Robert de Bruce, 6th Lord of Annandale (1243 - 1304) MP

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Nicknames: "Robert the Bruce", "Earl of Carrick", "Robert Bruce IV", "6th Lord of /Annandale/", "Robert /Bruce/", "Lord of Annandale", "Robert V /De Bruce/", "of Annandale", "Robert Bruce", "6th Lord of Annandale and Earl of Carrick", "Sir Knight", "Lord", "Robert de Brus", "6th Lord of An..."
Birthplace: Annadale, Dumfries, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, United Kingdom
Death: Died in Cardross, Dunbartonshire, Scotland
Occupation: Earl of Carrick, 6th Lord of Annandale, Constable of Carlisle Castle, Earl of Carrick in 1271, jure uxoris; Governor of Carlisle Castle in 1295. Lord of Annandale before 4 July 1295., 6th Lord of Annandale and Earl of Carrick, 1st Lord Brus, Sir
Managed by: Sally Gene Cole
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About Robert de Bruce, 6th Lord of Annandale

Sir Robert de Brus (b July 1243 - d March 1304, 6th Lord of Annandale (dominus vallis Anandie), jure uxoris Earl of Carrick, Lord of Hartness, Writtle and Hatfield Broad Oak (Wretele et Hatfeud Regis), was a cross-border lord[3], and participant of the Second Barons' War, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence.

Parents:

Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isobel de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford

Spouse: Marjorie, Countess of Carrick

Children:

  • Isabel, married King Eric II of Norway in 1293, d 1358 in Bergen, Norway. Many sources list a daughter named Isabel who married Sir Thomas Randolph of Strathdon, High Chamberlain of Scotland. We have listed her as a separate daughter until her parentage can be determined.
  • Christina or Christian b c 1273, Seton, East Lothian, marries 1) Gartnait or Grateny, Earl of Mar, 1292 in Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire, 2) Sir Christopher Seton, put to death by English in 1306, 3) Sir Andrew Moray, 20 September 1305, d. 1356/7 in Scotland
  • Robert b 11 July 1274, married 1) Isabella of Mar, 2) Elizabeth de Burgh, d June 7, 1329
  • Neil (Niall or Nigel), taken prisoner at Kildrummie, hanged and beheaded at Berwick-upon-Tweed in September 1306.
  • Edward, crowned May 2, 1316, 'King of Ireland'. Killed in battle, October 5, 1318.
  • Mary, married (1) Sir. Neil Campbell; (2) Sir. Alexander Fraser of Touchfraser and Cowie.
  • Margaret m. Sir William Carlyle
  • Thomas, taken prisoner in Galloway, executed 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland[32]
  • Alexander, executed 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland
  • Elizabeth m. Sir William Dishington of Ardross
  • Matilda married Hugh / Aodh, Earl of Ross, in 1308 Orkney Isles, dies after September 1323

----------------------------

The son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isobel de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, his birth date is generally accepted (July 1243) but there is a ongoing debate as to whether Robert and / or his son King Robert The Bruce, were born on the family estate at Writtle Essex.

Legend tells that the 27-year-old Robert de Brus, was a handsome young man participating in the Ninth Crusade. when Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companion-in-arms, fell in 1270, at Acre, and Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271. However, since the crusade landed in Acre on May 9th 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted.

What is recorded, is that in:

1264 He had to ransom his own father, after his capture, along with Henry III, Richard of Cornwall, and Edward I at the Battle of Lewes, Sussex.

1271 He married, without Scottish Royal consent, Marjory, countess of Carrick. As a result she temporarily loses her castle and estates, regained on payment of a fine.

1274 Jul-Sep He is present, along with Alexander III, his Queen Margaret, their children and 100 Scottish lords and knights at the Coronation and accompanying celebrations of Edward I, at Westminster.

1278 He swears fealty to Edward I, on behalf of Alexander III at Westminster.

Accompanies Alexander III to Tewkesbury

1281 He is part of the delegation to Guy of Flanders, to arrange the marriage of the Lord Alexander.

1282 He participates and is paid for his services in Edward's Conquest of Wales.

1283 June, he is summoned by writ to Shrewsbury, for the trial of David ap Griffith.

1285 Jun 1 - Earl & Countess, at Turnberry, grant the men of Melrose abbey certain freedoms, according to English law.

1286 He is witness, along with his son Robert, to the grant of the church of Campbeltown to Paisley Abbey.

1290 He is party to the Treaty of Birgham.

He supports his father's claim to the vacant throne of Scotland, left so on the death of Margaret I of Scotland in 1290. The initial civil proceedings, known as The Great Cause, awarded the Crown to his 2nd cousin and rival, John Balliol.

1291 He swears fealty to Edward I as overlord of Scotland.

1292 His wife Marjorie dies.

November, his father, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale - the unsuccessful claimant - resigns his Lordship of Annandale, and claim to the throne to him, allegedly to avoid having to swear fealty to John. In turn he passes his own Earldom of Carrick, in fee, on to his son Robert.

1293 January 1st - His warrener at Gt. Badow, a Richard, is caught poaching venison at Northle.

1293 He sets sail for Norway, for the marriage of his daughter Isabel to King Eric II of Norway.

1294/5 He returns to England.

1295 His father dies.

Oct 6, swears fealty to Edward and is made Constable of Carlisle Castle.

Refuses a summons to the Scottish host.

Annandale is seized, by King John Balliol, and given to John 'The Red' Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.

Confirms, to Guisborough Priory, the churches of Annandale and Hart. Witnessed by Walter de Fauconberg and Marmaduke de Thweng.

Exchanges common pasture, for land held by William of Carlisle at Kinmount.

Exchanges land in Estfield, for a field adjacent to the prior of Hatfield Regis's manor at Brunesho End Broomshawbury.

Grants Robert Taper, and his wife Millicent, a messuage in Hatfield Regis, and via a separate grant 5.5 acres of arable and 1 acre of meadow, in Hatfield Regis, for 16s annual rent.

Grants John de Bledelowe, the former lands / tenement of Richard de Cumbes, in Hatfield Regis, for 1d annual rent.

Alters the terms of a grant to Richard de Fanwreyte, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle.

Alters the terms of a grant to Stephen the Tanner, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle.

Alters the terms of a grant to Willam Mayhew, of the tenement Barrieland, Hatfield Regis, to an annual rent of 5s and some services.

1296 Jan, He is summoned to attend to the King Edward at Salisbury

April 28th, he again swears fealty to Edward I and fights for Edward, at the Battle of Dunbar Castle.

August, with his son Robert he renews the pledge of homage and fealty to Edward, at the 'victory parliament’ in Berwick.

Edward I denies his claim to the throne and he retires to his estates in Essex.

August 29 - At Berwick, agrees the dower lands of his widowed step mother, Christina.

Annandale is re-gained.

Marries an Eleanor.

1298

Jan 7 - Transfers a grant of land at Hatfield Regis, from Walter Arnby to his son William..

May 29 - Grants a John Herolff a half virgate of land in Writtle[20].

1299

Feburary 1 - Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a John de Bledelowe, for 4s anual rent .

August 4 - While resident at Writtle, he Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a Nicholas de Barenton, for 21s anual rent .

1301 November 26 - Grants, Bunnys in Hatfield Broad Oak and Takeley, to a Edward Thurkyld.

After 1301, Enfeoffments Writtle to a John de Lovetot and his wife Joan.

1304 Easter, dies on route to Annandale and is buried at Holm Cultram Abbey, Cumberland.

Following his death his Eleanor remarries, before February 8, 1306 (as his 1st wife) Richard Waleys, Lord Waleys, and they had issue. She died shortly before September 8, 1331.

Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297), Annandale was wasted as retaliation to younger Bruce's actions. Yet, when Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, which one source accords to Robert turning the Scottish flank, Annandale and Carrick were excepted from the lordships and lands which he assigned to his followers, father having not opposed Edward and the son being treated as a waverer whose allegiance might still be retained.

Robert at that time was old and ill, and there are reports that he wished his son to seek peace with Edward. If not his son's actions could jeopardise his own income, which was primarily derived from his holding's south of the border (est. £340 vs £150[28]). The elder Bruce would have seen that, if the rebellion failed and his son were against Edward, the son would lose everything, titles, lands, and probably his life.

It was around this time (1302) that Robert's son submits to Edward I. The younger Robert had sided with the Scottish nationalists since the capture and exile of Balliol. There are many reasons which may have prompted his return to Edward, not the least of which was that the Bruce family may have found it loathsome to continue sacrificing his followers, family and inheritance for King John. There were rumours that John would return with a French army and regain the Scottish throne. Soulis supported his return as did many other nobles, but this would lead to the Bruces losing any chance of ever gaining the throne themselves.

His first wife was by all accounts a formidable woman. Marjorie was the daughter and heiress of Niall, 2nd Earl of Carrick. Carrick was a Gaelic Earldom in Southern Scotland. Its territories contained much of today's Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire. The couple held the principal seats of Turnberry Castle and Lochmaben.

Bruce in fiction

He was portrayed (as a leper) by Ian Bannen in the 1995 film Braveheart. Braveheart wrongly portrays Robert de Brus as being involved in the capture of William Wallace in Edinburgh; as noted above this Robert de Brus died in 1304 and William Wallace was captured on August 3, 1305 by Sir John de Menteith in Glasgow.

Notes

^ Richardson, Douglas, Magna Carta Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2005: 732, ISBN 0-8063-1759-0

^ Dunbar, Sir Alexander H., Bt., Scottish Kings, a Revised Chronology of Scottish History 1005 - 1625, Edinburgh, 1899: 126

^ The “Scottish Baronial Research Group”, formed in 1969, first defined the term “Cross-Border Lord”, to categorise the Anglo-Norman families with holdings on both sides of the border, the list includes the Balliol, Bruce, Ross and Vescy.

^ Douglas Richardson, Kimball G. Everingham (2005): Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families p732 link

^ A. A. M. Duncan, ‘Brus , Robert (VI) de, earl of Carrick and lord of Annandale (1243–1304)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Oct 2008 accessed 29 Nov 2008

^ Dunbar (1899) p.127, gives Robert The Bruce's birthplace as Writtle, near Chelmsford, Essex.

^ Dictionary of National Biography

^ Scottish Kings 1005 - 1625, by Sir Archibald H Dunbar, Bt., Edinburgh, 1899, p.127, where Robert the Bruce's birthplace is given "at Writtle, near Chelmsford in Essex, on the 11th July 1274". Baker, cited above, is also mentioned with other authorities.

^ Geoffrey le Baker's: Chronicon Galfridi le Baker de Swynebroke, ed. Edward Maunde Thompson (Oxford, 1889)

^ Dunbar, Sir Alexander (1899): 67

^ Richardson, Douglas (2005): 732

^ Dictionary of National Biography

^ The contemporary records seem to suggest Robert's father accompanied the Princes Edward and Edmund on the 1270-4 crusade, in lieu of his sons.

^ John Of Fordun’s Chronicle Of The Scottish Nation, 1363, translated 1872 Skene, page 299 “Therefore the common belief of the whole country was that she had seized-by force , as it were-this youth for her husband. But when this came to the King Alexander’s ears, he took the castle of Turnberry, and made all her other lands and possessions be acknowledged as in his hands; because she had wedded with Robert of Bruce without having consulted his royal majesty. By means of the prayers of friends, however, and by a certain sum of money agreed upon, this Robert gained the King’s goodwill, and the whole domain.”

^ Prestwich, Michael, (1988,1997) Edward I: 196

^ Dictionary of National Biography

^ Richardson, Douglas (2005): 732

^ Dictionary of National Biography

^ Essex Records Office - Deed - D/DBa T4/22

^ Essex Records Office - Deed - D/DP T1/1770

^ Essex Records Office - Deed - D/DBa T4/24

^ Essex Records Office - Deed - D/DBa T2/9

^ Essex Records Office - Roll - D/DBa T3/1

^ National Archives, SC 8/95/4727

^ Richardson, Douglas (2005): 732

^ Richardson, Douglas (2005): 732-3

^ John of Fordun's Chronicle of the Scottish nation

^ The Brus Family in England and Scotland, 1100-1295: 1100-1295, By Ruth Margaret Blakely

^ Dunbar, Sir Alexander (1899): 67

^ Dunbar, Sir Alexander (1899): 67

^ Dunbar, Sir Alexander (1899): 67

^ Dunbar, Sir Alexander (1899): 67

[edit] References

Burke, Messrs., John & John Bernard, The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, with Their Descendants, London, 1848: vol.1, pedigree XXXIV.

Flower, William, Norroy King of Arms; Northcliffe of Langton, Charles B., M.A., editor, The Visitation of Yorkshire, 1563/4, London, 1881, p.40.

Scott, Ronald McNair, Robert the Bruce - King of Scots.

Oxford University Press, editors, Dictionary of National Biography.

--------------------

6th Lord of Annandale

--------------------

Sir Robert de Brus (b July 1243 - d March 1304 [1]), 6th Lord of Annandale (dominus vallis Anandie), jure uxoris Earl of Carrick[2], Lord of Hartness, Writtle and Hatfield Broad Oak (Wretele et Hatfeud Regis), was a cross-border lord[3], and participant of the Second Barons' War, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence.

The son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isobel de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, his birth date is generally accepted (July 1243[1]) but there is a ongoing debate as to whether Robert and / or his son King Robert The Bruce, were born on the family estate at Writtle Essex.[4][5][6][7].[dubious – discuss]

Legend tells that the 27-year-old Robert de Brus was a handsome young man participating in the Ninth Crusade. When Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companion-in-arms, fell in 1270, at Acre, Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271[8][1]. However, since the crusade landed in Acre on May 9 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted[4][9].

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_de_Brus,_6th_Lord_of_Annandale )

--------------------

SOURCES:

1) GENEALOGY: Royal Ancestors of Magna Charta Barons; Page; 226; G929.72;

C6943ra; Denver Public Library; Genealogy

2) GENEALOGY: The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain

and the United Kingdom; Page 359; G929.72; G35p; Denver Public Library;

Genealogy

--------------------

Sir Robert de Brus (b July 1243 - d March 1304). 6th Lord of Annandale (dominus vallis Anandie), jure uxoris Earl of Carrick. Lord of Hartness, Writtle and Hatfield Broad Oak (Wretele et Hatfeud Regis), was a cross-border lord, and participant of the Second Barons' War, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence.

The son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isobel de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, his birth date is generally accepted (July 1243) but there is a ongoing debate as to whether Robert and / or his son King Robert The Bruce, were born on the family estate at Writtle Essex.

Legend tells that the 27-year-old Robert de Brus was a handsome young man participating in the Ninth Crusade. When Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companion-in-arms, fell in 1270, at Acre, Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271. However, since the crusade landed in Acre on May 9 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted.

for more info:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_de_Brus,_6th_Lord_of_Annandale

--------------------

Lord of Annandale; second husband of Margaret, Countess of Carrick and Earl in her right; DNB. Summoned to the English Parliament as a baron 1295, having sworn fealty to King Edward I 1296 for his English possessions.

--------------------

Legends tell that Robert de Brus, heir to Lord of Annandale, was a handsome young man when participating in the Eighth Crusade. Adam de Kilconcath, one of his companion-in-arms, fell in 1270 in Holy Land, and Robert obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick (1256-1292). Story continues reporting that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive till he agreed to marry her in 1271.

--------------------

Robert BRUCE. Born JUL 1244, , , , Scotland. Married first,


        Ms. Charlotte Maness, 757 Oak St, Apartment B, Lakewood, CO 80215


        Stewart - Hamilton - Maness  Family  History                   18 March
1992



        1271, Marjorie CARRICK.  Lived with Alianore , died BEF  8 SEP
        1331.  Died BEF  4 APR 1304.  !GENEALOGY: Royal Ancestors of
        Magna Charta Barons; Page; 226; G929.72; C6943ra; Denver Public
        Library; Genealogy !GENEALOGY: The Complete Peerage of England
        Scotland Ireland Great Britain amd the United Kingdom; Page 359;
        G929.72; G35p; Denver Public Library; Genealogy

             Children of Robert BRUCE and Marjorie CARRICK:

           48       i   Robert_I THE_BRUCE, b. 1274, Essex, d. 1329,
                        Scotland

             Robert BRUCE and Alianore  had no children.

--------------------

Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale and Earl of Carrick (July 1243 - March 1304 ), was a feudal lord in both Scotland and England prior to and during the Second Barons' War, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence. He was the son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isobel de Calre, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford.

Legend tells that the 27 year old Robert de Brus, was a handsome young man participating in the Ninth Crusade. when Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companion-in-arms, fell in 1270 at Acre, and Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271. However, since the crusade landed in Acre on May 9th 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted.

What he did in the years:

1264 - He had to ransom his own father, after his capture, along with Henry III, Richard of Cornwall, and Edward I at the Battle of Lewes, Sussex.

1271- He married, without Scottish Royal consent, Marjory, countess of Carrick. As a result she temporarily loses her castle and estates, regained on payment of a fine.

1278 - He swears fealty to Edward I, on behalf of Alexander III at Westminster.

Accompanies Alexander III to Tewkesbury

1281- He is part of the delegation to Guy of Flanders, to arrange the marriage of the Lord Alexander.

1282 - He participates and is paid for his services in Edward's Conquest of Wales.

1283 - June, he is summoned by writ to Shrewsbury, for the trial of David ap Griffith.


1286 - He is witness, along with his son Robert, to the grant of the church of Campbeltown to Paisley Abbey.

1290 - He is party to the Treaty of Birgham.

He supports his fathers in his claim to the vacant throne of Scotland, left so on the death of Margaret I of Scotland in 1290. The initial civil proceedings, known as The Great Cause, awarded the Crown to his 2nd cousin and rival, John Balliol.

1291 - He swears fealty to Edward I as overlord of Scotland.

1292 - His wife Marjorie dies.

November, his father, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale - the unsuccessful claimant - resigns his Lordship of Annandale, and claim to the throne to him, allegedly to avoid having to swear fealty to John. In turn he passes his own Earldom of Carrick, in fee, on to his son Robert.

1293 - He sets sail for Norway, for the marriage of his daughter Isabel to King Eric II of Norway.

1295 - His father dies.

Oct 6, swears fealty to Edward and is made Constable of Carlisle Castle[14].

Refuses a summons to the Scottish host.

Annandale is seized, by King John Balliol, and given to John 'The Red' Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.

1296 - He is summoned to attend to the King Edward at Salisbury

April 28th, he again swears fealty to Edward I and fights for Edward, at the Battle of Dunbar Castle.

August, with his son Robert he renews the pledge of homage and fealty to Edward, at the 'victory parliament’ in Berwick.

Edward I denies his claim to the throne and he retires to his estates in Essex.

Annandale is re-gained.

Marries an Eleanor.

1304 - Easter, dies on route to Annandale and is buried at Holm Cultram Abbey, Cumberland

--------------------

Sir Robert de Brus (b July 1243 - d March 1304 [1]), 6th Lord of Annandale (dominus vallis Anandie), jure uxoris Earl of Carrick[2], Lord of Hartness, Writtle and Hatfield Broad Oak (Wretele et Hatfeud Regis), was a cross-border lord[3], and participant of the Second Barons' War, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence.

The son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isobel de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, his birth date is generally accepted (July 1243[1]) but there is a ongoing debate as to whether Robert and / or his son King Robert The Bruce, were born on the family estate at Writtle Essex.[4][5][6][7].[dubious – discuss]

Legend tells that the 27-year-old Robert de Brus was a handsome young man participating in the Eighth Crusade. When Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companion-in-arms, fell in 1270, at Acre, Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271[8][1]. However, since the crusade landed in Acre on May 9 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted[4][9].

What is recorded, is that in:

   * 1264 He had to ransom his own father, after his capture, along with Henry III, Richard of Cornwall, and Edward I at the Battle of Lewes, Sussex.
   * 1271 He married, without Scottish Royal consent, Marjory, countess of Carrick. As a result she temporarily loses her castle and estates, regained on payment of a fine[10].
   * 1274 Jul-Sep He is present, along with Alexander III, his Queen Margaret, their children and 100 Scottish lords and knights at the Coronation and accompanying celebrations of Edward I, at Westminster.
   * 1278 He swears fealty to Edward I, on behalf of Alexander III at Westminster.
         o Accompanies Alexander III to Tewkesbury
   * 1281 He is part of the delegation to Guy of Flanders, to arrange the marriage of the Lord Alexander.
   * 1282 He participates and is paid for his services in Edward's Conquest of Wales [11].
   * 1283 June, he is summoned by writ to Shrewsbury, for the trial of David ap Griffith.
   * 1285 Jun 1 - Earl & Countess, at Turnberry, grant the men of Melrose abbey certain freedoms, according to English law[12].
   * 1286 He is witness, along with his son Robert, to the grant of the church of Campbeltown to Paisley Abbey.
   * 1290 He is party to the Treaty of Birgham.
         o He supports his father's claim to the vacant throne of Scotland, left so on the death of Margaret I of Scotland in 1290. The initial civil proceedings, known as The Great Cause, awarded the Crown to his 2nd cousin and rival, John Balliol.
   * 1291 He swears fealty to Edward I as overlord of Scotland.
   * 1292 His wife Marjorie dies.
         o November, his father, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale - the unsuccessful claimant - resigns his Lordship of Annandale, and claim to the throne to him, allegedly to avoid having to swear fealty to John[4]. In turn he passes his own Earldom of Carrick, in fee, on to his son Robert.
   * 1293 January 1st - His warrener at Gt. Baddow, a Richard, is caught poaching venison at Northle[12].
   * 1293 He sets sail for Norway, for the marriage of his daughter Isabel to King Eric II of Norway, the father of the late Queen Margaret I of Scotland, son-in-law of King Alexander III, and a candidate of the Great Cause.
   * 1294/5 He returns to England.
   * 1295 His father dies.
         o Oct 6, swears fealty to Edward and is made Constable of Carlisle Castle[1].
         o Refuses a summons to the Scottish host.
               + Annandale is seized, by King John Balliol, and given to John 'The Red' Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.
         o Confirms, to Guisborough Priory, the churches of Annandale and Hart. Witnessed by Walter de Fauconberg and Marmaduke de Thweng[12].
         o Exchanges common pasture, for land held by William of Carlisle at Kinmount[12].
         o Exchanges land in Estfield, for a field adjacent to the prior of Hatfield Regis's manor at Brunesho End Broomshawbury[12].
         o Grants Robert Taper, and his wife Millicent, a messuage in Hatfield Regis, and via a separate grant 5.5 acres (22,000 m2) of arable and 1-acre (4,000 m2) of meadow, in Hatfield Regis, for 16s annual rent[12].
         o Grants John de Bledelowe, the former lands / tenement of Richard de Cumbes, in Hatfield Regis, for 1d annual rent[12].
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Richard de Fanwreyte, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle[12].
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Stephen the Tanner, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle[12].
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Willam Mayhew, of the tenement Barrieland, Hatfield Regis, to an annual rent of 5s and some services[12].
   * 1296 Jan, He is summoned to attend to the King Edward at Salisbury
         o April 28, he again swears fealty to Edward I and fights for Edward, at the Battle of Dunbar Castle.
         o August, with his son Robert he renews the pledge of homage and fealty to Edward, at the 'victory parliament’ in Berwick.
         o Edward I denies his claim to the throne and he retires to his estates in Essex[4].
         o August 29 - At Berwick, agrees the dower lands of his widowed step mother, Christina.[12]
         o Annandale is re-gained.
         o Marries an Eleanor.
   * 1298
         o Jan 7 - Transfers a grant of land at Hatfield Regis, from Walter Arnby to his son William.[12][13].
         o May 29 - Grants a John Herolff a half virgate of land in Writtle[12][14].
   * 1299
         o February 1 - Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a John de Bledelowe, for 4s annual rent [12][15].
         o August 4 - While resident at Writtle, he Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a Nicholas de Barenton, for 21s annual rent [12][16].
   * 1301 November 26 - Grants, Bunnys in Hatfield Broad Oak and Takeley, to a Edward Thurkyld[12][17].
   * After 1301, Enfeoffments Writtle to a John de Lovetot and his wife Joan[18].
   * 1304 Easter, dies on route to Annandale and is buried at Holm Cultram Abbey, Cumberland[1].
         o Following his death his Eleanor remarries, before February 8, 1306 (as his 1st wife) Richard Waleys, Lord Waleys, and they had issue. She died shortly before September 8, 1331.[1]

Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297), Annandale was wasted as retaliation to younger Bruce's actions. Yet, when Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, which one source accords to Robert turning the Scottish flank[19], Annandale and Carrick were excepted from the lordships and lands which he assigned to his followers, father having not opposed Edward and the son being treated as a waverer whose allegiance might still be retained.

Robert at that time was old and ill, and there are reports that he wished his son to seek peace with Edward. If not his son's actions could jeopardise his own income, which was primarily derived from his holding's south of the border (est. £340 vs £150[12]). The elder Bruce would have seen that, if the rebellion failed and his son were against Edward, the son would lose everything, titles, lands, and probably his life.

It was around this time (1302) that Robert's son submits to Edward I. The younger Robert had sided with the Scottish nationalists since the capture and exile of Balliol. There are many reasons which may have prompted his return to Edward, not the least of which was that the Bruce family may have found it loathsome to continue sacrificing his followers, family and inheritance for King John. There were rumours that John would return with a French army and regain the Scottish throne. Soulis supported his return as did many other nobles, but this would lead to the Bruces losing any chance of ever gaining the throne themselves.

[edit] Family

His first wife was by all accounts a formidable woman. Marjorie was the daughter and heiress of Niall, 2nd Earl of Carrick[8]. Carrick was a Gaelic Earldom in Southern Scotland. Its territories contained much of today's Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire. The couple held the principal seats of Turnberry Castle and Lochmaben.

Their children were:

  1. Isabel, married King Eric II of Norway in 1293, d 1358 in Bergen, Norway
  2. Christina b c 1273, Seton, East Lothian, marries 1) Sir Christopher Seton, 2). Gartnait, Earl of Mar, 1292 in Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire, 3) Sir Andrew Moray, 20 September 1305, d. 1356/7 in Scotland {By her second marriage mother of Domhnall II, Earl of Mar}
  3. Robert b 11 July 1274, married 1) Isabella of Mar, 2) Elizabeth de Burgh, d June 7, 1329
  4. Neil (Niall or Nigel), taken prisoner at Kildrummie, hanged and beheaded at Berwick-upon-Tweed in September 1306.[8]
  5. Edward, crowned May 2, 1316, 'King of Ireland'. Killed in battle, October 5, 1318.[8]Probable marriage to Isabel, daughter of John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl-parents of Alexander Bruce, Earl of Carrick; Edward obtained a dispensation for a marriage to Isabella of Ross, daughter of Uilleam II, Earl of Ross, on June 1, 1317.
  6. Mary, marries (1) Sir. Neil Campbell; (2) Sir. Alexander Fraser of Touchfraser and Cowie.
  7. Margaret married Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland
  8. Sir Thomas, taken prisoner in Galloway, executed 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland[8]
  9. Alexander, executed 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland
 10. Elizabeth
 11. Matilda,, married Hugh / Aodh, Earl of Ross, in 1308 Orkney Isles, dies after September 1323

--------------------

Sir Robert le Brus, 1st Lord Brus1

M, #107755, b. July 1243, d. before 4 April 1304

Sir Robert le Brus, 1st Lord Brus|b. Jul 1243\nd. b 4 Apr 1304|p10776.htm#i107755|Sir Robert de Brus, Lord of Annandale|b. 1210\nd. 31 Mar 1295|p10248.htm#i102474|Isabella de Clare|b. 2 Nov 1226\nd. a 10 Jul 1264|p10248.htm#i102475|Robert de Brewes, Lord of Annandale|d. 1245|p10248.htm#i102477|Lady Isabella of Huntingdon|b. c 1206\nd. c 1251|p10248.htm#i102478|Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Gloucester|b. c 1180\nd. 25 Oct 1230|p10248.htm#i102476|Lady Isabella Marshal|b. 9 Oct 1200\nd. 17 Jan 1240|p10125.htm#i101241|

Last Edited=8 Oct 2006

Consanguinity Index=0.51%

    Sir Robert le Brus, 1st Lord Brus was born in July 1243.4 He was the son of Sir Robert de Brus, Lord of Annandale and Isabella de Clare.2,3 He married, firstly, Margaret, Countess of Carrick, daughter of Neil, 2nd Earl of Carrick and Margaret Stewart, in 1271 at Turnberry Castle, Turnberry, Ayrshire, Scotland, without Royal consent, and so she had to pay a heavy fine.5 He married, secondly, Alianore (?) after 1292.4 He died before 4 April 1304.4 He was buried at Abbey of Holm Cultram.4
    Sir Robert le Brus, 1st Lord Brus was also known as Robert Bruce. On 19 April 1267 he swore fealty to the King and Prince Edward.6 As a result of his marriage, Sir Robert le Brus, 1st Lord Brus was styled as Earl of Carrick in 1271, jure uxoris.4 He resigned as Earl of Carrick, in favour of his son on 27 October 1292.4 He held the office of Governor of Carlisle Castle in 1295.7 He succeeded to the title of Lord of Annandale before 4 July 1295.4 He fought in the Battle of Dunbar on 28 April 1296, with King Edward I.7 He was created 1st Lord Brus [England by writ] on 15 March 1297.1 He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.8
    

Children of Sir Robert le Brus, 1st Lord Brus and Margaret, Countess of Carrick

Edward de Bruce, 1st Earl and last of Carrick+ d. 14 Oct 1318

Sir Thomas Bruce d. 9 Feb 1307

Alexander Bruce d. 9 Feb 1307

Neil Bruce d. c Sep 1306

Lady Mary Bruce+ d. b 22 Sep 13239

Lady Christina Bruce+ d. 1356/579

Margaret Bruce+ 9

Matilda Bruce+ d. bt 1323 - 13299

Robert I Bruce, King of Scotland+ b. 11 Jul 1274, d. 7 Jun 1329

Isabella Bruce+ b. c 1275, d. 13587

Citations

[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume II, page 360. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 193. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.

[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 359.

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 206.

[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 55.

[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 358.

[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 56.

[S77] Leslie Stephen, editor, Dictionary of National Biography (London, U.K.: Smith, Elder & Company, 1908), volume III, page 116-7. Hereinafter cited as Dictionary of National Biography.

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 208.

--------------------

Sir Robert de Brus (b July 1243 - d March 1304 [1]), 6th Lord of Annandale (dominus vallis Anandie), jure uxoris Earl of Carrick, Lord of Hartness, Writtle and Hatfield Broad Oak (Wretele et Hatfeud Regis), was a cross-border lord and participant of the Second Barons' War, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence.

The son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isobel de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, his birth date is generally accepted (July 1243[1]) but there is a ongoing debate as to whether Robert and / or his son King Robert The Bruce, were born on the family estate at Writtle Essex.

Legend tells that the 27-year-old Robert de Brus was a handsome young man participating in the Ninth Crusade. When Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companion-in-arms, fell in 1270, at Acre, Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271. However, since the crusade landed in Acre on May 9 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted.

What is recorded, is that in:

1264 He had to ransom his own father, after his capture, along with Henry III, Richard of Cornwall, and Edward I at the Battle of Lewes, Sussex.

1271 He married, without Scottish Royal consent, Marjory, countess of Carrick. As a result she temporarily loses her castle and estates, regained on payment of a fine.

1274 Jul-Sep He is present, along with Alexander III, his Queen Margaret, their children and 100 Scottish lords and knights at the Coronation and accompanying celebrations of Edward I, at Westminster.

1278 He swears fealty to Edward I, on behalf of Alexander III at Westminster.

Accompanies Alexander III to Tewkesbury

1281 He is part of the delegation to Guy of Flanders, to arrange the marriage of the Lord Alexander.

1282 He participates and is paid for his services in Edward's Conquest of Wales.

1283 June, he is summoned by writ to Shrewsbury, for the trial of David of Griffith.

1285 Jun 1 - Earl & Countess, at Turnberry, grant the men of Melrose abbey certain freedoms, according to English law.

1286 He is witness, along with his son Robert, to the grant of the church of Campbeltown to Paisley Abbey.

1290 He is party to the Treaty of Birgham.

He supports his father's claim to the vacant throne of Scotland, left so on the death of Margaret I of Scotland in 1290. The initial civil proceedings, known as The Great Cause, awarded the Crown to his 2nd cousin and rival, John Balliol.

1291 He swears fealty to Edward I as overlord of Scotland.

1292 His wife Marjorie dies.

November, his father, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale - the unsuccessful claimant - resigns his Lordship of Annandale, and claim to the throne to him, allegedly to avoid having to swear fealty to John. In turn he passes his own Earldom of Carrick, in fee, on to his son Robert.

1293 January 1st - His warrener at Gt. Badow, a Richard, is caught poaching venison at Northle[12].

1293 He sets sail for Norway, for the marriage of his daughter Isabel to King Eric II of Norway, the father of the late Queen Margaret I of Scotland, son-in-law of King Alexander III, and a candidate of the Great Cause.

1294/5 He returns to England.

1295 His father dies.

Oct 6, swears fealty to Edward and is made Constable of Carlisle Castle.

Refuses a summons to the Scottish host.

Annandale is seized, by King John Balliol, and given to John 'The Red' Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.

Confirms, to Guisborough Priory, the churches of Annandale and Hart. Witnessed by Walter de Fauconberg and Marmaduke de Thweng.

Exchanges common pasture, for land held by William of Carlisle at Kinmount.

Exchanges land in Estfield, for a field adjacent to the prior of Hatfield Regis's manor at Brunesho End Broomshawbury.

Grants Robert Taper, and his wife Millicent, a messuage in Hatfield Regis, and via a separate grant 5.5 acres (22,000 m2) of arable and 1-acre (4,000 m2) of meadow, in Hatfield Regis, for 16s annual rent.

Grants John de Bledelowe, the former lands / tenement of Richard de Cumbes, in Hatfield Regis, for 1d annual rent.

Alters the terms of a grant to Richard de Fanwreyte, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle..

Alters the terms of a grant to Stephen the Tanner, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle.

Alters the terms of a grant to Willam Mayhew, of the tenement Barrieland, Hatfield Regis, to an annual rent of 5s and some services.

1296 Jan, He is summoned to attend to the King Edward at Salisbury

April 28, he again swears fealty to Edward I and fights for Edward, at the Battle of Dunbar Castle.

August, with his son Robert he renews the pledge of homage and fealty to Edward, at the 'victory parliament’ in Berwick.

Edward I denies his claim to the throne and he retires to his estates in Essex.

August 29 - At Berwick, agrees the dower lands of his widowed step mother, Christina.

Annandale is re-gained.

Marries an Eleanor.

1298 Jan 7 - Transfers a grant of land at Hatfield Regis, from Walter Arnby to his son William.

May 29 - Grants a John Herolff a half virgate of land in Writtle

1299

February 1 - Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a John de Bledelowe, for 4s annual rent.

August 4 - While resident at Writtle, he Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a Nicholas de Barenton, for 21s annual rent.

1301 November 26 - Grants, Bunnys in Hatfield Broad Oak and Takeley, to a Edward Thurkyld.

After 1301, Enfeoffments Writtle to a John de Lovetot and his wife Joan.

1304 Easter, dies on route to Annandale and is buried at Holm Cultram Abbey, Cumberland.

Following his death his Eleanor remarries, before February 8, 1306 (as his 1st wife) Richard Waleys, Lord Waleys, and they had issue. She died shortly before September 8, 1331.

Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297), Annandale was wasted as retaliation to younger Bruce's actions. Yet, when Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, which one source accords to Robert turning the Scottish flank. Annandale and Carrick were excepted from the lordships and lands which he assigned to his followers, father having not opposed Edward and the son being treated as a waverer whose allegiance might still be retained.

Robert at that time was old and ill, and there are reports that he wished his son to seek peace with Edward. If not his son's actions could jeopardise his own income, which was primarily derived from his holding's south of the border (est. £340 vs £150. The elder Bruce would have seen that, if the rebellion failed and his son were against Edward, the son would lose everything, titles, lands, and probably his life.

It was around this time (1302) that Robert's son submits to Edward I. The younger Robert had sided with the Scottish nationalists since the capture and exile of Balliol. There are many reasons which may have prompted his return to Edward, not the least of which was that the Bruce family may have found it loathsome to continue sacrificing his followers, family and inheritance for King John. There were rumours that John would return with a French army and regain the Scottish throne. Soulis supported his return as did many other nobles, but this would lead to the Bruces losing any chance of ever gaining the throne themselves.

[Family

His first wife was by all accounts a formidable woman. Marjorie was the daughter and heiress of Niall, 2nd Earl of Carrick[8]. Carrick was a Gaelic Earldom in Southern Scotland. Its territories contained much of today's Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire. The couple held the principal seats of Turnberry Castle and Lochmaben.

Their children were:

Isabel, married King Eric II of Norway in 1293, d 1358 in Bergen, Norway

Christina b c 1273, Seton, East Lothian, marries 1) Sir Christopher Seton, 2). Gartnait, Earl of Mar, 1292 in Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire, 3) Sir Andrew Moray, 20 September 1305, d. 1356/7 in Scotland {By her second marriage mother of Domhnall II, Earl of Mar}

Robert b 11 July 1274, married 1) Isabella of Mar, 2) Elizabeth de Burgh, d June 7, 1329

Neil (Niall or Nigel), taken prisoner at Kildrummie, hanged and beheaded at Berwick-upon-Tweed in September 1306.[8]

Edward, crowned May 2, 1316, 'King of Ireland'. Killed in battle, October 5, 1318.[8]Probable marriage to Isabel, daughter of John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl-parents of Alexander Bruce, Earl of Carrick; Edward obtained a dispensation for a marriage to Isabella of Ross, daughter of Uilleam II, Earl of Ross, on June 1, 1317.

Mary, marries (1) Sir. Neil Campbell; (2) Sir. Alexander Fraser of Touchfraser and Cowie.

Margaret married Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland

Sir Thomas, taken prisoner in Galloway, executed 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland[8]

Alexander, executed 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland

Elizabeth

Matilda,, married Hugh / Aodh, Earl of Ross, in 1308 Orkney Isles, dies after September 1323

Bruce in fiction

He was portrayed (as a leper) by Ian Bannen in the 1995 film Braveheart. Braveheart wrongly portrays Robert de Brus as being involved in the capture of William Wallace in Edinburgh; as noted above Robert de Brus died in 1304 and William Wallace was captured on August 3, 1305 by Sir John de Menteith in Glasgow. {Menteith was a son-in-law to Gartnait, Earl of Mar and Christina Bruce}

--------------------

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_de_Brus,_jure_uxoris_Earl_of_Carrick

Sir Robert de Brus (b July 1243 - d March 1304 [1]), 6th Lord of Annandale (dominus vallis Anandie), jure uxoris Earl of Carrick[2], Lord of Hartness, Writtle and Hatfield Broad Oak (Wretele et Hatfeud Regis), was a cross-border lord[3], and participant of the Second Barons' War, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence.

The son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isobel de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, his birth date is generally accepted (July 1243[1]) but there is a ongoing debate as to whether Robert and / or his son King Robert The Bruce, were born on the family estate at Writtle Essex.[4][5][6][7].[dubious – discuss]

Legend tells that the 27-year-old Robert de Brus was a handsome young man participating in the Ninth Crusade. When Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companion-in-arms, fell in 1270, at Acre, Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271[8][1]. However, since the crusade landed in Acre on May 9 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted[4][9].

What is recorded, is that in:

   * 1264 He had to ransom his own father, after his capture, along with Henry III, Richard of Cornwall, and Edward I at the Battle of Lewes, Sussex.
   * 1271 He married, without Scottish Royal consent, Marjory, countess of Carrick. As a result she temporarily loses her castle and estates, regained on payment of a fine[10].
   * 1274 Jul-Sep He is present, along with Alexander III, his Queen Margaret, their children and 100 Scottish lords and knights at the Coronation and accompanying celebrations of Edward I, at Westminster.
   * 1278 He swears fealty to Edward I, on behalf of Alexander III at Westminster.
         o Accompanies Alexander III to Tewkesbury
   * 1281 He is part of the delegation to Guy of Flanders, to arrange the marriage of the Lord Alexander.
   * 1282 He participates and is paid for his services in Edward's Conquest of Wales [11].
   * 1283 June, he is summoned by writ to Shrewsbury, for the trial of David ap Griffith.
   * 1285 Jun 1 - Earl & Countess, at Turnberry, grant the men of Melrose abbey certain freedoms, according to English law[12].
   * 1286 He is witness, along with his son Robert, to the grant of the church of Campbeltown to Paisley Abbey.
   * 1290 He is party to the Treaty of Birgham.
         o He supports his father's claim to the vacant throne of Scotland, left so on the death of Margaret I of Scotland in 1290. The initial civil proceedings, known as The Great Cause, awarded the Crown to his 2nd cousin and rival, John Balliol.
   * 1291 He swears fealty to Edward I as overlord of Scotland.
   * 1292 His wife Marjorie dies.
         o November, his father, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale - the unsuccessful claimant - resigns his Lordship of Annandale, and claim to the throne to him, allegedly to avoid having to swear fealty to John[4]. In turn he passes his own Earldom of Carrick, in fee, on to his son Robert.
   * 1293 January 1st - His warrener at Gt. Badow, a Richard, is caught poaching venison at Northle[12].
   * 1293 He sets sail for Norway, for the marriage of his daughter Isabel to King Eric II of Norway.
   * 1294/5 He returns to England.
   * 1295 His father dies.
         o Oct 6, swears fealty to Edward and is made Constable of Carlisle Castle[1].
         o Refuses a summons to the Scottish host.
               + Annandale is seized, by King John Balliol, and given to John 'The Red' Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.
         o Confirms, to Guisborough Priory, the churches of Annandale and Hart. Witnessed by Walter de Fauconberg and Marmaduke de Thweng[12].
         o Exchanges common pasture, for land held by William of Carlisle at Kinmount[12].
         o Exchanges land in Estfield, for a field adjacent to the prior of Hatfield Regis's manor at Brunesho End Broomshawbury[12].
         o Grants Robert Taper, and his wife Millicent, a messuage in Hatfield Regis, and via a separate grant 5.5 acres (22,000 m2) of arable and 1-acre (4,000 m2) of meadow, in Hatfield Regis, for 16s annual rent[12].
         o Grants John de Bledelowe, the former lands / tenement of Richard de Cumbes, in Hatfield Regis, for 1d annual rent[12].
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Richard de Fanwreyte, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle[12].
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Stephen the Tanner, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle[12].
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Willam Mayhew, of the tenement Barrieland, Hatfield Regis, to an annual rent of 5s and some services[12].
   * 1296 Jan, He is summoned to attend to the King Edward at Salisbury
         o April 28, he again swears fealty to Edward I and fights for Edward, at the Battle of Dunbar Castle.
         o August, with his son Robert he renews the pledge of homage and fealty to Edward, at the 'victory parliament’ in Berwick.
         o Edward I denies his claim to the throne and he retires to his estates in Essex[4].
         o August 29 - At Berwick, agrees the dower lands of his widowed step mother, Christina.[12]
         o Annandale is re-gained.
         o Marries an Eleanor.
   * 1298
         o Jan 7 - Transfers a grant of land at Hatfield Regis, from Walter Arnby to his son William.[12][13].
         o May 29 - Grants a John Herolff a half virgate of land in Writtle[12][14].
   * 1299
         o February 1 - Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a John de Bledelowe, for 4s annual rent [12][15].
         o August 4 - While resident at Writtle, he Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a Nicholas de Barenton, for 21s annual rent [12][16].
   * 1301 November 26 - Grants, Bunnys in Hatfield Broad Oak and Takeley, to a Edward Thurkyld[12][17].
   * After 1301, Enfeoffments Writtle to a John de Lovetot and his wife Joan[18].
   * 1304 Easter, dies on route to Annandale and is buried at Holm Cultram Abbey, Cumberland[1].
         o Following his death his Eleanor remarries, before February 8, 1306 (as his 1st wife) Richard Waleys, Lord Waleys, and they had issue. She died shortly before September 8, 1331.[1]

Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297), Annandale was wasted as retaliation to younger Bruce's actions. Yet, when Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, which one source accords to Robert turning the Scottish flank[19], Annandale and Carrick were excepted from the lordships and lands which he assigned to his followers, father having not opposed Edward and the son being treated as a waverer whose allegiance might still be retained.

Robert at that time was old and ill, and there are reports that he wished his son to seek peace with Edward. If not his son's actions could jeopardise his own income, which was primarily derived from his holding's south of the border (est. £340 vs £150[12]). The elder Bruce would have seen that, if the rebellion failed and his son were against Edward, the son would lose everything, titles, lands, and probably his life.

It was around this time (1302) that Robert's son submits to Edward I. The younger Robert had sided with the Scottish nationalists since the capture and exile of Balliol. There are many reasons which may have prompted his return to Edward, not the least of which was that the Bruce family may have found it loathsome to continue sacrificing his followers, family and inheritance for King John. There were rumours that John would return with a French army and regain the Scottish throne. Soulis supported his return as did many other nobles, but this would lead to the Bruces losing any chance of ever gaining the throne themselves.

--------------------

Chapter 6 - Some Ancestors and Descendants of Robert the Bruce

These medieval ancestors may be related to the Carsons through Marjory Hay, who married James Abercrombie. However, as noted in Chapter 4, it is questionable whether James Abercrombie is a Carson ancestor. The information is presented here for whatever it may be worth.

A Norwegian Connection

Brusse , Earl of Caithness and Sunderland, died in 1031. He married Ostrida of Gothland , and Rognvald was among their children.

Rognvald died in 1046. He was the general in the army of King Olaf in Norway. Through his second wife, Felicia of Normandy , he had a son, Brusi .

Ancestors from Normandy

As far as is known, Brusi was the first to be called “Robert de Brusse ”. About 1020 he married Emma of Brittany in Normandy, and their son was Robert de Brusse II .

Robert de Brusse II came to England from Normandy with William the Conqueror in 1066. He married Agnes St. Claire , and Adam de Brusse was their son. Agnes St. Claire died in 1080, and Robert de Brusse II died in 1094.

Attendant to the Queen

Adam de Brusse went to England in 1050 as attendant to Queen Emma , daughter of Richard I (See Chapter 9) of Normandy . Adam de Brusse married Emma Ramsay , and Robert de Brusse III was their son.

Robert de Brusse III was born in 1078 and died in 1141. He married Agnes Bruce (Agnes Paynell) of Annandale, a distant cousin, and Robert Bruce was their son.

Robert Bruce of Annandale married Euphemia -----, and Robert Bruce II (Robert le Meschin) was their son.

Robert Bruce II was Lord of Annandale. He died in 1194. He married Isabel of Scotland , daughter of William the Lion , King of Scots, and William Bruce was their son.

William Bruce was the third Baron of Annandale. He died in 1215. He married Christina , and Robert Bruce was their son.

Robert Bruce was the fourth Baron of Annandale. He married Isobel of Huntingdone , and another Robert Bruce was their son. Robert Bruce died in 1245, and Isobel of Huntingdone died in 1252.

Sir Robert Bruce was born in 1210. He was Lord of Annandale. In May, 1240, he married Isabella de Clare , who was born November 2, 1226. Another Sir Robert Bruce was their son. Sir Robert Bruce died March 31, 1295.

Sir Robert Bruce , Lord of Annandale, was born in July, 1243, and died before June 14, 1302. In 1271, he married first Marjorie (Marjory) Carrick , Countess of Carrick, and their son was Robert the Bruce .

King of Scotland

Robert the Bruce was Earl of Carrick and Lord of Annandale. He was born July 11 (or July 12), 1274, and died June 7, 1329. Robert the Bruce supported King Edward I of England. He was crowned King Robert I of Scotland on March 27, 1306 at Scone. However, he was deposed by Edward’s army in 1307 (See Chapter 9) and forced to flee to the highlands and then to the Island of Rathlin. Robert the Bruce continued to recruit followers, and by 1309 he had re-conquered most of Scotland. He invaded England twice, and in 1323 he concluded a thirteen-year truce with King Edward II . However, war broke out again in 1327. The Scots won again, and in 1328 they secured a treaty which recognized the independence of Scotland and the right of Robert the Bruce to the throne.

Robert the Bruce married first Isabel Mar , daughter of Earl Donald , and their children included King David II and Marjory Bruce . Robert the Bruce married second Elizabeth of Ulster . In his later years, Robert the Bruce was stricken with leprosy and lived in seclusion at Cardross Castle, where he died.

--------------------

Sir Robert de Brus (b July 1243 - d March 1304 [1]), 6th Lord of Annandale (dominus vallis Anandie), jure uxoris Earl of Carrick[2], Lord of Hartness, Writtle and Hatfield Broad Oak (Wretele et Hatfeud Regis), was a cross-border lord[3], and participant of the Second Barons' War, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence.

The son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isobel de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, his birth date is generally accepted (July 1243[1]) but there is a ongoing debate as to whether Robert and / or his son King Robert The Bruce, were born on the family estate at Writtle Essex.[4][5][6][7]. [dubious – discuss]

Legend tells that the 27-year-old Robert de Brus was a handsome young man participating in the Eighth Crusade. When Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companions-in-arms, fell in 1270, at Acre, Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271[8][1]. However, since the crusade landed in Acre on May 9 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted[4][9].

What is recorded, is that in:

   * 1264 He had to ransom his own father, after his capture, along with Henry III, Richard of Cornwall, and Edward I at the Battle of Lewes, Sussex.
   * 1271 He marries, without Scottish Royal consent, Marjory, countess of Carrick. As a result she temporarily loses her castle and estates, regained on payment of a fine[10].
   * 1274 Jul-Sep He is present, along with Alexander III, his Queen Margaret, their children and 100 Scottish lords and knights at the Coronation and accompanying celebrations of Edward I, at Westminster.
   * 1278 He swears fealty to Edward I, on behalf of Alexander III at Westminster.
         o Accompanies Alexander III to Tewkesbury
   * 1281 He is part of the delegation to Guy of Flanders, to arrange the marriage of the Lord Alexander.
   * 1282 He participates and is paid for his services in Edward's Conquest of Wales [11].
   * 1283 June, he is summoned by writ to Shrewsbury, for the trial of David ap Griffith.
   * 1285 Jun 1 - Earl & Countess, at Turnberry, grant the men of Melrose abbey certain freedoms, according to English law[12].
   * 1286 He is witness, along with his son Robert, to the grant of the church of Campbeltown to Paisley Abbey.
   * 1290 He is party to the Treaty of Birgham.
         o He supports his father's claim to the vacant throne of Scotland, left so on the death of Margaret I of Scotland in 1290. The initial civil proceedings, known as The Great Cause, awarded the Crown to his 2nd cousin and rival, John Balliol.
   * 1291 He swears fealty to Edward I as overlord of Scotland.
   * 1292 His wife Marjorie dies.
         o November, his father, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale - the unsuccessful claimant - resigns his Lordship of Annandale, and claim to the throne to him, allegedly to avoid having to swear fealty to John[4]. In turn he passes his own Earldom of Carrick, in fee, on to his son Robert.
   * 1293 January 1st - His warrener at Gt. Baddow, a Richard, is caught poaching venison at Northle[12].
   * 1293 He sets sail for Norway, for the marriage of his daughter Isabel to King Eric II of Norway, the father of the late Queen Margaret I of Scotland, son-in-law of King Alexander III, and a candidate of the Great Cause.
   * 1294/5 He returns to England.
   * 1295 His father dies.
         o Oct 6, swears fealty to Edward and is made Constable of Carlisle Castle[1].
         o Refuses a summons to the Scottish host.
               + Annandale is seized, by King John Balliol, and given to John 'The Red' Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.
         o Confirms, to Guisborough Priory, the churches of Annandale and Hart. Witnessed by Walter de Fauconberg and Marmaduke de Thweng[12].
         o Exchanges common pasture, for land held by William of Carlisle at Kinmount[12].
         o Exchanges land in Estfield, for a field adjacent to the prior of Hatfield Regis's manor at Brunesho End Broomshawbury[12].
         o Grants Robert Taper, and his wife Millicent, a messuage in Hatfield Regis, and via a separate grant 5.5 acres (22,000 m2) of arable and 1-acre (4,000 m2) of meadow, in Hatfield Regis, for 16s annual rent[12].
         o Grants John de Bledelowe, the former lands / tenement of Richard de Cumbes, in Hatfield Regis, for 1d annual rent[12].
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Richard de Fanwreyte, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle[12].
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Stephen the Tanner, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle[12].
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Willam Mayhew, of the tenement Barrieland, Hatfield Regis, to an annual rent of 5s and some services[12].
   * 1296 Jan, He is summoned to attend to the King Edward at Salisbury
         o April 28, he again swears fealty to Edward I and fights for Edward, at the Battle of Dunbar Castle.
         o August, with his son Robert he renews the pledge of homage and fealty to Edward, at the 'victory parliament’ in Berwick.
         o Edward I denies his claim to the throne and he retires to his estates in Essex[4].
         o August 29 - At Berwick, agrees the dower lands of his widowed step mother, Christina.[12]
         o Annandale is re-gained.
         o Marries an Eleanor.
   * 1298
         o Jan 7 - Transfers a grant of land at Hatfield Regis, from Walter Arnby to his son William.[12][13].
         o May 29 - Grants a John Herolff a half virgate of land in Writtle[12][14].
   * 1299
         o February 1 - Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a John de Bledelowe, for 4s annual rent [12][15].
         o August 4 - While resident at Writtle, he Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a Nicholas de Barenton, for 21s annual rent [12][16].
   * 1301 November 26 - Grants, Bunnys in Hatfield Broad Oak and Takeley, to a Edward Thurkyld[12][17].
   * After 1301, Enfeoffments Writtle to a John de Lovetot and his wife Joan[18].
   * 1304 Easter, dies on route to Annandale and is buried at Holm Cultram Abbey, Cumberland[1].
         o Following his death his Eleanor remarries, before February 8, 1306 (as his 1st wife) Richard Waleys, Lord Waleys, and they had issue. She died shortly before September 8, 1331.[1]

Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297), Annandale was laid waste as retaliation to younger Bruce's actions. Yet, when Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, which one source accords to Robert turning the Scottish flank[19], Annandale and Carrick were excepted from the lordships and lands which he assigned to his followers, the father having not opposed Edward and the son being treated as a waverer whose allegiance might still be retained.

Robert at that time was old and ill, and there are reports that he wished his son to seek peace with Edward. If not his son's actions could jeopardise his own income, which was primarily derived from his holdings south of the border (est. £340 vs £150[12]). The elder Bruce would have seen that, if the rebellion failed and his son was against Edward, the son would lose everything, titles, lands, and probably his life.

It was around this time (1302) that Robert's son submitted to Edward I. The younger Robert had sided with the Scottish nationalists since the capture and exile of Balliol. There are many reasons which may have prompted his return to Edward, not the least of which was that the Bruce family may have found it loathsome to continue sacrificing his followers, family and inheritance for King John. There were rumours that John would return with a French army and regain the Scottish throne. Soulis supported his return as did many other nobles, but this would lead to the Bruces losing any chance of ever gaining the throne themselves.

[edit] Family

His first wife was by all accounts a formidable woman. Marjorie was the daughter and heiress of Niall, 2nd Earl of Carrick[8]. Carrick was a Gaelic Earldom in Southern Scotland. Its territories contained much of today's Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire. The couple held the principal seats of Turnberry Castle and Lochmaben.

Their children were:

  1. Isabel, married King Eric II of Norway in 1293, d 1358 in Bergen, Norway
  2. Christina b c 1273, Seton, East Lothian, married 1) Sir Christopher Seton, 2). Gartnait, Earl of Mar, 1292 in Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire, 3) Sir Andrew Moray, 20 September 1305, d. 1356/7 in Scotland {By her second marriage mother of Domhnall II, Earl of Mar}
  3. Robert b 11 July 1274, married 1) Isabella of Mar, 2) Elizabeth de Burgh, d June 7, 1329
  4. Neil (Niall or Nigel), taken prisoner at Kildrummie, hanged, drawn and quartered at Berwick-upon-Tweed in September 1306.[8]
  5. Edward, crowned May 2, 1316, 'King of Ireland'. Killed in battle, October 5, 1318.[8]Possible marriage to Isabel, daughter of John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl-parents of Alexander Bruce, Earl of Carrick; Edward obtained a dispensation for a marriage to Isabella of Ross, daughter of Uilleam II, Earl of Ross, on June 1, 1317.
  6. Mary, married (1) Sir. Neil Campbell; (2) Sir. Alexander Fraser of Touchfraser and Cowie.
  7. Sir Thomas, taken prisoner in Galloway, hanged, drawn and quartered 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland[8]
  8. Alexander, hanged, drawn and quartered 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland
  9. Elizabeth, b. 1286, d. 1315, married Sir William Dishington of the Orkney Isles.
 10. Matilda,, married Hugh / Aodh, Earl of Ross, in 1308 Orkney Isles, died after September 1323

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Sir Robert le Brus, 1st Lord Brus was born in July 1243.4 He was the son of Sir Robert de Brus, Lord of Annandale and Isabella de Clare.2,3 He married, firstly, Margaret, Countess of Carrick, daughter of Neil, 2nd Earl of Carrick and Margaret Stewart, in 1271 at Turnberry Castle, Turnberry, Ayrshire, Scotland, without Royal consent, and so she had to pay a heavy fine.5 He married, secondly, Alianore (?) after 1292.4 He died before 4 April 1304.4 He was buried at Abbey of Holm Cultram.4

    Sir Robert le Brus, 1st Lord Brus was also known as Robert Bruce. On 19 April 1267 he swore fealty to the King and Prince Edward.6 As a result of his marriage, Sir Robert le Brus, 1st Lord Brus was styled as Earl of Carrick in 1271, jure uxoris. He resigned as Earl of Carrick, in favour of his son on 27 October 1292. He held the office of Governor of Carlisle Castle in 1295. He succeeded to the title of Lord of Annandale before 4 July 1295. He fought in the Battle of Dunbar on 28 April 1296, with King Edward I.He was created 1st Lord Brus [England by writ] on 15 March 1297.He has an extensive biographical entry in the Dictionary of National Biography.

http://thepeerage.com/p10776.htm#i107755

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_de_Brus,_jure_uxoris_Earl_of_Carrick

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_de_Brus%2C_6th_Lord_of_Annandale

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Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale

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Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale (Robert de Brus) (c 1220s - 31 March 1295), 5th Lord of Annandale, was a feudal lord in Scotland and northern England during prelude stages of Wars of Scottish Independence, a regent of Scotland in mid-13th century and finally a leading contender to be the King of Scotland in 1290-92.

He was son of Robert Bruce, 4th Lord of Annandale and Isobel of Huntingdon, daughter of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon who was the granddaughter of King David I of Scotland who was the son of King Malcolm III Canmore.

He descended from royal lineage that would give him and his family a claim to the Crown of Scotland. (In 1306, long after his death, his grandson Robert the Bruce eventually succeeded in becoming the king.)

His father's ancestry was of Anglo-Norman stock, the feudal family having come to southern Scotland sometime during reigns of sons of Saint Margaret of Scotland. They held a remarkable barony in the English borderzone, as well as lands in northern England.

His possessions were extended initially via his marriage to Isabella de Clare and later after the defeat of Simon de Montford at the Battle of Evesham (1265), via a series of grants that included the estates of the former rebel barons Walter de Fauconberg and John de Melsa. Henry III also re-appointed Robert a Justice and Constable of Carlisle and keeper of the Castle in 1267, a position he had been sacked from in 1255, for his support during the rebellion.

It's believed Robert joined the princes Edward and Edmund on their 1270-4 crusade, as his sons failed to attend.

He succeeded in having the young widowed Marjorie of Carrick, heiress of that earldom, married to his son, another Robert Bruce in 1271. She was the daughter of Neil, 2nd Earl of Carrick, and his heiress. Carrick was a Gaelic Earldom in Southern Scotland. Its territories contained much of modern Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire. The couple held at least Turnberry Castle and Lochmaben. Marriage with Marjorie made the younger Robert an Earl, as was the custom of that time.

Robert Bruce was Regent of Scotland sometime during minority of his second cousin King Alexander III of Scotland (1241-1286) and was occasionally recognized as a Tanist of the Scottish Throne. He was the closest surviving male relative to the king: Margaret of Huntingdon's issue were all females up until birth of Hugh Balliol sometime in the 1260s. When Alexander yet was childless, he was officially named as heir-presumptive, but never gained the throne as Alexander later fathered three children. The succession in the main line of the House of Dunkeld became highly precarious when towards the end of Alexander's reign, all three of his children died within a few years. The middle-aged Alexander III induced in 1284 the Estates to recognize as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, called the "Maid of Norway", his only surviving descendant. The need for a male heir led Alexander to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux on November 1, 1285. All this was eventually in vain. Alexander died suddenly, in a fall from his horse, when only 45 years old, in 1286. His death ushered in a time of political upheaval for Scotland. His three-year old granddaughter Margaret, who lived in Norway, was recognized as his heir. However, the then 7-year old heiress Margaret died, travelling towards her kingdom, on the Orkney Islands around September 26, 1290. With her death, the main royal line came to an end and thirteen claimants asserted their rights to the Scottish Throne.

After this extinction of the senior line of the Scottish royal house (the line of William I of Scotland) David of Huntingdon's descendants were the primary candidates for the throne. The two most notable claimants to the throne, John Balliol and Robert himself (grandfather of another Robert Bruce) represented descent through David's daughters Margaret and Isobel respectively.

Robert Bruce pleaded tanistry and proximity of blood in the succession dispute. He descended from the second daughter of David of Huntingdon, whereas John Balliol descended from the eldest, and thus had the right of primogeniture. However, Robert was a second cousin of kings of Scotland and descended in 4th generation from King David I of Scotland, whereas John Balliol was a third cousin of kings and descended in 5th generation from King David I, the most recent common ancestor who had been Scottish king. The ensuing 'Great Cause' was concluded in 1292. It gave the Crown of Scotland to his family' great rival, John Balliol, instead. The events took place as follows:

Soon after the death of young queen Margaret, Robert Bruce raised a body of men with the help of the Earls of Mar and Atholl and marched to Perth with a considerable following and uncertain intentions. Bishop Fraser of St. Andrews, worried of the possibility of civil war, wrote to Edward, asking for his assistance in choosing a new monarch.

Edward took this chance to demand sasine of the Scottish royal estate, but agreed to pass judgement in return for recognition of his suzerainty. The [guardians of Scotland] denied him this, but Robert Bruce was quick to pay homage. All the claimants swore oaths of homage, but John Balliol was the last to do so. The guardians were forced to concede and were thus reinstated by Edward.

Judgement processed slowly. On August 3, 1291 Edward asked both Balliol and Bruce to choose forty auditors while he himself chose twenty-four, to decide the case. After considering all of the arguments, in early November the court decided in favour of John Balliol, having the superior claim in feudal law, not to mention greater support from the kingdom of Scotland. In accordance with this, final judgement was given by Edward on 17 November. On November 30, John Balliol was crowned as King of Scots at Scone Abbey. On December 26, at Newcastle upon Tyne, King John swore homage to Edward I for the kingdom of Scotland. Edward soon made it clear that he regarded the country as his vassal state. The Bruce family thus lost what they regarded as their rightful place on the Scottish throne.

(Edward I decided in favor of the senior legitimate heir by primogeniture, John Balliol; however, in 1306, the crown was assumed by a grandson of the Robert himself, who became King Robert I. In doing this, the rightful heir- John Balliol's own son- was smited by his father's misfortune of having been placed on the throne in an inopportune period.)

Robert himself (Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale) resigned the lordship of Annandale to his son, the Earl of Carrick. And also his claim to the crown. Shortly after this, Robert's important daughter-in-law Countess Marjorie died in 1292, and on the day of her death his son transferred Carrick to his eldest grandson, the future Robert I of Scotland thus making the boy the Earl of Carrick. In this clever maneouvre, Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, had managed to arrange it so that the Bruce claimant (his son) would not have to make oaths of homage and fealty to King John (Balliol), as he was no longer a landowner, leaving them open to contest his kingship in the future.

[edit] Family and children

He married firstly:

Isabella de Clare (1226-1264), daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford and Lady Isabella Marshal of Pembroke, on 12 May 1240, with issue:

Isabel de Brus

Robert VI the Bruce, Earl of Carrick

He married, secondly:

Christina de Ireby (d.1305), daughter of Sir William de Ireby, with no recorded issue.

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Robert de Brus, jure uxoris Earl of Carrick

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Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale and jure uxoris Earl of Carrick[1] (July 1253 - March 1304 [2]), was a feudal lord in both Scotland and England prior to and during the Wars of Scottish Independence. He was the father of King Robert The Bruce.

There is a continuing debate as to whether Robert, or his son Robert The Bruce, were born on the family estate at Writtle Essex.[3][4].

Robert de Brus was the son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, who in 1290 was one of the Competitors for the Crown of Scotland. He was appointed Governor of Carlisle Castle in 1294.[5]

Legend tells that this Robert de Brus, while heir to Lord of Annandale, was a handsome young man when participating in the Eighth Crusade. Adam de Kilconquhar[6], one of his companion-in-arms, fell in 1270 at Acre in the Holy Land [7], and Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick (1256-1292). The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271[8].

