Robert Courteheuse, Duc de Normandie

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Robert II "Curthose" de Normandie, Duc de Normandie

Nicknames: "Robert II Duke of /Normandy/", "Curthose", "(Curthose) (Duke of Normandy)", "Duke of Normandy", "/'Curthose'/", "curthose", "comes from the Norman French Courtheuse", "meaning short (court) stockings (heuse", "compare hose)", "as it is sometimes translated", "Shortstockings."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Normandy, Plouigneau, Brittany, France
Death: Died in Cardiff, Glamorgan, , Wales
Place of Burial: Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucestershire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of William the Conqueror, King of England and Matilda of Flanders, Queen Consort of England
Husband of Sibylle de Conversano, Duchess
Fiancé of Marguerite du Maine, Betrothed
Partner of Concubine #1 of Robert "Cuthose" Duke of Normandy and Agnes Giffard
Father of Henrik I; Henry of Normandy; William Clito; Illigitimate daughter of Robert "Cuthose" Duke of Normandy; Sir Richard the Niger (illegitimate) and 1 other
Brother of Adelaide Adelizia de Normandie, Princess of England; William II "Rufus", King of England; Cecilia, Abbess of Holy Trinity; Constance, Duchess of Brittany; Adela 'Alice' de Normandie, comtesse de Blois and 3 others
Half brother of Henry I Beauclerc, King of England,'Dei Gratiâ Rex Anglorum,

Occupation: Duke of Normandy, Duke of Normandy (Sep. 9, 1087 - 1106), Duke of Bernay, , Herig av Normandie
Managed by: Terry Jackson (Switzer)
Last Updated:

About Robert II "Curthose" de Normandie, Duc de Normandie

Robert "Curthose", Duc de Normandie, born 1051 or 1054. s/o William I "the Conqueror" Husband of Sybilla Conversano Children: Henri de Normandie

             Guillaume de Normandie

Illigitimate children: Daughter U/K

                            Richard
                            Guillaume

From Medlands: http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMANDY.htm#Robertdied1135

ROBERT de Normandie (Normandy [1052/54]-Cardiff Castle [3] Feb 1134, bur Gloucester Cathedral[254]).  William of Malmesbury names Robert as eldest son of King William I[255].  "Roberti filii sui Normannorum comitis, Richardi filii sui…" subscribed the charter dated Apr 1067 under which "Willelmus…dux Normannorum…Anglorum rex" confirmed rights to the abbey of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire[256].  Orderic Vitalis records that, after unsuccessfully aspiring to govern Normandy and Maine during the lifetime of his father, Robert rebelled in 1079 and went into exile in Flanders[257].  William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis both state that he was assisted in his rebellion by Philippe I King of France and that he wounded his father in battle at Gerberoy[258].  He succeeded his father in 1087 as ROBERT III “Curthose” Duke of Normandy, his nickname due, according to William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis, to his short stature which he presumably inherited from his mother who was also reputed to have been very short[259].  He joined the contingent of Robert II Count of Flanders on the First Crusade in Sep 1096, together with Etienne Comte de Blois, after pledging the duchy of Normandy to his brother King William for 10,000 marks of silver in order to fund the expedition[260].  Following the capture of Jerusalem, Robert left Palestine to return to Europe in Sep 1099[261].  On returning to Normandy in Autumn 1100, he recovered his duchy without opposition[262].  He landed at Portsmouth in 1102 aiming to displace his brother King Henry I as king of England, but was persuaded to return to Normandy on payment of 3,000 marks[263].  His brother King Henry invaded Normandy and defeated Robert at the battle of Tinchebrai[264], declaring himself duke of Normandy 28 Sep 1106.  King Henry took Robert in captivity back to England, where Robert remained in prison for the rest of his life.  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1134 of "Robertus dux Normannorum filius Willermi regis…primogenitus" and his burial at Gloucester[265].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death at Cardiff in [1134] of "Rotbertus frater regis Heinrici quondam comes Normanniæ" and his burial in Gloucester[266].  Betrothed (before 9 Mar 1062) to MARGUERITE du Maine, daughter of HUGUES IV Comte du Maine & his wife Berthe de Blois ([1047/51]-Fécamp [1063]).  She is named and her parentage stated by Orderic Vitalis when recording that her betrothal was arranged by her brother (on the advice of his mother) to obtain Norman protection over Maine[267].  m (Apulia 1100) SIBYLLE de Conversano, daughter of GODEFROI Comte de Conversano e Brindisi & his wife Sichelgaita --- (-Rouen [Feb/Mar] or [21 Mar] 1103, bur Caen or Rouen Cathedral).  She is named by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her father and says that he was the nephew of Robert "Guiscard"[268].  Guillaume de Jumièges records that Robert married "Sibylle sœur de Guillaume comte de Conversano"[269].  William of Malmesbury records that her husband married her on his return from Palestine, and that he was given an "immense sum" by way of dowry which he "lavished so profusely that in a few days he was penniless"[270].  Orderic Vitalis records that she was poisoned and died "in Lent"[271].  According to William of Malmesbury, she died "by disease"[272].  Orderic Vitalis alleges that Agnes de Ribemont, wife of Walter Giffard Earl of Buckingham, fell in love with Duke Robert, and states that the latter's wife was poisoned soon after although he does not directly attribute blame for her murder[273].  The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death "XII Kal Apr" of "Sibilla comitissa Normannie"[274], although if this refers to Sibylle de Conversano it is not clear why she was not called "ducissa".  It is unlikely that the entry refers to Robert's daughter-in-law Sibylle d'Anjou as she was Ctss of Flanders when she died.  Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Robert's first mistress is not known.  It is likely that this was the Duke's first relationship which produced offspring considering the likely birth date range of their daughter (see below).  Mistress (2): ---.  According to Orderic Vitalis, Duke Robert's [second] mistress was the "beautiful concubine of an old priest near the frontier with France" whom Robert met during his exile after his rebellion in 1079.  She was acknowledged by Duke Robert as the mother of his two sons after she "publicly carried the red-hot iron and escaped without the least burn"[275].  Duke Robert & his wife had two children:

