Robert Clements, Sr.
|Also Known As:||"Robert Clement"|
|Birthplace:||Narborough, Leicestershire, England|
|Death:||Died in Haverhill, Essex County, Massachusetts|
|Place of Burial:||On His Farm, Haverhill, Essex County, Massachusetts, United States|
Son of Richard Clements and Agnes (Or Alice) Clemens
|Occupation:||Arrived in MA 1642, Tanner, pioneer of Haverhill Mass and Clements Island, came to Haverhill, MA as early as 1642, m. abt 1614|
|Managed by:||Mark Francis Quinn|
About Robert Clements, Sr.
- Robert Clements1
- M, #236670, b. 14 December 1595, d. 29 September 1658
- Last Edited=12 Jan 2010
- Robert Clements was baptised on 14 December 1595 at Cosby, Leicestershire, England.1,2 He was the son of Richard Clements and Agnes Fellows.1 He married, firstly, Lydia (?).1 He died on 29 September 1658 at age 62 at Haverhill, Massachusetts, U.S.A..2
- He lived before 1620 at Huncote, Leicestershire, England.2 He lived circa 1624 at Ansley, Warwickshire, England.1 He emigrated to New England, U.S.A., arriving on before 1642.1
- Children of Robert Clements and Lydia (?)
- 1.Robert Clements3
- 2.Lydia Clements3
- 3.Sarah Clements3
- 4.Job Clements3 b. 1615
- 5.John Clements3 b. 1620
- 6.Abraham Clements3 b. c 1622
- 7.Daniel Clements+1 b. c 1624, d. bt 28 May 1680 - 11 Jun 1680
- 8.Mary Clements3 b. c 1637
- 1.[S21] L. G. Pine, The New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms (London, U.K.: Heraldry Today, 1972), page 176. Hereinafter cited as The New Extinct Peerage.
- 2.[S47] Page 246. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S47]
- 3.[S47] See. [S47]
- From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p23667.htm#i236670
- Robert Clements
- M, #71157, b. 14 December 1595, d. 20 September 1658
- Father Richard Clements b. c 1570
- Mother Agnes (Alice) Fellows b. c 1572, d. 7 Aug 1619
- Robert Clements was christened on 14 December 1595 at Cosby, Leicestershire, England. He married Lydia Dummer, daughter of Robert Dummer, circa 1617 at England. Robert Clements died on 20 September 1658 at Haverhill, Essex, MA, at age 62.
- Family Lydia Dummer d. 12 Mar 1642
- Lydia Clements+ b. c 1618, d. 16 Jan 1676
- Mary Clements+ b. c 1637, d. 27 Oct 1710
- From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p2368.htm#i71157
- DRUMMER, Lydia
- b. ABT 1597 Cosby, Leicester, England
- d. 12 MAR 1641/2 Ansley, England
- Marriage: 1614 England
- Spouse: CLEMENTS, Robert
- b. 14 DEC 1595 Cosby, Leicestershire, England
- d. 29 SEP 1658 Haverhill, Essex, Mass.
- CLEMENTS, Abraham
- CLEMENTS, Daniel
- CLEMENTS, Job
- CLEMENTS, Abigail
- CLEMENTS, John
- CLEMENTS, Sarah
- CLEMENTS, Robert
- CLEMENTS, Mary
- From: http://www.genealogyofnewengland.com/f_d6.htm#105
- Essex Institute Historical Collections, Volume 47
- Among the early settlers of Essex County there are few who did more to upbuild the new state and ensure its successful permanence, than did Robert Clements of Haverhill and his descendants. They did well .... etc.
- Robert Clements, sen., was born in England, about 1590, presumably in Warwickshire, as his youngest daughter, Mary, lived in the city of Coventry until 1652, when she rejoined her family in Haverhill. Robert landed at Salisbury in 1642, and settled that summer in Haverhill with his wife(*) (her name is unknown), his sons John and Robert, jr., and the older daughters, Lydia and Sarah. His oldest son, Job, had preceded the family by a year or two, and was one of the twelve men who settled Pentucket (now Haverhill) in 1640. .... etc.
- (*) In his will of November 7 (probated 4 December), 1618, John Foote of London mentions his daughter Priscilla, wife of Robert Clement (N. E. H. & G. Reg. 51: 136).
