 April 1941 when 22 German aircraft were shot down.[47] Post-war life

Patricia Neal and Roald Dahl Dahl married American actress Patricia Neal on 2 July 1953 at Trinity Church in New York City. Their marriage lasted for 30 years and they had five children: Olivia Twenty (April 20, 1955 – November 17, 1962); Chantal Tessa Sophia (b. 1957); Theo Matthew (b. 1960); Ophelia Magdalena (b. 1964); and Lucy Neal (b. 1965).[48] On 5 December 1960, four-month-old Theo Dahl was severely injured when his baby carriage was struck by a taxicab in New York City. For a time, he suffered from hydrocephalus and, as a result, his father became involved in the development of what became known as the "Wade-Dahl-Till" (or WDT) valve, a device to alleviate the condition.[49][50] In November 1962, Olivia Dahl died of measles encephalitis at age seven. Dahl subsequently became a proponent of immunisation[51] and dedicated his 1982 book The BFG to his daughter.[52] In 1965, wife Patricia Neal suffered three burst cerebral aneurysms while pregnant with their fifth child, Lucy; Dahl took control of her rehabilitation and she eventually re-learned to talk and walk, and even returned to her acting career,[53] an episode in their lives which was dramatised in the film The Patricia Neal Story, in which the couple were played by Glenda Jackson and Dirk Bogarde.[54] Following a divorce from Neal in 1983, Dahl married Felicity "Liccy" Crosland at Brixton Town Hall, South London. Dahl and Crosland had previously been in a relationship.[55] According to biographer Donald Sturrock, Liccy gave up her job and moved into 'Gipsy House', Great Missenden in Buckinghamshire, which had been Dahl's home since 1954.[56] In 1983 Dahl reviewed Tony Clifton's God Cried, a picture book about the 1982 Lebanon War that depicted Israelis killing thousands of Beirut inhabitants by bombing civilian targets.[57] Dahl's review stated that the book would make readers "violently anti-Israeli", writing, "I am not anti-Semitic. I am anti-Israel."[58] Dahl told a reporter in 1983, "There’s a trait in the Jewish character that does provoke animosity ... I mean there is always a reason why anti-anything crops up anywhere; even a stinker like Hitler didn’t just pick on them for no reason."[58] Dahl maintained friendships with a number of Jews, including philosopher Isaiah Berlin, who said, "I thought he might say anything. Could have been pro-Arab or pro-Jew. There was no consistent line. He was a man who followed whims, which meant he would blow up in one direction, so to speak."[58] In the 1986 New Years Honours List, Dahl was offered the Order of the British Empire (OBE), but turned it down, purportedly because he wanted a knighthood so that his wife would be Lady Dahl.[59][60] Dahl is the father of author Tessa Dahl and grandfather of author, cookbook writer and former model Sophie Dahl (after whom Sophie in The BFG is named).[61] Death and legacy

Dahl's gravestone, St Peter and St Paul's Church, Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire Roald Dahl died on 23 November 1990, at the age of 74 of a blood disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, in Oxford,[62] and was buried in the cemetery at St Peter and St Paul's Church in Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire, England.[63] According to his granddaughter, the family gave him a "sort of Viking funeral". He was buried with his snooker cues, some very good burgundy, chocolates, HB pencils and a power saw. In his honour, the Roald Dahl Children's Gallery was opened in November 1996, at the Buckinghamshire County Museum in nearby Aylesbury.[64] Roald Dahl Plass

Roald Dahl Plass illuminated at night

Plaque commemorating Roald Dahl In 2002, one of Cardiff Bay's modern landmarks, the historic Oval Basin plaza, was re-christened "Roald Dahl Plass". "Plass" means "place" or "square" in Norwegian, referring to the acclaimed late writer's Norwegian roots. There have also been calls from the public for a permanent statue of him to be erected in the city.[65] Dahl's charitable commitments in the fields of neurology, haematology and literacy have been continued by his widow since his death, through Roald Dahl's Marvellous Children's Charity, formerly known as the Roald Dahl Foundation.[66][67] In June 2005, the Roald Dahl Museum and Story Centre opened in Great Missenden to celebrate the work of Roald Dahl and advance his work in literacy education.[63][68]