a) HENRI de Normandie (1101 after Jun-killed in the New Forest). He is named as second son of Duke Robert by Weir[276], although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. Henri may have been Duke Robert's older legitimate son. Orderic Vitalis records the birth of a son to Robert and his wife in the year after the marriage was consummated in Normandy in Sep 1100[277]. He does not name this son, but records the birth of the couple's son Guillaume "in the third year after his parents' marriage" in a later passage (see below).

b) GUILLAUME de Normandie (Rouen [Jan/Mar] [1103]-St Omer, Abbey of St Bertin 27 Jul 1128, bur St Omer, Abbey of St Bertin). His parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis, who specifies that he was born in Rouen in the third year after his parents' marriage[278]. After his father was captured by Henry I King of England, the king entrusted Guillaume to Hélie de Saint-Saens (who was married to Guillaume's illegitimate half-sister)[279]. According to Orderic Vitalis, after King Henry "returned victorious to England", he commanded Robert de Beauchamp Vicomte d'Arques to arrest Guillaume, who was taken into "exile among foreigners" by Hélie and helped by Robert de Bellême[280]. Guillaume was eventually given refuge by Baudouin VII Count of Flanders "who fought resolutely on his behalf until he died"[281]. "Karolo et Wilhelmo nepotibus comitis" were named in the grant to Saint-Bertin of "Balduinus Roberti iunioris filius Flandrensium comes" dated 1119[282]. Guillaume continually challenged the authority of his uncle King Henry in Normandy, with support from Louis VI King of France and many rebel Norman barons. King Louis granted Pontoise, Chaumont, Mantes and the Vexin to Guillaume on his second marriage[283]. Guillaume also received the support of his father-in-law, who was indignant that King Henry had retained the dowry of his other daughter Alice, after her husband King Henry's son had been drowned in the Blanche Nef [White Ship] in 1120[284]. Following the assassination of Charles Count of Flanders, Louis VI King of France convened a meeting of Flemish barons at Arras where they elected Guillaume 21 Mar 1127 as GUILLAUME I "Clito" Count of Flanders, although he lacked any hereditary right. He was opposed by his uncle King Henry who bribed supporters in Gent and eastern Flanders. Lille rebelled against his authority 1 Aug 1127, followed by Saint-Omer 8 Feb 1128[285]. Guillaume's rival Thierry d'Alsace captured Lille, Furnes and Gent[286] and was recognised as Count of Flanders at Bruges 30 Mar 1128[287]. Guillaume besieged Aalst in Jul 1128, helped by Godefroi Duke of Lower Lotharingia, but was injured and died from his wounds[288]. The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death "IV Kal Aug" of "Guillelmus comes Flandrensis filius Roberti ducis Normannie"[289]. m firstly (1123, annulled by papal bull 26 Aug 1124[290]) as her first husband, SIBYLLE d’Anjou, daughter of FOULQUES V Comte d’Anjou & his first wife Eremburge de Maine ([1112/16]-Bethany 1165, bur Bethany, Abbey of St Lazarus). She is named by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her father and specifies that he arranged her marriage as part of the support he gave to Guillaume de Normandie, on the suggestion of Amaury de Montfort, and that her dowry was the county of Maine[291]. According to Orderic Vitalis, King Henry broke off the marriage "making use of threats and pleas and an enormous quantity of gold and silver"[292]. Both passages in Orderic Vitalis refer only to a betrothal, but a marriage must have taken place otherwise a papal annulment would have been unnecessary. Her father supported her husband against his uncle Henry I King of England, indignant that the latter retained the dowry of his other daughter Alice, married to King Henry's son who had been drowned in the Blanche Nef [White Ship] in 1120[293]. Orderic Vitalis records Sibylle's second marriage[294], as does William of Tyre (who says that she was her father's older daughter)[295]. The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin records the marriage of "Sibillam comitis Andegavensis filiam" with Thierry after the death of his first wife[296]. She married secondly (1134) as his second wife, Thierry de Lorraine Count of Flanders. She left France with her second husband in Jun 1147 on the Second Crusade[297]. She accompanied her husband to Palestine in 1157 but refused to return with him to Europe in 1158. She became a nun at the convent of St Lazarus at Bethany. After the death of her stepmother Mélisende Queen of Jerusalem in 1161, Ctss Sibylle assumed a position of influence among the royal family of Jerusalem[298]. The Annales Aquicinctini record the death in 1165 of "Sibbilla comitissa Flandrie apud Sanctum Lazarum"[299]. m (Jan 1127) GIOVANNA di Monferrato, daughter of RANIERI Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Gisèle de Bourgogne [Comté] ([1107]-1191). Orderic Vitalis names her parents and specifies that her marriage was arranged by her uterine half-sister, Adélaïde de Maurienne Queen of France, but does not give her own name[300]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that the Queen of France gave her sister in marriage to Guillaume[301].