- .... He died Sept. 29, 1658. .... etc.
- 2. JOB, b. about 1615: d. 1682.
- 3. JOHN, b. about 1618; d. 1658.
- 4. ROBERT, b. about 1624; d. 1712.
- 5. Sarah, m. 10 June, 1645, Abraham Morrill ; d. (will proved, 14 Oct.), 1662. Children: (1) Isaac; (2) Abraham; (3) Jacob, b. 1648, d. 1715, m. 1674, Susan Whittier; (4) Hepsibah, d. young; (5) Sarah; (6) Moses, b. 1650, d. (will proved) 1709; m. 1st, Sarah Converse, 2d, widow Abigail Hendricks; (7) Lydia; (8) Hepsibah, posthumus. Sarah m. 2d, 8 Oct., 1665, Thomas Mudgett.
- 6. Lydia,(*) d. 16 Jan., 1676; m. Moses Pengry of Ipswich, b. 1610, d. 2 Jan., 1696, aged 86. Children: (1) Sarah, d. 1695, m. 20 April, 1664, Robert Day, d. 1692; (2) Lydia, d. 14 March, 1689, m. 13 Feb., 1665-66, Thomas Burnum; (3) Moses, b. 1650, d. (will proved) 1709; (4) Aaron, b. 1652, d. 1714; m. Ann Pickard; (5) John, b. 1654, d. 1723, m. 20 May, 1678, Faith Jewett.
- 7. Mary, b. 1637 (58 in 1695); d. 1695; m. 15 Nov., 1653, at Haverhill, John Osgood, of Andover; d. 31 Aug., 1693. (t) Children: (1) John, b, 12 Sept., 1654; (2) Mary, b. 1656, d. 1740; m, 1680, John Aslett; (3) Timothy, b. 1659; (4) Samuel, b. 1665; (5) Sarah.b. 1667, d. 1667; (6) Ebenezer, b. 1678, d. 1680; (7) Clements, b. 1680, d. 1680.
- 8. Abraham; mentioned only in will.
- 9. Daniel. The only record of Daniel, besides in the will, is his reported harrassing of a tax collector at Hampton, N. H., in 1683 (Prov. Papers, N. H., 1: 551).
- 2 Job (Robert1), born in England about 1618 ; died at Dover, N. H. in (will 4 Sept., proved 9 Nov., State Papers, N. H. 31 : 259) 1682. Preceding his father as a colonist, he took the oath of fidelity in Ipswich, 1639, and the following year, with eleven others, founded Haverhill. Freeman in 1647, he was chosen constable, the first in the town. Newbury needing a tanner, his trade, offered him a freehold in 1652, which he refused. Signing at Haverhill, in 1653, the petition for the remission of Major Pike's fine. Job later moved to Dover, und there .... etc.
- (*) In the Pengry Genealogy she is called Abigail, though Felt, Ipswich, says Lydia.
- (t) Mary Clements Osgood suffered through the witchcraft delusion of 1692. Subjected to the touch of blindfolded girls ("afflicted persons"), she was accused of being a witch. Arrested, and examined 8 Sept., 1692, she was browbeaten and frightened into a confession of being a witch, but recanted 16 October. Nevertheless, she was indicted by the grand jury in January, 1693 (I. Mass. Hist. Coll., 7: 241), but was fortunately released after an imprisonment of four months.
- The New England Historical and Genealogical Register, Vol. yr.1852
- CLEMENT, Robert, Haverhill, will 1658 ; sons, Robert, John, Abraham, Daniel ; das. Sarah, m. Abraham Morrill ; --- , m. Moses Pengrew, [Mary] m. John Osgood. John, Haverhill, 1653. Mary. 1695, formerly Mrs. Mary Osgood, came from Coventry after 1652. Robert. Haverhill, d. 29 Sept. 1658; ch. Job, Robert. John, Abraham. Daniel, and 3 das. married. Job, Dover, tanner, wf. Lvdia, 1658. Robert, wf. Elizabeth, 14 Mar. 1661-2. Robert, cooper, s. y. Robert, ae. 30 in 1664. John, bro. of Robert, cast away and d. intest. 21 July, 1659. Robert, will, 1682. Samuel, m. Ruth, da. of Joseph Peaslee of Haverhill.
