Robert II 'le Pieux' de France, roi des Francs (972 - 1031) MP 100

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Nicknames: "the Pious", "the Wise", "Robert King of France", "Robert the Pious", "Robert II", "Robert of France II", "King of France Robert II", "Robert Frankreich Der Fromme Capet", "den Hellige", "HUGOSON", "Den fromme", ""The Pious"//", "King Robert II the Pious of /France/", "The Pious..."
Place of Burial: Orleans, Loiret, Centre, France
Birthplace: Orléans, Centre, France
Death: Died in Melun, Île-de-France, France
Occupation: Kinf of France (vv.996-death), King of France (vv.996–1031), King of France, King of France from October 24, 996 to July 20, 1031, Roi de France (996–1031), King of France from 996 until his death, Konge, Roi de France, King, Konge av Frankrike,
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Robert II 'le Pieux' de France, roi des Francs

Robert II le Pieux de France / Robert II the Pious of France

Born: 27 March 972

Dead: 20 July 1031

King of France from 996 until his death

Father: Hugh Capet

Mother: Adelaide of Aquitaine

Marriage with

1. Rozala (who changed her name to Susannah after becoming queen)

She was the daughter of Berengar II of Italy and the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. No children together.

2. Bertha (but the marriage got annulled)

He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

3. Constance of Arles

Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. She was an ambitious and scheming woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

Children with Constance of Arles;

1. Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin

2. Hedwig (or Advisa) of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.

3. Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017–1025)

4. Henry I, successor

5. Robert, became Duke of Burgundy

6. Odo (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy

7. Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children.

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

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ROBERT (II) de France, son of HUGUES Capet King of France & his wife Adelais [de Poitou] (Orléans ([27 Mar] 972-Château de Melun 20 Jul 1031, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

The Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis names "Robertum regem et filiam Hadevidem…comitissam Hainonensium" as the children of King Hugues[148].

He was invested as associate-king with his father 25 Dec 987, consecrated 1 Apr 988 at the cathedral of Sainte-Croix in Orléans[149]. He succeeded his father in 996 as ROBERT II "le Pieux"[150] King of France.

He claimed the duchy of Burgundy on the death of his paternal uncle Duke Henri in 1002, but took 12 years to complete its conquest in the face of opposition from Otto-Guillaume Comte de Mâcon[151].

After the death of Emperor Heinrich II King of Germany in 1024, King Robert supported the rebels (led by Frédéric II Duke of Upper Lotharingia) opposed to King Konrad II but he refused the crown of Italy which they offered it to him. Robert nevertheless sent troops to attack Metz, but was repulsed[152].

The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1031 of "rex Francorum Robertus"[153]. Rodolfus Glaber records the death of King Robert at Melun in July and his place of burial[154]. The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "XII Kal Aug" of "Rotbertus rex"[155]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XIII Kal Aug" of "Rotbertus…Francorum rex"[156].

m firstly (988, before 1 Apr, repudiated [991/92]) as her second husband, ROZALA [Suzanne] di Ivrea, widow of ARNOUL II “le Jeune” Count of Flanders, daughter of BERENGARIO II ex-King of Italy [Ivrea] & his wife Willa of Tuscany-Arles ([950/960]-13 Dec 1003 or 7 Feb 1004, bur Gent, church of the Abbey de Saint-Pierre du Mont-Blandin).

Richer records that King Robert repudiated his wife "Susannam…genere Italicam eo quod anus esset" but refused to allow her to retake her castle at Montreuil, whereupon she constructed another nearby[165]. She returned to Flanders after she was repudiated by her second husband, and became one of the principal advisers of her son Count Baldwin IV. France retained Montreuil-sur-Mer.

m secondly ([late 996/early 997], divorced Sep 1001) BERTHE of Burgundy, widow of EUDES I Comte de Blois et de Chartres, daughter of CONRAD I “le Pacifique” King of Burgundy [Welf] & his wife Mathilde de France [Carolingian] ([964/965]-16 Jan after 1010).

Pope Gregory V called on King Robert to repudiate his wife in 998 on grounds of consanguinity. The request was repeated in 1001 by the court of Rome. Robert at first refused and the kingdom of France was excommunicated[173]. The king, in reaction to the 1108 assassination of his favourite Hugues de Beauvais who had served Queen Berthe, visited Rome in 1008 in an unsuccessful attempt to divorce his third wife in order to take back Berthe[175].

m thirdly (after Sep 1001 before 25 Aug 1003) CONSTANCE d'Arles, daughter of GUILLAUME II “le Libérateur” Comte d’Arles [Provence] et Marquis & his wife Adelais [Blanche] d’Anjou ([987/89]-Château de Melun 22 or 25 Jul 1032, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

The Historia Francorum names "Constantiam, filiam Guillelmi comitis Arelatensis, natam de Blanca sorore Gaufridi comitis Andegavensis" as wife of King Robert[178].

The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines also names "Constantia filia fuit Blanche comitisse Arelatensis" as wife of "Robertus rex"[179]. The Chronicon Hugonis names "Constantiam" as wife of "Robertus", specifying that she was "cognatam Hugonis Autisiodorensis episcopi comitis Cabilonensis"[180]. This is presumably based on Rodulfus Glaber who states incorrectly that "Constantiam…filiam…prioris Willemi Aquitanie ducis" was wife of King Robert II, specifying that she was "cognatam" of Hugues Comte de Chalon Bishop of Auxerre[181]. The only relationship so far identified between the two is that Constance's maternal uncle, Geoffroy I Comte d'Anjou, was the second husband of the mother of Comte Hugues.

Rodulfus Glauber dates her marriage to "about the year 1000"[182].

The king attempted to separate from Constance in 1008 in order to take back his second wife, according to Rodulfus Glaber through the influence of "Hugo dictus Beluacensis"[183], but he restored Constance's royal prerogatives end-1009[184].

She opposed her husband's proposal to crown their second son Henri as associate king in 1026, supporting the candidature of her third son Robert[185]. She organised two revolts against King Robert, and another against her son King Henri I after his accession in 1031[186].

Rodolfus Glaber records the death of Queen Constance in the same city as her husband [Melun] and in the same month [July] in the following year, as well as her place of burial[187]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "XI Kal Aug" of "regina Constancia"[188]. The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "VIII Kal Aug" of "Constancia regina"[189].

King Robert & his third wife had [seven] children:

1. [CONSTANCE de France.

