Robert II Stewart
|Also Known As:||"Robert II Stewart King of Scotland", "Robert the Steward", "the 7th High Steward of Scotland"|
|Birthplace:||Dundonald, Kyle, Ayrshire, Scotland|
|Death:||Died in Kyle, Ayrshire, Scotland|
|Place of Burial:||Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland|
Son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and Marjorie Bruce, Princess of Scotland
|Occupation:||king of Scotland, King, King of Scotland, Robert II, King of Scots, Konge af Skotland, 1st Monarch of the House of Stewart|
|Managed by:||Sally Gene Cole|
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About Robert (Stewart) II, King of Scots
Robert II, The Steward, King of Scots was born 2 March 1316. He died 19 April 1390 in Dundonald Castle in 1390 and lies buried at Scone Abbey. He was also known as Robert, High Steward of Scots and by his Gaelic Name, Roibert II Stiùbhairt.
Coronation: 26 Mar 1371
Ruled: 22 February 1371 to 19 April 1390
Preceded by: David II (Dàibhidh Bruis) Ruled 7 June 1329 - 22 Febuary 1371
Succeeded by Robert III Ruled 19 April 1390 - 4 April 1406
Robert Stewart, born in 1316, was the only child of Walter Stewart, High Steward of Scotland. He had the upbringing of a Gaelic noble on the Stewart lands in Bute, Clydeside, and in Renfrew. [Wiki]
Son of: Walter Steward 1293 - 9 Apr 1326 and Marjorie Bruce December 1296 - 2 March 1316 (Daughter of Robert I)
- Elizabeth Mure c.1348
- John Stewart, Earl of Carrick
- Walter Stewart, Lord of Fife (d. 1362)
- Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife and Monteith
- Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, Lord of Badenoch and Ross
- Margaret Stewart
- Marjory Stewart
- Isabella Stewart
- Katherine Stewart
- Elizabeth Stewart
2. Euphemia de Ross 1355
- David Stewart, 1st Earl of Caithness, Earl of Strathearn
- Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl
- Margaret Stewart
- Elizabeth Stewart
- Egidia Stewart
Illegitimate children of with Mariota de Cardney
- Alexander Stewart of Innerlunan
- Sir John Stewart of Cardney
- James Stewart of Abernethy & Kinfaun
- Walter Stewart
- Possible Unknown Daughter(s)
Illegitimate children with Moira Leitch
- Sir John Stewart of Bute
- Possible Unknown Daughter(s)
Illegitimate children with Unknown
- Sir John Stewart of Dundonald
- Thomas Stewart, Bishop of St Andrews
- Alexander Stewart, Canon of Glasgow
- James Stewart, Canon of Glasgow
- Possible Unknown Daughter(s)
Citations / Sources :
[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, pages 16, 77, 310-311. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage
[S39] Medieval, royalty, nobility family group sheets (filmed 1996), Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Family History Department. Medieval Family History Unit, (Manuscript. Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1996), FHL film 1553977-1553985..
[S40] Handbook of British Chronology (1986), Fryde, E. B., editor, (Royal Historical Society guides and handbooks, no. 2. London: Offices of the Royal Historical Society, 1986), FHL book 942 C4rg no. 2., p. 59.
[S109] #2419 Genealogical account of the family of Edmonstone of Duntreath, Edmonstone, Archibald, Sir, (Edinburgh : A. Edmondson, 1875), 929.241 Ed58e., p. 25.
[S658] The Royal Stewarts, Henderson, T. F., (William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London, 1914), 929.241 St49h., Stewart Pedigree.
[S2149] #665 The Genealogist (1877-1922), (Old Series, 7 volumes, 1877-1883. New Series, 38 volumes, 1884-1922. London: George Bell, 1877-1922), FHL book 942 B2gqm; see FHL catalog for list of vo., Spring 1980, vol. 1 no. 1 p. 93 fn. 45.
[S2318] #1210 The Family of Griffith of Garn and Plasnewydd in the County of Denbigh, as Registered in the College of Arms from the Beginning of the XIth Century (1934), Glenn, Thomas Allen, (London: Harrison, 1934), FHL book 929.2429 G875g; FHL microfilm 994,040 ite., p. 306.
Robert II (March 2, 1316 - April 19, 1390), king of Scots, called "the Steward", a title that gave the name to the House of Stewart (or Stuart). He ruled from 1371 until his death.
Robert was the sole son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland (d. 1326) and Marjorie Bruce, daughter of King Robert I of Scotland and his first wife Isabella of Mar. He was delivered by caesarean section. His mother survived his birth by some hours at most.