Duke Robert had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):

c) daughter ([1072/78]-). Her parentage, but not her name, is stated by Orderic Vitalis, who also records her marriage and states that it was arranged by her father (when Duke of Normandy) to assure the loyalty of her future husband, the event presumably therefore being dated to soon after his accession. She received Arques and Bures as her marriage portion[302]. Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that she was in her early teenage years when she married. m ([1087/90]) HELIE de Saint-Saëns, son of LAMBERT de Saint-Saëns & his wife --- (-after 1128). His father is named by Orderic Vitalis, who says that he remained loyal to Duke Robert under Kings William II and Henry I[303]. Comte d’Arques, de iure uxoris. Henry I King of England entrusted him with the upbringing of his wife's half-brother Guillaume after his father was captured in 1106[304]. King Henry confiscated his castle and gave it to William de Warenne after Hélie fled with his ward whose arrest had been ordered by the king[305]. Guillaume granted him Montreuil-sur-Mer after his installation as Count of Flanders in Mar 1128[306]. King Stephen notified the right of "Mathild[is] de Sancto Sidonio cognate mea" to hold the manor of Stisted, Essex from the see of Canterbury by charter dated to [1143/52][307].

Duke Robert had two illegitimate children by Mistress (2):

d) RICHARD ([1079/80]-killed in the New Forest before Aug 1100). His parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis[308]. Florence of Worcester records that "suus fratruelis Ricardus comitis…Normannorum Rotberti filius" had also been killed in the New Forest a short time before, killed by an arrow shot by one of his knights, when recording the death of his paternal uncle William II King of England[309]. William of Malmesbury records that "Richard son of Robert earl of Normandy" was killed in the New Forest "by a wound in the neck, or as some say, from being suspended by the jaws on the branch of a tree as his horse passed beneath it"[310]. Orderic Vitalis also specifies that the accident occurred in the New Forest[311].

e) GUILLAUME ([1079/80]-killed in battle Jerusalem [1111]). His parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis[312]. He left for Jerusalem after his father's defeat in 1106. Albert of Aix records the participation of "Guillaume son of Robert Prince of Normandy" at the siege of Sidon, at which he was ordered to Jerusalem for reinforcements by King Baudouin I before leading a major attack on Arab positions in the trans-Jordan area in [Aug 1108][313]. He was placed in command of Tortosa after the town was captured by Bertrand Count of Tripoli in [1110][314].

