Robert II le Hiérosolymitain, comte de Flandre

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Robert II 'le Hiérosolymitain' de Flandre (Fleming), comte de Flandre

Nicknames: "Robert II of Flanders"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Flanders, Belgium
Death: Died in Meaux, St Vaast, Arras
Immediate Family:

Son of Robert I "de Fries", count of Flanders; Gertrude of Saxony-Billung and Gertrude Saxony
Husband of Ada DeNamur; Gertrude of Holland; Hersende de la Suze; Clemence de Bourgogne, Comtesse de Burgundy; Ida de Namur, Duchess of Lower Lorraine and 2 others
Father of (Lord) Freskin Fleming; Lisiard II, comte de Sablé; Bernard de Sablé; Herbert des Roches; Jeanne de Sablé and 4 others
Brother of Count Baldwin VII Flanders, VII; Adela de Flandre; Filips van Vlaanderen 'van Loo'; Rosamunda van Vlaanderen and Gertruida van Vlaanderen
Half brother of Adèle van Holland, Countess of Holland; Dirk V van Holland, graaf van Friesland; Pieter van Holland, Graaf van Holland; Floris van Holland and Bertha van Holland, comtesse de Hainaut

Occupation: Greve, Count of Flanders, Greve av Flandern deltog i det första korståget, Sieur, de Sablé, Count of Flanders (1093-1111), Seigneur de Sable, Seigneur, Comte
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Robert II 'le Hiérosolymitain' de Flandre (Fleming), comte de Flandre

Robert II Comte de Flandre (1065 - 1111)

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FLANDERS,%20HAINAUT.htm#Top

ROBERT (1065-[5 Oct] 1111, bur Arras St Vaast[295]). "Roberti filius eius [Robertus Flandrensium comes]" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[296]. The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Philippum et Robertum" as sons of "Robertus [et] vidua Gertrude"[297]. He ruled with his father as joint count of Flanders from 1086[298]. He succeeded his father in 1093 as ROBERT II Count of Flanders. He joined the First Crusade in 1096, and was joint-leader of a contingent with Robert Duke of Normandy and Etienne Comte de Blois[299]. As the crusaders approached Antioch in Oct 1097, a contingent under Count Robert captured Artah to the south-west[300]. After the capture of Jerusalem, he left Palestine for Europe in Sep 1099[301]. He helped Henry I King of England conquer Normandy from his brother Robert in 1106, in accordance with the alliance agreed in the Treaty of Dover in 1103 which was renewed in 1110[302]. Orderic Vitalis records that Count Robert was among the forces of Louis VI King of France which fought Thibaut IV Comte de Blois near Meaux, that he was trampled as the king fled with his men, and died a few days later[303]. According to William of Malmesbury, he was mortally wounded in a tournament[304]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "III Non Oct" of "Rotbertus Flandrensium comes"[305], which is consistent with the date of death of Count Robert II shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[306]. However, it seems more likely that this entry relates to Count Robert I (whose death is recorded on 13 Oct in another source, see above) as the same necrology also records the death "XV Kal Aug" of "Gertrudis comitissa" who may be identified with the wife of the older count Robert[307]. m (before 1092) as her first husband, CLEMENCE de Bourgogne, daughter of GUILLAUME I Comte de Bourgogne & his wife Etiennette --- ([1078]-[1133]). "Clementie Flandrarum comitisse" is named as wife of "Robertus iunior" in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[308]. Orderic Vitalis names her as wife of Count Robert but does not give her origin[309]. Her origin is confirmed by the Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana which names "Clementiam filiam Willelmi comitis Burgundionum cognomento Testahardith" as wife of "Rodbertus Rodberti filius"[310]. Clemence could not have been born much later than 1078, given the birth of her first child (by her first husband) in 1093. She was appointed regent in Flanders during the absence of her first husband on crusade[311]. She promoted the monastic movement and introduced Cluniac rule into several abbeys in Flanders[312]. She founded Bourbourg Abbey with her first husband in [1103]. "Balduinus Flandrensium comes et Clementia comitissa" confirmed the donation of the church of Saint-Bertin to Cluny made by "dominus meus Rotbertus comes", by charter 12 Apr 1112[313]. She opposed the succession in 1119 of Count Charles, supporting the candidature of Guillaume d'Ypres[314]. She married secondly ([1125]) as his second wife, Godefroi V Duke of Lower Lotharingia. The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified. The Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin records the death in [1133] of "Clementia Roberti iunioris vidua" and specifies that "eatenus pene terciam partem Flandrie dotis loco tenuit"[315], although it is curious that this does not mention her second husband who was still alive when his wife died. Robert II & his wife had three children:

a) BAUDOUIN ([1092/93]-Boulers 17 Jun 1119, bur Saint Bertin[316]). The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum et Guillelmum" as sons of "Rodbertus [et] Clementiam"[317]. His parentage is recorded by Orderic Vitalis, who says that he was "still a boy" when he succeeded his father[318] in 1111 as BAUDOUIN VII Count of Flanders. He refused to return her marriage portion to his mother, who instigated a rebellion of south Flemish barons with the help of Baudouin III Comte de Hainaut, but was forced to submit. William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis record that Count Baudouin supported Guillaume "Clito" de Normandie against Henry I King of England in 1118, invaded Normandy as far as Arques, but in Sep 1118 was wounded "for his helmet being battered with repeated strokes, he received an injury to his brain"[319]. He passed the last ten months of his life in the monastery of St Bertin[320]. He designated Charles of Denmark as his successor on his deathbed[321], although the accuracy of this statement is dubious if his brain injuries were severe. The Annales Blandinienses record that "Balduinus comes, Rodberti iunioris et Clementiæ filius" was 26 years old when he became a monk after a distinguished military career[322]. The Vita Karoli Comitis Flandriæ records the death "1119 XV Kal Iulii" of Count Baudouin, and his burial at St Bertin[323]. m (1110, divorced) HAVISE de Bretagne, daughter of ALAIN IV "Fergant" Duke of Brittany & his second wife Ermengarde d'Anjou. The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana refers to the wife of "Balduinum comitem" as "filiam Alani Fregani comitis Brittaniæ", but does not name her[324]. The Flandria Generosa names "filiam Alani comitis Brittaniæ" as the wife of "Balduinus Inclitus", specifying that they were separated by Pope Pascal II on grounds of consanguinity[325]. The Chronicon Briocensi names "Conanum et Hazevisiam" as the two children of "Alanus filius primogenitus [Hoelli]" and his wife "Ermengardem filiam Comitis Andegavensis"[326].

b) GUILLAUME de Flandre (1094-1109, bur Saint-Bertin). The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum et Guillelmum" sons of "Rodbertus [et] Clementiam"[327]. "Guillelmus fratrem meum" is named in the donation to Saint-Bertin of "Balduinus Flandrensium marchisus" dated 1119, which also specifies Guillaume's burial place[328] and in another passage states that he died before his father[329].

c) --- de Flandre (1095-young). The Liber de Restauratione Sancti Martini Tornacensis records that "Clementia cum de viro suo comite Roberto genuisset tres filios infra tres annos" but does not name any of them[330].

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II,_Count_of_Flanders

Robert II, Count of Flanders

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Robert II, Count of Flanders.

Robert II (c. 1065 – October 5, 1111) was Count of Flanders from 1093 to 1111. He became known as Robert of Jerusalem (Robertus Hierosolimitanus) or Robert the Crusader after his exploits in the First Crusade.

Contents

[show]

   * 1 History
   * 2 Family
   * 3 Ancestry
   * 4 References
   * 5 Notes
   * 6 Sources

[edit] History

He was the eldest son of Robert I of Flanders and Gertrude of Holland. His father, hoping to place the cadet branch (or "Baldwinite" branch) of Flanders over the county, began to associate him with his rule around 1086[1]. From 1085 to 1091 he was regent of the county while his father was away on pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

After becoming count in 1093, he joined the First Crusade, launched by Pope Urban II in 1095. Robert established a regency council in Flanders and followed the retinue Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine. After reaching Constantinople, the crusaders were obliged to swear an oath of fealty to Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus and promise to return to the Byzantine Empire any land they might capture. Robert, whose father had already served Alexius during his pilgrimage in the 1080s, had no problem swearing this oath, but some of the other leaders did and there was some delay in leaving the city.

Robert then participated in the Siege of Nicaea, after which the army was split into two groups. Robert marched with Stephen of Blois, Bohemund of Taranto, Robert Curthose, and the Byzantine guides, one day ahead of the rest of the crusaders. This army was surrounded by the Seljuk sultan Kilij Arslan I at the Battle of Dorylaeum on June 30, 1097. The next day, the second army, led by Raymond IV of Toulouse, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Hugh of Vermandois, arrived and broke the encirclement; the two armies joined together, with Robert and Raymond forming the centre. The Turks were defeated and the crusaders continued their march.