In 1318 the Scottish parliament decreed that if King Robert died without sons the crown should pass to his grandson; but the birth of a son afterwards, King David II, to Bruce in 1324 postponed the accession of Robert for nearly forty-two years. Soon after the infant David became king in 1329, the Steward began to take a prominent part in the affairs of Scotland. He was one of the leaders of the Scottish army at the battle of Halidon Hill in July 1333; and after gaining some successes over the adherents of Edward Balliol in the west of Scotland, he and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray (d. 1346), were chosen as regents of the kingdom, while David sought safety in France.
The colleagues soon quarrelled; then Randolph fell into the hands of the English and Robert became sole regent, meeting with such success in his efforts to restore the royal authority that the king was able to return to Scotland in 1341. Having handed over the duties of government to David, the Steward escaped from the battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, and was again chosen regent while the king was a captive in England. Soon after this event some friction arose between Robert and his royal uncle. Accused, probably without truth, of desertion at Neville's Cross, the Steward as heir-presumptive was greatly chagrined by the king's proposal to make Edward III of England, or one of his sons, the heir to the Scottish throne, and by David's marriage with Margaret Logie.
In 1363 he rose in rebellion, and after having made his submission was seized and imprisoned together with four of his sons, being only released a short time before David's death in February 1371. By the terms of the decree of 1318 Robert now succeeded to the throne, and was crowned at Scone, Perthshire in March 1371. He was not a particularly active king. Some steps were taken by the nobles to control the royal authority. In 1378 a war broke out with England; but the king took no part in the fighting, which included the burning of Edinburgh and the Scottish victory at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388.
As age and infirmity were telling upon him, the estates in 1389 appointed his second surviving son Robert, Earl of Fife, afterwards Duke of Albany, guardian of the kingdom. The king died at Dundonald in 1390, and was buried at Scone.
His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan, a lady who had formerly been his mistress. Robert had married her in 1336, but as the marriage had been criticised as uncanonical, he remarried her in 1349. By her he had at least ten children:
- John Stewart (d. 1406), later king as Robert III
- Alexander of Buchan (1343?1394)
- Margaret Stewart, married John MacDonald, Lord of the Isles
- Walter Stewart (d. 1362), married Isabel Macduff, 9th Countess of Fife
- Robert of Albany (1339?1420)
- Marjory Stewart, married first John Dunbar, 5th Earl of Moray, second Alexander Keith
- Jean Stewart, married in 1373 Sir John Keith, in 1379 Sir John Lyon, in 1384 Sir James Sandilands
- Isabel Stewart, married first James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas, married second David Edmondstone
- Katherine Stewart
- Elizabeth Stewart, married Sir Thomas Hay, Lord High Constable of Scotland
By his second wife, Euphemia, daughter of Hugh de Ross, 4th Earl of Ross, and widow of the 3rd Earl of Moray, formerly his colleague as regent, he had five children:
- David Stewart, 1st Earl of Caithness (d. bef. 1389)
- Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (d. 1437)
- Margaret Stewart
- Elizabeth Stewart, married 1380 David Lindsay, 1st Earl of Crawford
- Egidia Stewart, married 1387 Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale
The confusion about the circumstances of his first marriage would later lead to conflict amongst the descendants of his first marriage (which included James I of Scotland) and the unquestionably legitimate descendants of his second marriage.
Robert had also eight illegitimate children, mostly by unknown mothers.
Robert STEWART King Robert II of Scots b: 02 MAR 1316 in Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland. Robert was miraculously born by Caesarian section after his pregnant mother was thrown from her horse and died of her injuries.
Robert was first known as Robert the Steward, the 7th High Steward of Scotland. He was the grandson of King Robert "The Bruce", but is described as lacking the courage and vigour of his grandfather. During the English imprisonment of King David II of Scotland, Robert ruled in his place. King David failed to produce any male heirs and on his death the throne passed to (this) Robert the Steward. When Robert II came to the throne, a fourteen-year truce with England still had twelve years to run, although unofficial warfare with England continued along the border. Full scale war broke out in 1385 as a by-product of the Hundred Years' War between England and France. Scotland became involved through assistance to France. Throughout this period Robert II was ever weak in his control of the state. In 1384 he appointed his heir John, Earl of Carrick (later to become King Robert III), to enforce authority on his behalf. He died 6 years later.
Robert resided primarily at Stirling Castle. Following the Wars of Independence, his grandfather, King Robert The Bruce, had torn down Stirling Castle so that it could not be occupied by the English. Robert Stewart began the project of rebuilding Stirling. The North Tower of the present castle is the only remnant of the castle built by King Robert II. (See photo above.)
Robert married in 1347 to Elizabeth MURE Countess of Strathearn b: ABT 1315 in Rowallan, Ayrshire, Scotland. They had the following children:
Has Children John STEWART King Robert III Of Scots b: 1337 in Scotland. He was father of:
David STEWART, Duke of Rothesay, Regent of Scotland. He was heir to the thrown and died under suspicious circumstances, possibly murdered by his uncle, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany.
