Robert de Caen, Earl of Gloucester

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Robert "The King's Son" de Caen (Caen), 1st Earl of Gloucester

Also Known As: "Robert of Caen", "The King's Son", "Robert fitzRobert", "Robert Fitzroy", "Robert Rufus"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Caen, Calvados, Basse-Normandie, France,
Death: Died in Bristol Castle. Bristol, England
Place of Burial: Priory Of St. James, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England and Concubine #1 mistress of Henry I
Husband of Maud fitzRobert fitzHamon de Creully, Dame de Creuilly
Partner of mistress of Robert Fitzroy
Father of Richard, Bishop of Bayeux; Christiana FitzRobert De Caen; William FitzRobert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester; Richard FitzRobert, Sire de Creully; Maud FitzRobert, Countess of Chester and 6 others
Half brother of Filip VI Av Valoise; Constance La Zouche; Euphemia (name & sex unconfirmed) Child of Henry I & Mathilda; Empress Matilda; Guillaume Adelin de Normandie, Duke of Normandy and 22 others

Occupation: 1st Earl of Gloucester, THE CONSOL', Baron of Okenhampton, Baron, de Creuilly, de Torigny, First Earl of Gloucester, Earl of Gloucester, Earl of Gloucester/Sir, Earl of Gloucester (Sir), 1st earl of Glouchester, illigtimate son of Henry I of England, Earl
Managed by: Terry Jackson (Switzer)
Last Updated:

About Robert de Caen, Earl of Gloucester

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert,_1st_Earl_of_Gloucester

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090 – October 31, 1147) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England, and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy. He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'.

Early life

Robert was the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born well before his father's accession to the English throne, probably in the late 1080s, as he had himself had a son by 1104. Although generally said to have been the son of Sybil Corbet, his mother is not known for certain.

Robert was acknowledged at birth, though in view of the vicissitudes of his father's career between 1087 and 1096 it is unlikely he was raised in his household. He was educated to a high standard, was literate in Latin and had a serious interest in both history and philosophy, which indicates that he was at least partly raised in a clerical household, a suggestion made all the more likely as his first known child, born around 1104, was born to a daughter of Samson, Bishop of Worcester (died 1112) who up till 1096 had been a Royal Chaplain and Treasurer of Bayeux. It may be significant that his next brother Richard was brought up in an episcopal household, that of Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln. Robert later received dedications from both Geoffrey of Monmouth and William of Malmesbury. William's 'Historia Novella' contains a flattering portrait of the Earl.

Robert appears at court in Normandy in 1113, and around 1114 he married Mabel, eldest daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon, who brought him the substantial honour of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully. In 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester.

Career at court


St Marys Church, Luton town centre, founded in 1121 by Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester.Robert developed a role as one of his father's principal aides and Captains. In 1119, he fought at the Battle of Bremule, and in 1123-24 he was one of the King's chief commanders during the Norman rebellion. Following the drowning of the King's only legitimate son, William Adelin, in 1120, Robert became increasingly caught up in his father's attempts to ensure the succession of the Empress Matilda, Robert's half-sister. It was to Robert's custody in his castle of Cardiff that his uncle, the deposed Duke Robert Curthose was eventually confided in 1126. On 1 January 1127 it was Robert who was one of the first to swear to accept Matilda as Queen after Henry's death. His father at some point gave him the keeping of the castles of Dover and Canterbury, and thus control of Kent and the cross-Channel route. When King Henry fell mortally ill at Lyons-la-Forêt in Normandy on 25 November 1135, Earl Robert was at his side and was one of the magnates who swore to stay with the King's body until it was buried. The King died a week after falling ill, on 1 December 1135.

Relationship with King Stephen

After his father's death, Robert attended a series of conferences in Normandy and eventually accepted as King Theobald IV, Count of Blois and King Henry's oldest nephew by his sister Adela. However, during the meeting with Theobald, news reach the Norman magnates that Theobald's younger brother, Stephen of Mortain and Boulogne, had been accepted and crowned as King in England. Robert eventually accepted this and at Easter 1136 attended the new King's ceremonial court. He does not seem to have seriously considered supporting the Empress Matilda, and did not assist her invasion of southern Normandy. There is evidence in the contemporary source, the Gesta Stephani, that Robert was proposed by some as a candidate for the throne, but his illegitimacy ruled him out:

"Among others came Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of King Henry, but a bastard, a man of proved talent and admirable wisdom. When he was advised, as the story went, to claim the throne on his father's death, deterred by sounder advice he by no means assented, saying it was fairer to yield it to his sister's son (the future Henry II of England), than presumptuously to arrogate it to himself."

This suggestion cannot have led to any idea that he and Stephen were rivals for the Crown, as Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 referred to Robert as one of the 'pillars' of the new King's rule.