At the end of 1097 the crusaders arrived at Antioch. The Siege of Antioch lasted many months; in December, Robert and Bohemund briefly left the army to raid the surrounding territory for food, and on December 30 they defeated an army sent to relieve Antioch, led by Dukak of Damascus. Antioch was eventually betrayed to Bohemund by an Armenian guard, and Robert was among the first to enter the city, but only a few days later they were themselves besieged by Kerbogha of Mosul. On June 28, 1098, the crusaders marched out to meet him in battle; Robert and Hugh of Vermandois led the first of six divisions. Kerbogha was defeated and the Muslim-held citadel finally surrendered to the crusaders. Robert, along with Bohemund, Raymond, and Godfrey, occupied the citadel, but Bohemund soon claimed the city for himself. Raymond also claimed it, but Robert supported Bohemund in this dispute.

The dispute delayed the crusade even further. Raymond left Antioch to attack Ma'arrat al-Numan, which was captured; Robert took part in this siege as well. Raymond then tried to bribe Robert and the other leaders to follow him instead of Bohemund; Robert was offered six thousand sous, but each attempted bribe was ignored. Raymond continued south to Jerusalem in January, 1099, but Robert and Godfrey remained behind in Antioch until February. They rejoined Raymond's army at the Siege of Arqa. In June, Robert and Gaston IV of Bearn led the vanguard which arrived at Ramla, and with Tancred of Taranto he led an expedition into Samaria to find wood in order to construct siege engines for the Siege of Jerusalem. When Jerusalem was captured on July 15, Robert supported Godfrey's claim over that of Raymond, and on August 9 marched out with him to meet the Fatimid army under al-Afdal Shahanshah which was coming to relieve Jerusalem. Robert formed part of the centre wing in the ensuing Battle of Ascalon, which resulted in a crusader victory. However, Godfrey and Raymond quarrelled over possession of Ascalon, and even Robert could not support Godfrey in this dispute; the city remained uncaptured, although the victory allowed for the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

At the end of August, Robert returned home with Robert Curthose and Raymond. On the way back they captured Latakia, which was returned to the Byzantine emperor, as promised years before. Raymond remained there but both Roberts continued home by way of Constantinople, after declining Alexius' request to stay there in his service. Robert brought back with him a precious relic, the arm of Saint George, a gift from Alexius. The relic was placed in the church of Anchin Abbey in Flanders[2]. After he returned, Robert built the monastery of St. Andrew in Betferkerke, near Bruges. Because of his crusade and the spoils he brought home, he was nicknamed Robert of Jerusalem.

During his absence, Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV had tried to seize imperial Flanders. Robert responded by supporting the revolt of the Commune of Cambrai against the emperor and his supporter, Bishop Gaulcher, and seized a number of castles. Peace was restored in 1102 paid homage to the emperor for imperial Flanders, but after 1105, the new emperor, Henry V, marched on Flanders, with the aid of Baldwin III, Count of Hainaut and an army from Holland. Robert stopped them outside of Douai and a new peace was signed, in which the emperor recognized Robert's claim to Douai and Cambrai.

In 1103 he made an alliance with King Henry I of England, offering 1000 cavalry in exchange for an annual tribute, but when Henry refused to pay, Robert allied with his nominal overlord, Louis VI of France, and attacked Normandy. With the king diverted, Theobald IV of Blois led a revolt of the French barons. Robert led an army against Meaux, but near the city he was fatally wounded, fell off his horse, and drowned in the Marne.

[edit] Family

He married Clementia of Burgundy, sister of Pope Callistus II. They had three children, but only the oldest survived to adulthood. He succeeded Robert as Baldwin VII of Flanders.

Sources

   * Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. I: The First Crusade, Cambridge University Press, 1951.

Preceded by

Robert I Count of Flanders

1093–1111 Succeeded by

Baldwin VII

This page was last modified on 21 January 2010 at 12:04.

--------------------

Robert II, Count of Flanders

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Robert II (c. 1065 – October 5, 1111) was Count of Flanders from 1093 to 1111. He became known as Robert of Jerusalem (Robertus Hierosolimitanus) or Robert the Crusader after his exploits in the First Crusade.

[edit]History

He was the eldest son of Robert I of Flanders and Gertrude of Holland. His father, hoping to place the cadet branch (or "Baldwinite" branch) of Flanders over the county, began to associate him with his rule around 1077. From 1085 to 1091 he was regent of the county while his father was away on pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

After becoming count in 1093, he joined the First Crusade, launched by Pope Urban II in 1095. Robert established a regency council in Flanders and followed the retinue Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine. After reaching Constantinople, the crusaders were obliged to swear an oath of fealty to Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus and promise to return to the Byzantine Empire any land they might capture. Robert, whose father had already served Alexius during his pilgrimage in the 1080s, had no problem swearing this oath, but some of the other leaders did and there was some delay in leaving the city.