The Great Cause

Undoubtedly the biggest event of his life was the 'Great Cause' that was concluded in 1292. It gave the Crown of Scotland to his family's great rival, Balliol, instead of his father. Heiress Margaret, the Maid of Norway had died in the Orkney Islands circa September 26, 1290. With her death, the main line of the House of Dunkeld came to an end and thirteen competitors claimed their rights to the Scottish crown. The two main competitors were Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale (Robert's father) and John Balliol, Lord of Galloway. Fearing civil war between the Bruce and Balliol families and their supporters, the Guardians of Scotland asked the kingdom's southern neighbour, Edward I of England to arbitrate amongst the claimants.

Arbitration processed slowly. After initial solutions which left two contenders, on August 3, 1291 Edward asked both de Balliol and de Brus to choose forty arbiters while he himself chose twenty-four, to decide the case. The arbiters finally gave judgement in early November in favour of John Balliol, in accordance with the precedents of primogeniture: even twenty-nine of Bruce's own auditors voted for Balliol, underlining the strength of his claim. On 17 November Edward gave formal judgement in open court; and on November 30, John Balliol was crowned as King of Scots at Scone Abbey. On December 26, at Newcastle upon Tyne, King John swore homage to Edward I for the kingdom of Scotland. Edward soon made it clear that he regarded the country as his vassal state. The Bruce family thus lost what they regarded as their rightful place on the Scottish throne.

Soon afterwards, his father, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale - the unsuccessful claimant - resigned his lordship to him. And also his claim to crown, in order to prevent it from extinguishing.

Both Robert and his son the new Earl of Carrick sided with Edward I against Balliol. In April 1294, Robert's son had permission to visit Ireland for a year and a half and, as a further mark of Edward's favour, he received a respite for all the debts owed by him to the English Exchequer. In 1295, his son and heir married his first wife, Isabella of Mar, the daughter of Donald, 6th Earl of Mar. Isabella died a year later bearing child, Marjorie Bruce, Robert's granddaughter.

It was not until 1295 that Edward I was even aware of the secret Franco-Scottish negotiations. In early October, Edward began to strengthen his northern defences against a possible invasion by a revitalised Scottish army. It was also at this point that Robert Bruce himself was appointed governor of Carlisle Castle. Edward also ordered John Balliol to relinquish control of the castles and burghs of Berwick, Jedburgh and Roxburgh. In December, more than two hundred of Edward's tenants in Newcastle were summoned to form a militia by March 1296 and in February, a fleet of ships sailed north to rendezvous with his land forces in Newcastle.

The build up of English forces south of the Anglo-Scottish border did not go undetected and in response, King John Balliol summoned all able-bodied Scotsmen to bear arms and converge near the border at Caddonlee by March 11.

Balliol seized Robert's Annandale estate and reassigned it to John 'The Red' Comyn, Lord of Badenoch. Several of the Scottish nobles choose to ignore the summons, including his son Robert de Brus, Earl of Carrick.

The beginning of the Wars of Independence: In August 1296 Robert and his son swore fealty to Edward I at Berwick, but in breach of this oath, which had been renewed at Carlisle, the younger Robert joined in the Scottish revolt against Edward in the following year.

Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge, Annandale was wasted as retaliation to younger Bruce's actions. Yet, when Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, Annandale and Carrick were excepted from the lordships and lands which he assigned to his followers, father having not opposed Edward and the son being treated as a waverer whose allegiance might still be retained.

In July, Edward I launched his sixth campaign into Scotland. Though Edward captured Bothwell and Turnberry Castle, Edward did little to damage the Scots’ fighting ability and, in January 1302 agreed to a nine-month truce.

Robert at that time was old and ill, and there are reports that he wished his son to seek peace with Edward, who, he was convinced, would be victorious over the Scots. The elder Bruce would have seen that, if the rebellion failed and his son were against Edward, the son would lose everything, titles, lands, and probably his life.

It was around this time that Robert's son submitted to Edward I, along with other nobles, even though he had been on the side of the patriots until now. There are many reasons which may have prompted his turning, not the least of which was that the Bruce family may have found it loathsome to continue sacrificing his followers, family and inheritance for John Balliol. There were rumours that Balliol would return with a French army and regain the Scottish throne. Soulis supported the return of Balliol as did many other nobles, but the return of John as king would lead to the Bruces losing any chance of ever gaining the throne themselves.

[edit] Death

When old, this Robert Bruce, 6th Lord of Annandale, suffered from a skin ailment, what some contemporary accounts mention as leprosy.[dubious – discuss] Tendency to severe skin disease apparently was hereditary in Bruce line, as a similar tale of illness is traditionally attached to late years of his son as well.

Robert spent the last few years of his life in retirement on his estates in Cumberland, before dying and being buried in Holme Cultram Abbey in March 1304.[9]

[edit] Family

The contemporary records seem to suggest Robert's father accompanied the Princes Edward and Edmund on the 1270-4 crusade, in lieu of his sons.

His first wife was by all accounts a formidable woman. Marjorie was the daughter and heiress of Niall, 2nd Earl of Carrick[10]. Carrick was a Gaelic Earldom in Southern Scotland. Its territories contained much of today's Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire. The couple held the principal seats of Turnberry Castle and Lochmaben.

Their children were:

  1. Robert the Bruce
  2. Neil Bruce (Niall or Nigel), taken prisoner at Kildrummie, hanged and beheaded at Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1306.[11]
  3. Edward Bruce, crowned May 2, 1316, 'King of Ireland'. Killed in battle, October 5, 1318.[12]
  4. Sir Thomas Bruce, taken prisoner in Galloway, executed at Carlisle, February, 1307.[13]
  5. Alexander Bruce, executed 1307
  6. Christina Bruce (Christian), married Gartnait, Earl of Mar, mother of Domhnall II, Earl of Mar
  7. Mary Bruce, married (1) Neil Campbell; (2) Alexander Fraser
  8. Isabel Bruce (Isabella), married King Eric II of Norway
  9. Matilda Bruce, married Aodh, Earl of Ross

Countess Marjorie died in 1292, and on the day of his wife's death Robert transferred Carrick in fee to their eldest son, the future Robert I of Scotland.

Robert retired initially to Broomshawbury, one of his Essex estates, and remarried a lady whose Christian name was Eleanor. Following his death she remarried, before February 8, 1306 (as his 1st wife) Richard Waleys, Lord Waleys, and they had issue. She died shortly before September 8, 1331.[14]

[edit] Bruce in fiction

He was portrayed (as a leper) by Ian Bannen in the 1995 film Braveheart. Braveheart wrongly portrays Robert de Brus as being involved in the capture of William Wallace in Edinburgh; as noted above this Robert de Brus died in 1304 and William Wallace was captured on August 3, 1305 by Sir John de Menteith in Glasgow.

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Sir Robert de Brus, b. July 1243, d. Mar 1304, Earl of Carrick (in right of wife), Lord of Anandale; m. (1) Turnberry 1271, as her 2nd husband, Margaret (or Marjorie), Countess of Carrick, d. 1292, widow of Adam de Kilconquhar dsp 1270, daughter of Neil, Earl of Carrick, and Margaret, daughter of Walter, High Steward of Scotland. After her death he resigned his earldom in favor of his son (No. 5 Robert I of Scotland), and was summoned 1297 Lord Brus. He m. (2) Eleanor by whom he had Isabel, m. Thomas Randolph, Chamberlain of Scotland. Eleanor m. (2) Sir Richard de Waleys, and d. between 13 Apr and 8 Sep 1331. [Magna Charta Sureties]

Note: Isabel can't be by Eleanor as a 2nd wife. See notes under Isabel.

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Robert Bruce, son of Robert of Annandale and Cleveland, in right of his wife Earl of Carrick, which title he resigned to his son Robert (later Robert I of Scots) 27 Oct 1292. [Ancestral Roots]

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3rd Lord of Annandale; 3rd Earl of Carrick; buried Abbey of Holm Cultram, SCT

III. 3. SIR ROBERT DE BRUS, Lord of Annandale, son and heir by 1st wife, born July 1243.) He did homage and had livery of his father's lands, July 1295. Having married, 1stly, in 1271, Margery, suo iure COUNTESS OF CARRICK [SCT], he was summoned cum equis et armis from 6 April 1282 to I7 August 1291, and to attend the King at Shrewsbury, 28 June 1283, by writs directed Roberto de Brus comiti de Carrik'. After his 1st wife's death, he resigned the Earldom of Carrick to his son, and they, as Robert de Brus le veil, and Robert de Brus le jeouene, Earl of Carrick, swore fealty to Edward I, 28 August 1296. He was summoned cum equis et armis from 15 May 1297 to 12 March 1300/1, and to Parliament from 24 June 1295 to 26 August 1296, and to attend the King at Salisbury 26 January 1296/7), by writs directed Roberto de Brus (only), by which summonses to Parliament he is held to have become LORD BRUS. He married, 2ndly, Alianore. He died shortly before 4 April 1304, aged 60, and was buried in the Abbey of Holm Cultram. His widow married, without licence, between 2 December 1304. and 8 February 1305/6, Sir Richard LE WALEYS, of Burgh Wallis, co. York [LORD WALEYS]. She died between 13 April and 8 September 1331. [Complete Peerage II:360, XIV:151, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

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I have included the entry in CP for Margaret Countess of Carrick (his wife)

It contains more information--sometimes different: Note that Robert's and

Eleanor/Alianore's death dates are different (I think out-dated).

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Earldom of Carrick

3. Margaret, suo jure (in her own right) Countess of Carrick, daughter and heir. She m. 1stly Adam de Kilconquhar, who thus became jure uxoris (in right of wife) Earl of Carrick. He dsp, being killed in the French Crusade of 1268 at Acre in Palestine in 1270. The Countess m, the next year 1271, at her castle of Turnberry, Robert de Bruce, who thus became jure uxoris Earl of Carrick. For this marriage, which was without the Royal consent, she had to pay a heavy fine. Her husband was son and heir of Robert de Bruce, of Annandale (one of the Competitors for the Crown of Scotland), by his 1st wife, Isabel, daughter of Gilbert (de Clare), Earl of Gloucester and Hertford. In 1278 he swore fealty, as proxy for Alexander III, for the Kingdom of Scotland, to Edward I, to which King, on 13 June 1291, he also swore fealty. He was summoned to be at Shrewsbury for the trial of David ap Griffith, 28 June 1283 (11 Edward I), by writ directed Roberto de Brus Comiti de Carrik, his name appearing as 11th and last of the earls who were then summoned. His wife, the Countess, having previously died, he, on 27 Oct 1292, resigned the Earldom of Carrick to his 1st son, though he appears still to have been styled Earl thereof. On 1 Apr 1295 he succeeded his father (who d. aged about 85), and was made Governor of Carlisle Castle. On 24 June 1295 (23 Edward I), he was summoned to Parliament (England) by writ directed Roberto de Brus, whereby he may be held to have become Lord Bruce. He was also summoned to attend the King at Salisbury, 26 Jan 1296/7 (25 Edward I). He accompanied Edward I into Scotland, and fought 28 Apr 1296, at the battle of Dunbar. To that King he again swore fealty 28 Aug 1296 at Berwick. He m. 2ndly, Eleanor. He resided latterly in England, and died there or in Palestine, 1304, before 14 June, and was buried at Holmcultram. His widow m. in 1305/6, as his 1st wife, Richard Waleys (Lord Waleys). She d. between 16 Mar and 19 Oct 1330. [Complete Peerage, III:55-56]

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Sir Robert de Brus (b July 1243 - d March 1304), 6th Lord of Annandale (dominus vallis Anandie), jure uxoris Earl of Carrick, Lord of Hartness, Writtle and Hatfield Broad Oak (Wretele et Hatfeud Regis), was a cross-border lord, and participant of the Second Barons' War, Welsh Wars, and First War of Scottish Independence.