Blue plaque for Roald Dahl in Llandaff, Cardiff In 2008, the UK charity Booktrust and Children's Laureate Michael Rosen inaugurated The Roald Dahl Funny Prize, an annual award to authors of humorous children's fiction.[69][70] On 14 September 2009 (the day after what would have been Dahl's 93rd birthday) the first blue plaque in his honour was unveiled in Llandaff, Cardiff, Wales.[71] Rather than commemorating his place of birth, however, the plaque was erected on the wall of the former sweet shop (and site of "The Great Mouse Plot of 1924") that features in the first part of his autobiography Boy. It was unveiled by his widow Felicity and son Theo.[71] The anniversary of Dahl's birthday on 13 September is celebrated as "Roald Dahl Day" in Africa, the United Kingdom and Latin America.[72][73][74] In honour of Roald Dahl, Gibraltar Post issued a set of four stamps in 2010 featuring Quentin Blake's original illustrations for four of the children's books written by Dahl during his long career; The BFG, The Twits, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Matilda.[75] A set of six stamps was issued by Royal Mail in 2012, featuring Quentin Blake's illustrations for Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, The Twits, The Witches, Matilda, Fantastic Mr Fox, James and the Giant Peach.[76] Dahl's influence has extended beyond literary figures, and he connected with film director Tim Burton with his "mixture of light and darkness, and not speaking down to kids, and the kind of politically incorrect humour that kids get".[77] Actress Scarlett Johansson named Fantastic Mr. Fox as one of the five books that made a difference to her.[78] Regarded as "one of the greatest storytellers for children of the 20th century",[4] Dahl was listed as one of the greatest British writers since 1945.[5] He ranks amongst the world's best-selling fiction authors with sales estimated at over 100 million,[2][3] and his books have been published in almost 50 languages.[72] In 2003, the UK survey entitled The Big Read carried out by the BBC in order to find the "nation's best loved novel" of all time, four of Dahl's books were named in the Top 100, with only works by Charles Dickens and Terry Pratchett featuring more.[79] In a 2006 list for the Royal Society of Literature, author J. K. Rowling named Charlie and the Chocolate Factory among her top ten books every child should read.[80] Writing

Roald Dahl's "The Devious Bachelor" was illustrated by Frederick Siebel when it was published in Collier's (September 1953). Dahl's first published work, inspired by a meeting with C. S. Forester, was "A Piece Of Cake" on 1 August 1942. The story, about his wartime adventures, was bought by The Saturday Evening Post for US$1000 (a substantial sum in 1942) and published under the title "Shot Down Over Libya".[81] His first children's book was The Gremlins, published in 1943, about mischievous little creatures that were part of Royal Air Force folklore.[82] All the RAF pilots blamed the gremlins for all the problems with the aircraft. While at the British Embassy in Washington, D.C. Dahl sent a copy to the First Lady of the US Eleanor Roosevelt who read it to her grandchildren,[82] and the book was commissioned by Walt Disney for a film that was never made.[83] Dahl went on to create some of the best-loved children's stories of the 20th century, such as Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Matilda, James and the Giant Peach, The Witches, Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator, The BFG, George's Marvellous Medicine and Fantastic Mr Fox. Dahl also had a successful parallel career as the writer of macabre adult short stories, usually with a dark sense of humour and a surprise ending.[84] The Mystery Writers of America presented Dahl with three Edgar Awards for his work, and many were originally written for American magazines such as Collier's (The Collector's Item was Colliers Star Story of the week for 4 September 1948), Ladies Home Journal, Harper's, Playboy and The New Yorker. Works such as Kiss Kiss subsequently collected Dahl's stories into anthologies, gaining worldwide acclaim. Dahl wrote more than 60 short stories; they have appeared in numerous collections, some only being published in book form after his death (See List of Roald Dahl short stories). His three Edgar Awards were given for: in 1954, the collection Someone Like You; in 1959, the story "The Landlady"; and in 1980, the episode of Tales of the Unexpected based on "Skin".[84]