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Curthose

-------------------- Robert Curthose From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Robert Curthose or Robert II (c. 1051 or 1054–February 10, 1134) was the Duke of Normandy from 1087 until 1106 and an unsuccessful claimant to the throne of England. His nickname, Curthose, comes from the Norman French Courtheuse, meaning short (court) stockings (heuse, compare hose), as it is sometimes translated, Shortstockings. William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis report that Robert's father, King William, called him brevis-ocrea (short-boot) in derision.

Biography

He was the eldest son of William the Conqueror, the first Norman king of England, and Matilda of Flanders, and a participant in the First Crusade. His reign as Duke is noted for the discord with his brothers in England, eventually leading to the absorption of Normandy as a possession of England. His birthdate is usually given as 1054, but may have been 1051. As a child he was betrothed to Margaret, the heiress of Maine, but she died before they could be wed, and Robert didn't marry until his late forties. In his youth, he was reported to be courageous and skillful in military exercises. He was, however, also prone to a laziness and weakness of character that discontented nobles and the King of France exploited to stir discord with his father William. He was unsatisfied with the share of power allotted to him, and quarreled with his father and brothers fiercely. In 1077, he instigated his first insurrection against his father as the result of a prank played by his younger brothers William Rufus and Henry, who had dumped fetid water on him. Robert was enraged, and urged on by his companions, started a brawl with his brothers that was only interrupted by the intercession of their father. Feeling that his dignity was wounded, Robert was further angered when King William failed to punish his brothers. The next day Robert and his followers attempted to seize the castle of Rouen. The siege failed, but when King William ordered their arrest, Robert and his companions took refuge with Hugh of Chateauneuf-en-Thymerais. They were forced to flee again when King William attacked their base at Rémalard. Robert fled to his uncle's court in Flanders before plundering the county of the Vexin and causing such mayhem that his father King William allied himself with King Philip I of France to stop his rebellious son. Relations were not helped when King William discovered that Robert's mother, Queen Matilda, was secretly sending her son money. At a battle in January 1079 Robert unhorsed King William in combat and succeeded in wounding him, stopping his attack only when he recognized his father's voice. Humiliated, King William cursed his son, then raised the siege and returned to Rouen.

Biography

He was the eldest son of William the Conqueror, the first Norman king of England, and Matilda of Flanders, and a participant in the First Crusade. His reign as Duke is noted for the discord with his brothers in England, eventually leading to the absorption of Normandy as a possession of England. His birthdate is usually given as 1054, but may have been 1051. As a child he was betrothed to Margaret, the heiress of Maine, but she died before they could be wed, and Robert didn't marry until his late forties. In his youth, he was reported to be courageous and skillful in military exercises. He was, however, also prone to a laziness and weakness of character that discontented nobles and the King of France exploited to stir discord with his father William. He was unsatisfied with the share of power allotted to him, and quarreled with his father and brothers fiercely. In 1077, he instigated his first insurrection against his father as the result of a prank played by his younger brothers William Rufus and Henry, who had dumped fetid water on him. Robert was enraged, and urged on by his companions, started a brawl with his brothers that was only interrupted by the intercession of their father. Feeling that his dignity was wounded, Robert was further angered when King William failed to punish his brothers. The next day Robert and his followers attempted to seize the castle of Rouen. The siege failed, but when King William ordered their arrest, Robert and his companions took refuge with Hugh of Chateauneuf-en-Thymerais. They were forced to flee again when King William attacked their base at Rémalard. Robert fled to his uncle's court in Flanders before plundering the county of the Vexin and causing such mayhem that his father King William allied himself with King Philip I of France to stop his rebellious son. Relations were not helped when King William discovered that Robert's mother, Queen Matilda, was secretly sending her son money. At a battle in January 1079 Robert unhorsed King William in combat and succeeded in wounding him, stopping his attack only when he recognized his father's voice. Humiliated, King William cursed his son, then raised the siege and returned to Rouen.