Robert Clements, the pioneer of Haverhill, MA, was influential and wealty in that community, and the owner of the first grist mill. He was one of the five to take the deed of the town from the Passagut and Saggahew Indians in 1642. He eventually came to own an island in the Merrimack River that is still known as Clements Island.
From "New England families, genealogical and memorial: ..., Volume 4 By William Richard Cutter pp 2220-2221
Robert Clement was the CLEMENT immigrant ancestor of the Clements in America. He was born in England about 1590, and came to America in 1642, landing at Salisbury, Massachusetts. He was in Andover also in 1642, and removed to Haverhill in 1643, where he settled and became a prominent citizen. He was deputy to the general court from 1647 to 1653 inclusive. His family probably came with him, except his youngest daughter, who remained in Coventry, Warwickshire, England, until 1652, when she came to Haverhill, and soon afterward married John Osgood, of Andover. Robert Clement became associate judge of the county court, and was early appointed to give the oath of fidelity to the inhabitants of Haverhill. He was frequently appointed on committees to set off land and fix limits for the pioneers. He is recorded as being "a man of rare integrity and superior talents." He must have been an innkeeper in 1653, when he was given permission by the Salisbury court to sell wine in Haverhill. He owned the first grist mill built in Haverhill. He died on the farm where he first settled inHaverhill, September 29, 1658. His will was dated September 6, 1658, when not all of his children were in New England. He mentions his wife; sons, Job, John, Abraham and Daniel ; sons-in-law, Moses Pingrin, Abraham Morrill and John Osgood; "to my children's children and that are in New England; to Mr. Ward, our minister." Children: Job, first tanner in Haverhill; John; Robert, mentioned below; Abraham; Daniel; Sarah; Lydia; Mary, born about 1637, indicted for witchcraft in 1692, living in 1695.
- Name: Robert Clemens Sr.
- Surname: Clemens
- Given Name: Robert
- Suffix: Sr.
- Sex: M
- Birth: 14 Dec 1595 in Leicestershire Co., England
- Death: 29 Sep 1658 in Haverhill, Essex Co., Massachusetts
- _UID: 2120E11F2322E347861FAE4C40B30D6FBE83
- Note: He came to the United States in May 1642 after his wife died in March.
- Change Date: 27 Oct 2002 at 21:51:31
Father: Richard Clemens b: Abt. 1570 in Croft, Leis, England
Mother: Agnes Fellows b: Abt. 1572 in England
Marriage 1 Lydia Drummer b: 1597 in Leicestershire Co., England
* Married: 1614 in England
1. Has No Children Job Clemens b: 1615 in Leicestershire Co., England
2. Has No Children Abigail Clemens b: Abt. 1617 in Haverhill, Essex Co., Massachusetts
3. Has No Children Lydia Clemens b: 1618 in Haverhill, Essex Co., Massachusetts
4. Has No Children John Clemens b: 22 Oct 1620 in Haverhill, Essex Co., Massachusetts
5. Has No Children Robert Clemens b: 1621 in Haverhill, Essex Co., Massachusetts
6. Has No Children Robert Clemens b: 1623 in Haverhill, Essex Co., Massachusetts
7. Has No Children Abraham Clemens b: 1624 in Warwickshire, England
8. Has No Children Daniel Clemens b: 1625 in Warwickshire, England
9. Has No Children Sarah Clemens b: 1626 in Warwickshire, England
10. Has No Children Lydia Clemens b: 1630 in Haverhill, Essex Co., Massachusetts
11. Has Children Robert Clemens Jr. b: 1634 in Haverhill, Essex Co., Massachusetts
12. Has No Children Mary Clemens b: 1637 in Warwickshire, England
Financial gain could not have been Robert Clements reason for emigrating to New England. He was well established in England, and held his property there through out his life in the colonies (an unusual proceeding). The death of his wife Lydia in 1642 may have been the final thing that made him make the move (Robert Clements ancestors and descendants, p. 18).
Sons Abraham and Daniel formed important families in Ireland and their descendants have always retained the spelling of Clements. The present (1938) head of Daniel Clements' descendants is the Fifth Earl of Leitrim (Pillsbury Ancestry, p. 557).