Roald Dahl's gypsy wagon in the garden of his house, Gipsy Cottage, in Great Missenden, where he wrote the book Danny, the Champion of the World in 1975. One of his more famous adult stories, "The Smoker" (also known as "Man From the South"), was filmed twice as both 1960 and 1985 episodes of Alfred Hitchcock Presents, and also adapted into Quentin Tarantino's segment of the 1995 film Four Rooms.[85] This oft-anthologised classic concerns a man in Jamaica who wagers with visitors in an attempt to claim the fingers from their hands. The 1960 Hitchcock version stars Steve McQueen and Peter Lorre.[85] Dahl acquired a traditional Romanichal Gypsy wagon in the 1960s, and the family used it as a playhouse for his children at home in Great Missenden. He later used the vardo as a writing room, where he wrote Danny, the Champion of the World in 1975.[86] Dahl incorporated a Gypsy wagon into the main plot of the book, where the young English boy, Danny, and his father, William (played by Jeremy Irons in the film adaptation) live in a Gypsy caravan.[87] Many local scenes and characters in Great Missenden inspired Dahl's stories.[63] His short story collection Tales of the Unexpected was adapted to a successful TV series of the same name, beginning with "Man From the South".[88] When the stock of Dahl's own original stories was exhausted, the series continued by adapting stories by authors that were written in Dahl's style, including the writers John Collier and Stanley Ellin.[89] Some of his short stories are supposed to be extracts from the diary of his (fictional) Uncle Oswald, a rich gentleman whose sexual exploits form the subject of these stories.[90] In his novel My Uncle Oswald, the uncle engages a temptress to seduce 20th century geniuses and royalty with a love potion secretly added to chocolate truffles made by Dahl's favourite chocolate shop, Prestat of Piccadilly, London.[90] Memories with Food at Gipsy House, written with his wife Felicity and published posthumously in 1991, was a mixture of recipes, family reminiscences and Dahl's musings on favourite subjects such as chocolate, onions and claret.[66][91] Children's fiction Dahl's children's works are usually told from the point of view of a child. They typically involve adult villains who hate and mistreat children, and feature at least one "good" adult to counteract the villain(s). These stock characters are possibly a reference to the abuse that Dahl stated that he experienced in the boarding schools he attended.[4] They usually contain a lot of black humour and grotesque scenarios, including gruesome violence. The Witches, George's Marvellous Medicine and Matilda are examples of this formula. The BFG follows it in a more analogous way with the good giant (the BFG or "Big Friendly Giant") representing the "good adult" archetype and the other giants being the "bad adults". This formula is also somewhat evident in Dahl's film script for Chitty Chitty Bang Bang. Class-conscious themes – ranging from the thinly veiled to the blatant – also surface in works such as Fantastic Mr Fox and Danny, the Champion of the World. Dahl also features in his books characters who are very fat, usually children. Augustus Gloop, Bruce Bogtrotter and Bruno Jenkins are a few of these characters, although an enormous woman named Aunt Sponge is featured in James and the Giant Peach and the nasty farmer Boggis in Fantastic Mr Fox is an enormously fat character. All of these characters (with the possible exception of Bruce Bogtrotter) are either villains or simply unpleasant gluttons. They are usually punished for this: Augustus Gloop drinks from Willy Wonka's chocolate river, disregarding the adults who tell him not to, and falls in, getting sucked up a pipe and nearly being turned into fudge. In Matilda, Bruce Bogtrotter steals cake from the evil headmistress, Miss Trunchbull, and is forced to eat a gigantic chocolate cake in front of the school. Featuring in The Witches, Bruno Jenkins is turned into a mouse by witches who lure him to their convention with the promise of chocolate, and, it is speculated, possibly disowned or even killed by his parents because of this. Aunt Sponge is flattened by a giant peach. Dahl's mother used to tell him and his sisters tales about trolls and other mythical Norwegian creatures and some of his children's books contain references or elements inspired by these stories, such as the giants in The BFG, the fox family in Fantastic Mr Fox and the trolls in The Minpins. In his poetry, Dahl gives a humorous re-interpretation of well-known nursery rhymes and fairy tales, providing surprise endings in place of the traditional happily-ever-after. Dahl's collection of poems Revolting Rhymes is recorded in audio book form, and narrated by actor Alan Cumming.[92] Screenplays For a brief period in the 1960s, Dahl wrote screenplays. Two, the James Bond film You Only Live Twice and Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, were adaptations of novels by Ian Fleming, though both were rewritten and completed by other writers. Dahl created the Child Catcher, the supporting antagonist in Chitty Chitty Bang Bang; in a 2005 poll, it was voted the scariest villain in children's literature.[93] Dahl also began adapting his own novel Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, which was completed and rewritten by David Seltzer after Dahl failed to meet deadlines, and produced as the film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971). Dahl later disowned the film, saying he was "disappointed" because "he thought it placed too much emphasis on Willy Wonka and not enough on Charlie".[94] He was also "infuriated" by the deviations in the plot devised by David Seltzer in his draft of the screenplay. This resulted in his refusal for any more versions of the book to be made in his lifetime, as well as an adaption for the sequel Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator.[95] Influences A major part of Dahl's literary influences stemmed from his childhood. In his younger days, he was an avid reader, especially awed by fantastic tales of heroism and triumph. Amongst his favourite authors were Rudyard Kipling, William Makepeace Thackeray, Frederick Marryat and Charles Dickens, and their works went on to make a lasting mark on his life and writing. Dahl was also a huge fan of ghost stories and claimed that Trolls by Jonas Lie was one of the finest ghost stories ever written. While he was still a youngster, his mother, Sofie Dahl, would relate traditional Norwegian myths and legends from her native homeland to Dahl and his sisters. Dahl always maintained that his mother and her stories had a strong influence on his writing. In one interview, he mentioned: "She was a great teller of tales. Her memory was prodigious and nothing that ever happened to her in her life was forgotten."[96] When Dahl started writing and publishing his famous books for children, he created a grandmother character in The Witches and later stated that she was based directly on his own mother as a tribute.[97][98] Television In 1961, Dahl hosted and wrote for a science fiction and horror television anthology series called Way Out, which preceded the Twilight Zone series on the CBS network for 14 episodes from March to July.[99] One of the last dramatic network shows shot in New York City, the entire series is available for viewing at The Paley Center for Media in New York City and Los Angeles.[100] The British television series, Tales of the Unexpected, originally aired on ITV between 1979 and 1988.[101] The series was released to tie in with Dahl's Tales of the Unexpected, which had introduced readers to many motifs that were common in his writing.[88] The series was an anthology of different tales, initially based on Dahl's short stories.[88] The stories were sometimes sinister, sometimes wryly comedic and usually had a twist ending. Dahl introduced on camera all the episodes of the first two series, which bore the full title Roald Dahl's Tales of the Unexpected.[102] Publications