At Easter 1080 father and son were reunited by the efforts of Queen Matilda, and a truce lasted until 1083. Robert seems to have left court soon after the death of his mother, Queen Matilda, and spent several years traveling throughout France, Germany and Flanders. He visited Italy seeking the hand of the great heiress Matilda of Tuscany (b. 1046), but was unsuccessful. During this period as a wandering knight, Robert sired several illegitimate children. His illegitimate son, Richard, seems to have spent much of his life at the royal court of his uncle, William Rufus. Like his uncle, this Richard was killed in a hunting accident in the New Forest in 1099. An illegitimate daughter was later married to Helias of Saint-Saens. In 1087, the Conqueror died of wounds suffered during a riding accident during a siege of Rouen. At his death, he reportedly wanted to disinherit his eldest son, but was persuaded to divide the Norman dominions between his two eldest sons. To Robert, he granted the Duchy of Normandy and to William Rufus he granted the Kingdom of England. The youngest son Henry was given money to buy land. Of the two elder sons, Robert was considered to be much the weaker and was generally preferred by the nobles who held lands on both sides of the English Channel, since they could more easily circumvent his authority. At the time of their father's death, the two brothers made an agreement to be each other's heir. However, this peace lasted less than a year when barons joined with Robert to displace Rufus in the Rebellion of 1088. It was not a success, in part because Robert never showed up to support the English rebels. Robert took as his close advisor Ranulf Flambard, who had been previously a close advisor to his father. Flambard later became an astute but much-disliked financial advisor to William Rufus until the latter's death in 1100.

In 1096, Robert left for the Holy Land on the First Crusade. At the time of his departure he was reportedly so poor that he often had to stay in bed for lack of clothes. In order to raise money for the crusade, he mortgaged his duchy to his brother William for the sum of 10,000 marks. Robert and William had agreed to name each other the Heir Presumptive of England and Normandy respectively. Therefore, when William II died on August 2, 1100, Robert should have inherited the throne of England. But he was on his return journey from the Crusade, marrying a wealthy young bride to raise funds to buy back his duchy. As a result, his brother Henry was able to seize the crown of England for himself. Upon his return, Robert, urged by Flambard and several Anglo-Norman barons, led an invasion of England to retake the crown from his brother Henry. In 1101, Robert landed at Portsmouth with his army, but his lack of popular support among the English as well as Robert's own mishandling of the invasion tactics enabled Henry to resist the invasion. Robert was forced by diplomacy to renounce his claim to the English throne in the Treaty of Alton. It is said that Robert was a brilliant field commander, but a terrible general in the First Crusade. His government (or misgovernment) of Normandy as well as his failed invasion of England proves that his military skills were better than his political skills. In 1105, however, Robert's continual stirring of discord with his brother in England, as well as civil disorder in Normandy itself, prompted Henry to invade Normandy. Orderic reports on an incident at Easter 1105, when Robert was supposed to hear a sermon by the venerable Serlo, Bishop of Sées. Robert spent the night before sporting with harlots and jesters, and while he lay in bed, sleeping off his drunkenness, his unworthy friends stole his clothes. He awoke to find himself naked, and had to remain in bed and missed the sermon. In 1106, Henry defeated Robert's army decisively at the Battle of Tinchebray and claimed Normandy as a possession of the English crown, a situation that endured for almost a century. Captured after the battle, Robert was imprisoned in Devizes castle for 20 years, before being moved to Cardiff. In 1134, he died while imprisoned in Cardiff Castle in his early eighties. Robert Curthose, sometime Duke of Normandy, eldest son of the Conqueror, was buried in the abbey church of St. Peter in Gloucester. The exact place of his burial is difficult to establish - legend states the he requested to be buried before the High Altar. However, his effigy, carved in bog oak, lies on a mortuary chest decorated with the attributed arms of the Nine Worthies (missing one - Joshua, and replaced with the arms of Edward the Confessor). The effigy dates from about 100 years after his death, and the mortuary chest much later. The church subsequently has become Gloucester Cathedral. The name 'Curthose' can still be seen today, in France as Courtoise and in Britain as Curthoys.

Family

Robert married Sybilla, daughter of Geoffrey of Brindisi, Count of Conversano (and a grandniece of Robert Guiscard, another Norman duke) on the way back from Crusade. Their son, William Clito, was born October 25, 1102 and became heir to the Duchy of Normandy. Sybilla, who was admired and often praised by the chroniclers of the time, died shortly after the birth. William of Malmesbury claims she died as a result of binding her breasts too tightly; both Robert of Torigny and Orderic Vitalis suggest she was murdered by a cabal of noblewomen led by her husband's mistress, Agnes Giffard. William Clito was unlucky all his life; his attempts to invade Normandy failed twice (1119) and (1125), his first marriage to a daughter of the count of Anjou was annulled by his uncle's machinations, and even his late inheritance of the county of Flanders was mishandled. William Clito died in 1128 leaving no issue, thus leaving the field clear in the Norman succession (at least until Henry I died). Robert also had at least two illegitimate children - Richard who died hunting in the New Forest in 1099 (like his uncle a year later), and an unnamed daughter who married Helias of Saint-Saens (a worthy and loyal protector of his young brother-in-law in 1112).