There is no proof that Constance, wife of Manassès de Dammartin, was the daughter of King Robert II, the affiliation being proposed for onomastic reasons only[190]. It is, however, supported by the presence of the king and queen at a donation by Comte Manassès in 1031[191]. Rodolfus Glaber records that King Robert had two daughters by his wife Constance[192], presumably referring to Hedwige and Adela. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[193], the wife of Manassès was "Constance [de Dammartin]", presumably on the theory that she brought her husband the county of Dammartin.

m ([1023 or before]) MANASSES Comte de Dammartin-en-Goële, son of HILDUIN II de Montdidier Seigneur de Ramérupt & his wife --- (-killed in battle Ornel, near Etain, Bar-le-Duc 15 Nov or 15 Dec 1037).]

2. HEDWIGE [Avoie] de France ([1003]-5 Jun after 1063).

Rodolfus Glaber records that "Rainaldus…Landrici comitis filius" married a daughter of King Robert[194]. The Chronici Hugonis Floriacensis names "Adelaidem…Rainaldi comitis Nivernensis uxorem" as the daughter of King Robert and his wife Constance[195]. The Historia Nivernensium Comitum records that the wife of "Renaldum" was "sorori Regis Roberti, filii Hugonis Capitonis"[196]. The Annales Vizeliacenses also specifies that Renaud's wife was the sister not daughter of King Robert II[197]. However, this is chronologically unlikely given that King Robert and his known sisters were born in the 970s, more than twenty years before the earliest possible date of birth of Comte Renaud. Her marriage was agreed by her father as part of his alliance with Landry Comte de Nevers after capturing Auxerre, which the king gave to his daughter as dowry[198]. "Rainaldus comes Nivernensis" donated property "Belmontis" to Cluny, for the souls of "…uxoris mee Advise…" by charter dated to [1028/40][199]. She founded the abbeys of Crisenon and Issenon.

m (1006, soon after 25 Jan 1016) RENAUD de Nevers, son of LANDRY Comte de Nevers & his wife Mathilde de Bourgogne-Comté (-killed in battle Sainte-Vertu, Yonne 29 May 1040, bur Auxerre, Saint-Germain). He succeeded his father in 1028 as RENAUD I Comte de Nevers. He was killed in battle against Robert I Duke of Burgundy, his brother-in-law.

3. HUGUES de France (1007-28 Aug 1025, bur Compiègne, church of the Abbaye de Saint-Corneille).

The Historia Francorum names (in order) "Hugonem qui cognominatus est Magnus, Henricum, Robertum, Odonem" as the four sons of King Robert and Constance[200].

He was consecrated associate-king 9 Jun 1017, at Compiègne, church of the Abbaye de Saint-Corneille, when he was "barely 10 years old" according to Rodolfus Glaber[201]. He rebelled against his father claiming the full authority of his position as associate-king, but later submitted[202].

The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "V Kal Sep" of "Hugo iuvenis rex Francorum"[203]. The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "V Kal Sep" of "Hugo iuvenis rex"[204]. Rodolfus Glaber records his place of burial[205].

4. HENRI de France ([end 1009/May 1010]-Palais de Vitry-aux-Loges, forêt d’Orléans, Loiret 4 Aug 1060, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

The Historia Francorum names (in order) "Hugonem qui cognominatus est Magnus, Henricum, Robertum, Odonem" as the four sons of King Robert and Constance[206].

He succeeded his father in 1031 as HENRI I King of France.

---

5. ROBERT de France ([1011/12]-church of Fleury-sur-Ouche, Côte d’Or 18 Mar 1076, bur Saint-Seine-l'Abbaye, Côte d’Or).

The Historia Francorum names (in order) "Hugonem qui cognominatus est Magnus, Henricum, Robertum, Odonem" as the four sons of King Robert and Constance[207]. Rodulfus Glauber names "Heinricus rex…germanium suum Rotbertum" when recording the latter's installation as duke of Burgundy by his brother[208].

His mother supported him as candidate to be consecrated associate king in 1027, in place of his older brother Henri who was supported by their father. His father named him heir to the duchy of Burgundy in 1030. He was installed as ROBERT I "le Vieux" Duke of Burgundy in 1032 by his brother King Henri I.

---

6. EUDES de France ([1013]-Germigny-des-Prés, near Sully, Loiret 15 May [1057/59]).

The Historia Francorum names (in order) "Hugonem qui cognominatus est Magnus, Henricum, Robertum, Odonem" as the four sons of King Robert and Constance[209].

He allied himself with Eudes II Comte de Blois in the war against his brother Henri I King of France 1034-1041. He was defeated and imprisoned at Orléans. After his release, he fought for the king in Normandy, but was defeated in 1054 at Mortemer.

Orderic Vitalis records the war between the Normans and "Henricum regem" in 1054 when "Odonem fratrem suum" was defeated by "Roberti Aucensis comiitis et Rogerii de Mortuomari" who led the Norman forces "apud Mortuum-mare"[210]. He owned land near Bellême[211].

The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Id Mai" of "Odo Roberti regis filius"[212].

7. ADELA de France (-Messines 8 Jan 1079, bur Messines, Benedictine monastery).

The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "soror…regis Henrici Adela" as wife of "Balduino Insulano"[213]. The Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis names "Alam comitissam Flandrensem" as the daughter of King Robert[214]. She is named as daughter of King Robert in a manuscript whose attribution to Orderic Vitalis is disputed, which also refers to her marriage[215].

Kerrebrouck mentions her betrothal to Duke Richard "très jeune" but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[216]. "Richardus Nortmannorum dux" agreed grants of property to "Adela" on the occasion of their marriage by charter dated Jan 1026, which does not specify her parentage[217]. Her father gave her the seigneurie of Corbie as her dowry.

Ctss de Contenance. She founded the Benedictine monastery at Messines near Ypres.

The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "VI Id Jan" of "Adelaidis comitissa"[218].

Betrothed (Jan 1027) to RICHARD III Duke of Normandy, son of RICHARD I Duke of Normandy & his first wife Judith de Bretagne ([1001]-6 Aug 1027).

m (Amiens 1028) BAUDOUIN de Flandre, son of BAUDOUIN IV "le Barbu/Pulchrae Barbae" Count of Flanders & his first wife Ogive de Luxembourg ([1012/13]-Lille 1 Sep 1067, bur Lille, Saint-Pierre). He succeeded his father in 1035 as BAUDOUIN V “le Pieux/Insulanus” Count of Flanders. He was regent of France for his nephew Philippe I King of France 1060-1066/67.

References:

[148] Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis 2, MGH SS XIII, p. 252.

[149] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 55.

[150] This nickname was applied to the king from the early years of his reign, see Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 59 footnote 2.

[151] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 55.

[152] Poull (1994), pp. 21-2.

[153] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1031, MGH SS XXIII, p. 783.

[154] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.36, p. 159.

[155] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi siècle, p. 16.