Children's stories The Gremlins (1943) James and the Giant Peach (1961) – Film: James and the Giant Peach (live-action/animated) (1996) Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964)[a] – Films: Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971) and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (2005) The Magic Finger (1 June 1966) Fantastic Mr Fox (9 December 1970) – Film: Fantastic Mr. Fox (animated) (2009) Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator (9 January 1972) – Sequel to Charlie and the Chocolate Factory[a] Danny, the Champion of the World (30 October 1975) – Film: Danny the Champion of the World (TV movie) (1989) The Enormous Crocodile (24 August 1978) The Twits (17 December 1980) George's Marvellous Medicine (21 May 1981) The BFG (14 October 1982) – Film: The BFG (animated) (1989) The Witches (27 October 1983) – Film: The Witches (1990) The Giraffe and the Pelly and Me (26 September 1985) Matilda (21 April 1988) – Film: Matilda (1996) Esio Trot (19 April 1989) The Vicar of Nibbleswicke (9 May 1990) The Minpins (8 August 1991) Children's poetry Revolting Rhymes (10 June 1982) Dirty Beasts (25 October 1984) Rhyme Stew (21 September 1989) ^ Jump up to: a b Omnibus editions of the two Charlie books have been published with illustrations by Michael Foreman from 1987 and by Quentin Blake from 2001, both entitled The Complete Adventures of Charlie and Willy Wonka.[103] Adult fiction Novels Sometime Never: A Fable for Supermen (1948) My Uncle Oswald (1979) Short story collections Over To You: Ten Stories of Flyers and Flying (1946) Someone Like You (1953) Lamb to the Slaughter (1953) Kiss Kiss (1960) Twenty-Nine Kisses from Roald Dahl (1969) Switch Bitch (1974) The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar and Six More (1977) The Best of Roald Dahl (1978) Tales of the Unexpected (1979) More Tales of the Unexpected (1980) Roald Dahl's Book of Ghost Stories (1983). Edited with an introduction by Dahl. The Roald Dahl Omnibus (Dorset Press, 1986) Two Fables (1986). "Princess and the Poacher" and "Princess Mammalia". Ah, Sweet Mystery of Life: The Country Stories of Roald Dahl (1989) The Collected Short Stories of Dahl (1991) The Roald Dahl Treasury (1997) The Great Automatic Grammatizator (1997). (Known in the USA as The Umbrella Man and Other Stories). Skin And Other Stories (2000) Roald Dahl: Collected Stories (2006) See the alphabetical List of Roald Dahl short stories. See also Roald Dahl: Collected Stories for a complete, chronological listing. Non-fiction The Mildenhall Treasure (1946, 1977, 1999) Boy – Tales of Childhood (1984) Recollections up to the age of 20, looking particularly at schooling in Britain in the early part of the 20th century. Going Solo (1986) Continuation of his autobiography, in which he goes to work for Shell and spends some time working in Tanzania before joining the war effort and becoming one of the last Allied pilots to withdraw from Greece during the German invasion. Measles, a Dangerous Illness (1988)[104] Memories with Food at Gipsy House (1991) Roald Dahl's Guide to Railway Safety (1991) My Year (1993) Roald Dahl's Revolting Recipes by Felicity Dahl, et al. (1994), a collection of recipes based on and inspired by food in Dahl's books, created by Roald & Felicity Dahl and Josie Fison Roald Dahl's Even More Revolting Recipes by Felicity Dahl, et al. (2001) Plays The Honeys (1955) Produced at the Longacre Theatre on Broadway. Film scripts The Gremlins (1943) 36 Hours (1965) You Only Live Twice (1967) Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (1968) The Night Digger (1971) Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971) Television Way Out (1961) Horror series hosted by Roald Dahl and produced by David Susskind Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Lamb to the Slaughter" (1958) Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Dip in the Pool" (1958) Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Poison" (1958) Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Man from the South" (1960) with Steve McQueen and Peter Lorre Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Mrs. Bixby and the Colonel's Coat" (1960) Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "The Landlady" (1961) Tales of the Unexpected (1979–1988), episodes written and introduced by Dahl References