Robert of Gloucester had other distractions in 1136 which put the succession question out of his mind. The Welsh princes of south east Wales rose against the Anglo-Norman settlers of the Welsh Marches in April and Robert spent much of the year stabilising the situation in that region. He reached peace treaties with the Welsh and recognised the gains of Morgan ab Owain (died 1158), who called himself King of Glamorgan. In England, Robert of Gloucester soon became disenchanted with King Stephen, and by the end of 1137 had withdrawn from his Court. It is clear that he was disgruntled that he did not occupy the central place in politics that he had in the last reign. He was also alarmed at the favour with which the King regarded his Flemish mercenary general, William of Ypres, and the rising power of the Beaumont twins, Waleran de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Worcester, and Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester. In 1138, Robert declared his support for the Empress Matilda, but he was defeated in Normandy by Waleran and his English allies were crushed by Stephen and driven back on his fortress of Bristol.

The Civil War, 1139-1147

Earl Robert took a great gamble and sailed for England with his half-sister, the Empress, his wife and a company of knights. They landed at Arundel on 30 September 1139, and were welcomed into Arundel Castle there, the possession of Queen Adeliza, Matilda's stepmother. Robert left for Bristol immediately. In his absence the castle was blockaded by King Stephen, opening the possibility that he might seize his dynastic rival. The King in the end let the Empress and Countess depart, under escort, to Bristol.

With Earl Robert and the Empress in England and based in the West Country and Severn valley, the civil war had begun. The Earl's first moves are revealing. He commanded raids against Wareham in Dorset and Worcester. Both were possessions of the Beaumonts. He took Robert of Leicester's lands in Dorset for his own. He did much the same to other royalists within his area, mass deprivations which were at the heart of what is called the Anarchy. Although secure in a heartland of support, Earl Robert did not find it easy to recruit wider support and break out. The King succeeded in containing him along the line of the Cotswold Hills, with such effect that both sides were willing to send representatives to a peace conference held at Bath in August 1140, though nothing came of it.

Earl Robert's big opportunity came at Christmas 1140, when King Stephen fell out with Earl Ranulf II of Chester. Ranulf's failed negotiations with the King to secure Lincoln Castle led him to ally with Robert, his father-in-law. They united their forces at Castle Donington in January 1141, including a host of Welsh mercenaries allied to Earl Robert. On 2 February 1141 the Earls met and defeated King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln. With the King captive, Empress Matilda should have secured the throne, but a combination of stubborn royalist support, the Empress's miscalculation and military misjudgement led to her failure. On 14 September 1141 Earl Robert and the Empress were trapped by a royalist army in an ill-judged attempt to seize control of Winchester. Earl Robert was captured fighting a rearguard action against the forces of Matilda of Boulogne, Stephen's wife, at the river crossing of Stockbridge to allow his sister to escape. Earl Robert was imprisoned for two months at Rochester Castle before he was released in an exchange with King Stephen. The cross-over point in the joint release was on 1 November 1141 at Winchester, where the two men had a chance to exchange friendly remarks, and the Earl apparently assured the King that there was nothing personal in the fight as far as he was concerned.

The war continued and it rapidly became evident that it was a stalemate. The Empress's husband refused to commit the resources to tip the balance in England, only agreeing to discuss matters with the Earl. In June 1142 Robert crossed from Wareham to Normandy and stayed there till the end of October. He came back with no reinforcements, but with his nephew Henry, the son of the Empress. In the meantime the Empress had been trapped in Oxford. Nothing could be done to release her, and she had to manage her own escape from the castle.

Robert continued the struggle but with less and less hope of ultimate victory. The King also had limited resources, but managed slowly to push towards Robert's centres of Bristol and Gloucester. At the end of 1145 Philip, Earl Robert's son and military Captain, defected to Stephen, taking with him the strategic castles of Cricklade and Cirencester. With Gloucester and Bristol under threat, the Earl opened negotiations in the autumn of 1146. The pressure continued in 1147, and it was in a desperate attack on Farnham in Surrey in the late summer of that year that Earl Robert fought his last unsuccessful action of the war. He retired to Bristol to gather new forces, but became feverish. He died on 31 October 1147 and was buried in the priory of St James he had founded outside the castle.

Family and children

He married, around 1114, Mabel of Gloucester (died 1156), daughter of Robert Fitzhamon and Sibyl de Montgomery. Their children were:

  • William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, died 1183. He married Hawise (died 1197) daughter of Robert II, Earl of Leicester.
  • Roger, Bishop of Worcester, (died 9 August 1179, Tours).
  • Hamon, killed at the siege of Toulouse in 1159.
  • Robert. (died before 1157) Also called Robert of Ilchester in documents. He married Hawise, (died after 1210) daughter of Baldwin de Redvers and Adeliz. Their daughter Mabel married Jordan de Cambernon.
  • Matilda, (died 1189), wife of Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester.
  • Philip, Castellan of Cricklade, (died after 1147). He took part in the Second Crusade.
  • Earl Robert had an illegitimate son, Richard, bishop of Bayeux (1135-1142), by Isabel de Douvres, sister of Richard de Douvres, bishop of Bayeux (1107-1133).