[156] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 322.

[157] Reginonis Chronicon 965, MGH SS I, p. 627.

[158] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306.

[159] Annales Elnonenses Minores [950-968], MGH SS V, p. 19.

[160] Nicholas, D. (1992) Medieval Flanders (Longman), p. 44.

[161] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 96, p. 92.

[162] Vita Sancti Bertulfi Abbatis Renticensis, RCGF 10, p. 365.

[163] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 60 footnote 32.

[164] Nicholas (1992), p. 45.

[165] Guadet, J. (ed.) (1845) Richeri Historiarum (Paris) IV.LXXXVII, p. 270.

[166] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 102, p. 96.

[167] Liber traditionum sancti Petri Blandiniensis, 107, p. 101.

[168] Annales Elnonenses Minores 1003, MGH SS V, p. 19.

[169] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 299.

[170] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 387.

[171] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.9, MGH SS VII, p. 64.

[172] Richer IV, supplementary notes following CVII, p. 308.

[173] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 62 footnote 42.

[174] Lecesne, H. (ed.) (1874) Cartulaire de Marmoutier pour le Dunois III, p. 4.

[175] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Mathilde, Reine de France inconnue', Journal des Savants (Oct-Dec 1971), pp. 241-60, 242 footnote 8.

[176] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Père de Chartres (Paris) ("Chartres Saint-Père"), I, Liber Quintus, Cap. V, p. 96.

[177] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi siècle, p. 5.

[178] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 385, additional manuscript quoted in footnote ***.

[179] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1013, MGH SS XXIII, p. 780.

[180] Chronicon Hugonis, monachi Virdunensis et divionensis abbatis Flaviniacensis I 996, MGH SS VIII, p. 368.

[181] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.7, p. 107.

[182] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.40, p. 165.

[183] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.7, p. 107.

[184] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 57.

[185] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.34, p. 157.

[186] Kerrebrouck (2000), pp. 56 and 57.

[187] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.36, p. 159.

[188] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 267.

[189] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Prieuré d'Argenteuil, p. 348.

[190] Depoin, J. (1912) Recueil des chartes et documents de Saint-Martin-des-Champs, monastère parisien, Vol. 1 (Paris), no. 6, pp. 15-16, expanded by Mathieu, J. N. (1996) 'Recherches sur les premiers Comtes de Dammartin', Mémoires publiés par la Fédération des sociétés historiques et archéologiques de Paris et de l'Ile-de-France, t. 47 (1996), pp. 7-60, 15-16, both cited in Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 63.

[191] Cartulaire de Notre-Dame de Chartres d'après les cartularies et les titres originaux, ed. Lépinois, E. de and Merlet, L. (Chartres, 1862-1865), no. XIII, cited in Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 63 footnote 57.

[192] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.7, p. 107.

[193] ES III 676.

[194] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum IV.26, p. 213.

[195] Chronici Hugonis Floriacensis, RHGF X, p. 222.

[196] Origine et Historia Brevi Nivernensium Comitum, RHGF X, p. 258.

[197] Bouchard (1987), pp. 343-4, the author highlighting the "unreliable genealogies" of Raoul Glaber and preferring the Annales Vizeliacenses as a reliable source.

[198] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 58.

[199] Cluny Tome IV, 2811, p. 13.

[200] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 385, additional manuscript quoted in footnote ***.

[201] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.32, p. 151.

[202] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 58.

[203] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 270.

[204] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Prieuré d'Argenteuil, p. 348.

[205] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.33, p. 157.

[206] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 385, additional manuscript quoted in footnote ***.

[207] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 385, additional manuscript quoted in footnote ***.

[208] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.9, MGH SS VII, p. 64.

[209] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 385, additional manuscript quoted in footnote ***.

[210] Le Prévost, A. (1840) Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. I, Liber I, p. 184, and Vol. III, Liber VII, p. 160.

[211] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 58.

[212] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 317.

[213] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1060, MGH SS XXIII, p. 792.

[214] Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis 2, MGH SS XIII, p. 252.

[215] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Appendix I, p. 350.

[216] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 58.

[217] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 390.

[218] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 307.

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(wikipedia)

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet.

Parents:Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Birth place: Orléans, France.

Death:20 July 1031 (aged 59), Melun, France

Buriel: Saint Denis Basilica, Paris, France

Co-reign

Solo-reign 30[citation needed]. December 987 – 24 October 996;

24 October 996 – 20 July 1031

Coronation 30[citation needed] December 987

Predecessor Hugh

Successor Henry I

Spouse Rozala of Italy

Bertha of Burgundy

Constance of Arles

Issue

Hugh Magnus, Rex Filius

Henry I

Adela, Countess of Flanders

Robert I, Duke of Burgundy

Father Hugh Capet

Mother Adelaide of Aquitaine

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:[7]

   * Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin
   * Hedwig (or Advisa) of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.
   * Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017–1025)
   * Henry I, successor
   * Robert, became Duke of Burgundy
   * Odo (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy
   * Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

--------------------

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:[7]

   * Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin
   * Hedwig (or Advisa) of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.
   * Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017–1025)
   * Henry I, successor
   * Robert, became Duke of Burgundy
   * Odo (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy
   * Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_France

--------------------

Robert II of France

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Robert II the Pious

King of the Franks

The Excommunication of Robert the Pious by Jean-Paul Laurens (1875)

The Excommunication of Robert the Pious by Jean-Paul Laurens (1875)

Co-reign

Solo-reign 30 December 987 – 24 October 996;

24 October 996 – 20 July 1031

Coronation 30 December 987

Predecessor Hugh

Successor Henry I

Spouse Rozala of Italy

Bertha of Burgundy

Constance of Arles

Issue

Hugh Magnus, Rex Filius

Henry I

Adela, Countess of Flanders

Robert I, Duke of Burgundy

Father Hugh Capet

Mother Adelaide of Aquitaine

Born 27 March 972(972-03-27)

Orléans, France

Died 20 July 1031 (aged 59)

Melun, France

Burial Saint Denis Basilica, Paris, France

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Co-rule with father
   * 2 Marital problems
   * 3 Piety
   * 4 Military career
   * 5 Children
   * 6 Notes
   * 7 Sources

[edit] Co-rule with father

Silver denier of Robert II, 1.22g. Monnaie de Paris.

Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy.[1] Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition.[2] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[3] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[4] Robert was eventually crowned on 30 December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.

Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.

[edit] Marital problems

As early as 989, having been rebuffed in his search for a Byzantine princess,[5]Hugh Capet arranged for Robert to marry the recently-widowed daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala, who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen.[6] She was many years his senior. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage: to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. She was an ambitious and scheming woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

[edit] Piety

Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety" resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

[edit] Military career

Robert II dispenses alms to the poor: "Robert had a kindly feeling for the weak and poor" — from François Guizot, A Popular History of France from the Earliest Times.