Jump up ^ Pronunciation of Roald Dahl : How to pronounce Roald Dahl inogolo.com ^ Jump up to: a b Britain celebrates first Roald Dahl Day msnbc: "Dahl's books, many of them darkly comic and featuring villainous adult enemies of the child characters, have sold over 100 million copies." (13 September 2006) ^ Jump up to: a b Fans gather for Dahl celebration BBC News: "Exhibitions and children's reading campaigns are being held to commemorate the life of Dahl, who died in 1990 and has sold more than 100 million books." (13 September 2006) ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Once upon a time, there was a man who liked to make up stories ... The Independent (Sunday, 12 December 2010) ^ Jump up to: a b The 50 greatest British writers since 1945. The Times. 5 January 2008. Retrieved on 1 February 2010. Jump up ^ Philip Howard, "Dahl, Roald (1916–1990)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 Jump up ^ Colin Palfrey (2006) Cardiff Soul: An Underground Guide to the City Jump up ^ Jill C. Wheeler (2006) Roald Dahl p.9. ABDO Publishing Company, 2006 Jump up ^ Michael D. Sharp (2006) Popular Contemporary Writers p.516. Marshall Cavendish, 2006 Jump up ^ "Roald Dahl's School Days". BBC Wales. Retrieved 24 January 2010. Jump up ^ Dahl, Roald (1984). Boy: Tales of Childhood. Puffin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-130305-5. Jump up ^ Jeremy Treglown, Roald Dahl: A Biography (1994) , Faber and Faber, page 21. Treglown's source note is as follows: "Several people who were at the top of Priory House at the time have discussed it with me, particularly B.L.L. Reuss and John Bradburn." ^ Jump up to: a b Dahl, Roald (1984). Boy: Tales of Childhood. Jonathan Cape. Jump up ^ "Roald Dahl". Kirjasto.sci.fi. 23 November 1990. Retrieved 28 January 2011. Jump up ^ Roald Dahl – Penguin UK Authors – Penguin UK Jump up ^ Shavick, Andrea (1997) Roald Dahl: the champion storyteller p.12. Oxford University Press, 1997 Jump up ^ Roald Dahl biography BBC Wales. Retrieved 15 June 2011 Jump up ^ Roald Dahl (derivative work) and Quentin Blake (2005). Roald Dahl's Incredible Chocolate Box. ISBN 0-14-131959-3. Jump up ^ Boy and Going Solo, p.128 - p.132 Jump up ^ Boy and Going Solo, p.68 - 71 Jump up ^ Dahl, Roald (1984) Boy: tales of childhood p.172. Puffin Books, 1984 Jump up ^ "The Witches: A 1983 Roald Dahl book, was made int

About רואלד דאל (עברית)

רואלד דאל

רואלד דאל, 1954 רואלד דאל (באנגלית: Roald Dahl;‏ 13 בספטמבר 1916 - 23 בנובמבר 1990) היה סופר אנגלי. תוכן עניינים [הסתרה] 1 חייו 2 כתיבתו של דאל 3 ספרי הילדים שכתב 3.1 הפופולריות של ספרי הילדים 3.2 ביקורת על ספרי הילדים 4 ספריו 5 לקריאה נוספת 6 קישורים חיצוניים 7 הערות שוליים חייו[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