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Robert fitz Roy de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester1

b. circa 1090, d. 31 October 1147

Robert fitz Roy de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester|b. c 1090\nd. 31 Oct 1147|p367.htm#i6831|Henri I "Beauclerc", roi d' Angleterre|b. 1070\nd. 1 Dec 1135|p364.htm#i5013|unknown mistress of Henry I||p58.htm#i8437|Guillaume I "le Conquérant", roi d' Angleterre|b. bt 10 Sep 1028 - 9 Sep 1029\nd. 9 Sep 1087|p352.htm#i5000|Queen of England Mathilda van Vlaanderen|b. 1032\nd. 2 Nov 1083|p351.htm#i5001|||||||

Father Henri I "Beauclerc", roi d' Angleterre2,3 b. 1070, d. 1 December 1135

Mother unknown mistress of Henry I4

    The 12th-century chroniclers considered Gloucester an able and sagacious leader.2 Robert fitz Roy de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was bastard son of Henry I, by mother unknown.3 Robert fitz Roy de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester also went by the name of Robert "the Consul". He was born circa 1090 at Caen, Normandy, France.2,3 He was the son of Henri I "Beauclerc", roi d' Angleterre and unknown mistress of Henry I.2,3,4 Robert fitz Roy de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester married Mabel FitzHamon, daughter of Robert fitz Hamon, Lord of Glamorgan and Sybil de Montgomery, in 1115 at Gloucestershire, England.5 1st Earl of Gloucester at England between 1122 and 1147.2,6 Robert fitz Roy de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was created Earl of Gloucester between June 1122 and September 1122.3 The Charter to Salisbury, by King Henry I. In attendance 5 Earls: Chester, Gloucester, Surry, Leicester, and Warwick. On 8 September 1131 at Northampton, England.7 He was one of the 5 Earls who witnessed the Charter to Salisbury granted at the Northampton Council of Henry I on 8 September 1131 at Northampton, England.7 He was the chief supporter of the royal claimant Matilda during her war with King Stephen of England between 1135 and 1154.2 He was became the leader of the party loyal to Matilda, his half sister, who had been designated heir to the throne by Henry I in December 1135.2 Geoffrey of Monmouth dedicated his work, History of the Kings of England, to him. "To you, therefore, Robert earl of Gloucester, this work humbly sues for the favour of being so corrected by your advice, that may not be thought to be the poor offspring of Geoffrey of Monmouth, but when polished by your refined with and judgement, the production of him who had Henry the glorious king of England for his father, and whom we see an accomplished scholar and philisopher, as well as a brave soldier and expert commander; so that Britain with joy acknowledges, that in you she possesses another Henry." In 1139.8 He took Matilda to England and at the head of her forces won from Stephen most of western England and southern Wales in September 1139.2 He captured King Stephen at Lincoln and imprisoned him in Bristol in February 1141.2 He was captured at Winchester, Hampshire, and exchanged for the king after February 1141.2 He died on 31 October 1147 at Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.2,3 He was the predecessor of William FitzRobert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester; 2nd Earl of Gloucester.9 Robert fitz Roy de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester was buried in the Priory of St. James, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.3

Family

Mabel FitzHamon b. circa 1094, d. 1157

Children

   * William FitzRobert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester+ b. c 23 Nov 1116, d. 23 Nov 1183
   * Maud of Gloucester+ b. c 1124, d. 29 Jul 118910

Citations

  1. [S206] With additions and corrections by Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr. and assisted by David Faris Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis: AR 7th ed., 124-26.
  2. [S862] Various EB CD 2001, "Gloucester, Robert, Earl of.".
  3. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, XI:Appendix D, pg. 106.
  4. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, XI:App. D, pg. 106.
  5. [S1278] K.S.B. Keats-Rohan, Domesday Descendants, pg. 903.
  6. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, V:683.
  7. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, III:166-167.
  8. [S624] Geoffrey of Monmouth, Geoffrey of Monmouth.
  9. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, V:687.
 10. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, III:167.

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From http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20Kings%201066-1603.htm#RobertFitzEdithdied1172

ROBERT FitzEdith [FitzRoy] (-31 May 1172).  Symeon of Durham names "Rodberto filio Edæ et Henrici regis notho"[215].  Guillaume de Jumièges names Robert as illegitimate son of King Henry I "encore jeune et sans établissement"[216].  Landowner in Devon 1130.  He supported his half-sister Empress Matilda during the civil war[217].  The Red Book of the Exchequer refers to "Robertus filius Regis lix l xvii s i d, et de novo i m" in Devonshire in [1167/68][218].  m (1142) as her second husband, MAUD Avenell, widow of ROBERT d´Avranches, daughter & heiress of RANULF Avenill & his wife Alice --- (-21 Sep 1173).  The Fundationis et Fundatorum Historia of Ford Abbey records that “domina Alicia uxor domini Randolphi Avenell filia sua…unicam filiam…Matildam” married “Roberto filio regis Henrici primi notho” after the death of her first husband “Roberto de Abrincis id est de Averinges”[219].  She was heiress of the honour of Okehampton, Devon.  Robert & his wife had one child:  

a) MAUD (-1224). The Fundationis et Fundatorum Historia of Ford Abbey names “Matildam” as the daughter of “Roberto filio regis Henrici primi notho” and his wife “Roberto de Abrincis id est de Averinges”, adding that she married “Reginaldo de Courtenay…filio suo Willielmo de Courtenay”[220]. Dame du Sap. m GUILLAUME de Courtenay, son of RENAUD Sire de Courtenay & his first wife Helvise de Donjon (-before 1190).