-------------------- He was the eldest son of William the Conqueror, the first Norman king of England, and Matilda of Flanders, and a participant in the First Crusade. His reign as Duke is noted for the discord with his brothers in England, eventually leading to the absorption of Normandy as a possession of England.

His birthdate is usually given as 1054, but may have been 1051. As a child he was betrothed to Margaret, the heiress of Maine, but she died before they could be wed, and Robert didn't marry until his late forties. In his youth, he was reported to be courageous and skillful in military exercises. He was, however, also prone to a laziness and weakness of character that discontented nobles and the King of France exploited to stir discord with his father William. He was unsatisfied with the share of power allotted to him, and quarreled with his father and brothers fiercely.

In 1063 his father made him into the count of Maine, considering his engagement to Margaret. The county was presumably run by his father until 1069 when the county revolted and reverted to Hugh V of Maine.

In 1077, he instigated his first insurrection against his father as the result of a prank played by his younger brothers William Rufus and Henry, who had dumped fetid water on him. Robert was enraged, and urged on by his companions, started a brawl with his brothers that was only interrupted by the intercession of their father. Feeling that his dignity was wounded, Robert was further angered when King William failed to punish his brothers. The next day Robert and his followers attempted to seize the castle of Rouen. The siege failed, but when King William ordered their arrest, Robert and his companions took refuge with Hugh of Chateauneuf-en-Thymerais. They were forced to flee again when King William attacked their base at Rémalard.

Robert fled to Flanders, to the court of his uncle Robert I, Count of Flanders before plundering the county of the Vexin and causing such mayhem that his father King William allied himself with King Philip I of France to stop his rebellious son. Relations were not helped when King William discovered that Robert's mother, Queen Matilda, was secretly sending her son money. At a battle in January 1079 Robert unhorsed King William in combat and succeeded in wounding him, stopping his attack only when he recognized his father's voice. Humiliated, King William cursed his son, then raised the siege and returned to Rouen.

-------------------- Curthose was Robert's nickname meaning ~ 'short-legged'. Curt meaning short & hose meaning hose (clothing). His father, King William, called him brevis-ocrea (short-boot). Reported to be courageous & skillful in military exercises. He was, however, prone to laziness & weakness of character. Robert died in prison in the Cardiff Castle; imprisoned by his brother, Henry.

Source: The book, 'Kings & Queens of Great Britain' The book, 'Queens of England' The book, 'The Oxford History of the British Monarchy' The book, 'Now I Remember' The book, 'They Came With The Conqueror' The book, 'Scotlands Story' The book, 'A New History of England, 410-1975' The book, 'Wales' -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II,_Duke_of_Normandy -------------------- Richard of Bernay was the second son of William the Conqueror, and a potential heir to the English throne. However, Richard predeceased his father, and the throne was eventually inherited by his brother William II.

Richard was born in 1054 in Normandy, France, a son of William (at that time merely Duke of Normandy) and Matilda of Flanders. He is often referred to as the Duke of Bernay, part of his father's continental possessions, but this is a mistake based on the interpretation of an inscription on his tomb which was also intended for the Earl Beorn.[1] His older brother, Robert Curthose, was effectively exiled after rebellion, leaving Richard as the leading claimant to the English throne.

However, Richard was never to be King. In 1081, on a trip over the channel to his father's Kingdom, the young Duke went hunting in the New Forest. The exact nature of the accident is unknown, but Richard was mauled and killed by a stag, leaving his younger brother William as claimant. He was taken from the forest and buried at Winchester Cathedral. In a twist of fate, William was himself killed in the New Forest nearly twenty years later.

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Robert Courteheuse, Duc de Normandie's Timeline

1054
1054
Plouigneau, Brittany, France
1079
1079
Age 25
Normandy, France
1079
Age 25
Normandie
1081
1081
Age 27
Normandie
1097
1097
- 1098
Age 43
1100
May 1100
Age 46
Apulia, Italy
1100
Age 46
Apulia Italy
1101
1101
Age 47
United Kingdom

Robert, Henry's eldest brother, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. In the Treaty of Alton, Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King of England and return peacefully to Normandy, upon receipt of an annual sum of 2000 silver marks, which Henry proceeded to pay.

1102
October 25, 1102
Age 48
Rouen (Seine-Maritime) France
1102
Age 48
Rouen,Seine-Maritime,France