רואלד דאל נולד בקארדיף שבוויילס להורים ממוצא נורבגי. בהיותו בן שלוש מתה אחותו בת השבע ממחלה בתוספתן ובגיל ארבע התייתם מאביו שמת מדלקת ריאות בהיותו בן 57. בגיל שמונה נשלח לפנימיה בחוף הדרום מערבי של אנגליה, שלימים תיארם כזוועתית, בעלת משמעת קשה ביותר, בה אסור היה לדבר במסדרונות, אסור היה להיות בלתי מסודרים, אסור היה לדבר במעונות, אסור היה לרוץ במסדרונות ועוד חוקים רבים, כאשר הפרת החוק הייתה גוררת זימון למנהל ומכות אכזריות במקל. בגיל שלוש עשרה עבר לפנימיה בדרבישייר אותה תיאר לימים בתיאורים זוועתיים עוד יותר והשווה אותה לימים לאינקוויזיציה הספרדית. בפנימיה זו הייתה ענישה לא רק על ידי המנהל עד זוב דם (תוך שהקורבן נדרש לנקות את דמו לאחריה) אלא גם ענישה סאדיסטית על ידי התלמידים המבוגרים. דאל לא הצטיין בכתיבה בבית הספר וקיבל הערות בתעודותיו על חוסר יכולותיו להעלות את מחשבותיו על הכתב, על היות אוצר המילים שלו מוגבל, ועל מיעוט רעיונותיו.[1] דאל סירב ללמוד באוניברסיטה, ונסע לאחר בית הספר לעבודה במזרח אפריקה בחברת הנפט "של". במהלך שנים אלה סייר באפריקה, והכיר את בעלי החיים השונים, אותם ברבות הימים יתאר בספריו. מיד עם פרוץ מלחמת העולם השנייה הוכשר כטייס בחיל האוויר הבריטי. בשנת 1940 מטוסו של דאל נאלץ לנחות נחיתת חירום, והתרסק מעל סלע ענק. דאל נפצע קשה, והיה מאושפז ששה חודשים. כתוצאה מתאונה זו סבל מכאבים בגבו עד מותו. עם חזרתו לשירות ב-1941 נשלח ליוון, ומשם לכרתים למצרים ולארץ ישראל, אולם כתוצאה מפציעתו ב 1940, נאלץ לעזוב הטיס, ונשלח לבריטניה ולאחרי כן לשגרירות בריטניה בארצות הברית. בשנת 1942 פנה אליו הסופר פורסטר וביקש לכתוב סיפור קצר על התרסקות מטוסו. דאל הבטיח לפורסטר כי על מנת לסייע בידו בכתיבה יעלה את עובדות התאונה על הכתב, ושלח לפורסטר סיכום קצר. פורסטר התרשם כל כך מהסיכום עד שהחליט לשלוח אותו ללא עריכה לפרסום, ופרסום זה הפך בן לילה את דאל לסופר.[2] התגורר בארצות הברית מתחילת שנות החמישים ועד 1960. היה נשוי לשחקנית האמריקאית פטרישה ניל ונולדו להם חמישה ילדים. בתו הבכורה אוליביה מתה בגיל שבע-וחצי מחצבת, ובנו תיאו נפגע קשה בתאונה. היה ידוע בדעותיו האנטי-ישראליות ואף האנטישמיות. במלחמת לבנון הראשונה אמר כי מנחם בגין ואריאל שרון ניתנים להשוואה לאדולף היטלר והרמן גרינג, התבטא במקומות אחרים על כך שמעולם לא ראה יהודים בקו הקדמי במלחמה, ואף שיהודים מעוררים תמיד שנאה, והיטלר לא בחר אותם באופן סתמי.[3] כתיבתו של דאל[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

לאחר סיפורו הקצר הראשון ב 1942 חדל דאל מלכתוב סיפורים המבוססים על סיפרים אמיתיים והחל בכתיבה של סיפורים דמיוניים. אחד מסיפוריו הקצרים הראשונים של דאל ב 1943, היה סיפור ילדים על הגרמלינים (יצורים קטנים שליהם סיפר כי הם ולא האויב אחראים לפגיעות במטוסים). סיפור זה היה בן לילה להצלחה. חברת הסרטים המצוירים דיסני החלה אף כי לא סיימה עריכת סרט ארוך על בסיסו, ודאל החל התיידד בעקבותיו עם נשיא ארצות הברית פרנקלין דלנו רוזוולט ואשתו אלינור רוזוולט שאף הקריאה הסיפור לנכדיה. דאל לא המשיך לכתוב לילדים, וכתב עד 1961 בעיקר סיפורים למבוגרים שהיו בדרך כלל קצרים ומקבריים. ספרי הילדים שכתב[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