Robert Clements was the first Deputy of Haverhill to the General Court; he held offices of associate Judge and County Commissioner. The Clements for a long time occupied a prominent position in the town. Several generations have lived on the place now (1861) owned by Jessee Clement of the North Parish (The History of Haverhill, Massachusetts by George Wingate Chase, pp. 48-49).
He came to the United States in May 1642 after his wife died in March.
! (1) "Old Families of Salisbury and Amesbury, Massachusetts," by David W. Hoyt (1897-1919. Reprint, New England History Press, Somersworth, NH, 1981) p.95, 893. Cites: (a) History of Haverhill, by Chase, p.48-49.
(2) "The Pioneers of Massachusetts," by Charles Henry Pope (Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, 1969, p.104-105,168a.
(3) "Clement Genealogy," p.13-30. Cites: (a) Act Book, Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1615-1618, Fol:133. (b) Feet of Fines, co. Leicester. (c) Act Book, co. Leicester, 1604-1634. (d) Will of William Beale of Ashbie parva, co. Leicester, P.C.C., Soame 55. (e) Court of Requests, Miscellaneous Books 134, Clement vs. Dowell. (f) Feet of Fines, Northampton.
(4) "The History of Haverhill, Massachusetts," by George Wingate Chase (Reprint 1861. New England History Press, Somersworth, NH, 1983) p.47,48-49,62,65,68,70,72,76,77,80.
(5) "Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire," by Sibil Noyes, Charles T. Libby, Walter G. Davis (Reprint 1928-1939. Genealogical Pub. Co., Baltimore, 1988) p.150.
(6) Sidney Lyman Emmons, Cuba, NY. Cites: (a) "New England Settlers," by Farmer, p.62. (b) "Clements Genealogy," by Percival Wood Clements, Vol. 1, p.3.
! Birth: (1) Abt 1590. Name Clement, Clements or Clemence. His signatures read Clements. (3) s/o Richard Clements/Agnes ___ of Croft, Leicestershire, England. (6) 1595.
Baptism: (3) 14 Dec 1595, Cosby, Leicestershire, England.
Marriage to Lydia Drummer: (3) Lydia. Before 1615. (6)
Marriage to Judith __: (3) Before 1657.
Death: (1,2,3,4) 29 Sep 1658, Haverhill, MA. (4) On the spot where he first settled. Date of death taken from inventory of his estate.
(3a) 1617, 20 Oct: Was granted administration on his father's estate.
(3b) 1617: Paid 60 pounds for land in Huncote, parish of Narborough, Leicestershire, where he lived for a number of years. Huncote is near Croft, Leire, Sutton, and Broughton Astley, where he had relatives living. "Final Concord made in the King's Court at Westminster in eight days of St. Michael, 15 James I between Robert Clements Plaintiff and William Bent gent. and Elizabeth his wife Deforciants of one messuage, one garden, one orchard, 30 acres of land, 4 acres of meadow, 10 acres of pasture and common pasture for all manner of cattle in Huncote Narborrowe and in the Forest of Leicester..."
(3d) 1618, 1 Sep: Robert Clements of Huncote, county Leicester, Richard Cheney, William Cheney and Henry Cheney became bound to William Beale of Ashby Parva for 44 pounds. This debt William Beale bequeathed to his daughter Margaret 3 Apr 1620.
(3c) 1619: His mother was probably living with him when she died, as in the records of the administration of her estate she is called "Agnes Clements of Huncote."
(3) Moved to Ansley, a small market town in the northern part of Warwickshire, 5 miles from Nuneaton, four miles from Atherstone.
(3e) 1624, 18 Nov: Of Ansley, Co. Warwick, "yeoman." Gave affidavit in Court of Requests that John Dowell, Joan Beale, John King, Richard Cheney, William Cheney, and Henry Cheney "they the said Cheyneys being bound by this deponent to save him harmless from one obligation of 80 pounds or thereabouts dated in December in the 15th year of the king's majesty's reign that is now of England, etc., wherein this deponent did stand bound unto William Bele husband of the said Joan Bele..." who had bound the debt over to her daughter Margaret's husband John Dowell. "... this deponent hath been impleaded for the said debt yet was not held harmless from tho said bond by the said Cheyneys, Richard Cheyney being dead, William Cheyney and Henry Cheyney having absented themselves and hiding their heads ... so that this deponent cannot have remedy against them..."