Robert then participated in the Siege of Nicaea, after which the army was split into two groups. Robert marched with Stephen of Blois, Bohemund of Taranto, Robert Curthose, and the Byzantine guides, one day ahead of the rest of the crusaders. This army was surrounded by the Seljuk sultan Kilij Arslan I at the Battle of Dorylaeum on June 30, 1097. The next day, the second army, led by Raymond IV of Toulouse, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Hugh of Vermandois, arrived and broke the encirclement; the two armies joined together, with Robert and Raymond forming the centre. The Turks were defeated and the crusaders continued their march.

At the end of 1097 the crusaders arrived at Antioch. The Siege of Antioch lasted many months; in December, Robert and Bohemund briefly left the army to raid the surrounding territory for food, and on December 30 they defeated an army sent to relieve Antioch, led by Dukak of Damascus. Antioch was eventually betrayed to Bohemund by an Armenian guard, and Robert was among the first to enter the city, but only a few days later they were themselves besieged by Kerbogha of Mosul. On June 28, 1098, the crusaders marched out to meet him in battle; Robert and Hugh of Vermandois led the first of six divisions. Kerbogha was defeated and the Muslim-held citadel finally surrendered to the crusaders. Robert, along with Bohemund, Raymond, and Godfrey, occupied the citadel, but Bohemund soon claimed the city for himself. Raymond also claimed it, but Robert supported Bohemund in this dispute.

The dispute delayed the crusade even further. Raymond left Antioch to attack Ma'arrat al-Numan, which was captured; Robert took part in this siege as well. Raymond then tried to bribe Robert and the other leaders to follow him instead of Bohemund; Robert was offered six thousand sous, but each attempted bribe was ignored. Raymond continued south to Jerusalem in January, 1099, but Robert and Godfrey remained behind in Antioch until February. They rejoined Raymond's army at the Siege of Arqa. In June, Robert and Gaston IV of Bearn led the vanguard which arrived at Ramla, and with Tancred of Taranto he led an expedition into Samaria to find wood in order to construct siege engines for the Siege of Jerusalem. When Jerusalem was captured on July 15, Robert supported Godfrey's claim over that of Raymond, and on August 9 marched out with him to meet the Fatimid army under al-Afdal Shahanshah which was coming to relieve Jerusalem. Robert formed part of the centre wing in the ensuing Battle of Ascalon, which resulted in a crusader victory. However, Godfrey and Raymond quarrelled over possession of Ascalon, and even Robert could not support Godfrey in this dispute; the city remained uncaptured, although the victory allowed for the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

At the end of August, Robert returned home with Robert Curthose and Raymond. On the way back they captured Latakia, which was returned to the Byzantine emperor, as promised years before. Raymond remained there but both Roberts continued home by way of Constantinople, after declining Alexius' request to stay there in his service. Robert brought back with him a precious relic, the arm of St. George, a gift from Alexius. The relic was placed in the church of Anchin in Flanders. After he returned, Robert built the monastery of St. Andrew in Betferkerke, near Bruges. Because of his crusade and the spoils he brought home, he was nicknamed Robert of Jerusalem.

During his absence, Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV had tried to seize imperial Flanders. Robert responded by supporting the revolt of the Commune of Cambrai against the emperor and his supporter, Bishop Gaulcher, and seized a number of castles. Peace was restored in 1102 paid homage to the emperor for imperial Flanders, but after 1105, the new emperor, Henry V, marched on Flanders, with the aid of Baldwin III, Count of Hainaut and an army from Holland. Robert stopped them outside of Douai and a new peace was signed, in which the emperor recognized Robert's claim to Douai and Cambrai.

In 1103 he made an alliance with King Henry I of England, offering 1000 cavalry in exchange for an annual tribute, but when Henry refused to pay, Robert allied with his nominal overlord, Louis VI of France, and attacked Normandy. With the king diverted, Theobald IV of Blois led a revolt of the French barons. Robert led an army against Meaux, but near the city he was fatally wounded, fell of his horse, and drowned in the Marne.

[edit]Family

He married Clementia of Burgundy, sister of Pope Callistus II. They had three children, but only the oldest survived to adulthood. He succeeded Robert as Baldwin VII of Flanders.

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Robert II le Hiérosolymitain, comte de Flandre's Timeline

1060
1060
Sablé, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France
1065
1065
Flanders, Belgium
1090
1090
Age 25
Sable, Sarthe, Pas de la Loire, France
1090
Age 25
1093
1093
Age 28
Flandern, Belgien
1093
Age 28
Vlaanderen
1096
1096
Age 31
Flanders, Netherlands, Belgium
1096
Age 31
Netherlands, Flanders, Belgium
1107
1107
Age 42
Flandern, Holland
1107
Age 42
Flanders, Holland