בשנת 1961 חזר לכתיבת ספרי ילדים בספר ג'יימס והאפרסק הענקי, ומאז פרסם ספרי ילדים רבים. דאל ציין כי אילולא ניסיונו כהורה לא יכל לכתוב ספרי ילדים. לצד זאת דאל ציין גם כי ניתן לכתוב ספרי ילדים בכל נושא ובלבד שיהא הומוריסטי. ספרי הילדים שכתב דאל הם ספרים שנונים והומוריסטיים. הספרים מתארים ילדים בעלי יכולות יוצאות דופן (החל מילדים בעלי חוכמה חריגה - כמתילדה, והמשך בילדים בעלי אפשרות באצבעם לשנות העולם כבאצבע הקסם). הספרים מתארים עולם בו מרבית המבוגרים הם רשעים ומטומטמים (החל מאותם אנשים הצדים רק לצורך הצייד בדני אלוף העולם, המשך במבוגרים שאינם מאפשרים לילדיהם ללמוד כבמתילדה, או שאינם מעוניינים ומוכנים שילדיהם יגדלו כבתרופת הקסם, או מבוגרים תאבי בצע המעוניינים שילדים קטנים רק יבצעו עבורם עבודות בית אך לא יצאו מביתם ולא יהנו כבג'יימס והאפרסק הענק). ספריו של דאל מתארים פעמים רבות ילדים בעלי הורה אחד (דני אלוף העולם) או יתומים (העי"ג, ג'יימס והאפרסק הענקי, המכשפות), אשר מסמלים את הטוב ותמים, לעומת המבוגרים המסמלים פעמים רבות את הרשע והטמטום. ספרי הילדים מסתיימים פעמים רבות בעתיד טוב לאותם ילדים תוך שהמבוגרים הסוררים מתים או נעלמים בדרכים מוזרות. ספרי הילדים של דאל מתארים כמעט תמיד מציאות בה המשפחה כוללת ילדים בעלי תושיה חוכמה ורצון. בספריו של דאל האב תמיד הוא העובד והמפרנס, האם הינה עקרת בית. מרבית ספריו כוללים סטריאוטיפים של דמות המשפחה (האב הניכר לרוב בחוכמה בתושיה ועובד שעות רבות, האם שהינה רגשנית ולעתים היסטרית וכיוצא באלה.). ספרי הילדים מאנישים פעמים רבות חיות, כאשר למרבית החיות אופי טוב ורצון לעזור זו לזו ולילדים. ספרי הילדים של דאל הם בעלי מבנה קווי של בעיה ההולכת ומחריפה, עד שהיא באה לפתרונה המוצלח בסוף טוב, בו הדמויות הטובות זוכות לגמול והרעות לעונש. ספרי הילדים כוללים במקורם שימוש בשפה המותאמת לילדים תוך שימוש במצלול (ספרות), בדימוי ובמטפורה. ביתו של דאל הקרוב ללונדון הפך למוזיאון המיועד בעיקרו לילדים. במוזיאון זה ילדים משחקים הצגות על בסיס ספריו, ולומדים על ילדותו וספריו.[4] הפופולריות של ספרי הילדים[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה] ספרי הילדים של דאל לא זכו עד אמצע שנות השבעים להפוך בבריטניה לרבי מכר, ולמעשה הצליחו בתחילה יותר בארצות הברית.[5] כיום ספרי הילדים של דאל הם מבין ספרי הילדים הנימכרים ביותר בבריטניה (שם בסקרי ילדים נמצא כי בקבצות גיל 7-11 ששת ספרי הילדים הפופולריים ביותר היו של דאל ובקבוצות 11-14 ששה מתוך עשרת ספרי הילדים היו של דאל[6]). עד שנת 2006 נמכרו חמישים ספריו בכמאה מיליון עותקים[7], כאשר ספרו הפופולרי ביותר הינו ציארלי ומפעל השוקולד שנמכר ב 13 מיליון עותקים[8]. ביקורת על ספרי הילדים[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה] על ספרי הילדים של דאל השומעה ביקורת נוקבת בסוף המאה העשרים בגין היותם כוללים סטריאוטיפים גזעניים, שובינסטיים, תוך שהם מעודדים התנהגויות שאינן רצויות בחברה כגניבה.[9] ביקורת אחרת שהושמעה על ספריו הינה כי הם מציגים חברת מבוגרים המלאה במבוגרים המזניחים ילדיהם[10] וכנגד זאת מעודדת מעשי התעללות ונקמה של ילדים במבוגרים. ספריו[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

