Robert IV "le Fort", marquis de Neustrie

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Rupert - Robert IV "Fortis - le Fort - the Strong", marquis de Neustrie

Nicknames: "Robert", "Rupert", "Fortis", "le Fort", "the Strong", "Robert IV "The Strong"", "Count of Anjou and Margrave of Neustria", "Rutpert", ""The Strong"", "Robert de Marvois", "Robertians", "Robert IV", "King of France", "Rutbert"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Worms, Austrasia (Present Germany), Frankish Empire
Death: Died in Brissarthe, Anjou, Neustrie (Present France), Frankish Empire
Cause of death: Cut down in the Battle of Brissarthe, a battle fought against Danes invading Neustria
Place of Burial: Tours, Anjou, Neustrie (Present France), Frankish Empire
Immediate Family:

Son of Robert III, comte de Wormsgau and Wiltrud, Gräfin im Wormsgau
Husband of Princess Adelaide; Judith de Baviera; Agane Capet; Ema d'Auxerre; Wilfrud de Orleans and 1 other
Father of Robert I, King of France; Eudes, Roi de France; Odo (Eudes), King of France and Richildes de France
Brother of Guiguin, comte de Soissons; Guntram, 4th Count in Wormsgau; Oda Wormsgau, Countess; Theodore de Bourgogne and Meingaud d'Anjou
Half brother of Rudolph I, King of Upper Burgundy

Occupation: Duke of Francia, Margrave of Neustria, Count in Wormsgau, Count of Angers, Count of Anjou, Count of Auxerre, Count of Blois, Count of La Marche, Count of Nevers, Count of Orléans, Count of Paris, Count of Tours, Abbé laïc de Marmoutier, Duke of France
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Rupert - Robert IV "Fortis - le Fort - the Strong", marquis de Neustrie

He is commonly called a son of Robert III, count in the Wormsgau, but the relationship is conjectural.

Robert 'le Fort' unknown origin, unknown wife.

Sources and Resources

ROBERT "le Fort" (-killed in battle Brissarthe 2 Jul 866).

Parentage

  • The parentage of Robert "le Fort" is unknown. Some general indications of his origins are found in contemporary sources, but these are contradictory.
  • An unspecific Franconian origin is favoured by the Annales Xantenses which name him “Ruodbertus…ortus de Francia, dux Karoli” when recording his death[3], and by Widukind who refers to his son King Eudes as “ex orientalibus Francia”[4].
  • A Saxon origin is suggested by two sources: firstly, Richer names “ex equestre ordine Rotbertum” as father of King Eudes and his “avum…paternum Witichinum advenam Germanum”[5]; secondly, the Miracula Sancti Benedicti names “Robertus, Andagavensis comes, Saxonici generis vir”[6].
  • Three more specific suggestions can be made:
  1. Firstly, many modern secondary sources identify him as Robert [Rodbert], son of Rodbert Graf im Wormsgau & his wife Wiltrud --- ([815/20]-), who was first named in Germany in 836 as "son of the late Rodbert Graf von Wormsgau", in a donation to Mettenheim[7]. No primary source has yet been found which points specifically towards this suggested co-identity, although it is consistent with the Franconian origin referred to by the Annales Xantenses and by Widukind, noted above. It is assumed that the suggestion is based primarily on onomastics, although the first secondary source which proposed the connection has not yet been identified and therefore has not been not checked. The author in question may also have assumed that Robert was a unique name among noblemen in France in the first half of the 9th century, although this ignores Robert Seigneur [comte] à Sesseau en Berry, who was the possible brother of the wife of Pepin I King of Aquitaine (see the document CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY). The timing of the supposed arrival of Robert from Franconia, assuming that the co-identity is correct, is not ideal either. Robert would presumably have fled Germany after opting to support Charles II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks in the latter´s fight against his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche” King of the East Franks. This dispute is dated to 858/59: King Ludwig invaded in Aug 858, when King Charles was faced with widespread rebellion, and was defeated in Jan 859. However, Robert "le Fort" is already named as missus in Maine, Anjou and Touraine in Nov 853, in a document issued by King Charles II[8] (unless of course this document refers to Robert Seigneur [comte] à Sesseau, which is not impossible).
  2. Secondly, there is a possible connection between Robert "le Fort" and the family of Aledramn [I] Comte de Troyes, who died in [852] (see CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY). Such indications are provided by Regino who names "Waltgerius comes, nepos Odonis regis, filius scilicet avunculi eius Adalhelmi in Aquitanien" when recording his battle against "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio " in Jul 892, and names "Megingaudus comes, nepos supradicti Odonis regis [son of Robert "le Fort"]" when recording his death, also in 892[9]. A further indication is found in the charter dated 14 Sep 937, under which Robert "le Fort"´s grandson "Hugues abbé de Saint-Martin" donated "son alleu de Lachy…dans le comté de Meaux" to Tours Saint-Martin, specifying that he had inherited the property from "comte Aledramnus" who had been granted it by Charlemagne[10]. It should be noted, however, that all these sources would be consistent with the family connection between Robert "le Fort" and Adalhelm being through the female line, even through Robert´s wife.
  3. Thirdly, an interesting possibility is indicated by Europäische Stammtafeln[11], which names the first wife of Comte Robert as "[Agane]". It cites no corresponding primary source, but presumably the suggestion is based on the Miraculis Sancti Genulfi which names "Agana filia…Byturicensium comes…Wifredus [et]…Oda coniux" as wife of "Roberto viro primoque palatii Pipini regis"[12]. This "Roberto" can probably be identified as Robert Seigneur [comte] à Sesseau en Berry, the supposed brother of the wife of Pepin I King of Aquitaine (this relationship is referred to by Settipani, but he neither quotes nor cites the corresponding source[13]). Could it be possible therefore that he was the same person as Robert "le Fort"? If this was correct, it would be consistent with the Saxon origin which is suggested by Richer and by the Miracula Sancti Benedicti (see above). The supposed father of Robert de Sesseau was Theodebert Comte de Madrie who, it is suspected, was related to the family of Nibelung and Childebrand (see CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY). The Saxon connection of the latter family is suggested by the name Theoderic (nine different individuals named Theoderic have been identified in the family), which was first recorded in Saxony in the family of Widukind by Einhard in 782 (see the document SAXONY).

Career

Whatever the truth about Robert´s parentage, his career in France is recorded from 853: a document issued by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated Nov 853 names "Dodo episcopus, Hrotbertus et Osbertus" as missi in "Cinnomannio, Andegavensi, atque Turonico, Corboniso, et Sagiso"[14].

The Annales Bertiniani record that "Pippinus" joined with "Rotberto comiti et Britonibus" in 859[15], which suggests that Robert had earlier rebelled against King Charles II in Brittany. Robert submitted to the king's authority, when he was given command of the march of Neustria, which had been confiscated from the Rorgonid family for supporting the revolt of Louis (later King Louis II) against his father[16].

Regino records that King Charles II "le Chauve" invested "Rodberto comiti" with "ducatum inter Ligerim et Sequanam adversum Brittones" in 861[17]. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Rodbertus" attacked "Salomone duce" [duke of Brittany] in 862[18].

The Annales record that King Charles´s son, the future King Louis II "le Bègue", rebelled against his father in 862 and, heading an army of Bretons, defeated "Rotbertum patris fidelem" in 862, after which he burned Angers yet again[19].

Count in the march of Anjou [862/63]: the creation of the "march" of Anjou is probably dated to the early 860s, as the Annales Bertiniani name "Rodberto, qui marchio in Andegavo fuerat" in 865[20].

However, this change of jurisdictional status must have been insufficient to control the Bretons and the Vikings because Robert is named in the Annales Bertiniani in 865 in the context of King Charles imposing direct rule in the area by sending "Hludowicum filium suum" into "Neustriam" and granting him "comitatum Andegavensem et abbatiam Maioris-monasterii et quasdam villas illi", while Robert was compensated with "comitatum Autissiodorensem et comitatum Nivernensem". Comte d'Auxerre and Comte de Nevers 865.

The Annales Bertiniani name "Rodbertus et Odo" as "præfecti" in the Seine valley area in 866 when recording that they repelled the Vikings who had sailed up river as far as "castrum Milidunum"[21]. "Odo" is presumably identified as Eudes Comte de Troyes, who died 1 Aug 871 (see CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY) and who, according to Edouard de Saint-Phalle, was the brother of Robert "le Fort"[22].

The Annales Bertiniani record that "Rotbertum et Ramnulfum, Godtfridum quoque et Heriveum comites" were defeated by the Vikings at "Brieserta" in 866, where Robert was killed[23]. The Adonis Continuatio records that "Robertus quoque atque Ramnulfus…inter primos ipsi priores" were killed by the Vikings in 866[24].

Marriage

m ---. The name of Comte Robert's wife is not known.

  • Some secondary works[25] assert that she was Adelais de Tours, widow of Conrad Comte de Paris et d'Auxerre [Welf], daughter of Hugues Comte de Tours. If this is correct, Adelais must have been Comte Robert's second wife as Conrad died after 862 by which date Robert's known children were already born. Settipani[26] states that the only basis for the assertion is a 12th century interpolation in the Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon, which is of little historical value.
  • Nevertheless, he suggests that it is likely that the wife of Comte Robert was a close relation of Adelais, although the basis for his statement is not known. A family connection between Comte Robert and Conrad Comte de Paris is also suggested by the former being invested with the county of Auxerre in 865, after this county was confiscated from the latter (as recorded by Hincmar[27]), on the assumption that there was some basis of heredity behind the transmission of counties in France at that time (which is probable, but remains unproved).
  • The Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne, interpolated into the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines, names "Regine, que cum esset iuvencula fuit concubina Karoli Magni iam senioris" as wife of "Roberti Fortis marchionis"[28]. This is chronologically impossible as Regina must have been born in [785] at the latest (the birth of her older son is recorded in 801), and therefore was far too old to have been the mother of Robert's children.
  • According to Europäische Stammtafeln[29], the first wife of Comte Robert was "[Agane]". The primary source on which this is based is not noted, but as stated above, it is probably the Miraculis Sancti Genulfi which names "Agana filia…Byturicensium comes…Wifredus [et]…Oda coniux" as wife of "Roberto viro primoque palatii Pipini regis"[30]. As discussed above, this would imply that Robert "le Fort" was the same person as Robert Seigneur [comte] à Sesseau en Berry, probably brother of the wife of Pepin I King of Aquitaine. If this co-identity is correct, Agana would have been too old to have been the mother of the recorded children of Robert "le Fort". It would therefore be consistent for her to have been Robert´s first wife.

Children


Comte Robert & his wife had three children:

1. EUDES [Odo] (in Neustria [after 852][31]-La Fère-sur-Oise 3 Jan 898).

  • Herimannus names "Odo filius Roudperti" when recording his assuming power in "Gallia usque ad Ligerim et in Aquitania" after the death of Emperor Karl III[32].
  • The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Odonem ducem Aquitanio" succeeded as king of France, stating that he was "filius Raimundi comitis Lemovicensis"[33], although it is not known on what information this may be based.
  • He succeeded his father in 866 as Marquis en Neustrie, but was dispossessed in 868 by Charles II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks in favour of Hugues l’Abbé.
  • He was created Comte de Paris 882-83, after unsuccessfully challenging Hugues l’Abbé for his inheritance.
  • Abbot of Saint-Martin de Tours: "Eudes…comme abbé de Saint-Martin" exchanged "la villa de Marsat en Auvergne et la villa…Dronius" for "les villæ…Balneacum et Vineas situées en Berri dans le vicaria Corboninse" with Frothaire Archbishop of Bourges by charter dated May 886[34].
  • He was finally invested as Marquis de Neustrie in Sep 886, following the death during the siege of Paris of Duke Heinrich (who was ancestor of the "alte" Babenberg family, see the document FRANCONIA NOBILITY) to whom Emperor Charles II had granted the territories of Robert “le Fort” on the death of Hugues l’Abbé earlier in the same year[35].
  • "Odo Parisiorum pagi…comes" donated land at Fontenay, Charenton to Notre-Dame by charter dated to before 888, subscribed by "Roberti comitis, Altmari comitis"[36].
  • He was acclaimed as EUDES King of France 29 Feb 888. He was consecrated king at Compiègne by the Archbishop of Sens.
  • King Eudes defeated the Normans at Montfaucon-en-Argonne 24 Jun 888, after which he was recognised as king by Arnulf King of the East Franks who sent royal insignia for a second consecration at Reims 13 Nov 888[37].
  • He was succeeded by the Carolingian Charles III, who had been consecrated as anti-king at Reims 28 Jan 893, according to the agreement reached in 897 between the two adversaries after Eudes defeated Charles[38].
  • The Annales Prumienses record the death "898 III Non Ian" of "Odo rex"[39]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "IV Non Jan" of "Odo rex"[40].
m as her first husband, THEODERADA, daughter of --- (-18 Oct [after 900]).  "Odo…rex" confirmed the possessions of "monasterio Vedastino" by charter dated 21 May [891/92] which names "coniux nostra Theoderada"[41].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[42], she was Theoderada, [daughter of Aledramn [II.  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  Settipani says that it has no historical basis[43].  Nevertheless, Theoderic, supposed son of Adelramn [II], was a strong supporter of King Eudes, as recorded in the Annales Vedastini[44], which is best explained by a family connection: if the relationship is correct, he would have been Theoderada´s brother.  She married secondly Otto.  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Kalendarium Sanctæ Mariæ Virdunensis, which records the death "XIV Kal Jul" of "Otto comes venerabilis qui dedit fratribus Haraudi montem, Bresadi villam, Samepodium"[45], read together with the necrology of Verdun Cathedral which records the death "XV Kal Nov" of "Theudrada regina et postea sancti monialis qui cum viro suo Hattone dedit fratribus Haraldi montem"[46].  These two sources make it clear that "viro suo Hattone" named in the second cannot refer to Eudes King of France, who would not have been called "Otto comes" in the first.  

King Eudes & his wife had [three] children: a) children . King Eudes refers to his unnamed children in 889 according to Settipani, who does not cite the primary source on which this is based[47]. b) [RAOUL ([882]-after 898). He is named as son of King Eudes in Europäische Stammtafeln[48] but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. King of Aquitaine.] c) [ARNOUL ([885]-898). The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "filius eius Arnulfus" succeeded on the death of father "Francorum…rege Odone" but lived only a short time[49]. This is the only source so far identified which mentions Arnoul.] d) [GUY [Wido] . "Alanus" [Duke of Brittany] signed a charter dated 28 Aug 903 witnessed by "…Guido filius Ottonis regis Franciæ qui tunc erat cum Alano"[50]. According to Settipani, the charter is a forgery[51].]

2. ROBERT ([860]-killed in battle near Soissons 15 Jun 923). "Rodbertum fratrem Odonis regis" is named in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[52]. He was elected ROBERT I King of France in 922.


__________________

From the English Wikipedia article on Robert IV The Strong:

(With translated portions taken from the corresponding French Wikipedia article, not found in the English)

Robert IV the Strong (also known as Rutpert) (820 – July 2, 866[1]), was Margrave in Neustria. (The French Wikipedia article suggests he could have been born as early as 815. He was also Count of Tours and Anjou.)

His family is named after him and called Robertians. He was first nominated by King Charles the Bald "Missus dominicus" ("Envoy of the lord," or Frankish judicial commissioner, a type of circuit judicial court judge) in 853.

Robert was the father of the kings Odo and Robert I of France. Robert was the great-grandfather of Hugh Capet and thus the ancestor of all the Capetians. His father was Robert of Worms.

Origins and rise to power

While very little is known about the beginnings of the Robertian family, historians have been able to adduce that the family of nobles had its origins in Hesbaye or perhaps from the family of Chrodegang of Metz.

(French Wikipedia says that Robert Le Fort was probably the son of Robert, Comte de Worms, Oberrheingau, and Waldrada (d. c.834), and brother of Eudes d'Orleans (d. 834). At a symposium in Angers in 1987, Captetian historian Karl Ferdinand Werner confirmed that he had originally came from the Rhein, according to testimony of Regino Prum. His research indicates his family were in power in the Loire, and may have been linked to the clan led by Seneschal Adalard and two groups of relatives in the west: the Counts Geroldiens (from Gerold of Vinzgouw) at Blois, Chateaudun and Angers, and the Widonides based in the Marches of Bretony.)

During the reign of Louis the German, the Robertian family moved from East Francia to West Francia.

(French Wikipedia says: Robert Le Fort is quoted as leaving the middle Rhine in 836, but without title. During the power struggle between the sons of Louis I The Pious, he sided with Charles the Bald, who was the son of Eudes d'Orleans, abandoning the lands incorporated into the Kingdom of Lothair I and taking refuge in the west with his mother's family.)

After his arrival in West Francia, Charles the Bald showed his favour of the family defecting from his enemy Louis by assigning Robert to the lay abbacy of Marmoutier in 852. In 853 the position of "Missus dominicus" in the provinces of Maine, Anjou, and Touraine (or, in summary, Neustria, especially in Tours and Angers) was given him and he had de facto control of the ancient ducatus Cenomannicus, a vast duchy centred on Le Mans and corresponding to the regnum Neustriae. (French Wikipedia says that he may have been named Comte de Tours at this point in time.)

Robert's rise came at the expense of the established family of the Rorigonids and was designed to curb their regional power and to defend Neustria from Viking and Breton raids.

Revolt

(French Wikipedia says: In 856, Charles the Bald installs his son Louis as the leader of the "Duchy of Le Mans," a territory that corresponds with the Marches of Neustria. Robert is mentioned in neither that occasion, nor from November 853 to 854, when the Normans returned to loot the Loire, Angers, Tours, and Blois. Perhaps he was removed from power at that time.)

Despite the fact that he was a favoured noble of Charles, Robert joined a rebellion against the king in 858. He led the Frankish nobles of Neustria with the Bretons under Salomon in inviting Louis the German to invade West Francia and receive their homage. The revolt had been sparked by the marriage alliance between Charles and Erispoe, Duke of Brittany, and by the investment of Louis the Stammerer with the regnum Neustriae (856). These actions significantly curtailed the influence both of Salomon and Robert.

Charles compensated Robert for the losses suffered in this civil war by giving him the counties of Autun and Nevers in Burgundy, which greatly enlarged his landholdings. In 856 he had to defend Autun from Louis the German following the death of Lothair I. But following Erispoe's assassination in November 857, both he and Salomon rebelled.

Louis the German reached Orléans in September 858 and received delegations from the Breton and Neustrian leaders, as well as from Pepin II. The Neustrian rebels had chased Louis the Stammerer from Le Mans, his capital, earlier that year. In 861, Charles made peace with Robert and appointed him Count of Anjou, even though he had been involved in the revolt.

War with Bretons and Vikings

While count of Anjou, Robert was able to successfully defend the northern coast against the threat of a Viking invasion. In 862 Charles granted Louis the Stammerer, his son, the lay abbacy of Saint Martin of Tours, a small benefice in comparison with the kingdom he had received in 856 (and lost in 858). The young Louis rebelled and was quickly joined by Salomon, who supplied him with troops for a war against Robert.

In 862 two groups of Vikings—one the larger of two fleets recently forced out of the Seine by Charles the Bald, the other a fleet returning from a Mediterranean expedition—converged on Brittany, where one (the Mediterranean) was hired by the Breton duke Salomon to ravage the Loire valley.[2] Robert captured 12 of their ships, killing all on board save a few who fled.

He then opened negotiations with the former Seine Vikings, and hired them against Salomon for 6,000 pounds of silver. The purpose of this was doubtless to prevent them from entering the service of Salomon.[3] Probably Robert had to collect a large amount in taxes to finance what was effectively a non-tributary Danegeld designed to keep the Vikings out of Neustria.[4] The treaty between the Franks and the Vikings did not last more than a year: in 863 Salomon made peace and the Vikings, deprived of an enemy, ravaged Neustria.

(French Wikipedia says that the Vikings established bases at the mouth of the Loire River in 853, and the Seine in 856 under the leadership of their chief, Hastein.)

Robert made war on Pepin II in his later years. In 863 he had to defend Autun again from Louis the German, this time after the death of Charles of Provence. Robert was in Neustria during 865 and 866, with Bretons and Vikings ravaging the environs of Le Mans.

(French Wikipedia says: In 866, Charles the bald granted, in addition to the new title of Marquis of Neustria, the college of the Abbey of St-Martin-de-Tours, a prestigious abbey in Tours that collects a large amount of revenue (mense). On the page for the Basilique St-Martin de Tours, the Basilica is said to have been burnt by Vikings in 818, and shortly after rebuilt. This may be the St-Martin indicated by the Celtic Casimir online family tree about the burial place of Robert Le Fort.)

Death and legacy

In 866, Robert was killed at the Battle of Brissarthe while, unsurprisingly, defending Francia against a joint Breton-Viking raiding party, led by Salomon, Duke of Brittany, and the Viking chieftain Hastein. During the battle, Robert had entrapped the Viking commander in a nearby church. Thinking he was not endangered, Robert took off his armour and began to besiege the church.

Once Robert was unarmoured, the trapped Vikings launched a surprise attack and killed him before he had time to re-arm. His success against the Vikings led to his heroic characterisation as "a second Maccabaeus" in the Annales Fuldenses.

The name of Robert's wife is not attested in primary sources. According to some modern scholars she was Adelaide or Adalais, a daughter of Hugh of Tours (and thus an Etichonid) and the widow of Conrad I of Auxerre (died 862), a Welf. Since Robert already had children by 862, Adelaide would have to have been his second wife.

French genealogist Christian Settipani has identified the source of this identification as the unreliable twelfth-century Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon, which was interpolated into the chronicle of Alberic of Trois-Fontaines.[5] The Europäische Stammtafeln has identified Robert's first wife as a certain Agane. Whatever the facts, two of Robert's sons became kings of France: Odo (860-1 Jan 898) and Robert (866-15 July 923).

Sources

Smith, Julia M. H. Province and Empire: Brittany and the Carolingians. Cambridge University Press: 1992. ISBN 0-521-38285-8

Hummer, Hans J. Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the Frankish Realm 600 – 1000. Cambridge University Press: 2005. ISBN 0-521-85441-2

Bradbury, Jim. The Capetians, Kings of France 987-1328. Hambledon Continuum: 2007. ISBN 978-1-85285-528-4

References

1.^ Robert le Fort on Medieval Lands site

2.^ Einar Joranson (1923), The Danegeld in France (Rock Island: Augustana), 59–61.

3.^ Robert probably expected Salomon to hire them to replace the defeated Mediterranean Vikings, then to attack Neustria from two sides: with the Viking ships ascending the Loire and Breton troops invading by land.

4.^ In 860–1 Charles the Bald had collected a general tax to pay a Danegeld of 5,000 pounds. The king had probably authorised Robert's payment.

5.^ The Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne names Regine, que cum esset iuvencula fuit concubina Karoli Magni iam senioris as the wife of Roberti Fortis marchionis, but this Regina, concubine of Charlemagne, must have been born by 785 at the latest, since she had borne a son by 801. A marriage to Robert is chronologically implausible.

--------------------

From Darryl Lundy's Peerage page on Robert of Neustria (Forrás / Source): http://www.thepeerage.com/p10519.htm#i105188

Robert of Neustria, Duke of Neustria M, #105188, d. circa 866 Last Edited=19 Jun 2005

Robert of Neustria, Duke of Neustria died circa 866, killed. (1)

Robert of Neustria, Duke of Neustria also went by the nick-name of Robert 'the Strong'. (1)

Children of Robert of Neustria, Duke of Neustria -1. Robert I, Roi de France+ d. c 15 Jun 9232 -2. Eudes, Roi de France b. 856, d. 898 -------------------

-------------------- Unattributed English-language biography:

ROBERT-THE STRONG:

Marquess of Neustria, was the father of Eudes, (King Odo) of the West Franks (c857-898) and of ROBERT I, King of France (865-923). ROBERT I's daughter married Raoul of Burgundy, who later became King Rudolph of France. ROBERT I's son, HUGH-THE-GREAT, Duke of Franks, Count of Paris, was the brother-in-law of King Rudolph. HUGH-the-GREAT's son, HUGH CAPET, lived from approximately 938 to 996, and was crowned King of France in 987

French warrior, marquess of Neustria; father of the French kings Eudes and Robert I and ancestor of the Capetians. He joined the rebellious nobles against Charles II, Emperor of the West. They invited Louis the German to invade France (858). Becoming reconciled to Charles in 861, Robert was charged with the defense of the country between the Seine and the Loire, from which he repelled the Bretons and the Normans. He was killed fighting against the Normans. -------------------- Occupation: Marquis of Neustria -------------------- From the English Wikipedia page on the Battle of Brissarthe: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Brissarthe

The Battle of Brissarthe was fought on 2 July 866[1]), between the Franks and a joint Breton-Viking army near Brissarthe, Neustria. It was marked by the death of Robert the Strong, the Neustrian margrave, and Ranulf I, the duke of Aquitaine.

In 866, Salomon, Duke of Brittany, allied with Hastein (Hasting), a Danish chieftain, for an expedition into Anjou, Maine, and Touraine. In the course of the campaign, Le Mans was sacked.

Robert, commander of the afflicted regions, assembled a large army to expel them. He was joined by Ranulf of the region of Poitou and Gauzfrid and (his son) Hervé of Maine.

The Frankish army succeeded in intercepting the Danes before they reached their boats on the Loire River.

(French Wikipedia says that Robert knew he couldn't stop the Danes from sacking Le Mans, but he knew that they had to return to their boats by way of the river. He waited with his army near his villa of Chateauneuf-sur-Sarthe, a place where the river splits into several branches, creating an obstruction for the Viking river boats.)

The Danes (forced to come ashore) took refuge in a church, but the Franks besieged them (after failing in an assault on its stone walls). During the night, the Danes attempted to escape. During the ensuing battle, Robert was killed, Ranulf mortally wounded by an arrow, and Hervé injured. With the loss of their leaders, the Franks had to retreat.

(The French Wikipedia page says: Robert Le Fort posted sentinels, and while some of his men went to plunder the Viking boats still in the river, he removed his armor (including the broigne chain cloak he had been wearing). At nightfall, Hastein tried to escape. Robert Le Fort, without armor, went to the forefront of the Franks, who easily push the Vikings back into the church. In the fighting, Robert is cut down, and the Comte de Poitiers is seriously wounded by an arrow; he dies during the following October. Without a leader, the Franks withdraw and the Vikings escape.)

In 867, Charles the Bald entered negotiations (at Compiegne) with Salomon (through Pascweten, his step-son) and Charles the Bald recognised him as King of Brittany (as well as the succession to Riwallon, Salomon's son). He conceded the Cotentin and possible the Avranchin to the Breton.

Hastein continued to ravage the Loire Valley for many more years. He hit Bourges in 867, Orléans in 868, and Angers in 872. Charles appealed for assistance to Salomon.

(According to the French Wikipedia page: For the Robertian dynasty, the consequences were almost as important, as his sons Odo and Robert - our ancestor - were placed under the guardianship of Abbot Hugh, to which his honors are given over, honors which nearly went to the Welf lineage.)

Primary sources

1. Regino of Prüm (Chronicles) 2. Annales Bertiniani (Annals of St. Bertin)

(French Wikipedia also uses: Michel Dillange, The Counts of Poitou, Dukes of Aquitaine (778-1204), Geste editions, al . "The Nativity ", 1995 , 304P. (ISBN 2-910919-09-9), P.63-69 .) -------------------- Other Event(s) Slain at Blissarthe, Anjou, France

AKA (Facts Page): Robert 'le Fort' or 'the Strong' IV, Marquess of Neustria -------------------- From the English Wikipedia page on the Robertians:

The Robertians, or Robertines, were a Frankish predecessor family of what became the Capetians. The family included a large number of forms of Robert including Robert of Worms, Robert of Hesbaye, Robert the Strong, and Robert I of France. They figured prominently amongst Carolingian nobility and married into this royal family. Eventually the Robertians delivered Frankish kings themselves such as Odo, Robert and Hugh Capet. Those Robertians ruled in the Frankish kingdom Western Francia. Hugh Capet is known as the "last Frankish king" and the first king of France. He is the founder of the Capetians, a family that ruled France until the French Revolution.


Origin

The oldest known Robertians probably originated in the county Hesbaye, around Tongeren in modern-day Belgium. The first certain ancestor is Robert the Strong count of Paris, probably son of Robert of Worms, grandson of Robert of Hesbaye, and nephew of Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingram, wife of Louis the Pious. Other related family includes Cancor, founder of the Lorsch Abbey, his sister Landrada and her son Saint Chrodogang, archbishop of Metz.

From Robert the Strong

The sons of Robert the Strong were Odo and Robert, who were both king of Western Francia and ruled during the Carolingian era. His daughter Richildis married a count of Troyes. The family became Counts of Paris under Odo and "Dukes of the Franks" under Robert, possessing large parts of the ancient Neustria. Although quarrels continued between Robert's son Hugh the Great and Louis IV, they were mended upon the ascension of Lothair. Lothair granted Hugh the Duchy of Burgundy and Aquitaine, expanding the Robertian dominions.

The Carolingian dynasty ceased to rule France upon the death of Louis V. After the death of Louis, the son of Hugh the Great, Hugh Capet was chosen as king of the Franks. He became to be known as the first king of France. Hugh was crowned at Noyon on July 3, 987 with the full support from Holy Roman Emperor Otto III. With Hugh's coronation, a new era began for France, and his descendants came to be named, after him, the Capetians. They ruled France as the Capetians, Valois, and Bourbons until the French Revolution. They returned after 1815 and ruled until Louis Philippe was deposed in 1848.

However they continue to rule Spain through the Bourbon Dynasty right down to Juan Carlos of Spain.

Family branches

Rodbert Ingerman of Hesbaye Ermengarde of Hesbaye, wife of Louis the Pious Cancor, founder of the Lorsch Abbey Landrada Saint Chrodogang, Archbishop of Metz, Abbot of the Lorsch Abbey Robert of Hesbaye Robert of Worms Robert the Strong Odo, king of Western Francia married Theodrada Wido Richildis, or Regilindis, married Wilhelm I of Périgeux Robert, king of Western Francia, second marriage to Beatrix of Vermandois Emma, married Rudolph of Burgundy Adela, married Herbert II, Count of Vermandois Hugh the Great, married for the 3rd time to Hedwige of Saxony, daughter of Henry the Fowler Hugh Capet Hadwig, married Reginar IV, Count of Mons Robert II Otto-Henry, married to Gerberga of Chalons Odo Beatrix, married Frederick of Bar Emma, married Richard I of Normandy Herbert, bishop of Auxerre

Sources

The Carolingians, a family who forged Europe, by Pierre Riché - University of Pennsylvania Press La Préhistoire des Capetiens, Premiére Partie: Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens, by Christian Settipani et Patrick Van Kerrebrouck -------------------- From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps03/ps03_443.htm

Robert, Count of Anjou and Blois, was one of the great leaders in the Carolingian period and became Rector (Lay Abbot) of St. Martin de Marmoutier, near Tours, in 852. He was killed in action against the Norsemen. He was created Count of Anjou and of Blois, and acquired the countships of Auxerre and Nevers. He is remembered for his heroic defense of the Frankish realm lying between the Seine and Loire rivers against the Norse and Bretons. His title of "Duke" was military, not hereditary. Modern scholarship states that he is Rutpert IV, Count in the Wormsgau as early as 836, whose father is Rutpert III, Count of record from 812, dead by 834. "Ancestral Roots..." (Balt., 1992), line 48, shows his mother to be Adelaide or Aelis of Tours and Alsace (b. ca. 819, d. ca. 866), widow of Conrad I, Count of Aargau and Auxerre (d. 863) and dau. of Hugh, Count of Tours. -------------------- Robert was a magnate who was the right hand of Charles the Bald & died fighting the Norsemen. Killed at the Battle of Brissarthe. When he had the Vikings cornered in a church he thought he was safe & removed his armour & began to besiege the church. The trapped Vikings launched a surprise attack & killed him before he had time to rearm. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_the_Strong -------------------- Robert IV the Strong (also known as Rutpert) (820-September 15, 866), was Margrave in Neustria. His family is named after him and called Robertians. He was first nominated by Charles the Bald missus dominicus in 853. Robert was the father of the kings Odo and Robert I of France. Robert was the great-grandfather of Hugh Capet and thus the ancestor of all the Capetians. His father was Robert of Worms. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_IV_the_Strong --------------------

 Rutpert IV, Count in Wormgau, seen 836; of Anjou, Blois, Tours, Auxerre, Nevers; killed 15 Sep 866, called Robert the Strong; m. (1); m. (2) c 864, Aelis (or Adelaide) of Tours & Alsace, b. c 819, d. c 866, widow of Conrad I, Count of Aargau
   and Auxerre, d. 863, daughter of Hugh, Count of Tours, by his wife Bava. He had by (2) wife: (1) Odo or Eudes, King of the Franks (France), and (2) Robert I, Count of Paris 888, King of the Franks 922-3, father of Hugh Magnus. [Ancestral Roots]
  1. Note:
  2. Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
  3. Note: Page: Robert The Strong
  4. Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
  5. Note: Page: 48-17

-------------------- killed in battle against Normans

Burial: St Martin De Chaateauneuf,France

General Notes

  1. Note:
   Rutpert IV, Count in Wormgau, seen 836; of Anjou, Blois, Tours, Auxerre, Nevers; killed 15 Sep 866, called Robert the Strong; m. (1); m. (2) c 864, Aelis (or Adelaide) of Tours & Alsace, b. c 819, d. c 866, widow of Conrad I, Count of Aargau
   and Auxerre, d. 863, daughter of Hugh, Count of Tours, by his wife Bava. He had by (2) wife: (1) Odo or Eudes, King of the Franks (France), and (2) Robert I, Count of Paris 888, King of the Franks 922-3, father of Hugh Magnus. [Ancestral Roots]
  1. Note:
  2. Note: Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
  3. Note: Page: Robert The Strong
  4. Note: Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999
  5. Note: Page: 48-17

--------------------

    Robert of Neustria, Duke of Neustria died circa 866, killed.1
    Robert of Neustria, Duke of Neustria also went by the nick-name of Robert 'the Strong'.1

Children of Robert of Neustria, Duke of Neustria

   * Robert I, Roi de France+ d. c 15 Jun 9232
   * Eudes, Roi de France b. 856, d. 898

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10519.htm#i105188

-------------------- Robert IV the Strong (820 – July 2, 866[1)], also known as Rutpert, was Margrave in Neustria. His family is named after him and called Robertians. He was first nominated by Charles the Bald missus dominicus in 853. Robert was the father of the kings Odo and Robert I of France. Robert was the great-grandfather of Hugh Capet and thus the ancestor of all the Capetians. His father was Robert of Worms[2].

The name of Robert's wife is not attested in primary sources. According to some modern scholars[2] she was Adelaide or Adalais, a daughter of Hugh of Tours (and thus an Etichonid) and the widow of Conrad I of Auxerre (died 862), a Welf. Since Robert already had children by 862, Adelaide would have to have been his second wife. French genealogist Christian Settipani has identified the source of this identification as the unreliable twelfth-century Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon, which was interpolated into the chronicle of Alberic of Trois-Fontaines.[6] The Europäische Stammtafeln has identified Robert's first wife as a certain Agane[2]. Whatever the facts, two of Robert's sons became kings of France: Odo and Robert.

Origins and rise to power While very little is known about the beginnings of the Robertian family, historians have been able to adduce that the family of nobles had its origins in Hesbaye or perhaps from the family of Chrodegang of Metz. During the reign of Louis the German, the Robertian family moved from East Francia to West Francia. After his arrival in West Francia, Charles the Bald showed his favour of the family defecting from his enemy Louis by assigning Robert to the lay abbacy of Marmoutier in 852. In 853 the position of missus dominicus in the provinces of Maine, Anjou, and Touraine was given him and he had de facto control of the ancient ducatus Cenomannicus, a vast duchy centred on Le Mans and corresponding to the regnum Neustriae. Robert's rise came at the expense of the established family of the Rorigonids and was designed to curb their regional power and to defend Neustria from Viking and Breton raids.

[edit] RevoltDespite the fact that he was a favoured noble of Charles, Robert joined a rebellion against the king in 858. He led the Frankish nobles of Neustria with the Bretons under Salomon in inviting Louis the German to invade West Francia and receive their homage. The revolt had been sparked by the marriage alliance between Charles and Erispoe, Duke of Brittany, and by the investment of Louis the Stammerer with the regnum Neustriae (856). These actions significantly curtailed the influence both of Salomon and Robert. Charles compensated Robert for the losses suffered in this civil war by giving him the counties of Autun and Nevers in Burgundy, which greatly enlarged his landholdings. In 856 he had to defend Autun from Louis the German following the death of Lothair I. But following Erispoe's assassination in November 857, both he and Salomon rebelled.

Louis the German reached Orléans in September 858 and received delegations from the Breton and Neustrian leaders, as well as from Pepin II. The Neustrian rebels had chased Louis the Stammerer from Le Mans, his capital, earlier that year. In 861, Charles made peace with Robert and appointed him Count of Anjou, even though he had been involved in the revolt.

[edit] War with Bretons and VikingsWhile count of Anjou, Robert was able to successfully defend the northern coast against the threat of a Viking invasion. In 862 Charles granted Louis the Stammerer, his son, the lay abbacy of Saint Martin of Tours, a small benefice in comparison with the kingdom he had received in 856 (and lost in 858). The young Louis rebelled and was quickly joined by Salomon, who supplied him with troops for a war against Robert.

In 862 two groups of Vikings—one the larger of two fleets recently forced out of the Seine by Charles the Bald, the other a fleet returning from a Mediterranean expedition—converged on Brittany, where one (the Mediterranean) was hired by the Breton duke Salomon to ravage the Loire valley.[3] Robert captured twelve of their ships, killing all on board save a few who fled. He then opened negotiations with the former Seine Vikings, and hired them against Salomon for 6,000 pounds of silver. The purpose of this was doubtless to prevent them from entering the service of Salomon.[4] Probably Robert had to collect a large amount in taxes to finance what was effectively a non-tributary Danegeld designed to keep the Vikings out of Neustria.[5] The treaty between the Franks and the Vikings did not last more than a year: in 863 Salomon made peace and the Vikings, deprived of an enemy, ravaged Neustria.

Robert made war on Pepin II in his later years. In 863 he had to defend Autun again from Louis the German, this time after the death of Charles of Provence. Robert was in Neustria during 865 and 866, with Bretons and Vikings ravaging the environs of Le Mans.

[edit] Death and legacy. In 866, Robert was killed at the Battle of Brissarthe while, unsurprisingly, defending Francia against a joint Breton-Viking raiding party, led by Salomon, Duke of Brittany, and the Viking chieftain Hastein. During the battle, Robert had entrapped the Viking commander in a nearby church. Thinking he was not endangered, Robert took off his armour and began to besiege the church. Once Robert was unarmoured, the trapped Vikings launched a surprise attack and killed him before he had time to re-arm. His success against the Vikings led to his heroic characterisation as "a second Maccabaeus" in the Annales Fuldenses.

[edit] SourcesSmith, Julia M. H. Province and Empire: Brittany and the Carolingians. Cambridge University Press: 1992. ISBN 0-521-38285-8 Hummer, Hans J. Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the Frankish Realm 600 – 1000. Cambridge University Press: 2005. ISBN 0-521-85441-2 Bradbury, Jim. The Capetians, Kings of France 987-1328. Hambledon Continuum: 2007. ISBN 978-1-85285-528-4 [edit] References1.^ Robert le Fort on Medieval Lands site 2.^ a b c Baldwin, Stephen (2008-07-28). "Robert the Strong". The Henry Project. http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/rober100.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 3.^ Einar Joranson (1923), The Danegeld in France (Rock Island: Augustana), 59–61. 4.^ Robert probably expected Salomon to hire them to replace the defeated Mediterranean Vikings, then to attack Neustria from two sides: with the Viking ships ascending the Loire and Breton troops invading by land. 5.^ In 860–1 Charles the Bald had collected a general tax to pay a Danegeld of 5,000 pounds. The king had probably authorised Robert's payment. 6.^ The Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne names Regine, que cum esset iuvencula fuit concubina Karoli Magni iam senioris as the wife of Roberti Fortis marchionis, but this Regina, concubine of Charlemagne, must have been born by 785 at the latest, since she had borne a son by 801. A marriage to Robert is chronologically implausible.

-------------------- http://www.celtic-casimir.com/webtree/2/3037.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counts_of_Blois -------------------- Roberto, o Forte, nasceu em 815, foi Conde de Anjou a 862, Conde de Auxerre e Conde de Nevers a 865, e Marquês da Nêustria. Ele morreu em 2 de julho de 866 em Brissarthe, Maine-et-Loire. [editar] Relações Familiares

Sua ascendência ainda é objeto de estudo. Também não há certeza sobre o nome de sua esposa. Ele foi pai de:

  • Odo, Conde de Paris, depois Rei da França entre 888 e 898.
  • Roberto I de França, que foi Rei da França entre 922 e 923.

in: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. <http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roberto,_o_Forte>

-------------------- Robert "the Strong" Count of Anjou and Blois was the son of Rutpert III Count of Wormsgau and Waldrada of Orléans.1,2,3,4 His name was also spelt "Robert "le Fort"" in French.4 His name was also spelt Rutpert IV "der Tapfer" or "der Starke" in German.1,4 Robert "the Strong" Count of Anjou and Blois was appointed in 852 as Lay Abbot of St. Martin de Marmoutier near Tours.4 In 858/859, he revolted against Charles the Bald, inviting Charles' brother Ludwig to invade Neustria. After the brothers made peace, Robert was restored to favor and given the defense of Neustria against the Normans.5 About 864 Robert married second Adelaide of Alsace and Tours, daughter of Hugh "le Méfiant" Count of Tours and Aba.2,4 Robert "the Strong" Count of Anjou and Blois was killed in the Battle of Brissarthe against the Normans on Wednesday, 15 September 866. Sewell gives his death date as 25 July 866, while Moriarty (1953) gives it as October 866.1,2,3,5,4 Children of Robert "the Strong" Count of Anjou and Blois and Adelaide of Alsace and Tours ◦Regilinda+2 ◦Odo or Eudes King of the Franks1,3,5,4 (856 - 898) ◦Robert I Duke of France+1,2,3,5,4 (866 - 15 Jun 923)

-------------------- Leo: Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser , Reference: 1961. --------------------

MALE Robert "le Fort" (Rotbertus Fortis, Robert "the Strong")

Marquis in Neustria, ca. 861-866.

Count of Anjou, before 853?-865.
Count of Blois, 865.
Count of Auxerre and Nevers, 865-866.
Count of Autun.
Lay-abbot of Marmoutier, 852.
Lay-abbot of Saint-Martin de Tours, 866.

Robert, commonly called "le Fort" ("the Strong"), is well known as the earliest solidly documented ancestor of the "Robertinian" or "Capetian" dynasty of kings of France. Robert probably first appears in the records in 836×7 as Robert, son of count Robert, when he donated two manses in Mettenheim in Wormsgau with appurtenances to the monastery of Lorsch ["Ego in Dei nomine Rubertus, filius Ruberti comitis, dono ad sanctum Nazarium &c. jj mansos cum hubis in pago Wormat. in Mettenheimer marca, & quidquid ad ipsos mansos pertinet, & de terra aratoria jurnales xlvjjj, & de vineis jurnales xjjj, & prata ad carradas vj, stipulatione subnixa. Actum in monasterio Laurisham, anno XXIII Ludowici inperatoris." Codex Lauresh., 2: 306-7 (#1826)]. He was probably also the count Robert who on 10 April 837 witnessed the donation of a certain Badagis for the soul of a count Guntram [Codex Lauresh., 1: 316 (#219), see below]. The identification of this Robert with Robert le Fort, now widely accepted, is discussed below in the Commentary section.

When Robert again emerges in the records on 3 April 852 as lay-abbot of Marmoutier, he was in the western kingdom of king Charles le Chauve ("the Bald") of France ["... illustris viri Rotberti rectoris monasterii S. Martini, quod Majus Monasterium dicitur, ..." RHF 8: 520 (#109)]. Along with bishop Dodo and Osbert, Robert appears as a missus in the Capitulary of Servais in November 853 ["Dodo episcopus, Hrotbertus, et Osbertus, missi in Cinnomannio, Andegavensi, atque Turonico, Corboniso, et Sagiso." MGH Leg. 1: 426]. Since missi (other than bishops) were usually counts over one of the districts involved, and he is known to have been count of Anjou at a later date, Robert was probably already count of Anjou at this time. In 858, a revolt against king Charles broke out, and Robert is mentioned first among the leaders of the revolt in a letter addressed in 859 to the rebels by the council of Savonnières ["Universalis synodus ex diversis partibus in nomine Domini ad vicinum locum Tullensi urbi, qui dicitur Saponarias, congregata, utinam bonis filiis Rotberto, Odoni, Heriveo, Truando, Ingelboldo, Frotmundo, item Heriveo, Magenardo, Cadoloni et ceteris in vestra societate conjunctis, salutarem conversionem." RHF 7: 584]. In 859, he was allied with Pépin II of Aquitaine and the Bretons ["Pippinus Rotberto comiti et Brittonibus sociatur." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 859, 52]. Robert was received back in the king's favor in 861 ["[Karolus] ... Et Sequanam transiens, Meidunum super Ligerim adit, Rodbertum cum placitis honoribus recipit." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 861, 55]. At about the same time, according to Regino, Charles made Robert dux of the region between the Loire and the Seine (i.e., Neustria) ["Carolus placitum habuit in Compendio ibique cum optimatum consilio Rodberto comiti ducatum inter Ligerim et Sequanam adversum Brittones commendavit, quem cum ingenti industria per aliquod tempus rexit." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 861, 79]. In 862, Robert was fighting against Salomon, ruler of the Bretons, and against Louis, son of king Charles, then in rebellion against his father [Ann. Bertin., s.a. 862, 57-8]. In 864, the king deprived Bernard, son of Bernard, of the honores which he had given him, and granted them to his faithful man Robert ["Unde iudicio suorum fidelium honores quos ei dederat rex recepit et Rotberto, fideli suo, donavit." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 864, 73]. This evidently included the county of Autun. In the same year, Robert was wounded in a fight against Vikings based on the Loire, but recovered after a few days ["Rodbertus comes Andegavensis adgrediens duos cuneos de Northmannis qui in Ligeri fluvio residebant, unum quidem, exceptis paucis evadentibus, interfecit, et altero maiore retro superveniente, vulneratur. Unde, paucis suorum amissis, sibi secessu consuluit et post paucos dies convaluit." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 864, 74]. In March 865, Robert was acting as count of Blois, and exchanged lands in the county of Blois with bishop Actard of Nantes ["Dedit igitur illustris vir Robertus comes partibus Actardi episcopi, de terra comitatis Blesensis ...; ... partibus illustrissimi viri Roberti comitis, comitatui videlicet Blesensi, ...; ... Actum Bleso castro publice. Signum Roberti comitis, qui hanc commutationem fieri vel firmare rogavit." Mabille (1871), lxxxix-xci (Pièces justificatives #1); Werner (1959), 147-150]. In 865, king Charles gave the county of Anjou to his son Louis. To Robert, who had been marchio in Anjou, he then gave the counties of Auxerre and Nevers in addition to his other honores ["Rodberto autem, qui marchio in Adegavo fuerat, cum aliis honoribus quos habebat comitatum Autisiodorensem et comitatum Nivernensem donavit." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 865, 79]. In 866, Robert and count Eudes (for whom see below) appear as leaders of one group of the Frankish army which was put to flight by the Viking army [Ann. Bertin., s.a. 866, 81]. Also in 866, the king gave Robert the lay-abbacy of Saint-Martin de Tours, which had been taken away from Engilwin, and on Robert's advice divided honores beyond the Seine among Robert's followers. Also by Robert's advice, Charles gave the county of Autun to his son Louis, because Bernard, son of Bernard, had been holding onto it against Robert ["Karolus Rotberto comiti abbatiam Sancti Martini ab Engilwino ablatam donat et eius consilio honores qui ultra Sequanam erant per illius complices dividit, comitatum quoque Augustidunensem, a Bernardo, filio Bernardi, super Rodbertum occupatum, Hludowico, filio suo, ipsius Rotberti consilio ad eum ditandum committit." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 866, 81]. This establishment of Robert's followers west of the Seine was probably one of the foundations of the later power of his family there [see Werner (1959)].

Later the same year, Vikings allied with Bretons were returning from having attacked and sacked Le Mans when they encountered Robert and several other counts with a large force. Robert was killed in the ensuing battle ["Nortmanni commixti Brittonibus, circiter quadringenti de Ligeri cum caballis egressi, Cimnomannis civitatem adeunt. Qua depraedata, in regressu suo usque ad locum qui dicitur Brieserta veniunt; ubi Rotbertum et Ramnulfum, Gozfridum quoque et Heriveum comites cum valida manu armatorum, si Deus cum eis esset, offendunt. Et conserto praelio, Rotbertus occiditur, ..." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 866, 84; "Ruotbertus Karoli regis comes apud Ligurim fluvium contra Nordmannos fortiter dimicans occiditur, alter quodammodo nostris temporibus Machabeus; cuius proelia, quae cum Brittonibus et Nordmannis gessit, si per omnia scripta fuissent, Machabei gestis aequiperari potuissent." Ann. Fuld., s.a. 867, 66; "Eo anno ingens bellum inter Gallos et paganos geritur in Gallia, et cecidit ex utraque parte innumerabilis multitudo. Ibique Ruodbertus, vir valde strenuus, ortus de Frantia, dux Karoli, interfectus est." Ann. Xant., s.a. 867 (recté 866), 24-5; "Ruotbertus absque galea et lorica accurrens, cum incautius dimicaret et inimicos ultro insequeretur, interfectus est in introitu ipsius ecclesiae; eius corpus iam exanime Nortmanni intrinsecus trahunt." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 867, 92-3; "Rhothbertus quoque atque Ramnulfus viri mirae potentiae, armisque strenui, et inter primos ipsi priores, Northmannorum gladio necantur." Annales Floriacenses, s.a. 866, MGH SS 2: 254]. After Robert's death, the king granted the counties of Tours and Anjou and the abbacy of Saint-Martin to Hugues "the Abbot", the son of his (i.e., the king's) uncle Conrad, and sent him to Neustria in Robert's place. At that time, Robert's sons Eudes and Robert, both of whom later became kings of France, were still young ["... Hugoni clerico, avunculi sui Chonradi filio, comitatum Turonicum et comitatum Andegavensem cum abbatia Sancti Martini et cum aliis etiam abbatiis donat eumque in Neustriam loco Rotberti dirigit; ..." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 866, 84; "Non multo post interiecto tempore Hugo abba in locum Ruotberti substitutus est, vir strenuus, humilis, iustus, pacificus et omni morum honestate fundatus; siquidem Odo et Ruotbertus, filii Ruotberti, adhuc parvuli erant, quando pater extinctus est, et idcirco non est illis ducatus commissus." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 867, 93].

The epithet of "le Fort" ("the Strong") which has been given to Robert is not contemporary, but is now widely used. In the beginning of the eleventh century, Hermann of Reichenau, in an annal entry based on Annales Fuldenses (and evidently drawing on the word fortiter which appears there), refers to Robert as "Roudpertus fortissimus de regno Karoli comes" [Hermann of Reichenau, Chronicon, s.a. 867, MGH SS 5: 106]. The nickname is also used by Sigebert of Gembloux, writing about 1100 ["Ruotbertus fortis marchio", Sigebert, Chronicon, s.a. 866, MGH SS 6: 341], and by Aubry de Troisfontaines in the thirteenth century ["comes Robertus Fortis"Aubry de Troisfontaines, Chronica, s.a. 988, MGH SS 23: 774].

Date of Birth: Unknown. Place of Birth: Unknown.

Date of Death: 866, possibly 15 September. A number of sources give 867 as the date of Robert's death [Ann. Fuld., s.a. 867, 66; Ann. Xant., s.a. 867, 25; Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 867, 92-3], and some scholars have followed this date [e.g. Barthélemy (1873)]. However, the annal for 867 in Annales Fuldenses contains some events from 866 (and even 865), the entries in Annales Xantenses during this period are typically off by a year (so their testimony actually favors 866), and the chronology of Regino is well known to be unreliable during this period. Thus, the contemporary testimony of Hincmar argues strongly for 866 as the date [Ann. Bertin., s.a. 866, 84]. See the discussion of Robert's date of death by Ferdinand Lot [Lot (1902), 430-1; Lot (1915), 507, n. 4]. Lot gives a date of 15 September, based on a count Robert who appears in a tenth century addition to the necrology of Saint-Germain-des-Prés ["XVII kal. ... et Rotberti comitis" Obit. Sens, 1, pt. 1: 272]. Place of Death: Battle of Brissarthe.

Probable father: Robert, d. before 19 February 834, count in Wormsgau.

Probable mother: Waldrade (Wialdrut), living 19 February 834.

The evidence which would accept the identification of Robert le Fort with a Robert, son of Robert and Waldrade, who appears in 836, is now widely accepted. See the Commentary section for a detailed discussion.

Spouse(s): Unknown. Robert's wife (or wives) cannot be unambiguously identified. See the Commentary section for a discussion of the possibilities.

Children: The relationship of Robert to his sons Eudes and Robert is abundantly documented [e.g., "... siquidem Odo et Ruotbertus, filii Ruotberti, adhuc parvuli erant, quando pater extinctus est, ..." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 867, 93; "Odo filius Rodberti usque ad Ligerim fluvium vel Aquitanicam provinciam sibi in usum usurpavit." Ann. Fuld., s.a. 888, 116; "... et terram patris sui Rothberti Odoni comiti concessam, ..." Ann. Vedast., s.a. 886, 62; "Rothbertus comes, frater regis Odoni" Ann. Vedast., s.a. 898, 79].

MALE Eudes, d. 1 January 898, count of Paris, 882×3-888; marquis of Neustria, 886-888; king of France, 888-898;

m. Théodrade, fl. 890.

Eudes was young ("parvulus") at the death of his father, but evidently old enough to receive at least some of his honores (thus probably in his teens), of which he was deprived in 868 ["Ablatis denique a Rotberti filio his quae post mortem patris de honoribus ipsius ei concesserat et per alios divisis, ..." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 868, 91; however, Chaume would identify this as an otherwise unknown elder son of Robert le Fort, Chaume (1925), 237, n. 2, 537 (table 5)]. Eudes appears to have spent some time with his father's relatives in the neighborhood of Worms, for he was apparently the Uodo, nepos of count Meingaud (Mengoz), who in 876 ceded to Lorsch a manse with all appurtenances at Mettenheim in Wormsgau ["Anno XXXVI Ludowici regis, Mengoz comes et nepos ejus Vodo tradiderunt ad sanctum Nazarium in pago Worm., in Mettenheim j mansum cum omnibus appenditiis suis, praesente Titrocho abbate &c." Codex Lauresh. 2: 309 (#1835)]. As count of Paris, Eudes distinguished himself in the siege of Paris against the Normans (October 885 - November 886). After the deaths of Hugues "the Abbot" and of marquis Henri (Heinrich, ancester of the Babenbergs) in 886, Eudes received the lands of his father ["... et terram patris sui Rothberti Odoni comiti concessam ..." Ann. Vedast, s.a. 886, 62]. After the death of Charles the Fat in January 888, Eudes was crowned as king at the palace of Compiègne by archbishop Gautier of Sens on 29 February 888 ["Convenerunt itaque qui Odonem advocarunt Compendio palatio atque cum consensu eorum qui sibi consentiebant per manu Waltheri archiepiscopi benedicti sibi in regnum fecerunt." Ann. Vedast., s.a. 888, 64; "Odo filius Rodberti usque ad Ligerim fluvium vel Aquitanicam provinciam sibi in usum usurpavit; ..." Ann. Fuld., s.a. 888, 116; "Interea Galliarum populi in unum congregati cum consensu Arnulfi Odonem ducem, filium Rotberti, de quo paulo superius mentionem fecimus, virum strenuum, cui pre ceteris formae pulchitrudo et proceritas corporis et virium sapientiaeque magnitudo inerat, regem super se pari consilio et voluntate creant;" Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 888, 129-130; "Odo rex a Francis elevatur 2. Kal. Mart." Annales Sancti Germani minores, s.a. 888, MGH SS 4: 3; "Anno itaque incarnationis dominicae 888. [16. Kal.] Mart. quinta feria communi decreto, Odonem virum militarem ac strenuum in basilica sancti ... regem creant." (the words in brackets are crossed out) Richer, Historia, i, 5, MGH SS 3: 570; 16 February was a Wednesday in 888, 29 February was a Thursday; Dümmler (1862-88), 3: 316 & n. 2 (quoting Richer as giving [II Kal.] instead of [16. Kal.])]. Eudes died on 1 January 898, being succeeded by the Carolingian Charles III the Simple ["Obiit ipse in eodem loco Kalendis Ianuarii, corpusque eius apud Sanctum Dionisium delatum ibique honorifice humatum." Ann. Vedast., s.a. 898, 79; "898. Odo rex obiit Kal. Ianuar. Karolus regnum recepit." Annales Sanctae Columbae Senonensis, MGH SS 1: 104; Dümmler (1862-88), 3: 436, n. 1]. His wife Théoderade appears in an act of 890 ["... carissima conjux nostra Theoderada ..." RHF 9: 452]. Favre suggests that she was a daughter of Aleran II, count of Troyes [Favre (1893), 203, see below].

MALE Robert I, d. 15 June 923, marquis of Neustria, 888-922; king of France, 922-3;

m. (1) Béatrix;
[probably m. (2) Adèle.]

Probable relatives: Six of the seven individuals listed here are stated to have been related to one of Robert's sons. Robert's grandson Hugues le Grand was an heir of the seventh in some unspecified way. In none of these cases is the exact relationship solidly documented. All of these relationships are potentially valuable clues, and in the case of Meingaud, the statement of relationship is an important piece of evidence in determining the probable parentage of Robert. Another likely relative of Robert, Eudes of Troyes and Châteaudun, is not explicitly called a relative of Robert or of his sons in the sources, and is covered in the Commentary section.

Meingaud/Megingoz (II), d. 28 August 892, count in Wormsgau and Maiengau, lay-abbot of Saint-Maximin. ["Item eodem anno mense Augusto, V. Kalendas Septembr., Megingaudus comes, nepos supradicti Odonis regis, dolo interfectus est ab Alberico et sociis eius in monasterio sancti Xisti, quod vocatur Rotila." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 892, 140] Meingaud is discussed in detail in the Commentary section.

Alleaume/Adalhelm, count of Laon. Gautier/Waltger, d. July 892, son of Alleaume.

["... Waltgarius comes, nepos Odonis regis, filius scilicet avunculi eius Adalhelmi, ..." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 892, 139; "Walkerus eius consobrinus", Ann. Vedast., s.a. 892, 72 (where eius refers to king Eudes); "Unde nepos eius nimium tristans Adalaelmus" Abbo, De Bello Parisiaco, i, 452, MGH SS 2: 787 (where eius refers to Eudes)] Kalckstein and Favre suggested that Robert married a sister of Alleaume [Kalckstein (1871), 114; Kalckstein (1877), 466; Favre (1893), 201]. Depoin & Chaume made Alleaume a younger paternal half-brother of Robert [Depoin (1908), 330; Chaume (1925), 537 (table 5)]

Adémar, d. 926, count of Poitou, 893-902. ["Odo, consanguineus sua" (i.e., of Ademarus), Abbo, De Bello Parisiaco, ii, 540-1, MGH SS 2: 800] Adémar was a son of Emenon, d. 866, count of Poitou, Périgueux, and Angoulême [Adémar Chab., iii, 19 (p. 137); iii, 20 (p. 139n.)]. Adémar appears to have had a brother named Alleaume/Adalhelm ["Frater Ademari comitis Adalelmus ..." Eudes de Cluny, Vita S. Geraldi, c. 46, AASS Oct., 6: 312]. Because of this, Kalckstein suggested that Adémar was related to Alleaume of Laon [Kalckstein (1877), 466]. The brother Alleaume was identified by Saint-Phalle as Alleaume, count of Troyes, nephew of Robert (d. 886), count of Troyes (see below) [Saint-Phalle (2000), 154-6, 169]. If this identification is correct, Adémar's mother would then probably be a sister of Robert of Troyes, and Adémar's relationship to Robert le Fort would be via whatever unknown connection probably links the families of Robert le Fort and Eudes of Châteaudun and Troyes (see below in the Commentary section).

Berengario I, d. 924, king of Italy, emperor. Robert le Fort's son Robert appears as propinquus of Berengario in a document of 15 February 913 ["... Rotberti specialiter abbatis propinqui quidem nostri ..." Dümmler (1871), 18 n. 3, 176-7; Pancarte S.-Martin de Tours, 123 (#115)]. Barthélemy attempts to explain this relationship via Robert's wife Béatrix [Barthélemy (1873), 123]. If Béatrix were indeed a daughter of Heribert (and this is doubtful, as indicated on the page of Béatrix), then it would make Berengario and Béatrix second cousins twice removed (with Béatrix in the more remote generation). Since this relation (if correct) would only be a distant in-law relation, it seems like an improbable explanation of the evidence. A more likely explanation would be the possibility that Robert I' s mother was a close relative of Hugues the Abbot, a nephew of the empress Judith, Berengario's maternal grandmother.

Charles III "the Simple", d. 929, king of France 898-922. In an act of 28 May 917, Charles refers to abbot Robert (the later king Robert I) as consanguineus noster ["... pro stabilitate salutis nostræ et consanguinei nostri Rotberti abbatis, ..." RHF 9: 532 (#65)]. Although the nature of the relationship is unknown, possible explanations would include a connection through Hugues the Abbot, or some relationship through count Eudes of Orléans, whose daughter Ermentrude was paternal grandmother of Charles the Simple.

Aleran II, fl. 868-900, count (of Troyes?). The basis of the supposition that Robert was related to Aleran II is an act of Saint-Martin de Tours of 937 by which Hugues le Grand (Robert's grandson) donated to that abbey his allod of Lachy, which he held in inheritance from count Aleran, who had obtained it from king Carloman ["... alodum nuncupatum Lapchiacum quamque Aledramnus comes par auctoritatis præceptum a domno Karolomanno rege obtinuerat, veluti heres illius in eo existens idoneus et iterum per rememoratæ auctoritatis preceptum possidere videmur ..." Lot (1904b), 153, n. 2]. This Aleran has sometimes been identified with Aleran I (d. bef. 25 April 854) [Pancarte S.-Martin de Tours, 95-6 (#58); Barthélemy (1873), 130-1; Merlet (1895), 106 & n. 7; Merlet (1897a), 36, n. 2]. However, as pointed out by Lot, this was a result of misreading Karlomannus as "Charlemagne" [Lot (1904b), 153, n. 2]. It should be noted that the fact that Hugues le Grand held something in inheritance from Aleran does not necessarily mean that Robert and Aleran were related, for the inheritance could have come through the wife of Robert, for example. In fact, Favre hypothesized an even more indirect route, suggesting that king Eudes inherited Lachy by marrying a daughter of Aleran II [Favre (1893), 203]. [For conjectured genealogical affiliations of Aleran II, see Kalckstein (1871), 470-2; Favre (1893), 202-3]

Possible relatives: According to Christian Settipani, this relationship has been recently revealed by a letter of Adèle, widow of the lay-abbot of Saint-Symphorien d'Orléans, to Gautier, bishop of Orléans, complaining about unkept promises of their common cousin Eudes ["Sperabam itaque quod Odo comes et consanguineus noster ne suis, ut nobiliter decuerat, per omnia juvaret ac fulciretur auxiliis" Settipani (1993), 403, n. 19, citing Bischoff (1984), 131-2 (#5) (not seen by me)]. Gautier, archbishop of Sens, was a nepos of Gautier, bishop of Orléans ["Waltarius, nepos Waltarii Aurelianensis urbis episcopi" Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 887, 131]. Referring to the forthcoming second part of his work, Settipani suggested that the relationship was due to a common descent from Hadrien of Wormsgau and his wife Waldrade (for those individuals, see the page of Eudes, count of Orléans).

Adèle, m. NN, lay-abbot of Saint-Symphorien d'Orléans. Gautier, bishop of Orléans, ca. 869-ca. 891. Gautier, d. 19 November 923, archbishop of Sens, 887-923.

Commentary

Theories about the origin of Robert le Fort

Contemporary writers did not offer the parentage of Robert le Fort. Nevertheless, as would be expected for the ancestor of a family that gained such prominence, a number of theories have been advanced regarding his parentage. By the eighteenth century, there were no less than five hypotheses on the ancestry of Robert, as reported in the third edition of Anselme's monumental work [Anselme, 1: 65-7]. A similar report in the tenth volume of Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France gave the same scenarios plus a sixth (which varied from one of the others only in earlier generations) [RHF 10: i-xiii]. The fathers attributed to Robert in these theories, with their supposed ancestries (which are discussed individually in more detail below), are: •Widukind II, son of Robert, son of the famous Widukind, duke of the Saxons. •Robert (husband of Agane, daughter of Wicfrid, count of Bourges), son of Teudbert, count of Madrie, son of Nivelon, son of Childebrand, brother of Charles Martel. There is a variation in which Robert le Fort is made a son of Teudbert, and is identified with the husband of Agane. A later variation traced Childebrand instead from kings of the Lombards. •Nivelon II, son of Eccard, son of Childebrand II, son of Nivelon, son of Childebrand, brother of Charles Martel. •Conrad, count of Altdorf and Auxerre, son of Welf of Bavaria (ancestor of the Welfs). •Hugues II the Abbot, son of Hugues the Abbot, natural son of Charlemagne. Here Robert is made the brother of a Hugues III the Abbot.

These theories can be contrasted with the scholarship of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which often went in quite different directions. The candidates for the father of Robert suggested in these more modern works show very little overlap with the earlier theories. •Robert, count of Tours, said to be son of Hugues, count of Tours. Proposed by Mabille, this theory found few followers. •Widukind, of German origin. Supported by Kalckstein and Favre, among others, the theory that the father of Robert was named Widukind got a new lease on life with the discovery of the manuscript of the historical work of Richer of Reims in 1833. •Guillaume, count of Blois, brother of Eudes, count of Orléans. This was proposed by Barthélemy, and followed by Merlet. •Guiguin, or Guy the younger. This was a novel interpretation of the evidence supplied by Richer, due to Depoin, and followed by Chaume. •Robert, count in Wormsgau. Proposed in 1936 by Glöckner, this scenario has been widely followed by others since that time.

Robert le Fort's origins in East Francia

The other theories will be discussed in due course, but we start with the last (and most widely accepted) of these scenarios. The case for identifying Robert le Fort with a Robert son of Robert who appears in the year 836×7 can be briefly summarized by the following points which will then be discussed in further detail. •What early evidence that exists for the place of origin of Robert le Fort has him coming from East Francia, or more specifically the region around Mainz, Worms, and Speier, and places him in a family of noble but not royal blood. •Meingaud, count of Wormsgau and Mayenfeld, who died in 892, appears in Regino of Prüm's annals as a nepos of king Eudes, son of Robert le Fort. •A Robert, son of count Robert, donated two manses in Mettenheim in Wormsgau with appurtenances to the monastery of Lorsch in 836×7. This Robert's father was evidently count in Wormsgau. •In 876, a count Meingaud of Wormsgau (probably not the same man who died in 892, but at the very least a relative) and his nepos Eudes (Voto) donated one manse in Mettenheim with appurtenances to Lorsch. This common connection to Mettenhem suggests that Meingaud was closely related to the Robert of 836×7. •Since the appearance of a Meingaud, relative of king Eudes son of Robert le Fort on one hand, compared to Robert, apparent relative of a Meingaud and his nepos Eudes on the other hand, is unlikely to be a coincidence, and since Robert son of Robert appears in precisely the area where we would expect to find Robert le Fort, the evidence points strongly to the conclusion that they were the same man.

Few sources have anything to say about the origin of Robert le Fort. As noted by René Merlet and Ferdinand Lot, what evidence there is points strongly to an origin in East Francia [Merlet (1895), 98-100; Lot (1902), 430-2]. The earliest to offer anything on his origin, Annales Xantenses, compiled not long after the events it records, state that he was "ortus de Frantia" ["Ibique Ruodbertus, vir valde strenuus, ortus de Frantia, dux Karoli, interfectus est." Ann. Xant., s.a. 866, 25]. Before 843, Francia would refer to a wide region between the Seine, the Manche, Saxony, Thuringia, Alamannia, and Burgundy. After 843, Lothair's part of the empire quickly became known as Lotharii regnum (Lotharingia, Lorraine), and Francia came to refer only to the remaining parts, now separated, one in the west and one in the east. Of these the author of Annales Xantenses was probably referring to East Francia, the region along the Rhine river around the towns of Mainz, Worms, and Speier [see Merlet (1895), 99-100]. Support for this comes from the tenth century Saxon historian Widukind, who places the origin of king Eudes specifically in East Francia ["Hunc quidam ex orientalibus Francis adiens, nomine Oda, vir fortis et prudens, ..." Widukind, i, 29, MGH SS 3: 430]. Apparently contradicting this is the testimony of Abbo, writing in the last years of the ninth century, who indicates that Eudes was from Neustria ["Francia laetatur, quamvis is Nustricus esset," (i.e., Eudes), Abbo, De Bello Parisiaco, ii, 447, MGH SS 2: 798]. This apparent contradiction is easily resolved, however, for there is every reason to believe that Eudes was born in Neustria, a region where his father was active for many years. Thus, if it is assumed that Abbo was referring to the birthplace of Eudes, while Widukind was referring to the origin of Eudes's family (in testimony agreeing well with Annales Xantenses), then there is no contradiction between Annales Xantenses, Abbo, and Widukind. Adding force to this conclusion is the fact, emphasized by Lot and Werner, that the early annalistic accounts which emphasize the heroic nature of Robert le Fort's fall at Brissarthe [Ann. Xant.; Ann. Fuld. (with the Biblical comparison to the Maccabees); Regino; see above for quotes] are exactly those which were written in the neighborhood of East Francia [Lot (1902), 431-2; Lot (1915), 507-9; Werner (1997), 10-12].

Much attention has been attracted by the account of Richer of Reims, writing in the 990's, who is the only early author to give a supposed name for the father of Robert. Richer states that Robert was of the knightly class and that Robert's father (literally, the paternal grandfather of king Eudes) was a German named Witichinus ["Hic patrem habuit ex equestri ordine Rotbertum; avum vero paternum, Witichinum advenam Germanem." Richer, i, 5, MGH SS 3: 570]. The name Widukind (Witichinus) is a name of Saxon origin, borne not only by the above historian, but also the name of the principal leader of the Saxons who fought against Charlemagne. Thus, in apparent support of Richer, we have the account of Aimoin of Fleury, writing just after 1000, who states that Robert was of Saxon origin ["... Rotbertus Andegavensis comes, Saxonici generis vir, ..." Aimoin, Miracula S. Benedicti, i, 1, MGH SS 9: 374]. Against a Saxon origin for Robert we have not only the early evidence mentioned above, but the specific evidence of Widukind, the historian of the Saxons, who was writing a generation before Richer and Aimoin, and who, as noted above, indicates nothing of a Saxon origin for Robert's dynasty. As was pointed out by Lot, it is also possible here that Aimoin's "Saxon" did not refer to ethnic origin, but just indicated that the geographical origin of the family was from Germany, ruled by a Saxon dynasty at the time that Aimoin was writing [Lot (1902), 432, n. 1; Werner (1997), 12].

As for the additional information given by Richer, further reasons will be given below for mistrusting his account, but we can immediately reject Richer's claim that Robert was only of the knightly class. In his history of the church at Reims, Flodoard mentions a letter of Foulques, archbishop of Reims to king Arnulf, which states that king Eudes was a stranger to royal blood ["... qui ab stirpe regia existens alienus ..." (i.e., Eudes), Flodoard, Historia Remensis ecclesiae, iv, 5, MGH SS 13: 563], but the obvious interpretation of that statement is that he was not of Carolingian descent, and we need not doubt that Robert was a member of the nobility, as stated by Regino ["... Ruotbertum et Ramnulfum et alios nonnullos generosae stirpis viros, ..." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 873, 105].

Robert's family

The reasons for identifying Robert le Fort with the Robert, son of count Robert who appears in 836×7 [Codex Lauresh., 2: 306-7 (#1826)] have been outlined above. The father Robert can be further identified with a high degree of probability with the count Robert whose widow Waldrade appears in 834.

Probable father: Robert, d. before 19 February 834, count in Wormsgau.

Probable mother: Waldrade (Wialdrut), living 19 February 834.
Robert was deceased by 19 February 834, when his widow Waldrade and a certain Guntram gave land in Bönsheim in Rheingau for his soul to the monastery in Lorsch ["Ego in Dei nomine Wialdrud & Guntram pariter mecum pro remedio animæ nostræ & pro anima Ruperti comitis, quondam viri mei, ... Signum Wialdrut, quæ hanc donationem fecit, ..." Codex Lauresh., 1: 350 (#271)]. He was evidently the count Robert whose son Robert donated two manses in Mettenheim in 836×7 [Codex Lauresh., 2: 306-7 (#1826), see above]. Attempts at further identification of this Robert suffer from the possibility of confusing different men with the same name. On 8 March 812, a count Rotbertus appears with several other counts in a court record of Charlemagne [MGH DD KdG, 289 (#216)]. After 816, at the request of archbishop Ebbo of Reims, a count Robert was ordered by emperor Louis to defend the property of the church ["Ab imperatore quoque Ludowico litteras ad Rotbertum comitem pro ecclesiasticarum rerum defensione, quas quidam pervadere moliebantur, impetravit." Flodoard, Historia Remensis ecclesiae, ii, 19, MGH SS 13: 467]. A count Robert appears as a witness on 29 May 817 (or 819) ["+ Ruadperahti comitis" Codex Fuld., 175 (#387)]. In 819 and 823, a count Robert appears appears in the record of restitution of lands to the monastery of Hornbach [Glöckner (1936), 306, citing Zeuß, Trad. Wizenburg. #69]. In a capitulary of emperor Louis the Pious in 825, a count Robert appears with archbishop Haistulf as a missus in the diocese of Mainz ["In Mogontia, quae est diocesis Heistulfi archiepiscopi, idem Heistulfus episcopus et Ruodbertus comes." MGH Leg. 1: 246]. Glöckner would identify all of these with the Robert of 19 February 834 (whom he would call Robert "III"), mentioning doubt only in the case of the capitulary [Glöckner (1936), 305-6]. Siegwart would also identify Robert with a vassal of emperor Louis the Pious ("Ruodpertus quidam nomine, Ludowici imperatoris vassallus") who briefly held Churrätien against Adalbert, son of Hunfrid, and was killed as a result [Translatio sanguinis Domini, c. 15, MGH SS 4: 448; Siegwart (1958), 180-3].

The cartulary of Lorsch shows a count Robert in Wormsgau on 12 June 795 ["... ego Rubertus comes ...", Codex Lauresh., 2: 236 (#1541)] and in Rheingau on 25 March 804 ["... signum Rutperti comitis, ..." ibid., 1: 318 (#222)] and on 20 February 807 ["... signum Rutperti comitis..." ibid., 1: 319 (#224)]. Glöckner would identify him as Robert "II" and make him the father of Robert "III" (with no direct evidence for the affiliation). This Robert "II" would then be identified by Glöckner as "probably" the same as the Robert son of Turimbert who appears in the Lorsch cartulary in 769×770 ["... ego Turinebertus, & filius meus Ruotpertus, ..." ibid., 1: 285 (#168)]. Although Turimbert does not have a title in the documents in which he appears, and Robert son of Turimbert also appears without a title, Turincbert was the son of a count Robert "I", whose son Cancor and widow Williswinte founded Lorsch in 764 [see Glöckner (1936), 303-5; Codex Lauresh., 1: 2], which is why Glöckner would identify Turimbert's son as Robert "II" [Glöckner (1936), 305]. On the other hand, Siegwart does not accept the identification of Robert "II" with Robert son of Turimbert, and instead makes Robert "II" the son of a Robert "I" (different from the Robert "I" of Glöckner), son of count Hnabi who was the maternal grandfather of Hildegard, wife of Charlemagne [Siegwart (1958), 157]. Chaume regarded the Robert "II" and "III" of Glöckner as a single count Robert of Rheingau (fl. 795-834, whose son Robert, fl. 836-7, he regarded as distinct from Robert le Fort), in turn a conjectured son of count Heimrich, son of count Cancor, son of count Robert and Williswinte [Chaume (1925), 537 (table #5)]. While onomastics and geography present us with a plausible enough case that Robert (husband of Waldrade) was of the same family as the earlier Robert (husband of Williswinte), there does not appear to be any solid evidence for the parentage of Waldrade's husband.

Possible relative (brother?): Guntram, count, living 19 February 834, probably d. before 10 April 837;

m. Badagis, living 10 April 837.
Guntram was a party to the donation of Waldrade for the soul of count Robert on 19 February 834, and was apparently deceased on 10 April 837, when his widow gave a donation in Pfungstadt in the Rheingau for his soul, in an act witnessed by the younger count Robert ["Ego in Dei nomine Batdagis pro remedio animæ meæ & domini mei Guntrami comitis ... Signum Badagis, qui hanc donationem fecit, signum Ruotberti comitis, Alberti, Rudingi, Rutberti, Rathfridi, Eringi, Erkenberti, Heriradi, Eigelwardi, Ekkehardi, Ridandi, Meginoldi. Altwinus scripsit." Codex Lauresh., 1: 316 (#219)]. This suggests that Guntram was a relative. Glöckner conjectures that Guntram was a son of the older Robert and brother of the younger Robert (le Fort) [Glöckner (1936), 307 (on table, with a "dotted line")]. 

Relative: Meingaud/Megingoz I, d. 876×882?, count in Wormsgau. A count Meingaud in Wormsgau appears on 21 August 868 and again on 12 April 870 [Depoin (1908), 15: 262; Dümmler (1862-88), 3: 358, n. 1; Parisot (1898), 492, n. 1; Glöckner (1936), 342, n. 3; Mühlbacher, 626-7 (#1479 (1436)); they cite Beyer i, 115, 117 (#110-1)]. In 876, Meingaud appears as an ambassador of Ludwig der Deutscher (Louis the German) to Charles le Chauve [Ann. Bertin., s.a. 876, 130]. In 876, count Meingaud (Mengoz) and his nepos Uodo (who can probably be identified as the later king Eudes) ceded to Lorsch a manse with all appurtenances at Mettenheim in Wormsgau ["Anno XXXVI Ludowici regis, Mengoz comes et nepos ejus Vodo tradiderunt ad sanctum Nazarium in pago Worm., in Mettenheim j mansum cum omnibus appenditiis suis, praesente Titrocho abbate &c." Codex Lauresh. 2: 309 (#1835)]. Meingaud I appears to have died by 22 September 881×2, when a count Walo/Walaho appears as count in Wormsgau ["in pago nuncupato Wormazfeld, in comitatu Walonis" Codex Lauresh., 1: 82 (#43) (gives 882); Chronicon Laureshamense, MGH SS 21: 375 (gives 881)]. There is a tomb of a Meingaud at St. Alban at Mainz [The epitaph is printed by Depoin (1908-10), 15: 264 and Favre (1893), 244-5], who was evidently Meingaud I. For the probable identification of Meingaud I and Meingaud II as separate individuals, see below.

Relative: Meingaud/Megingoz II, d. 28 August 892, count in Wormsgau & Mayenfeld, lay-abbot of Saint-Maximin;

m. Gisèle, who m. (2) Burchard, son of Walacho.
While it would be natural to conjecture that Meingaud I and Meingaud II were father and son, the exact relationship is undocumented. On 23 January 888, emperor Arnulf mentioned Meingaud II as count in Mayenfeld ["... quidam fidelis noster comes nomine Megingoz ... in pago Meinifeld dicto in comitatu ipsius" Dümmler (1862-88), 3: 358; Parisot (1898), 486; Glöckner (1936), 342, n. 3; Mühlbacher, 730 (#1775 (1727)); they cite Beyer i, 131 (#125)]. On 21 July 889, Meingaud II is mentioned as count in Wormsgau ["in pago qui uocatur Uuormazfelda in comitatu Megingaudi" Codex Fuld., 289 (#633); Mühlbacher, 742 (#1824 (1775))], having apparently just succeeded count Walaho, who appears as count on 8 November 888 ["in pago Wormazueldan, in comitatu Walahonis" Codex Lauresh., 1: 91 (#49); Chronicon Laureshamense, MGH SS 21: 378]. Meingaud II, a nepos of king Eudes, was killed on 28 August 892 ["Item eodem anno mense Augusto V. Kalendas Septembr. Megingaudus comes, nepos supradicti Odonis regis, dolo interfectus est ab Alberico et sociis eius in monasterio sancti Xisti, quod vocatur Rotila." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 892, 140], and emperor Arnulf gave some of Meingaud's honores to his own son Zwentibold ["Arnulfus Zuendibolcho filio honores Megingaudi comitis ex parte largitur." Regino, Chronicon, s.a. 892, 140]. A Meingaud who appears as count in Mayenfeld in 894×5 may have been a son of the Meingaud who died in 892 [Parisot (1898), 492, n. 1, citing Beyer ii, #30]. According to Sigehard, writing in the next century, Meingaud was duke of Lorraine under Arnulf ["... cuidam Megingaudo, regni huius duci, ..." Sigehard, Miracula S. Maximini, c. 8, MGH SS 4: 231]. However, this is not confirmed by any other source. The marriage of Meingaud is discussed below.

Relative: Robert, count in Nahegau, brother of Meingaud II.

["Comes quidam, nomine Ruobertus, germanus illius, de quo supra retulimus, Megingaudi fuit, cuius praedia in pago Naachgowe Maximini ac Remigii conlimitantia praediis adiacebant." Sigehard, Miracula S. Maximini, c. 13, MGH SS 4: 232] He may have been the Robert who was lay-abbot of Echternach, from 890 to 897 according to one catalogue ["... ac 3. anno Arnulfi regis, ..., qui est annus incarnationis Domini 890, indict. 8, locus iste delegatus est cuidam Ruberto comiti ad regendum; ... Robertus cum 8 annis huic loco prefuisset, 10 anno Arnoldi regis ac incarnationis Domini 897, indict. 15 Reinerus comes adeptus est ..." Catalogi abbatum Epternacensium, Catalogue 1, MGH SS 13: 739], 890-2 according to another ["Robertus comes et abbas praefuit huic loco 3 annis temporibus Arnulfi imperatoris usque ad annum incarnationis Domini 892." ibid., Catalogue 2, MGH SS 13: 741].

The identification of the two Meingauds is complicated by the fact that Glöckner would identify the Meingaud who appears from 868 to 876 and the Meingaud who appears from 888 to 892 as the same individual (although allowing the possibility that they were different) [Glöckner (1936), 346-8]. Most authors identify them as two distinct individuals [e.g. Kalckstein (1877), 466; Depoin (1908-10), 15: 221ff.; Chaume (1925), 1: 555 (table 12); Settipani (1993), 402, n. 18]. The are two basic pieces of evidence that have been put forward in support of this. One is the appearance of a count Walaho in Wormsgau in the 880's (already mentioned above), which gives a natural break between the Meingaud who appears from 868 to 876 and the Meingaud who appears from 888 to 892. Another is the epitaph of a Meingaud at Mainz, which indicate that that Meingaud died at an advanced age, using words which are unlikely in an epitaph of a man killed in battle ["... postquam meritis maturus et annis, / Illius huic animam qui dedit, ipse tulit." Depoin (1908-10), 15: 264; Glöckner (1936), 347]. There is also a source which states that the Meingaud who died in 892 was buried at Saint-Maximin in Trèves [Depoin (1908-10), 15: 300, citing "Wiltheim, Annales S. Maximini, I, 629. Bibl. de Bruxelles"]. Thus, there appear to have been two counts named Meingaud. Settipani has also pointed out that in the acts of 868 and 870 there appears a second Meingaud, qualified as vicedomnus, in whom one might recognize the future Meingaud II [Settipani (1993), 402, n. 18].

As would be expected, there have been a number of attempts to give more precise genealogical affiliations to the two Meingauds, and to explain the connection of Meingaud to Robert le Fort. We can be reasonably certain that the two Meingauds were closely related, and the appearance of the name Robert as a brother of Meingaud II, along with the description of Meingaud II as a nepos of king Eudes, makes it highly likely that Meingaud II was a close blood relative of Robert. Some suggest that Meingaud II was probably a son of Robert's sister [Barthélemy (1873), 127; Kalckstein (1877), 466; Pinoteau (1958), table (between pp. 256-7)]. Based on a letter of pope John VIII to Charles the Fat on 16 August 879, Depoin and Wampach would make Meingaud I the son of an Adalbert ["... obnixe orecamur ut nobis dirigatis Liutbardum venerabilem episcopum, Manigoldum filium Adalberti, et Adalbertum protopincernam." Depoin (1908-10), 15: 221-2, 260-1; Wampach (1935), 122-4 (with attempts to further identify Adalbert in both); PL 126: 883]. The very legendary life of Meingaud II (worthless as a historical source) makes him a son of a nonexistent king Hugh of England by a sister of emperor Arnulf [Vita Meingoldi comitis, c. 1-2, MGH SS 15: 557]. Chaume makes Meingaud I a brother of Robert le Fort and makes Meingaud II a son of Meingaud I [Chaume (1925), 537 (table 5), 551 (table 12)]. Although there are other possibilities, Chaume's theory does have the merit of offering a simple explanation of the available evidence.

The elaborate scenario of Joseph Depoin involves two different connections to the family of Robert le Fort. Meingaud I is made to be a uterine brother of Robert le Fort. The reason behind this is typical of the often unconvincing logic used by Depoin. Having already determined the parentage of Meingaud I (as son of Adalbert, see above) and Robert le Fort (as son of Guiguin, see below) to his own satisfaction, and having decided that king Eudes was a nephew of Meingaud I (based on the above 876 record with "Mengoz comes et nepos ejus Vodo"), the only way left to make Meingaud I and Robert le Fort brothers was to give them a common mother. This supposed common mother of Robert le Fort and Meingaud I was then conjectured by Depoin to be a daughter of a count Eudes (Uoto) who appears in 821-4 [Depoin (1908-10), 261-2; for this count Eudes, see the page of Eudes of Orléans for further details]. Meingaud II was assigned by Depoin as a son of Meingaud I based on an onomastic guess. Depoin was then left with the problem of making Meingaud II a nephew of king Eudes, based on Regino's chronicle for 892. (Note that Depoin here insisted on interpreting the often more general nepos as meaning specifically nephew in both cases.) The only remotely plausible way to do this was to make the mother of Meingaud II a uterine sister of king Eudes. Since Depoin was operating under the common (but most probably mistaken) assumption that the mother of Eudes was Adélaïde (see below), formerly married to count Conrad, he concluded that the wife of Meingaud I was a daughter of Conrad and Adélaïde [Depoin (1908-10), 15: 261, 263].

The situation has been complicated further by an unfortunate mistake which can be traced back to Parisot, in which Meingaud II has been said to be the son of a count Walaho [Parisot (1898), 492, n.1, citing "Miracula S. Walburgis, liv. III, ch. 15, SS., t. XV, p. 549"]. Parisot's citation is to a nonexistent chapter of the miracles of St. Walburgis (Book 3 ends with Chapter 12), and a search of Miracula S. Walburgis [MGH SS 15: 535-555] turned up only one sentence (here quoted in full) which mentions a Meingaud or a Walaho ["Pari etiam modo, dum Gisala matrona pernobilis, uxor Burchardi, Walochonis comitis filii, quae antea matrimonio iuncta fuerat comitis Megingaudi, causa orationis, ut solita est, cellam virginis adiisset, inprimis pro se suisque omnibus Dominum supplicavit; dein erigens se et signo dominico muniens, eas quas secum detulerat optulit eulogias." Miracula S. Waldburgis, iii, 5, MGH SS 15: 549]. This does not make Meingaud the son of a Walaho, but states that Gisèle, wife of Burchard, son of Walaho, had been previously married to Meingaud. Just after the false citation, Parisot again cites Miracula S. Waldburgis as the source for the name of Meingaud's wife (this time correctly citing Book 3, Chapter 5). Thus, it is clear that "ch. 15" was a misprint for "ch. 5", and it appears that making Meingaud the son of a Walaho was an error of Parisot caused by a misreading of this source. A few years later, the claim that Meingaud was son of a Walaho was made by Vanderkindere [Vanderkindere (1902), 2: 402, no source cited for the parentage, but he was evidently using Parisot]. The statement that Meingaud was the son of a Walaho is repeated by Glöckner, who on two occasions gives the same nonexistent citation from Book 3, Chapter 15 of Miracula S. Waldburgis [Glöckner (1936), 346, n. 1; 348, n.1]. Thus, it appears that Glöckner took this statement along with the citation directly from Parisot's book, without checking it for himself. Following Glöckner, Pinoteau makes the same error [Pinoteau (1958), table (between pp. 256-7), 258, n. 17]. Glöckner also offered an alternate scenario in which a Meingaud II was son of Walaho and grandson (via a daughter) of a Meingaud I [Glöckner (1936), 347, offered only as one possibility, not as a firm conclusion].

Robert le Fort and Richer of Reims

Before the nineteenth century, Conrad of Ursperg or of Lichtenow (d. 1240) was the earliest known author to make Robert le Fort the son of a German named Widukind [Anselme, 1: 65; RHF 10: iii, v-vii; Barthélemy (1873), 410]. Then, in 1833, Pertz found the manuscript of the historical work of Richer of Reims, written during the last decade of the tenth century. For the first time in modern scholarship, there was an early (if not contemporary) source which claimed to give the name of the grandfather of king Eudes, said to be a German stranger named Widukind (Witichinus). Richer also stated that Robert (father of Eudes) was of the kinghtly class ["Hic patrem habuit ex equestri ordine Rotbertum; avum vero paternum, Witichinum advenam Germanem." Richer, i, 5, MGH SS 3: 570]. Not surprisingly, the new information was adopted by a number of historians, despite problems with the narrative of Richer which were overlooked or ignored. Among those authors who treat this information from Richer as reliable, there have been two major genealogical variations. Some have accepted the information as it stands, while Depoin and Chaume adopted an ingenious (but ultimately unconvincing) interpretation of Richer's evidence.

Falsely attributed father (probably mythical): Widukind, a Saxon. While some genealogies have made this Widukind a descendant of the Saxon leader of that name who fought Charlemagne, Kalckstein and Favre follow Richer in making Robert's father a stranger of unknown descent [Kalckstein (1871), 9-11, 117-120; Kalckstein (1877), 1; Favre (1893), 199-201]. The author most often cited in further support for this thesis is Aimoin of Fleury, who was writing a little after 1000, and stated that Robert was of Saxon descent ["... Rotbertus Andegavensis comes, Saxonici generis vir, ..." Aimoin, Miracula S. Benedicti, i, 1, MGH SS 9: 374]. The most obvious reason for doubting the testimony of Richer and Aimoin is that they were both writing well over a hundred years after the death of Robert le Fort. Richer's reputation as a source for the ninth century has suffered considerably since the initial euphoria felt by historians at discovering such an important manuscript. While he is a valuable source for those events for which he is a contemporary witness, his earlier material is often legendary and unreliable. His statement regarding the parentage of Robert le Fort has every appearance of falling into this legendary category. The claim that Robert was of the knightly class is scarcely believable, and Richer's bias toward the Carolingians raises the suspicion that he was deliberately denigrating the new dynasty by making them descend from a non-noble foreigner. Barthélemy pointed out that Richer's contemporary Hugues Capet was in fact of Saxon descent through his mother (daughter of the German king Heinrich I), and indeed a descendant of the Saxon leader Widukind (through Heinrich's wife Mathilde) [Barthélemy (1873), 113].

Falsely attributed father: Guiguin or Guy the Younger, count of Saonois. This version is based on a reinterpretation of the evidence of Richer, in which the -chinus of the name Witichinus given by Richer is seen as indicating a diminutive of the name Guy (Wito), resulting in the claim that Richer was making Robert le Fort the son of a Guiguin, or Guy the Younger [Depoin (1908), 324; Chaume (1925), 536-7 (table V)]. Regarding the description "Saxonici generis vir" by Aimoin, Depoin and Chaume also adopted a hypothesis which had been proposed by Rioult de Neuville, who suggested that the reference to "Saxons" may have been referring to Saosnois (pagus Sagonensis, or pagus Saxonensis), a region in Maine around the city of Séez (Saxia, civitas Saxonum) [Rioult de Neuville (1872-3), 120, n. 2; however, see Barthélemy (1873), 114]. This Guy the Younger was then identified by Depoin and Chaume with a Guy who was active in Maine in the years 825-844 (and could be thought of as "the Younger" because there was a Guy who was marquis in Brittany and died in 834). Chaume's table makes Robert le Fort's mother a sister of Eudes of Orléans, no doubt for the same reasons that others have thought Robert and Eudes to be related (see below). The conjectured patrilineal ancestry given by Chaume for Guiguin goes back to a different branch of the "Robertinian" family (with numerous differences in details) from whom Glöckner would trace Robert's ancestry [Glöckner (1936), see above].

Robert le Fort and Eudes of Orléans

Supposed uncle (avunculus): Eudes, d. 834, count of Orléans. This relationship is based on a supposed charter of Robert for Saint-Martin de Tours dated 20 February 867, which states the following: "In nomine sanctae et individuae Trinitatis, nos quidem Robertus, gratia omnipotentis Dei, incliti gregis confessoris Christi beati Martini abbas et comes, ad petitionem canonicorum ejusdem basilicae, confirmavimus donationem bonorem olim donatorum eidem ecclesiae ab Odone quondam comite Aurelianensi, avunculo nostro, et Willelmo ejus filio ... Data X kalen. Martii, anno XXVII regnante domno Carolo gloriosissimo rege, indict. XV" [Levillain (1937a), 261-2; see also Barthélemy (1873), 121, n. 3]. The most obvious reason for objecting to this charter is that the date is after the probable date of death of Robert, but Levillain gave other reasons for being suspicious [Levillain (1937a), 261-271]. He noted that some of the information given in the charter is otherwise known only from Annales Bertiniani, for example the fact that Robert was lay-abbot of Saint-Martin de Tours [Ann. Bertin., s.a. 866, 81, see above] and the fact that Eudes of Orléans had a son named Guillaume ["Karolus Willelmum, sobrinum suum, Odonis quondam comitis Aurelianensis filium, a quibusdam suorum in Burgundia captum, quasi contra rem publicam agentem secus Silvanectum civitatem decollari fecit." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 866, 84]. Indeed, as Levillain pointed out, the words "Odone quondam comite Aurelianensi" in the supposed charter could have been lifted directly from Annales Bertiniani.

Genealogically, the important question is whether or not the information that Eudes was an avunculus of Robert can be accepted. For those who accept the information, the most common conclusion in the modern literature is that Waldrade, the probable mother of Robert, was a sister of Eudes [e.g., Jackman (1997), 116, table 4; Settipani (2004), 196; both have a dotted line indicating conjecture]. Onomastically, this would explain the name of Robert's son Eudes, later king of France. However, even though a close relationship between Robert and Eudes is plausible enough, the points raised by Levillain give good reason to regard the supposed charter as a flimsy basis for such a relationship.

Falsely attributed father: Guillaume, d. 834, count of Blois (and Châteaudun?), brother of Eudes, count of Orléans. This parentage was argued by Barthélemy, Rioult de Neuville, and Merlet [Barthélemy (1873), 119-122; Rioult de Neuville (1872-3), 229ff; Merlet (1895), 105-9; Merlet (1897a), 26-7]. Barthélemy's argument is based largely on a claim that the oldest personal property of Robert le Fort was located in the county of Blois. This claim is based on the act of March 865 in which Robert exchanged lands in the county of Blois with bishop Actard of Nantes (see above), on an act of 895 in which king Eudes gave land in the region to his viscount Guarnegaud [Favre (1893), 243-4 (Pièces justificatives #6); Barthélemy (1873), 120], and on the episode in Richer's history in which Eudes gave a certain Ingon the county of Blois [Richer, Historia, i, 9-11, MGH SS 3: 571-2; Barthélemy (1873), 120]. The last of these pieces of evidence can be rejected as legendary, and there is no clear reason for singling out Blois as the earliest possession of Robert. Barthélemy also mentioned the above supposed uncle-nephew relationship between Eudes of Orléans and Robert le Fort as possible supporting evidence. In arguing for the same affiliation, Merlet emphasizes the connection of Robert le Fort to count Eudes of Troyes and Châteaudun. Arguing that Robert and Eudes were probably brothers [Merlet (1895), 107], Merlet argues that they were sons of Guillaume, with Eudes inheriting Châteaudun and Robert inheriting Blois from

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Robert IV "le Fort", marquis de Neustrie's Timeline

815
815
Worms, Austrasia (Present Germany), Frankish Empire
856
856
Age 41
860
January 1, 860
Age 45
France
864
864
Age 49
France
866
July 2, 866
Age 51
Brissarthe, Anjou, Neustrie (Present France), Frankish Empire
August 15, 866
Age 51
Angers, Anjou (within present Maine-et-Loire), Neustrie, Francie occidentale (Present France)
September 15, 866
Age 51
Tours, Anjou, Neustrie (Present France), Frankish Empire
866
Age 51
France
1931
November 14, 1931
Age 51
November 14, 1931
Age 51