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Henry, in both France and Burgundy.

[edit] Children

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:[7]

   * Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin
   * Adele of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.
   * Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017–1025)
   * Henry I, successor
   * Robert, became Duke of Burgundy
   * Odo (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy
   * Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Andrew W. Lewis, "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France" The American Historical Review 83.4 (October 1978:906-927) p. 907; the last co-king was Philip Augustus, who was co-king to the ailing Louis VII.
  2. ^ Lewis, 908.
  3. ^ Ibid, 914.
  4. ^ Ibid, passim.
  5. ^ The letter compopsed by Gerbert survives, though no Byzantine response is recorded: Constance B. Bouchard, 'Consanguinity and Noble Marriages in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries" Speculum 56.2 (April 1981:268-287) pp 274, 276.
  6. ^ The most complete account of the marriages of Robert II remains that of Charles Pfister, Etudes sur le règne de Robert le Pieux (Paris 1885:41-69); see Constance Bouchard 1981:273ff.
  7. ^ "Foundation for Medieval Genealogy". http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAPET.htm#_Toc154137001. Retrieved on 2007-06-21. 

[edit] Sources

   * Lewis, Andrew W. "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France." The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 4. (Oct., 1978), pp 906-927.
   * Jessee, W. Scott. "A missing Capetian princess: Advisa, daughter of King Robert II of France". Medieval Prosopography, 1990.

Robert II of France

House of Capet

Born: 27 March 972 Died: 20 July 1031

New institution co-King of the Franks

Under Hugh Capet

30 December 987–24 October 996 Succeeded by

Hugh (II) Magnus

Preceded by

Hugh Capet King of the Franks

With:

Hugh (II) Magnus as co-King

(19 June 1017–17 September 1026);

Henry I as co-King

(14 May 1027–29 July 1031)

24 October 996–29 July 1031 Succeeded by

Henry I

[show]

v • d • e

Ancestors of Robert II of France



















16. Robert the Strong








8. Robert I of France












17. Emma of Welf








4. Hugh the Great















18. Herbert I, Count of Vermandois








9. Béatrice of Vermandois












19. Bertha de Morvois








2. Hugh Capet


















20. Otto I, Duke of Saxony








10. Henry I the Fowler












21. Hedwiga of Franconia








5. Hedwige of Saxony















22. Dietrich, Count in Westphalia








11. Matilda of Ringelheim












23. Reinhild von Friesland








1. Robert II of France





















24. Ranulf II of Aquitaine








12. Ebalus, Duke of Aquitaine












6. William III, Duke of Aquitaine















13. Emilienne












3. Adelaide of Aquitaine


















28. Rognvald Eysteinsson








14. Rollo of Normandy












7. Gerloc (Adele)















30. Berengar of Bayeux








15. Poppa of Bayeux











[show]

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Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_France"

Categories: 972 births | 1031 deaths | People from Orléans | French monarchs | House of Capet | 10th-century rulers in Europe | Roman Catholic monarchs | French Christians | 11th-century rulers in Europe

--------------------

Robert II, Roi de France (1)

M, #103098, b. 27 March 972, d. 20 July 1031

Last Edited=19 Jun 2005

    Robert II, Roi de France was born on 27 March 972 at Orléans, Orléanais, France. (2) He was the son of Hugues de Paris, Roi de France and Adelaide de Poitou. (1) He married, firstly, Rosela of Italy, daughter of Berenger I of Fuili, Emperor of Italy, in 992. (3) He and Rosela of Italy were divorced in 992. (3) He married, secondly, Bertha de Bourgogne, daughter of Conrad, Roi de Jurane Bourgogne and Elfgifu (?), in 996. He married, thirdly, Constance d'Arles, daughter of Guillaume III Taillefer, Comte de Provence and Adelaide d'Anjou, in 1003. He was also reported to have been married circa 1000. He and Bertha de Bourgogne were divorced in 1000. (3) 

He died on 20 July 1031 at age 59. (1)

    Robert II, Roi de France was a member of the House of Capet.4 Robert II, Roi de France also went by the nick-name of Robert 'the Pious'. (4) He gained the title of Roi Robert II de France in 996. (2)

Children of Robert II, Roi de France and Constance d'Arles

-1. Hugues III, Roi de France b. 1007, d. c 1025 (4)

-2. Henri I, Roi de France+ b. Apr 1008, d. 4 Aug 1060 (4)

-3. Adela de France, Princesse de France+ b. 1009, d. 8 Jan 1079 (2)

-4. Robert I de Bourgogne, Duc de Bourgogne+ b. c 1011, d. 21 Mar 1076 (5)

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10310.htm#i103098

--------------------

Konge av Frankrike.

--------------------

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

--------------------

ROBERT II OF FRANCE

From Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_France

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. Second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Co-rule with father:

Robert II the Pious

King of the Franks

Reign As co-King: 30 December 987 – 24 October 996;

as senior King: 24 October 996 – 20 July 1031

Coronation 30 December 987, Cathedral of Orléans

Titles Duke of Burgundy (1016)

Born 27 March 972(972-03-27)

Orléans, France

Died 20 July 1031 (aged 59)

Melun, France

Buried Saint Denis Basilica, Paris, France

Predecessor Hugh Capet

Successor Henry I

Consort Rozala of Italy (c.937 – 1003)

Bertha of Burgundy

Constance of Arles (973 – 1034)

Issue Hugh Magnus, Rex Filius (1007 – 1025)

Henry I (1008 – 1060)

Adela, Countess of Flanders (1009 – 1063)

Robert I, Duke of Burgundy (1011 – 1076)

Royal House House of Capet

Father Hugh Capet (c.940 – 996)

Mother Adelaide of Aquitaine (952 - 1004)

Immediately after his coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. Hugh's own claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated two kings should he die while on expedition. Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to contol the nobility. Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the pretension of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholar have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[3] Robert was eventually crowned on 30 December that same year.

Robert began to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement. When Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute.

Marital problems:

Robert had married the daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala (who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen), who was many years his senior, as early as 989. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she still had children, and their marriage was arranged by Hugh. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For this reason, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

Finally, in 1001, Robert contracted his final and longest-lasting marriage: to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. She was an intriguing and ambitious woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

Piety:

Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Roman Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety", resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

Military career:

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by son Henry in both France and Burgundy.

Children:

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:

Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin

Hedwig (or known as Advisa of Auxerre), married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issues.

Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017–1025)

Henry I, successor

Robert, became Duke of Burgundy

Odo (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy

Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

Robert II of France

House of Capet

Born: 27 March 972 Died: 20 July 1031

New institution co-King of France

Under Hugh Capet

30 December 987–24 October 996 Succeeded by

Hugh (II) Magnus

Preceded by

Hugh Capet King of France

With:

Hugh (II) Magnus as co-King

(19 June 1017–17 September 1026);

Henry I as co-King

(14 May 1027–29 July 1031)

24 October 996–29 July 1031 Succeeded by

Henry I

----------------------------------------------

--------------------

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Co-rule with father

Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy.[1] Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition.[2] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[3] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[4] Robert was eventually crowned on 30[citation needed] December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.

Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.

Marital problems

As early as 989, having been rebuffed in his search for a Byzantine princess,[5] Hugh Capet arranged for Robert to marry the recently-widowed daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala, who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen.[6] She was many years his senior. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage: to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. She was an ambitious and scheming woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

Piety

Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety" also resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

Military career

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Henry, in both France and Burgundy.

Children

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:[7]

   * Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin
   * Hedwig (or Advisa) of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.
   * Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017–1025)
   * Henry I, successor
   * Robert, became Duke of Burgundy
   * Odo (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy
   * Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_France

--------------------

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy.[1] Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition.[2] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[3] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[4] Robert was eventually crowned on 30[citation needed] December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.

Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.

As early as 989, having been rebuffed in his search for a Byzantine princess,[5] Hugh Capet arranged for Robert to marry the recently-widowed daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala, who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen.[6] She was many years his senior. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage: to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. She was an ambitious and scheming woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety" also resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Henry, in both France and Burgundy.

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Henry, in both France and Burgundy.

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:[7]

Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin

Adele of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.

Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017–1025)

Henry I, successor

Robert, became Duke of Burgundy

Odo (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy

Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

--------------------

ROBERT II, king of France, was a son of Hugh Capet, and was born atOrleans. He was educated at Reims under Gerbert, afterwards PopeSilvester II. As the ideal of medieval Christianity he won his surname of'Pious' by his humility and charity, but he was also possessed some ofthe qualities of a soldier and a statesman. His father associated himwith himself in the government of France, and he was crowned in December987, becoming sole king on Hugh's death in October 996. In 988 he marriedRosala, or Susanna, widow of Arnold II, count of Flanders. He repudiatedher in 989, fixing his affections up-on Bertha, daughter of Conrad thePeaceful, king of Burgundy, or Arles, and wife of Eudes I, Count ofBlois; and although the pair were related, and the king had beengodfather to one of Bertha's children, they were married in 996, a yearafter the death of Eudes. Pope Gregory V. excommunicated the king, and acouncil at Rome imposed a seven years' penance upon him. For five yearsthe king braved all anathemas, but about 1002 he gave up Bertha andmarried Constance, daughter of a certain County William. Still attachedto Bertha, Robert took this lady with him to Rome in 1010, but the poperefused to recognize their marriage, and the king was forced to return toConstance. By this wife Robert had four sons, and in 1017, the eldest ofthese, Hugh, [1007-1025], was crowned as his father's colleague andsuccessor. After Hugh's death, Robert's concluding days were troubled bya rising on the part of his younger sons, and after a short war, in whichhe was worsted, the king died at Melun on July 20, 1031. [SOURCE:Encyclopædia Britannica, 1961 ed., Vol. 19, p. 346B, ROBERT II, king ofFrance.]

He was a royal composer, chorister, and poet, who might have ruled Italy but preferred that his palace should be his cloister, where he lived in the enjoyment of melody and song. He conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. He was a very devout man. -Charlotte's Web Geneology http://www.charweb.org/gen/rjones/d0087/g0000016.htm#I468

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_France

--------------------

Robert II, "The Pious" King of France

Reign 24 October 996 – 20 July 1031

Coronation 30 December 987

Consort Rozala of Italy

Bertha of Burgundy

Constance of Arles

Father Hugh Capet

Mother Adelaide of Aquitaine

Born 27 March 972(972-03-27)

Orléans, France

Died 20 July 1031 (aged 59)

Melun, France

Burial Saint Denis Basilica, Paris, France

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy.[1] Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition.[2] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[3] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain. Robert was eventually crowned on 30 December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.

Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.


As early as 989, having been rebuffed in his search for a Byzantine princess, Hugh Capet arranged for Robert to marry the recently-widowed daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala, who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen.[6] She was many years his senior. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage: to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. She was an ambitious and scheming woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety" resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Henry, in both France and Burgundy.

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:

Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin

Adele of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.

Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017–1025)

Henry I, successor

Robert, became Duke of Burgundy

Odo (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy

Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

[

--------------------

Robert II of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. Second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Co-rule with father

Immediately after his coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. Hugh's own claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated two kings should he die while on expedition.[1] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to contol the nobility.[2] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the pretension of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholar have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[3] Robert was eventually crowned on 30 December that same year.

Robert began to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement. When Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute.

Marital problems

Robert had married the daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala (who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen), who was many years his senior, as early as 989. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she still had children, and their marriage was arranged by Hugh. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For this reason, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

Finally, in 1001, Robert contracted his final and longest-lasting marriage: to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. She was an intriguing and ambitious woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

Piety

Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Roman Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety", resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

Military career

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Henry, in both France and Burgundy.

Children

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:[4]

Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin

Adele of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issues.

Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017–1025)

Henry I, successor

Robert, became Duke of Burgundy

Odo (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy

Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

Notes

^ Lewis, 908.

^ Ibid, 914.

^ Ibid, passim.

^ Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.

Sources

Lewis, Anthony W. "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France." The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 4. (Oct., 1978), pp 906-927.

  • Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 53-21, 101-21, 107-20, 107-21, 108-21, 128-21, 141-21, 141A-21, 146-19, 162-20, 185-2.

Jessee, W. Scott. A missing Capetian princess: Advisa, daughter of King Robert II of France (Medieval Prosopography), 1990

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_France

--------------------

Prefix: King

Note:

Robert II, the Pious (972 - 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. A member of the Capetian Dynasty, Robert II was born on March 27, 972 in Orleans, France, the son of King Hugh Capet (938-996) and Adelaide of Aquitaine (952-1004).

In 987, Robert's father had the nobles crown him as successor at Orléans on December 30th, thereby confirming the house of Capet as rulers of France. After Robert became king he did as his father and crowned his eldest son Hugh as his successor. But, due to Prince Hugh's death, another son, Henri, became king.

Robert, despite marital problems that saw him temporarily excommunicated by Pope Gregory V, was a very devout Roman Catholic, hence the name Robert the Pious. He was very musically inclined and was a composer, a chorister, and a poet, making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. Part of Robert's piety at the time, was because he did not tolerate heretics and harshly punished them.

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any of the feudal lands as they became vacant which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as the Duke of Burgundy.

The pious King Robert II made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons Henri and Robert. They turned against their father, in a civil war for power and property. King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris.

He died in the middle of the war with his sons on July 20, 1031 at Melun, France. He was interred with his third wife, Constance d'Arles (973-July 25, 1032) in Saint Denis Basilica.

He was succeeded by his and Constance's second son, Henri I.

Robert II married:

c. 988, 1) Susanne (Rosala), Princess of Italy (c.966 - January 26, 1003). The marriage was arranged by Robert's father and ended in divorce.

c. 996, 2) Bertha, Princess of Burgundy (952-1035). Because she was his cousin, Pope Gregory V would not sanction the marriage and Robert was excommunicated. However, after long negotiations with the new Pope Silvester II the marriage was annulled.

In 1001, 3) Constance Taillefer d'Arles (973-July 25, 1032)

Issue (3):

Adáele (Alix) - (1003 - January 8, 1079)

Hugh - (1007-September 17, 1025)

Henry I - (May 4, 1008 - August 4, 1060)

Adelaide Havoise - (1009-June 5, 1063)

Robert - (1011 - March 21, 1076)

Eudo (Odes) - (1013-1056)

Constance - (1014 - unknown)

--------------------

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy. Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition. Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility. Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain. Robert was eventually crowned on 30 December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.

Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.

--------------------

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

From www.wikipedia.org at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_France

--------------------

Called Robert the Pious. He was educated at Reims under the French scholar Gerbert, who later became Pope Sylvester II. Pope Gregory V (died 999) excommunicated him and annulled his marriage, which was considered incestuous by the church; in 1003 Robert submitted to the pope and married the daughter of the marquis of Provence. He recognized Hugh, the eldest of these sons, as his successor. After Hugh's death in 1025, the other sons, aided by their mother, revolted; Robert was still fighting them at the time of his own death. Robert was called The Pious because of his humility and charity; he was also esteemed as a soldier and ruler.

--------------------

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy.[1] Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition.[2] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[3] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[4] Robert was eventually crowned on 30 December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.

Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.

As early as 989, having been rebuffed in his search for a Byzantine princess,[5]Hugh Capet arranged for Robert to marry the recently-widowed daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala, who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen.[6] She was many years his senior. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage: to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. She was an ambitious and scheming woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety" resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Henry, in both France and Burgundy.

--------------------

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_France

--------------------

The family of Robert II le Pieux de FRANCE and Constance de PROVENCE

[10405] FRANCE (de), Robert II le Pieux (Hugues Capet & Adélaïde .. [10406]), roi de France, born about 970, died 1031-07-20 Melun (Seine-et-Marne : 770288), France, buried Saint-Denis (Seine-Saint-Denis : 930066), France

  • married 1003 or 1005 .. (France)

PROVENCE (de), Constance (Guillaume II & Adèle dite Blanche d'ANJOU [128949]), born 986, died 1032-07, buried Saint-Denis (Seine-Saint-Denis : 930066), France

1) Adèle, born 1009, died 1079, married 1028 Baudouin V de FLANDRES

2) Henri Ier, roi de France, born about 1005, died 1060-08-04 Vitry-aux-Loges (Loiret : 450346), France, buried Saint-Denis (Seine-Saint-Denis : 930066), France, married Reims (Marne : 510454), France 1051-05-19 Anne de KIEV ou de RUSSIE

Bibliographie : Histoire de la maison royale de France (Père Anselme); Mémoires (Société généalogique canadienne-française)

http://www.francogene.com/quebec--genealogy/010/010405.php

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_France

and in French: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_de_France

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Co-rule with father

Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy.[1] Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition.[2] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[3] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[4] Robert was eventually crowned on 30[citation needed] December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.

Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.

[edit] Marital problems

As early as 989, having been rebuffed in his search for a Byzantine princess,[5] Hugh Capet arranged for Robert to marry the recently-widowed daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala, who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen.[6] She was many years his senior. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriage to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. She was an ambitious and scheming woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

[edit] Piety

Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety" also resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

[edit] Military career

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by his son Henry, in both France and Burgundy.

[edit] Children

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha gave him one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:[7]

   * Constance, married Manasses de Dammartin
   * Hedwig (or Advisa) of France, married Renauld I, Count of Nevers on 25 January 1016 and had issue.
   * Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017–1025)
   * Henry I, successor
   * Robert, became Duke of Burgundy
   * Odo (1013–c.1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy
   * Adela (d. 1079), married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

Co-reign

Solo-reign 30[citation needed]. December 987 – 24 October 996;

24 October 996 – 20 July 1031

Coronation 30[citation needed] December 987

Predecessor Hugh

Successor Henry I

Spouse Rozala of Italy

Bertha of Burgundy

Constance of Arles

Issue

Hugh Magnus, Rex Filius

Henry I

Adela, Countess of Flanders

Robert I, Duke of Burgundy

Father Hugh Capet

Mother Adelaide of Aquitaine

Born 27 March 972(972-03-27)

Orléans, France

Died 20 July 1031 (aged 59)

Melun, France

Burial Saint Denis Basilica, Paris, France

--------------------

Robert II, Roi de France was born on 27 March 972 at Orléans, Orléanais, France.2 He was the son of Hugues de Paris, Roi de France and Adelaide de Poitou.1 He married, firstly, Rosela of Italy, daughter of Berenger I of Fuili, Emperor of Italy, in 992.3 He and Rosela of Italy were divorced in 992.3 He married, secondly, Bertha de Bourgogne, daughter of Conrad, Roi de Jurane Bourgogne and Elfgifu (?), in 996. He married, thirdly, Constance d'Arles, daughter of Guillaume III Taillefer, Comte de Provence and Adelaide d'Anjou, in 1003. He was also reported to have been married circa 1000. He and Bertha de Bourgogne were divorced in 1000.3 He died on 20 July 1031 at age 59.1

    Robert II, Roi de France was a member of the House of Capet.4 Robert II, Roi de France also went by the nick-name of Robert 'the Pious'.4 He gained the title of Roi Robert II de France in 996.2

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10310.htm#i103098

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BURIAL: St Denis, Seine, France
BIRTH: 27 Mar 0972, Orleans, France

DEATH: 20 Jul 1031, Melun

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Gift tre gånger

--------------------

Robert II av Frankrike, også kalt for «Robert den fromme» (fransk Robert II le Pieux) (27. mars 972–20. juli 1031), var konge av Frankrike, medlem av Huset Capet, født i Orléans som sønn av kong Hugo Capet (938-996) og Adelheid av Aquitaine (952-1004).

Innhold [skjul]

1 Bakgrunn

2 Den fromme

3 Maktlysten

4 Mange fiender

5 Ekteskap

6 Barn og etterkommere


[rediger] Bakgrunn

Roberts far, kong Hugo Capet, lot adelskapet krone sønnen som sin etterfølger den 30. desember 987, hvilket etablerte Huset Capet som Frankrikes konger. Etter at Robert ble konge fulgte han sin fars eksempel og kronet sin eldste sønn Hugo Magnus som sin etterfølger. Det skulle likevel ikke skje. Da sønnen prins Hugo Magnus døde ble en annen sønn, Henrik, konge.

[rediger] Den fromme

Til tross for Roberts ekteskapelige problemer som etter hvert betydde at han for en kort tid ble bannlyst av pave Gregor V (se nedenunder), var han likevel en hengiven katolikk, noe som ga ham kallenavnet «Den fromme». Han var svært musikalsk begavet og var utøvende som komponist og korsanger, skrev poesi, og gjorde sitt palass til et avsondret, religiøst sted hvor han dirigerte gudstjenester, morgenbønn og kveldsbønn i sine kongelige drakt. En annen side av hans fromhet var at han ikke tålte kjetteri og straffet de som ble oppfattet som kjettere nådeløst.

[rediger] Maktlysten

Det kongedømme som Robert arvet var ikke stort, og i et forsøk på øke sin makt forsøkte han med stor tyngde å kreve et hvert stykke føydalt land som lå ubesatt og legge det inn under kronen. Det førte ofte til motkrav og krig. Hans invasjon av Bourgogne i 1003 ble forhindret og trakk ut. Det var ikke før i 1016 at han til slutt maktet å få kirken bak seg til å bli anerkjent som hertug av Bourgogne.

[rediger] Mange fiender

Den fromme kong Robert II fikk få venner og mange fiender, inkludert sine egne sønner. Hans eldste sønn Hugo Magnus fikk en brå død i et opprør mot faren. Hans overlevende sønner, den kommende Henrik I av Frankrike og Robert I, hertug av Bourgogne, vendte seg også mot kongen i en borgerkrig for makt og eiendom. Kong Roberts hærstyrker ble beseiret og han trakk seg tilbake til Beaugency utenfor Paris.

Robert døde mens han var i krig med sine sønner den 20. juli 1031 i Melun. Han ble gravlagt ved siden av sin tredje hustru, Constance av Arles (973-25. juli 1032), da hun døde året etter, i Saint Denis-basilikaen i Paris. Han ble etterfulgt av hans og Constances andre sønn, Henrik I.

[rediger] Ekteskap

Robert II giftet seg med:

ca 989, 1) Susanne (Rosala), prinsesse av Italia (ca 945 – 26. januar 1003). Enke av grev Arnulf II av Flandern, med hvem hun hadde en tvist gående. Hun var meget eldre enn Robert, og ekteskapet var arrangert av hans far. Robert skilte seg fra henne et år senere.

ca 996, 2) Bertha, prinsesse av Bourgogne (952-1035). Enke av grev Theobald II av Blois. Fordi hun var hans kusine ville ikke pave Gregor anerkjenne ekteskapet og Robert ble bannlyst. Da det kom en ny pave, Silvester II, klarte han etter lange forhandlinger å få ekteskapet annullert.

I 1001, 3) Constance av Arles (973-25. juli 1034), datter av grev Guilhem II av Provence, var en ambisiøs og intrigerende kvinne som gjorde livet ulykkelig for ektemannen ved å oppmuntre sønnene til å gjøre opprør mot faren. Hun var mor til hans følgende barn:

[rediger] Barn og etterkommere

Advisa, grevinne av Auxerre, (ca 1003-en gang etter 1063), gift med grev Renaud I av Nevers. Deres barn arvet landene Nevers og Auxerre.

Hugo Magnus, samkonge (1007-17. september 1025). Etter sigende ble Hugo før sin død trolovet eller gift med Halwisa (Hawisa?) eller Elisabeth d'Avoye, datter av en Henri l'Oiseteur. Denne Elisabeth har spesiell interesse for engelsk historie ved at hun senere giftet seg for andre gang med Hamon, greve av Corbeil. Hamon var en yngre bror av William, greve av Corbeil (mulig også kjent som William, greve av Arques), og som sådan var han en etterkommer av Rikard I, hertug av Normandie, og oldefar til Vilhelm II, hertug av Normandie, senere kalt for «Vilhelm Erobrenen». En av Hamon og Elisabeths sønner var øyensynlig Robert Fitzhamon (født mellom 1045-1055 og død 1107) som var en viktig skikkelse i anglo-normannisk historie fra 1087 til 1106. Men, disse ekteskap og forbindelser mellom Hamon og hertugene av Normandie har ennå ikke blitt tilfredsstillende bevist.

Henrik (4. mai 1008-4. august 1060), den neste kongen.

Adela, grevinne av Contenance (1009-5. juni 1063), gift første gang med hertug Rikard III av Normandie, og deretter med grev Baldwin V av Flandern. Med sistnevnte kalles hun for Adela, grevinne av Flandern og er bedre kjent som mor til Matilda av Flandern, hustru til «Vilhelm Erobrenen» (se over).

Robert I, hertug av Bourgogne (1011-21. mars 1076). Forfar til Huset Capet i Bourgogne.

Eudes (1013-1056), døde etter en mislykket invasjon av Normandie.

Constance (1014-ukjent), gift med Manasses de Dammartin.

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. Second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Contents [hide]

1 Co-rule with father

2 Marital problems

3 Piety

4 Military career

5 Children

6 Notes

7 Sources


[edit] Co-rule with father

Immediately after his coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. Hugh's own claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated two kings should he died while on expedition.[1] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to contol the nobility.[2] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the pretension of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholar have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[3] Robert was eventually crowned on 30 December that same year.

Robert began to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement. When Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute.

[edit] Marital problems

Robert had married the daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala (who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen), who was many years his senior, as early as 989. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she still had children, and their marriage was arranged by Hugh. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For this reason, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

Finally, in 1001, Robert contracted his final and longest-lasting marriage: to Constance of Arles, the daughter of William I of Provence. She was an intriguing and ambitious woman, who made life miserable for her husband by encouraging her sons to revolt against their father.

[edit] Piety


Robert II dispenses alms to the poor: "Robert had a kindly feeling for the weak and poor" — from Guizot's A Popular History of France From The Earliest Times.Robert, however, despite his marital problems, was a very devout Roman Catholic, hence his sobriquet "the Pious." He was musically inclined, being a composer, chorister, and poet, and making his palace a place of religious seclusion, where he conducted the matins and vespers in his royal robes. However, to contemporaries, Robert's "piety", resulted from his lack of toleration for heretics: he harshly punished them.

[edit] Military career

The kingdom Robert inherited was not large, and in an effort to increase his power, he vigorously pursued his claim to any feudal lands which became vacant, which action usually resulted in war with a counter-claimant. In 1003, his invasion of the Duchy of Burgundy was thwarted and it would not be until 1016 that he was finally able to get the support of the Church and be recognized as Duke of Burgundy.

The pious Robert made few friends and many enemies, including his own sons: Hugh Magnus, Henry, and Robert. They turned against their father in a civil war over power and property. Hugh died in revolt in 1025. In a conflict with Henry and the younger Robert, King Robert's army was beaten and he retreated to Beaugency outside Paris, his capital. He died in the middle of the war with his sons on 20 July 1031 at Melun. He was interred with Constance in Saint Denis Basilica. He was succeeded by son Henry in both France and Burgundy.

[edit] Children

Robert had no children from his short-lived marriage to Susanna. His illegal marriage to Bertha blessed him with one stillborn son in 999, but only Constance gave him surviving children:

Hugh Magnus, co-king (1017 – 1025)

Henry I, successor

Adela, married firstly Richard III of Normandy and secondly Baldwin V of Flanders.

Robert, became Duke of Burgundy

Odo (1013–1056), who may have been mentally retarded and died after his brother's failed invasion of Normandy

Constance (born 1014), married Manasses de Dammartin

Beatrice (died circa 1072)

Robert also left an illegitimate son: Rudolph, Bishop of Bourges.

[edit] Notes

^ Lewis, 908.

^ Ibid, 914.

^ Ibid, passim.

[edit] Sources

This article or section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. (help, get involved!)

Any material not supported by sources may be challenged and removed at any time. This article has been tagged since April 2007.

Lewis, Anthony W. "Anticipatory Association of the Heir in Early Capetian France." The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 4. (Oct., 1978), pp 906-927.

Robert II of France

House of Capet

Born: 27 March 972

Died: 20 July 1031


New institution co-King of France

Under Hugh Capet

30 December 987–24 October 996 Succeeded by

Hugh (II) Magnus

Preceded by

Hugh Capet King of France

With:

Hugh (II) Magnus as co-King

(19 June 1017–17 September 1026);

Henry I as co-King

(14 May 1027–29 July 1031)

24 October 996–29 July 1031 Succeeded by

Henry I

Chronology of Kings and Emperors of France

from 987 to 1870


987 996 1031 1060 1108 1137 1180 1223 1226

  Hugh Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII    

1226 1270 1285 1314 1316 1316 1322 1328 1350

  Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV Philip VI    

1350 1364 1380 1422 1461 1483 1498 1515 1547 1559

  John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II    

1559 1560 1574 1589 1610 1643 1715 1774 1792

  Francis II Charles IX Henry III Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI    

1792 1804 1814 1824 1830 1848 1852 1870

    -   Napoleon I Louis XVIII Charles X Louis-Philippe - Napoleon III    

History - France - Direct Capetians - Valois - Bourbons - Bonaparte


Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_II_of_France"

Categories: Articles to be expanded since April 2007 | All articles to be expanded | Articles lacking sources from April 2007 | All articles lacking sources | 972 births | 1031 deaths | People from Centre | French monarchs | House of Capet

--------------------

Robert II (27 March 972 – 20 July 1031), called the Pious or the Wise, was King of France from 996 until his death. The second reigning member of the House of Capet, he was born in Orléans to Hugh Capet and Adelaide of Aquitaine.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Co-rule with father
   * 2 Marital problems
   * 3 Piety
   * 4 Military career
   * 5 Children
   * 6 Ancestry
   * 7 Notes
   * 8 Sources

[edit] Co-rule with father

Silver denier of Robert II, 1.22g. Monnaie de Paris.

Immediately after his own coronation, Robert's father Hugh began to push for the coronation of Robert. "The essential means by which the early Capetians were seen to have kept the throne in their family was through the association of the eldest surviving son in the royalty during the father's lifetime," Andrew W. Lewis has observed, in tracing the phenomenon in this line of kings who lacked dynastic legitimacy.[1] Hugh's claimed reason was that he was planning an expedition against the Moorish armies harassing Borrel II of Barcelona, an invasion which never occurred, and that the stability of the country necessitated a co-king, should he die while on expedition.[2] Ralph Glaber, however, attributes Hugh's request to his old age and inability to control the nobility.[3] Modern scholarship has largely imputed to Hugh the motive of establishing a dynasty against the claims of electoral power on the part of the aristocracy, but this is not the typical view of contemporaries and even some modern scholars have been less sceptical of Hugh's "plan" to campaign in Spain.[4] Robert was eventually crowned on 30[citation needed] December 987. A measure of Hugh's success is that when Hugh died in 996, Robert continued to reign without any succession dispute, but during his long reign actual royal power dissipated into the hands of the great territorial magnates.

Robert had begun to take on active royal duties with his father in the early 990s. In 991, he helped his father prevent the French bishops from trekking to Mousson in the Kingdom of Germany for a synod called by Pope John XV, with whom Hugh was then in disagreement.

[edit] Marital problems

As early as 989, having been rebuffed in his search for a Byzantine princess,[5] Hugh Capet arranged for Robert to marry the recently-widowed daughter of Berengar II of Italy, Rozala, who took the name of Susannah upon becoming Queen.[6] She was many years his senior. She was the widow of Arnulf II of Flanders, with whom she had children, the oldest of whom was of age to assume the offices of count of Flanders. Robert divorced her within a year of his father's death. He tried instead to marry Bertha, daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, around the time of his father's death. She was a widow of Odo I of Blois, but was also Robert's cousin. For reasons of consanguinity, Pope Gregory V refused to sanction the marriage, and Robert was excommunicated. After long negotiations with Gregory's successor, Sylvester II, the marriage was annulled.

Finally, in 1001, Robert entered into his final and longest-lasting marriag

view all 110

Robert II le Pieux, roi des Francs's Timeline

970
970
France - Son of Hugh Capet
972
March 27, 972
Orléans, Centre, France

77 miles southwest of Paris.
--------------------
77 mi.'s SW of Paris.

972
Orleans France
987
December 30, 987
- October 24, 996
Age 15
France
988
988
Age 15
996
October 24, 996
- July 20, 1031
Age 24
France
996
Age 23
Orléans, Loiret, France
996
- 1031
Age 23
France
996
Age 23
France
996
- 1031
Age 23
King of France