הגרמלינים (1943) מעבר לך: סיפורים על תעופה ומעופפים (1946) אוצר מילדנהול (1946) לעתים לעולם לא (1948) כצאן לטבח (1953) המתוקים (1955) נשיקה נשיקה (1960) ג'יימס והאפרסק הענקי (1961. תר' אוריאל אופק, 1975) – מסעם המופלא של ילד יתום, חרגול, עכביש, מרבה-רגליים ופרת-משה-רבנו בבטן אפרסק ענקי, שהנחית את נוסעיו על הגבוה בגגות העולם. צ'רלי ומפעל-השוקולד (1964. תר' אוריאל אופק בשם צ'רלי בממלכת-השוקולד) – ילד עני נהפך, בתום תחרות וסיור מרתק, לבעליו של בית-החרושת המוזר והמשוכלל ביותר לשוקולד. אצבע הקסם (1966. תר' מאירה פירון, 2010) – ילדה שחוננה באצבע כישופית, המסוגלת להעניש את אלה שאינם אהובים עליה, הופכת בשוגג את שכניה לציפורים. 29 נשיקות מרואלד דאל (1969) מר שועל המהולל (1970. תר' בינה אופק, 1977) – השועל רב-התושייה מערים על שלושת האיכרים הנזעמים ומבטיח את כלכלת משפחתו. צ'רלי ומעלית-הזכוכית הגדולה (1972. תר' אורי בלסם בשם צ'רלי ומעופפלית הזכוכית, 1982) – ילד ממריא עם בני-לוויתו למרומים במעלית-זכוכית ונאבק ביצורי-חלל מרושעים. לעבר הזונה (1974) דני אלוף-העולם (1975. תר' זהר שביט, 1984) – אב ובנו משתפים פעולה במבצע שנועד לגבור על הגביר המרושע ורב-הנכלים. הסיפור המופלא על הנרי סוכר ועוד שישה (1977) – סיפורים קצרים עם פרק אוטוביוגרפי. התנין הענקי (1978) – קורות תנין, החי בנהר המרופש ביותר באפריקה. המיטב של רואלד דאל (1978) דודי אוסוואלד (1979) סיפורי הבלתי-צפוי (1979) הטוויטים (1980) – מעשייה משעשעת על אדון וגברת טוויט, האוהבים להקניט זה את זו. תרופת-הפלא של ג'ורג' (1981) – ילד רוקח תרופה הגורמת לסבתו להתעופף באוויר. העי"ג (1982. תר' אורי בלסם, 1987) – קורות ילדה הנחטפת על ידי עי"ג (ענק ידידותי גדול). חרוזים נלוזים (1982. תר' נימה קרסו, 1997) – אגדות-ילדים מזווית-ראייה שונה. ספר הרוחות של רואלד דאל (1983) המכשפות (1983. תר' טלי נתיב-עירוני, 2003) – ילד וסבתו מערימים על מכשפות הרוצות להיפטר מן הילדים. ילד (1984) — פרקים מתקופת ילדותו של המחבר. חיות מלוכלכות (1984) – שירים הומוריסטיים בוטים. הג'ירף, השקנאי ואני (1985) – קוף, שקנאי וג'ירף מרוויחים את כספם כמנקי-חלונות. האומניבוס של רואלד דאל (1986) הולך בדד (1986) שני משלים (1986) חצבת: מחלה איומה (1986) מטילדה (1988. תר' יעל ענבר, 2000) – ילדה הניחנת בכוחות נסתרים גוברת על אלה הרוצים להתנכל לה. הה, המסתורין המתוק של החיים (1989) חרוזים מטוגנים (1989) – אגדות ומשלים בלבוש חדש. אץ בץ (1990. תר' מאירה פירון בתוך אצבע הקסם, 2010) – קורות אדם המתיידד עם צב. הכומר מניבלסוויק (1991) רואלד דאל: אוסף הסיפורים הקצרים (1991) המינפינים (1991) זכרונות עם מאכלים בבית צוענים (1991) המדריך של רואלד דאל לשמירה על הבטיחות (1991) השנה שלי (1993) מתכונים נלוזים (1994) איש המטריה וסיפורים נוספים (1997) עור וסיפורים נוספים (2000) עוד מתכונים נלוזים (2001) רואלד דאל: האוסף (2006) לקריאה נוספת[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

יהודה אטלס, "רואלד דאל: אין רגע דל", בספר ילדים גדולים (כרך 1, עמ' 212-181), הוצאת ידיעות אחרונות, 2003. קישורים חיצוניים[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

רואלד דאל, האתר הרשמי יהודה אטלס, בגרסת רואלד דאל, כיפה אדומה יורה בזאב ועושה ממנו מעיל פרווה, באתר הארץ יהודה אטלס, "אצבע הקסם" מאת רואלד דאל, הצד השני של הכוונת, באתר הארץ, 28.4.10 רות אלמוג, בממלכת השוקולד המר, באתר הארץ, 13.8.10

[הסתרה] יצירותיו של רואלד דאל

ספרי ילדים ג'יימס והאפרסק הענק (1961) • צ'ארלי והשוקולדה (1962) • אצבע הקסם (1966) • מר שועל המהולל (1970) • צ'ארלי ומעופפלית הזכוכית (1972) • דני אלוף העולם (1975) • התנין הענקי (1978) • העי"ג (1982) • המכשפות (1983) • הג'ירף השקנאי וגם אני (1985) • מטילדה (1988) • בצ בצ רקי (1989) ספרי מבוגרים דודי אוסוולד (1979) • סיפורי הפתעה (1979) • עור וסיפורים נוספים (1980) שירים לילדים שירים עליזים וחרוזים פוחזים (1989) סרטים המבוססים על ספריו וילי וונקה ומפעל השוקולד (1971) • העי"ג (1989) • המכשפות (1990) • ג'יימס והאפרסק הענק (1996) • מטילדה (1996) • צ'ארלי בממלכת השוקולד (2005) • מר שועל המהולל (2009) תסריטים לסרטים אתה חי רק פעמיים (1967) • צ'יטי צ'יטי בנג בנג (1968) • וילי וונקה ומפעל השוקולד (1971) הערות שוליים[עריכת קוד מקור | עריכה]

^ סיפורו האוטוביוגרפי מופיע בהסיפור המופלא על הנרי סוכר ועוד שישה (1977) קטגוריות: סופרים בריטיםסופרי ילדים ונוער בריטיםרואלד דאלסופרי פנטזיה

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Roald Dahl's Timeline

1916
September 13, 1916
Cardiff, South Glamorgan, UK
1953
July 2, 1953
Age 36
1955
April 20, 1955
Age 38
1957
April 11, 1957
Age 40
Buckinghamshire, UK
1983
December 15, 1983
Age 67
1983
Age 66
1990
November 23, 1990
Age 74
Oxford, UK