King James I. After his brother David was murdered, James feared for his own life and fled from Scotland to France, however his ship was intercepted by English pirates and he was sent to London as a prisoner for 18 years. During his imprisonment, his uncle Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, became Regent of Scotland and ruled in James' absence. Robert, the Duke, made no serious effort to have James freed.
Has No Children Walter STEWART Earl of Fife b: ABT 1339 in Scotland
Has Children Robert STEWART 1st Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland b: ABT 1341 in Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland
- Alexander STEWART Lord of Badenoch and Earl of Buchan b: ABT 1343 in Scotland
- Elizabeth STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1344 in Scotland
- Isabella STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1346 in Scotland
- Jean STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1348 in Scotland
- Katherine STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1350 in Scotland
- Margaret STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1352 in Scotland
- Marjorie STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1354 in Scotland
King Robert II had other children by other women who are not presented here as they are not directly relevant to the story of the Stewarts of Balquhidder
Robert II (2 March 1316 – 19 April 1390) reigned as King of Scots from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart. He was the son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce and of his first wife Isabella of Mar.
Edward Bruce was named heir to the throne but he died without legitimate children on 3 December 1318 in a battle near Dundalk in Ireland. Marjorie by this time had died in a riding accident - probably in 1317. Parliament decreed her infant son, Robert Stewart, as heir presumptive, but this lapsed on 5 March 1324 on the birth of a son, David, to King Robert and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. Robert Stewart inherited the title of High Steward of Scotland on his father's death on 9 April 1326, and a Parliament held in July 1326 confirmed the young Steward as heir should Prince David die without a successor. In 1329 King Robert I died and the six year-old David succeeded to the throne with Sir Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray appointed Guardian of Scotland.
Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol, assisted by the English and Scottish nobles disinherited by Robert I, invaded Scotland inflicting heavy defeats on the Bruce party on 11 August 1332 at Dupplin Moor and Halidon Hill on 10 July 1333. Robert fought at Halidon, where his uncle and former guardian, Sir James Stewart, was killed. Following this battle, Robert's lands in the west were given by Balliol to his supporter David Strathbogie, the titular Earl of Atholl. Robert took refuge in the fortress of Dumbarton Castle in the Clyde estuary to join his uncle, King David. In May 1334 David escaped to France leaving Robert and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray as joint Guardians of the kingdom. Robert succeeded in regaining his lands but following Randolph's capture by the English in July 1335, his possessions were once again targeted by the forces of Balliol and King Edward III of England. This may have persuaded Robert to submit to Balliol and the English king and may explain his removal as Guardian by September 1335. The Guardianship transferred to Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell but following his death in 1338 Robert was re-appointed and retained the office until King David returned from France in June 1341. Robert accompanied David into battle at Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346 but he and Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March escaped or fled the field and David was taken prisoner. In October 1357, the king was ransomed for 100,000 marks to be paid in installments over ten years.
Robert married Elizabeth Mure around 1348, legitimising his four sons and five daughters. His subsequent marriage to Euphemia de Ross in 1355 produced two sons and two surviving daughters and provided the basis of a future dispute regarding the line of succession. Robert joined a rebellion against David in 1363, but submitted to him following a threat to his right of succession. In 1364 David presented a proposal to Parliament that would cancel the remaining ransom debt if it was agreed that a Plantagenet heir would inherit the Scottish throne should he die without issue. This was rejected and Robert succeeded to the throne at the age of 55 following David's unexpected death in 1371. England still controlled large sectors in the Lothians and in the border country so King Robert allowed his southern earls to engage in actions in the English zones to regain their territories, halted trade with England and renewed treaties with France. By 1384 the Scots had re-taken most of the occupied lands, but following the commencement of Anglo-French peace talks, Robert was reluctant to commit Scotland to all-out war and obtained Scotland's inclusion in the peace treaty. Robert's peace strategy was a factor in the virtual coup in 1384 when he lost control of the country, first to his eldest son, John, Earl of Carrick, afterwards King Robert III, and then from 1388 to John's younger brother, Robert, Earl of Fife, afterwards the first Duke of Albany. Robert II died in Dundonald Castle in 1390 and was buried at Scone Abbey.
Robert (Stewart) II, King of Scots's Timeline
March 2, 1316
Kyle, Ayrshire, Scotland
overlooking-Village of Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland
August 4, 1337
Dundonald Castle, Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland
Dundonald, South Ayrshire, Scotland, United Kingdom
Dundonald, Argyllshire, Scotland
Irvine, Ayrshire, Scotland
Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland