Robert II of Scotland

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Robert II Stewart, King of Scots

Nicknames: "Robert II Stewart King of Scotland", "Robert the Steward", "the 7th High Steward of Scotland"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Dundonald, Kyle, Ayrshire, Scotland
Death: Died in Kyle, Ayrshire, Scotland
Place of Burial: Scone Abbey, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland
Immediate Family:

Son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and Marjorie Bruce, Princess of Scotland
Husband of Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan and Euphemia de Ross, Queen Consort of Scotland
Partner of Marion Cardny and Moira Leitch
Father of James Stewart, of Kinfauna; Thomas Stewart, Dean of Dunkeld; Sir Alexander Stewart, of Inverlunan; Sir John Stewart, of Cairdney; John Stewart, of Burley, Lord of Burley and 20 others
Brother of Walter Stewart
Half brother of Jean Stewart; John Stewart of Ralston; Andrew Stewart and Egidia Stewart

Occupation: King of Scotland
Managed by: Sally Gene Cole
Last Updated:

About Robert II Stewart, King of Scots

Robert II, The Steward, King of Scots was born 2 March 1316. He died 19 April 1390 in Dundonald Castle in 1390 and lies buried at Scone Abbey. He was also known as Robert, High Steward of Scots and by his Gaelic Name, Roibert II Stiùbhairt.

Coronation: 26 Mar 1371

Ruled: 22 February 1371 to 19 April 1390

Preceded by: David II (Dàibhidh Bruis) Ruled 7 June 1329 - 22 Febuary 1371

Succeeded by Robert III Ruled 19 April 1390 - 4 April 1406

Basics

Son of: Walter Steward 1293 - 9 Apr 1326 and Marjorie Bruce December 1296 - 2 March 1316 (Daughter of Robert I)

Married:

  1. Elizabeth Mure c.1348

Children:

  1. John Stewart, Earl of Carrick
  2. Walter Stewart, Lord of Fife (d. 1362)
  3. Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, Earl of Fife and Monteith
  4. Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, Lord of Badenoch and Ross
  5. Margaret Stewart
  6. Marjory Stewart
  7. Isabella Stewart
  8. Katherine Stewart
  9. Elizabeth Stewart

Married

2. Euphemia de Ross 1355

Children:

  1. David Stewart, 1st Earl of Caithness, Earl of Strathearn
  2. Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl
  3. Margaret Stewart
  4. Elizabeth Stewart
  5. Egidia Stewart

Illegitimate children of with Mariota de Cardney

  1. Alexander Stewart of Innerlunan
  2. Sir John Stewart of Cardney
  3. James Stewart of Abernethy & Kinfaun
  4. Walter Stewart
  5. Possible Unknown Daughter(s)

Illegitimate children with Moira Leitch

  1. Sir John Stewart of Bute
  2. Possible Unknown Daughter(s)

Illegitimate children with Unknown

  1. Sir John Stewart of Dundonald
  2. Thomas Stewart, Bishop of St Andrews
  3. Alexander Stewart, Canon of Glasgow
  4. James Stewart, Canon of Glasgow
  5. Possible Unknown Daughter(s)
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Wikipedia links:

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other links:

http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p105.htm#i3151

http://www.britroyals.com/scots.asp?id=robert2

http://www.douglashistory.co.uk/history/kingrobert2nd.htm

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=9457579

http://www.geneall.net/U/per_page.php?id=9591

http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I3115&tree=EuropeRoyalNobleHous

http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I6180&tree=Nixon

http://histfam.familysearch.org/getperson.php?personID=I187561&tree=Welsh

http://www.mathematical.com/stuartrobert1316.html

http://thepeerage.com/p10210.htm#i102097

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Citations / Sources :

[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, pages 16, 77, 310-311. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage

[S39] Medieval, royalty, nobility family group sheets (filmed 1996), Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Family History Department. Medieval Family History Unit, (Manuscript. Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1996), FHL film 1553977-1553985..

[S40] Handbook of British Chronology (1986), Fryde, E. B., editor, (Royal Historical Society guides and handbooks, no. 2. London: Offices of the Royal Historical Society, 1986), FHL book 942 C4rg no. 2., p. 59.

[S109] #2419 Genealogical account of the family of Edmonstone of Duntreath, Edmonstone, Archibald, Sir, (Edinburgh : A. Edmondson, 1875), 929.241 Ed58e., p. 25.

[S658] The Royal Stewarts, Henderson, T. F., (William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London, 1914), 929.241 St49h., Stewart Pedigree.

[S2149] #665 The Genealogist (1877-1922), (Old Series, 7 volumes, 1877-1883. New Series, 38 volumes, 1884-1922. London: George Bell, 1877-1922), FHL book 942 B2gqm; see FHL catalog for list of vo., Spring 1980, vol. 1 no. 1 p. 93 fn. 45.

[S2318] #1210 The Family of Griffith of Garn and Plasnewydd in the County of Denbigh, as Registered in the College of Arms from the Beginning of the XIth Century (1934), Glenn, Thomas Allen, (London: Harrison, 1934), FHL book 929.2429 G875g; FHL microfilm 994,040 ite., p. 306.

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Robert II (March 2, 1316 - April 19, 1390), king of Scots, called "the Steward", a title that gave the name to the House of Stewart (or Stuart). He ruled from 1371 until his death.

Robert was the sole son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland (d. 1326) and Marjorie Bruce, daughter of King Robert I of Scotland and his first wife Isabella of Mar. He was delivered by caesarean section. His mother survived his birth by some hours at most.

In 1318 the Scottish parliament decreed that if King Robert died without sons the crown should pass to his grandson; but the birth of a son afterwards, King David II, to Bruce in 1324 postponed the accession of Robert for nearly forty-two years. Soon after the infant David became king in 1329, the Steward began to take a prominent part in the affairs of Scotland. He was one of the leaders of the Scottish army at the battle of Halidon Hill in July 1333; and after gaining some successes over the adherents of Edward Balliol in the west of Scotland, he and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray (d. 1346), were chosen as regents of the kingdom, while David sought safety in France.

The colleagues soon quarrelled; then Randolph fell into the hands of the English and Robert became sole regent, meeting with such success in his efforts to restore the royal authority that the king was able to return to Scotland in 1341. Having handed over the duties of government to David, the Steward escaped from the battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, and was again chosen regent while the king was a captive in England. Soon after this event some friction arose between Robert and his royal uncle. Accused, probably without truth, of desertion at Neville's Cross, the Steward as heir-presumptive was greatly chagrined by the king's proposal to make Edward III of England, or one of his sons, the heir to the Scottish throne, and by David's marriage with Margaret Logie.

In 1363 he rose in rebellion, and after having made his submission was seized and imprisoned together with four of his sons, being only released a short time before David's death in February 1371. By the terms of the decree of 1318 Robert now succeeded to the throne, and was crowned at Scone, Perthshire in March 1371. He was not a particularly active king. Some steps were taken by the nobles to control the royal authority. In 1378 a war broke out with England; but the king took no part in the fighting, which included the burning of Edinburgh and the Scottish victory at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388.

As age and infirmity were telling upon him, the estates in 1389 appointed his second surviving son Robert, Earl of Fife, afterwards Duke of Albany, guardian of the kingdom. The king died at Dundonald in 1390, and was buried at Scone.

His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Adam Mure of Rowallan, a lady who had formerly been his mistress. Robert had married her in 1336, but as the marriage had been criticised as uncanonical, he remarried her in 1349. By her he had at least ten children:

  • John Stewart (d. 1406), later king as Robert III
  • Alexander of Buchan (1343?1394)
  • Margaret Stewart, married John MacDonald, Lord of the Isles
  • Walter Stewart (d. 1362), married Isabel Macduff, 9th Countess of Fife
  • Robert of Albany (1339?1420)
  • Marjory Stewart, married first John Dunbar, 5th Earl of Moray, second Alexander Keith
  • Jean Stewart, married in 1373 Sir John Keith, in 1379 Sir John Lyon, in 1384 Sir James Sandilands
  • Isabel Stewart, married first James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas, married second David Edmondstone
  • Katherine Stewart
  • Elizabeth Stewart, married Sir Thomas Hay, Lord High Constable of Scotland

By his second wife, Euphemia, daughter of Hugh de Ross, 4th Earl of Ross, and widow of the 3rd Earl of Moray, formerly his colleague as regent, he had five children:

  • David Stewart, 1st Earl of Caithness (d. bef. 1389)
  • Walter Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl (d. 1437)
  • Margaret Stewart
  • Elizabeth Stewart, married 1380 David Lindsay, 1st Earl of Crawford
  • Egidia Stewart, married 1387 Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale

The confusion about the circumstances of his first marriage would later lead to conflict amongst the descendants of his first marriage (which included James I of Scotland) and the unquestionably legitimate descendants of his second marriage.

Robert had also eight illegitimate children, mostly by unknown mothers.

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Robert STEWART King Robert II of Scots b: 02 MAR 1316 in Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland.  Robert was miraculously born by Caesarian section after his pregnant mother was thrown from her horse and died of her injuries.

Robert was first known as Robert the Steward, the 7th High Steward of Scotland. He was the grandson of King Robert "The Bruce", but is described as lacking the courage and vigour of his grandfather. During the English imprisonment of King David II of Scotland, Robert ruled in his place. King David failed to produce any male heirs and on his death the throne passed to (this) Robert the Steward. When Robert II came to the throne, a fourteen-year truce with England still had twelve years to run, although unofficial warfare with England continued along the border. Full scale war broke out in 1385 as a by-product of the Hundred Years' War between England and France. Scotland became involved through assistance to France. Throughout this period Robert II was ever weak in his control of the state. In 1384 he appointed his heir John, Earl of Carrick (later to become King Robert III), to enforce authority on his behalf. He died 6 years later.

Robert resided primarily at Stirling Castle. Following the Wars of Independence, his grandfather, King Robert The Bruce, had torn down Stirling Castle so that it could not be occupied by the English. Robert Stewart began the project of rebuilding Stirling. The North Tower of the present castle is the only remnant of the castle built by King Robert II. (See photo above.)

Robert married in 1347 to Elizabeth MURE Countess of Strathearn b: ABT 1315 in Rowallan, Ayrshire, Scotland. They had the following children:

Has Children John STEWART King Robert III Of Scots b: 1337 in Scotland. He was father of:

David STEWART, Duke of Rothesay, Regent of Scotland. He was heir to the thrown and died under suspicious circumstances, possibly murdered by his uncle, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany.

King James I. After his brother David was murdered, James feared for his own life and fled from Scotland to France, however his ship was intercepted by English pirates and he was sent to London as a prisoner for 18 years. During his imprisonment, his uncle Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, became Regent of Scotland and ruled in James' absence. Robert, the Duke, made no serious effort to have James freed.

Has No Children Walter STEWART Earl of Fife b: ABT 1339 in Scotland

Has Children Robert STEWART 1st Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland b: ABT 1341 in Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland

Has Children:

  • Alexander STEWART Lord of Badenoch and Earl of Buchan b: ABT 1343 in Scotland
  • Elizabeth STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1344 in Scotland
  • Isabella STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1346 in Scotland
  • Jean STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1348 in Scotland
  • Katherine STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1350 in Scotland
  • Margaret STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1352 in Scotland
  • Marjorie STEWART Princess of Scots b: ABT 1354 in Scotland

King Robert II had other children by other women who are not presented here as they are not directly relevant to the story of the Stewarts of Balquhidder

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view all 40

Robert II of Scotland's Timeline

1316
March 2, 1316
Kyle, Ayrshire, Scotland
1330
1330
Age 13
overlooking-Village of Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland
1332
1332
Age 15
Scotland
1333
July 19, 1333
Age 17
Scotland

Battle of Halidon Hill (19 July 1333) was fought during the Second War of Scottish Independence. Scottish forces under Sir Archibald Douglas were heavily defeated on unfavourable terrain while trying to relieve Berwick-upon-Tweed.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Halidon_Hill

1337
August 4, 1337
Age 21
Dundonald Castle, Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland
1340
1340
Age 23
Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland
1342
1342
Age 25
1343
1343
Age 26
Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland
1347
1347
Age 30
1348
1348
Age 31
Dundonald, Ayrshire, Scotland