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Natural son of Henry I of England. [Ped. of Charlemagne]

'The Consul', Earl of Gloucester, 1122-47. [Ped. of Charlemagne]

Initially supported Stephen of Blois as successor of his father, Henry I. Robert led a revolt against Stephen in 1138 which stripped Stephen of Caen and half of Normandy. During the next 17 years England was in a constant state of dissension between the factions wishing to be on the throne. At one point Earl Robert was captured during a battle at Devizes. Later in 1142 Stephen himself was besieged and exchanged himself for Earl Robert. [WBH - England]

Earl of Mellent, who was created, in 1109, Earl of Gloucester, natural son of Henry I by Elizabeth de Bellomont. [Magna Charta Barons, p. 88]

Chief of King Stephen's nobles. A plot which Robert of Gloucester had been weaving from the outset of Stephen's reign came to a head in 1138, and the Earl's revolt stripped Stephen of Caen and half Normandy. [Nations of the World - England, p. 162-3]

Lincoln Castle, Feb 1141 -- Robert comes to the aid of Ranulf of Chester who is being beseiged in his castle by King Stephen. Robert's superior forces soon overpower Stephen who refuses to flee. Stephen is captured and held in Robert's castle in chains. In November Robert and his half-sister Empress Matilda met Stephen's forces outside Winchester and this time Earl Robert was captured. Robert and Stephen were then exchanged, but Stephen is king again. The civil war is not over. [Chronicle of the Royal Family, p. 45]

Illegitimate son of Henry I; 1st Earl of Gloucester, m. Mabel FitzHamon; father of Maud of Gloucester, Mabira de Caen and William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester. [The Royal Descents, p. 387, 389, 396]

Patron of Geoffrey of Monmouth, the historian who wrote HISTORIA REGUM BRITANNIAE (The History of the Kings of Britain). After his father King Henry I's death in 1135, Robert was the most dedicated defender of the right of his half-sister, Matilda, to succeed their father; he and his fellow Marcher Lords refused to acknowledge the authority of Stephen, Henry's nephew and the anointed king of England. [A History of Wales, p. 124]

Earl of Gloucester; natural son of Henry I, king of England, and Elizabeth de Bellomont; m. Mabel FitzHamon; father of Maud of Gloucester. [Charlemagne & Others, Chart 2917]

Natural son of Henry I and a Welsh princess named Nesta who had been made a prisoner during some fighting along the Marches. He was a man of lofty ideals, of great courage and compassion, a capable leader and soldier. Present at his father's death. [The Conquering Family, p. 9]

Earl of Gloucester; d. 1147; m. Mabel, dau. of Robert Fitz Hamon; father of William Fitz Robert. [Ancestral Roots, p. 66]

Son of Henry I, king of England, by an unknown mistress. [Ancestral Roots, p. 112]

Earl of Gloucester; m. Mabel Fitz Hamon; father of Philip Fitz Robert; died 31 Oct 1147 of fever in Bristol, England. [Charlemagne & Others, Chart 2968]

The open declaration of Robert of Gloucester for Matilda in 1138, and the landing of the empress herself in the following year, were followed by the secession from Stephen of the greater part of Western England. [The Victoria History of the Counties of England, p. 358]

The southwestern counties rose at the instigation of Robert of Gloucester (illegitimate son of Henry I and brother to Matilda), who had thrown off his allegiance to Stephen and fled abroad, allegint that Stephen was a usurper of the throne. In the fall of 1139, Robert and his sister Matilda came back to England from abroad. The arrival converted the unrest, already manifest, into a civil war which lasted for 14 years. In 1141 King Stephen was defeated. He was sent to prison in Bristol but the civil war went on. Year after year Matilda lost ground. The death of Robert of Gloucester, in 1147, deprived hr of her chief support and the following year she retired to Anjou and gave up her struggle. [The Fosters of Flanders, England, and America, p. 9]

Robert, Earl of Gloucester, was responsible for the building in masonry of a polygonal keep at Cardiff, probably a precaution taken against the Welsh uprising of 1136, which followed the death of Henry I the previous year, and which resulted in general civil discontent. The keep dominates the castle enclosure not only by its extraordinary height, but by its sheer size. [The Castles of Wales, p. 62]

When Robert the Consul became Lord of Cardiff Castle in the 12th century it already had a history going back over a thousand years. The Romans built their first fort on the site almost 2000 years ago.

His father, Henry I, raised Robert to the earldom of Gloucester and made him lord of Glamorgan in 1122. The earl or 'consul' of Gloucester dominated the political scene in England after the death of his father during the long and bitter struggle for the throne between Matilda and Stephen. It was 'Robert the Consul', lauded on all sides as a brave soldier, wise statesman and patron of the arts, who is credited with having built the first stone keep of Cardiff Castle, and it was in the keep that he imprisoned at King Henry's behest, another Robert--the second duke of Normandy and his father's older brother--from 1126 until Robert of Normandy's death in 1134.

Robert 'the Consul' died in 1147, to be succeeded by his son William. [Cardiff Castle].

He was the chief supporter of the royal claimant Matilda during her war with King Stephen of England (reigned 1135-54). ...............................

The illegitimate son of King Henry I of England (reigned 1100-35), he was made Earl of Gloucester in 1122. After the death of Henry I and usurpation of power by Stephen (December 1135), Gloucester became the leader of the party loyal to Matilda, his half sister, who had been designated heir to the throne by Henry I. He took Matilda to England in September 1139 and at the head of her forces won from Stephen most of western England and southern Wales. In February 1141 he captured Stephen at Lincoln and imprisoned him in Bristol. Later that year Gloucester was captured at Winchester, Hampshire, and exchanged for the king. He continued to be the mainstay of Matilda's cause until his death. The 12th-century chroniclers considered Gloucester an able and sagacious leader.

Copyright © 1994-2000 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

http://www.mindfreedom.net/gen/t-s-p/p123.htm#i8393

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Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090 – 31 October 1147) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England, and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy. He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'.

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Ancestor of Thomas Jefferson.

Earl of Caen

Wife Mabel Fitzhammon

Children - Richard Fitzrobert, Matilda Fitzrobert, William Fitzrobert, Roger Fitzrobert, Hamon Fitzrobert, Richard Fitzrobert, Mabel Fitzrobert

from http://www.devinthorpe.com/gen/ped/pedg73.htm#6296 :

66454970. Robert Earl of Caen was born about 1090 in Of Caen, Calvados, Frn. He died on 31 Oct 1147 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng. He was buried in Prioryofst James, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng. He married Mabel or Maud Fitzhamon Countess about 1109 in , , Eng.

The 12th-century chroniclers considered Robert FitzRoy de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester, an able and sagacious leader.

Robert was the bastard son of King Henry I by an unnamed mistress.

He also went by the name of Robert "the Consul."

Robert married Mabel FitzHamon, daughter of Robert fitz Hamon, Lord of Glamorgan and Sybil de Montgomery, in 1115 in Gloucestershire.

He was created Earl of Gloucester between June 1122 and September 1122.

Robert was one of the 5 Earls who witnessed the Charter to Salisbury granted at the Northampton Council of King Henry I on 8 September 1131 in Northampton.

Robert was the chief supporter of the royal claimant Matilda during her war with King Stephen of England between 1135 and 1154.

Geoffrey of Monmouth dedicated his work, History of the Kings of England, to Robert. "To you, therefore, Robert earl of Gloucester, this work humbly sues for the favour of being so corrected by your advice, that may not be thought to be the poor offspring of Geoffrey of Monmouth, but when polished by your refined with and judgment, the production of him who had Henry the glorious king of England for his father, and whom we see an accomplished scholar and philosopher, as well as a brave soldier and expert commander; so that Britain with joy acknowledges, that in you she possesses another Henry."

Robert took Matilda to England and at the head of her forces won from Stephen most of western England and southern Wales in September 1139. He captured King Stephen at Lincoln and imprisoned him in Bristol in February 1141. Robert himself was captured at Winchester, Hampshire, and exchanged for the King after February 1141. Robert died on 31 October 1147 in Bristol, Gloucestershire--apparently in prison.

See "My Lines"

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p367.htm#i6831 )

from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm )

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Via http://www.stepneyrobarts.co.uk/14591.htm :

Robert was an illegitimate son of Henry I and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy. He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'.

Robert was the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born well before his father's accession to the English throne, probably in the late 1080s, as he had himself had a son by 1104. Although generally said to have been the son of Sybil Corbet, his mother is not known for certain.

Robert was acknowledged at birth though in view of the vicissitudes of his father's career between 1087 and 1096 it is unlikely he was raised in his household. He was educated to a high standard, was literate in Latin and had a serious interest in both history and philosophy, which indicates that he was at least partly raised in a clerical household, a suggestion made all the more likely as his first known child, born around 1104, was born to a daughter of Samson, Bishop of Worcester (died 1112) who up till 1096 had been a Royal Chaplain and Treasurer of Bayeux. It may be significant that his next brother Richard was brought up in an Episcopal household, that of Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln. Robert later received dedications from both Geoffrey of Monmouth and William of Malmesbury. William's 'Historia Novella' contains a flattering portrait of the Earl.

Robert appears at court in Normandy in 1113 and around 1114 he married Mabel, eldest daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon, who brought him the substantial honour of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully. In 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester.

Robert developed a role as one of his father's principal aides and Captains. In 1119 he fought at the Battle of Bremule, and in 1123-24 he was one of the King's chief commanders during the Norman rebellion. Following the drowning of the King's only legitimate son, William Adelin, in 1120, Robert became increasingly caught up in his father's attempts to ensure the succession of the Empress Matilda, Robert's half-sister. It was to Robert's custody in his castle of Cardiff that his uncle, the deposed Duke Robert Curthose was eventually confided in 1126. On 1 January 1127 it was Robert who was one of the first to swear to accept Matilda as Queen after Henry's death. His father at some point gave him the keeping of the castles of Dover and Canterbury, and thus control of Kent and the cross-Channel route. When Henry fell mortally ill at Lyons-la-Forêt in Normandy on 25 November 1135, Earl Robert was at his side and was one of the magnates who swore to stay with the King's body until it was buried. The King died a week after falling ill on 1 December 1135.

After his father's death, Robert attended a series of conferences in Normandy and eventually accepted as King Theobald IV, Count of Blois and Henry's oldest nephew by his sister Adela. However, during the meeting with Theobald, news reach the Norman magnates that Theobald's younger brother, Stephen of Mortain and Boulogne, had been accepted and crowned as King in England. Robert eventually accepted this and at Easter 1136 attended the new King's ceremonial court. He does not seem to have seriously considered supporting the Empress Matilda and did not assist her invasion of southern Normandy. There is evidence in the contemporary source, the Gesta Stephani, that Robert was proposed by some as a candidate for the throne but his illegitimacy ruled him out:

"Among others came Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of King Henry, but a bastard, a man of proved talent and admirable wisdom. When he was advised, as the story went, to claim the throne on his father's death, deterred by sounder advice he by no means assented, saying it was fairer to yield it to his sister's son (the future Henry II of England), than presumptuously to arrogate it to himself."

This suggestion cannot have led to any idea that he and Stephen were rivals for the Crown, as Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 referred to Robert as one of the 'pillars' of the new King's rule.

Robert of Gloucester had other distractions in 1136 which put the succession question out of his mind. The Welsh princes of south east Wales rose against the Anglo-Norman settlers of the Welsh Marches in April and Robert spent much of the year stabilising the situation in that region. He reached peace treaties with the Welsh and recognised the gains of Morgan ab Owain (died 1158), who called himself King of Glamorgan. In England Robert of Gloucester soon became disenchanted with Stephen and by the end of 1137 had withdrawn from his Court. It is clear that he was disgruntled that he did not occupy the central place in politics that he had in the last reign. He was also alarmed at the favour with which the King regarded his Flemish mercenary general, William of Ypres, and the rising power of the Beaumont twins, Waleran de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Worcester, and Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester. In 1138 Robert declared his support for the Empress Matilda but he was defeated in Normandy by Waleran and his English allies were crushed by Stephen and driven back on his fortress of Bristol.

Earl Robert took a great gamble and sailed for England with his half-sister, the Empress, his wife and a company of knights. They landed at Arundel on 30 September 1139 and were welcomed into Arundel Castle, the possession of Queen Adeliza, Matilda's stepmother. Robert left for Bristol immediately. In his absence the castle was blockaded by Stephen, opening the possibility that he might seize his dynastic rival. The King in the end let the Empress and Countess depart, under escort, to Bristol.

With Earl Robert and the Empress in England and based in the West Country and Severn valley, the civil war had begun. The Earl's first moves are revealing. He commanded raids against Wareham in Dorset and Worcester. Both were possessions of the Beaumonts. He took Robert of Leicester's lands in Dorset for his own. He did much the same to other royalists within his area, mass deprivations which were at the heart of what is called the Anarchy. Although secure in a heartland of support, Earl Robert did not find it easy to recruit wider support and break out. The King succeeded in containing him along the line of the Cotswold Hills with such effect that both sides were willing to send representatives to a peace conference held at Bath in August 1140, though nothing came of it.

Earl Robert's big opportunity came at Christmas 1140 when Stephen fell out with Earl Ranulf II of Chester. Ranulf's failed negotiations with the King to secure Lincoln Castle led him to ally with Robert, his father-in-law. They united their forces at Castle Donington in January 1141 including a host of Welsh mercenaries allied to Earl Robert. On 2 February 1141 the Earls met and defeated Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln. With the King captive Empress Matilda should have secured the throne but a combination of stubborn royalist support, the Empress's miscalculation and military misjudgement led to her failure. On 14 September 1141 Earl Robert and the Empress were trapped by a royalist army in an ill-judged attempt to seize control of Winchester. Earl Robert was captured fighting a rearguard action against the forces of Matilda of Boulogne, Stephen's wife, at the river crossing of Stockbridge to allow his sister to escape. Earl Robert was imprisoned for two months at Rochester Castle before he was released in an exchange with Stephen. The cross-over point in the joint release was on 1 November 1141 at Winchester where the two men had a chance to exchange friendly remarks and the Earl apparently assured the King that there was nothing personal in the fight as far as he was concerned.

The war continued and it rapidly became evident that it was a stalemate. The Empress's husband refused to commit the resources to tip the balance in England only agreeing to discuss matters with the Earl. In June 1142 Robert crossed from Wareham to Normandy and stayed there until the end of October. He came back with no reinforcements but with his nephew, Henry, the son of the Empress. In the meantime the Empress had been trapped in Oxford. Nothing could be done to release her and she had to manage her own escape from the castle.

Robert continued the struggle but with less and less hope of ultimate victory. The King also had limited resources but managed to slowly push towards Robert's centres of Bristol and Gloucester. At the end of 1145 Philip, Earl Robert's son and military Captain, defected to Stephen, taking with him the strategic castles of Cricklade and Cirencester. With Gloucester and Bristol under threat, the Earl opened negotiations in the autumn of 1146. The pressure continued in 1147 and it was in a desperate attack on Farnham in Surrey in the late summer of that year that Earl Robert fought his last unsuccessful action of the war. He retired to Bristol to gather new forces but became feverish. He died on 31 October 1147 and was buried in the priory of St James he had founded outside the castle.

He married, around 1114, Mabel of Gloucester (died 1156), daughter of Robert Fitzhamon and Sibyl de Montgomery. Their children were:

1.William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, died 1183. He married Hawise (died 1197) daughter of Robert II, Earl of Leicester.

2.Roger, Bishop of Worcester, (died 9 August 1179, Tours).

3.Hamon, killed at the siege of Toulouse in 1159.

4.Robert. (died before 1157) Also called Robert of Ilchester in documents. He married Hawise, (died after 1210) daughter of Baldwin de Redvers and Adeliz. Their daughter Mabel married Jordan de Cambernon.

5.Matilda, (died 1189), wife of Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester.

6.Philip, Castellan of Cricklade, (died after 1147). He took part in the Second Crusade.

Earl Robert had an illegitimate son, Richard, bishop of Bayeux (1135-1142) by Isabel de Douvres, sister of Richard de Douvres, bishop of Bayeux (1107-1133). 56

. His mother is uncertain. -------------------- Baron de Creully & Torigni was born in 1100 at Caen, France. -------------------- Earl of Gloucester, Baron de Creully & Torigni -------------------- Robert, Earl of Gloucester, Baron de Creully & Torigni was born in 1100 at Caen, France. He married Maud FitzHamon, daughter of Robert FitzHamon and Sybil Montgomery, in 1119. Robert, Earl of Gloucester, Baron de Creully & Torigni died on 31 October 1147 at Bristol, Gloucestershire, England. http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p158.htm#i4734