(3f) 1634: A Robert Clements purchased land at Broughton, where our Robert had relatives. "Final concord made in the King's Court at Westminster in the octaves of Michaelmas, 9 Charles I," between Robert Clements, plaintiff and Chadd and Elizabeth Sadler, John and Margaret Sadler, and widow Mary Sadler, diforciants, "touching two messuages, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 20 acres of land, 6 acres of meadow, 3 acres of pasture, and common pasturage for all animals in Broughton."
(3) 1638: Bought land in Witherly from James and Edith Clements and Thomas Kysse, dated "Easterday in fifteen days, 14 Charles I," consisting of "one messuage, one garden, one orchard, 20 acres of land, 8 acres of meadow, 10 acres of pasture for all manner of cattle with appurtances in Witherly."
(1,4) 1642, early part: Came from England. (4) Landed at Salisbury, MA. (5) Followed his son Job to New England.
(2) 1642: Resident in Andover, MA.
(1) 1642: Was in Haverhill, MA. (4) Came to Haverhill from Salisbury sometime in the summer following his arrival in New England, with his wife and 4 children - John, Lydia, Robert and Sarah. His son Job had preceded them.
(4) 1642, 15 Nov: Signed the deed which bought the land at Haverhill from the Indians. A copy of the original is in the source, showing his signature.
(1) 1645: Was made Freeman at Haverhill, MA.
(1,4) 1647, May: Chosen commissioner or justice of the Court of Writs, or court to try "small causes" (Small Claims Court), Haverhill.
(1,2,4) 1647/8-1653: Was first Deputy of Haverhill, MA to the General Court.
(1,4) 1650, 22 May: Took oath as "associate" Judge and appointed by the General Court to "give the oath of fidelity to the inhabitants of Haverhill."
(4) 1650: House lot in Haverhill, MA valued at 50 pounds.
(4) 1651, 1 Dec: Granted by the town of Haverhill the right to set up one or two saw mills, Haverhill, together with Job Clement, Isaac Cousins, Stephen Kent, William White, Theophilos Satchwell, and Peter Coffin. The mill to be set up by April 1653, and another by April 1654.
(4) Appointed to set off the public lands and fix their limits.
(4) 1652, 7 Jun: Received 6 acres in a division of "plough-land," Haverhill.
(4) 1653, May: Signed a petition to the General Court to revoke the sentence of Robert Pike, convicted of preaching on the Sabbath in the absence of a minister.
(1,2) 1653: Allowed by Salisbury Court to sell wine at Haverhill.
(1) 1654: Licensed to sell "stong waters" for the town.
(2) 1658, 6 Sep: In will, bequeathed to wife, sons Job, John, Abraham, and Daniel, sons-in-law Moses Pingrin, Abraham Morrill and John Osgood, to children's children that are in New England, to Mr. Ward, the minister. (1) May have had other children remaining in England.
(3,4) 1658, 6 Oct (8th mo.): Inventory of his estate presented at Hampton court. Included were a gristmill valued at 30 pounds and his homestead valued at 55 pounds. (4) Inventory included the first gristmill built in Haverhill, his purse, money, silver, seal and ring worth 1 pound 7 shillings, 20 bushels and 30 lbs. of rye, 4 steers, 7 cows, 1 heifer, 3 mares, 1 filly, 1 horse, 1 colt, swine, calves, sheep, bedding, a parcel of cotton, wool and linen yarn, sheep's wool, canvas and feathers, carpet, warming pan, cotton & linen cloth, 2 oxen, 2 "stocks" of bees, lumber, various utentils and tools, wheat and Indian corn, table cloth and napkins, and books "fowling piece." Inventory taken by Tristram Coffin and Willi White.
(1) 1658, 11 Oct: Will probated. (2) 12 Oct (8th mo.) will probated.
(3) His descendants were selling property originally granted to Robert Clements 80 years after his death.
Robert CLEMENTS was born in Dec 1595 in England. He immigrated in May 1642 to Massachusetts. He died on
Sep 29, 1658 in Haverhill, Essex Co, MA.
From History of Haverhill, Massachusetts, page 48 (60 of 722):
Robert Clement came from England, in the early part of 1642, landing at Salisbury, from whence he came to Haverhill sometime in the following summer, with his wife and four children—John, Lydia, Robert and Sarah. Job, his son, came as early as 1640-1, doubtless to " spye out the land." His youngest daughter, Mary, remained in England (in the city of Coventry, in Warwickshire) until about 1652, when she also came over to Haverhill, and was soon after married by her father to John Osgood, of Andover, Mass.
Robert, senior, was the first Deputy of the town to the General Court, and until 1654 ; was associate Judge ; County Commissioner ; "appointed and empowered by the General Court to give the oath of fidelity to the inhabitants of Haverhill ; " appointed to set off the public lands, fix their limits, &c. He was a man of rare integrity, and superior talent, as may readily be judged from the responsible stations he was repeatedly called to fill. He died on the spot where he first settled, in 1658, aged about 68 (*). He owned, when he died, the first grist-mill built in town. His son Robert, whom Mirick confounds with Robert sen., was a cooper by trade, and the first one in town. In 1652 he married Elizabeth Fane, by whom he had eleven children. He held several town offices, was a large landholder, and lived near where the " Exchange Building" is now situated. We have not ascertained the time of his death, but he was living in 1684. His wife died in 1715.
Job was a tanner (probably the first in town) , and married Margaret Dummer—the first marriage in town.
John, was a farmer, and married Sarah Osgood.
The Clements for a long time occupied a prominent position in the town and county, and their descendants have ever been considered as among our best citizens. Several generations of them have lived on the place now owned by Jessee Clement (in the North Parish), who is a lineal descendant from Robert sen.
- " The inventory of Mr. Robert Clements, his goods and estates in New England, excepting some small debts which cannot yet be accompted, he died ye 29th of Sept., 1658.
£ s. d. Iny his wearing apparell 16 18 00 It ('-) his purse, money, silver, seal and ring 1 07 00 It by one bill owing him 55 00 00 It one paver of Steers 3 08 08 It twenty bushell of rie 10 00 00 It one cow and 30 lbs of rie 5 00 00 It one bill 8 15 00 It one bill 12 15 00 It one bill 56 00 00 It one bill 5 00 00 It one bill 06 06 00 It one bill li 00 00 It one bill 02 03 06 It one bill 04 00 00 It one bill 07 12 00 It one engagement of rent for land 05 00 00 It 4 cows, 2 steers, one heifer 22 00 00 It 3 mares, 1 philli, 1 boss, 1 colt 69 00 00 It 3 cows 10 00 00 It in swine, calves and sheep 10 15 00 It in bedding 25 13 00 It a psU (t) of cotton wooU & cotton varne, sheeps wool!, canvers & fethers 03 01 00 It on carpett, warmg pan, &, cotton cloth, 01 10 00 t Who died in Boston in 1001, aged 77. Rev, John Wilson preached her funeral sermon, and "embalmed her memory." — Sewall. 7 £ s. d. It his dwelling house <£ accommodations. .55 00 00 It 8 loads of hay & a psil linen cloth 05 00 00 It his grist mill 30 00 00 It one payer of oxen 12 00 00 It a psU of boards & two stocks of bees. .02 13 00 It wooden vessels and earthen vessels & one spade 01 16 00 It cotton and linen yarn 02 10 00 It one debt 3 tr 03 00 00 It one debt of 10 tr 10 00 00 It in wheat & Indian corn 03 10 00 It for chests, Tunnes & cards Potts & kettles 4 17 CO It several things, viz., fier shovel & tongs Andyrons spitt, plough 05 17 16 It chayns & such like Iron things It in books fowling piece, table cloth and napkins. 03 18 00 These goods were apprized by us whose names are under written. Trist. Cqfftn, Willi White. " Item. Parcel.
Robert Clements, Sr.'s Timeline
December 14, 1595
December 14, 1595
December 14, 1595
Cosby, Leicestershire, England
December 14, 1595
Cossby, Leicestershire, England
December 14, 1595
Cosby, Leicestershire, England, Uk
December 14, 1595
Cossby, Leicestershire, England
Narborough, Leicestershire, England
Narborough, Leicestershire, England, (Present UK)