The son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale and Isobel de Clare, daughter of the Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, his birth date is generally accepted (July 1243) but there is a ongoing debate as to whether Robert and / or his son King Robert The Bruce, were born on the family estate at Writtle Essex.

Legend tells that the 27-year-old Robert de Brus was a handsome young man participating in the Eighth Crusade. When Adam de Kilconquhar, one of his companions-in-arms, fell in 1270, at Acre, Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick. The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271. However, since the crusade landed in Acre on May 9 1271, and only started to engage the Muslims in late June, the story and his participation in the Ninth Crusade are generally discounted.

What is recorded, is that in:

   * 1264 He had to ransom his own father, after his capture, along with Henry III, Richard of Cornwall, and Edward I at the Battle of Lewes, Sussex.
   * 1271 He marries, without Scottish Royal consent, Marjory, countess of Carrick. As a result she temporarily loses her castle and estates, regained on payment of a fine.
   * 1274 Jul-Sep He is present, along with Alexander III, his Queen Margaret, their children and 100 Scottish lords and knights at the Coronation and accompanying celebrations of Edward I, at Westminster.
   * 1278 He swears fealty to Edward I, on behalf of Alexander III at Westminster.
         o Accompanies Alexander III to Tewkesbury
   * 1281 He is part of the delegation to Guy of Flanders, to arrange the marriage of the Lord Alexander.
   * 1282 He participates and is paid for his services in Edward's Conquest of Wales.
   * 1283 June, he is summoned by writ to Shrewsbury, for the trial of David ap Griffith.
   * 1285 Jun 1 - Earl & Countess, at Turnberry, grant the men of Melrose abbey certain freedoms, according to English law.
   * 1286 He is witness, along with his son Robert, to the grant of the church of Campbeltown to Paisley Abbey.
   * 1290 He is party to the Treaty of Birgham.
         o He supports his father's claim to the vacant throne of Scotland, left so on the death of Margaret I of Scotland in 1290. The initial civil proceedings, known as The Great Cause, awarded the Crown to his fathers 1st cousin once removed, and rival, John Balliol.
   * 1291 He swears fealty to Edward I as overlord of Scotland.
   * 1292 His wife Marjorie dies.
         o November, his father, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale - the unsuccessful claimant - resigns his Lordship of Annandale, and claim to the throne to him, allegedly to avoid having to swear fealty to John. In turn he passes his own Earldom of Carrick, in fee, on to his son Robert.
   * 1293 January 1st - His warrener at Gt. Baddow, a Richard, is caught poaching venison at Northle.
   * 1293 He sets sail for Norway, for the marriage of his daughter Isabel to King Eric II of Norway, the father of the late Queen Margaret I of Scotland, son-in-law of King Alexander III, and a candidate of the Great Cause.
   * 1294/5 He returns to England.
   * 1295 His father dies.
         o Oct 6, swears fealty to Edward and is made Constable of Carlisle Castle.
         o Refuses a summons to the Scottish host.
               + Annandale is seized, by King John Balliol, and given to John 'The Red' Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.
         o Confirms, to Gisborough Priory, the churches of Annandale and Hart. Witnessed by Walter de Fauconberg and Marmaduke de Thweng.
         o Exchanges common pasture, for land held by William of Carlisle at Kinmount.
         o Exchanges land in Estfield, for a field adjacent to the prior of Hatfield Regis's manor at Brunesho End Broomshawbury.
         o Grants Robert Taper, and his wife Millicent, a messuage in Hatfield Regis, and via a separate grant 5.5 acres (22,000 m2) of arable and 1-acre (4,000 m2) of meadow, in Hatfield Regis, for 16s annual rent.
         o Grants John de Bledelowe, the former lands / tenement of Richard de Cumbes, in Hatfield Regis, for 1d annual rent.
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Richard de Fanwreyte, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle.
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Stephen the Tanner, of Folewelleshaleyerde, Montpeliers, Writtle, from services to an annual rent. Witnesses includes two of Roberts Cook's at Writtle.
         o Alters the terms of a grant to Willam Mayhew, of the tenement Barrieland, Hatfield Regis, to an annual rent of 5s and some services.
   * 1296 Jan, He is summoned to attend to the King Edward at Salisbury
         o April 28, he again swears fealty to Edward I and fights for Edward, at the Battle of Dunbar Castle.
         o August, with his son Robert he renews the pledge of homage and fealty to Edward, at the 'victory parliament’ in Berwick.
         o Edward I denies his claim to the throne and he retires to his estates in Essex.
         o August 29 - At Berwick, agrees the dower lands of his widowed step mother, Christina.
         o Annandale is re-gained.
         o Marries an Eleanor.
   * 1298
         o Jan 7 - Transfers a grant of land at Hatfield Regis, from Walter Arnby to his son William.
         o May 29 - Grants a John Herolff a half virgate of land in Writtle.
   * 1299
         o February 1 - Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a John de Bledelowe, for 4s annual rent.
         o August 4 - While resident at Writtle, he Rents lands at Hatfield Regis, Essex to a Nicholas de Barenton, for 21s annual rent.
   * 1301 November 26 - Grants, Bunnys in Hatfield Broad Oak and Takeley, to a Edward Thurkyld.
   * After 1301, Enfeoffments Writtle to a John de Lovetot and his wife Joan.
   * 1304 Easter, dies on route to Annandale and is buried at Holm Cultram Abbey, Cumberland.
         o Following his death his Eleanor remarries, before February 8, 1306 (as his 1st wife) Richard Waleys, Lord Waleys, and they had issue. She died shortly before September 8, 1331.

Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge (1297), Annandale was laid waste as retaliation to younger Bruce's actions. Yet, when Edward returned to England after his victory at the Battle of Falkirk, which one source accords to Robert turning the Scottish flank, Annandale and Carrick were excepted from the lordships and lands which he assigned to his followers, the father having not opposed Edward and the son being treated as a waverer whose allegiance might still be retained.

Robert at that time was old and ill, and there are reports that he wished his son to seek peace with Edward. If not his son's actions could jeopardise his own income, which was primarily derived from his holdings south of the border (est. £340 vs £150). The elder Bruce would have seen that, if the rebellion failed and his son was against Edward, the son would lose everything, titles, lands, and probably his life.

It was around this time (1302) that Robert's son submitted to Edward I. The younger Robert had sided with the Scottish nationalists since the capture and exile of Balliol. There are many reasons which may have prompted his return to Edward, not the least of which was that the Bruce family may have found it loathsome to continue sacrificing his followers, family and inheritance for King John. There were rumours that John would return with a French army and regain the Scottish throne. Soulis supported his return as did many other nobles, but this would lead to the Bruces losing any chance of ever gaining the throne themselves.

His first wife was by all accounts a formidable woman. Marjorie was the daughter and heiress of Niall, 2nd Earl of Carrick. Carrick was a Gaelic Earldom in Southern Scotland. Its territories contained much of today's Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire. The couple held the principal seats of Turnberry Castle and Lochmaben.

Their children were:

  1. Isabel, married King Eric II of Norway in 1293, d 1358 in Bergen, Norway
  2. Christina b c 1273, Seton, East Lothian, married 1) Sir Christopher Seton, 2). Gartnait, Earl of Mar, 1292 in Kildrummy, Aberdeenshire, 3) Sir Andrew Moray, 20 September 1305, d. 1356/7 in Scotland {By her second marriage mother of Domhnall II, Earl of Mar}
  3. Robert b 11 July 1274, married 1) Isabella of Mar, 2) Elizabeth de Burgh, d June 7, 1329
  4. Neil (Niall or Nigel), taken prisoner at Kildrummie, hanged, drawn and quartered at Berwick-upon-Tweed in September 1306.
  5. Edward, crowned May 2, 1316, 'King of Ireland'. Killed in battle, October 5, 1318.  Possible marriage to Isabel, daughter of John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl-parents of Alexander Bruce, Earl of Carrick; Edward obtained a dispensation for a marriage to Isabella of Ross, daughter of Uilleam II, Earl of Ross, on June 1, 1317.
  6. Mary, married (1) Sir. Neil Campbell; (2) Sir. Alexander Fraser of Touchfraser and Cowie.
  7. Sir Thomas, taken prisoner in Galloway, hanged, drawn and quartered 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland.
  8. Alexander, hanged, drawn and quartered 9 February 1307, Carlisle, Cumberland.
  9. Elizabeth, b. 1286, d. 1315, married Sir William Dishington of the Orkney Isles.
 10. Matilda,, married Hugh / Aodh, Earl of Ross, in 1308 Orkney Isles, died after September 1323

-------------------- Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale and jure uxoris Earl of Carrick[1] (July 1253 - March 1304 [2]), was a feudal lord in both Scotland and England prior to and during the Wars of Scottish Independence. He was the father of King Robert The Bruce.

There is a continuing debate as to whether Robert, or his son Robert The Bruce, were born on the family estate at Writtle Essex.[3][4].

Robert de Brus was the son and heir of Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, who in 1290 was one of the Competitors for the Crown of Scotland. He was appointed Governor of Carlisle Castle in 1294.[5]

Legend tells that this Robert de Brus, while heir to Lord of Annandale, was a handsome young man when participating in the Eighth Crusade. Adam de Kilconquhar[6], one of his companion-in-arms, fell in 1270 at Acre in the Holy Land [7], and Robert was obliged to travel to tell the sad news to Adam's widow Marjorie of Carrick (1256-1292). The story continues that Marjorie was so taken with the messenger that she had him held captive until he agreed to marry her, which he did in 1271[8].

Undoubtedly the biggest event of his life was the 'Great Cause' that was concluded in 1292. It gave the Crown of Scotland to his family's great rival, Balliol, instead of his father. Heiress Margaret, the Maid of Norway had died in the Orkney Islands circa September 26, 1290. With her death, the main line of the House of Dunkeld came to an end and thirteen competitors claimed their rights to the Scottish

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Robert de Bruce, 6th Lord of Annandale's Timeline

1243
July 1243
Dumfries, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, United Kingdom
1271
1271
Age 27
Married 1271 Turnberry Castle
1272
1272
Age 28
Annandale, Dumfrieshire, Scotland
1273
1273
Age 29
East Lothian, Scotland
1274
July 11, 1274
Age 31
Turnberry Castle, Ayrshire, Scotland, (Present UK)
1278
1278
Age 34
1279
1279
Age 35
Carrick, Argyllshire, Scotland
1280
1280
Age 36
Carrick, Argyllshire, Scotland
1282
1282
Age 38
Carrick, , Galloway, Scotland
1282
Age 38
Carrick (Present South Ayrshire), Scotland, (Present UK)