-------------------- Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090 – October 31, 1147) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England, and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy. He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'. Early life: Robert was the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born well before his father's accession to the English throne, probably in the late 1080s, as he had himself had a son by 1104. Although generally said to have been the son of Sybil Corbet, his mother is not known for certain. Robert was acknowledged at birth, though in view of the vicissitudes of his father's career between 1087 and 1096 it is unlikely he was raised in his household. He was educated to a high standard, was literate in Latin and had a serious interest in both history and philosophy, which indicates that he was at least partly raised in a clerical household, a suggestion made all the more likely as his first known child, born around 1104, was born to a daughter of Samson, Bishop of Worcester (died 1112) who up till 1096 had been a Royal Chaplain and Treasurer of Bayeux. It may be significant that his next brother Richard was brought up in an episcopal household, that of Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln. Robert later received dedications from both Geoffrey of Monmouth and William of Malmesbury. William's 'Historia Novella' contains a flattering portrait of the Earl. Robert appears at court in Normandy in 1113, and around 1114 he married Mabel, eldest daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon, who brought him the substantial honour of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully. In 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester. Career at court: St Marys Church, Luton town centre, founded in 1121 by Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester.Robert developed a role as one of his father's principal aides and Captains. In 1119, he fought at the Battle of Bremule, and in 1123-24 he was one of the King's chief commanders during the Norman rebellion. Following the drowning of the King's only legitimate son, William Adelin, in 1120, Robert became increasingly caught up in his father's attempts to ensure the succession of the Empress Matilda, Robert's half-sister. It was to Robert's custody in his castle of Cardiff that his uncle, the deposed Duke Robert Curthose was eventually confided in 1126. On 1 January 1127 it was Robert who was one of the first to swear to accept Matilda as Queen after Henry's death. His father at some point gave him the keeping of the castles of Dover and Canterbury, and thus control of Kent and the cross-Channel route. When King Henry fell mortally ill at Lyons-la-Forêt in Normandy on 25 November 1135, Earl Robert was at his side and was one of the magnates who swore to stay with the King's body until it was buried. The King died a week after falling ill, on 1 December 1135. Relationship with King Stephen: After his father's death, Robert attended a series of conferences in Normandy and eventually accepted as King Theobald IV, Count of Blois and King Henry's oldest nephew by his sister Adela. However, during the meeting with Theobald, news reach the Norman magnates that Theobald's younger brother, Stephen of Mortain and Boulogne, had been accepted and crowned as King in England. Robert eventually accepted this and at Easter 1136 attended the new King's ceremonial court. He does not seem to have seriously considered supporting the Empress Matilda, and did not assist her invasion of southern Normandy. There is evidence in the contemporary source, the Gesta Stephani, that Robert was proposed by some as a candidate for the throne, but his illegitimacy ruled him out: "Among others came Robert, Earl of Gloucester, son of King Henry, but a bastard, a man of proved talent and admirable wisdom. When he was advised, as the story went, to claim the throne on his father's death, deterred by sounder advice he by no means assented, saying it was fairer to yield it to his sister's son (the future Henry II of England), than presumptuously to arrogate it to himself." This suggestion cannot have led to any idea that he and Stephen were rivals for the Crown, as Geoffrey of Monmouth in 1136 referred to Robert as one of the 'pillars' of the new King's rule. Robert of Gloucester had other distractions in 1136 which put the succession question out of his mind. The Welsh princes of south east Wales rose against the Anglo-Norman settlers of the Welsh Marches in April and Robert spent much of the year stabilising the situation in that region. He reached peace treaties with the Welsh and recognised the gains of Morgan ab Owain (died 1158), who called himself King of Glamorgan. In England, Robert of Gloucester soon became disenchanted with King Stephen, and by the end of 1137 had withdrawn from his Court. It is clear that he was disgruntled that he did not occupy the central place in politics that he had in the last reign. He was also alarmed at the favour with which the King regarded his Flemish mercenary general, William of Ypres, and the rising power of the Beaumont twins, Waleran de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Worcester, and Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester. In 1138, Robert declared his support for the Empress Matilda, but he was defeated in Normandy by Waleran and his English allies were crushed by Stephen and driven back on his fortress of Bristol. The Civil War, 1139-1147: Earl Robert took a great gamble and sailed for England with his half-sister, the Empress, his wife and a company of knights. They landed at Arundel on 30 September 1139, and were welcomed into Arundel Castle there, the possession of Queen Adeliza, Matilda's stepmother. Robert left for Bristol immediately. In his absence the castle was blockaded by King Stephen, opening the possibility that he might seize his dynastic rival. The King in the end let the Empress and Countess depart, under escort, to Bristol. With Earl Robert and the Empress in England and based in the West Country and Severn valley, the civil war had begun. The Earl's first moves are revealing. He commanded raids against Wareham in Dorset and Worcester. Both were possessions of the Beaumonts. He took Robert of Leicester's lands in Dorset for his own. He did much the same to other royalists within his area, mass deprivations which were at the heart of what is called the Anarchy. Although secure in a heartland of support, Earl Robert did not find it easy to recruit wider support and break out. The King succeeded in containing him along the line of the Cotswold Hills, with such effect that both sides were willing to send representatives to a peace conference held at Bath in August 1140, though nothing came of it. Earl Robert's big opportunity came at Christmas 1140, when King Stephen fell out with Earl Ranulf II of Chester. Ranulf's failed negotiations with the King to secure Lincoln Castle led him to ally with Robert, his father-in-law. They united their forces at Castle Donington in January 1141, including a host of Welsh mercenaries allied to Earl Robert. On 2 February 1141 the Earls met and defeated King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln. With the King captive, Empress Matilda should have secured the throne, but a combination of stubborn royalist support, the Empress's miscalculation and military misjudgement led to her failure. On 14 September 1141 Earl Robert and the Empress were trapped by a royalist army in an ill-judged attempt to seize control of Winchester. Earl Robert was captured fighting a rearguard action against the forces of Matilda of Boulogne, Stephen's wife, at the river crossing of Stockbridge to allow his sister to escape. Earl Robert was imprisoned for two months at Rochester Castle before he was released in an exchange with King Stephen. The cross-over point in the joint release was on 1 November 1141 at Winchester, where the two men had a chance to exchange friendly remarks, and the Earl apparently assured the King that there was nothing personal in the fight as far as he was concerned. The war continued and it rapidly became evident that it was a stalemate. The Empress's husband refused to commit the resources to tip the balance in England, only agreeing to discuss matters with the Earl. In June 1142 Robert crossed from Wareham to Normandy and stayed there till the end of October. He came back with no reinforcements, but with his nephew Henry, the son of the Empress. In the meantime the Empress had been trapped in Oxford. Nothing could be done to release her, and she had to manage her own escape from the castle. Robert continued the struggle but with less and less hope of ultimate victory. The King also had limited resources, but managed slowly to push towards Robert's centres of Bristol and Gloucester. At the end of 1145 Philip, Earl Robert's son and military Captain, defected to Stephen, taking with him the strategic castles of Cricklade and Cirencester. With Gloucester and Bristol under threat, the Earl opened negotiations in the autumn of 1146. The pressure continued in 1147, and it was in a desperate attack on Farnham in Surrey in the late summer of that year that Earl Robert fought his last unsuccessful action of the war. He retired to Bristol to gather new forces, but became feverish. He died on 31 October 1147 and was buried in the priory of St James he had founded outside the castle.

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Robert de Caen, Earl of Gloucester's Timeline

1057
1057
1090
1090
Caen, Calvados, Basse-Normandie, France,
1100
1100
Age 10
Gloucestershire, England
1102
1102
- 1147
Age 12
Consul, Earl Of Gloucester
1105
1105
Age 15
Bristol, Gloucestershire, England
1113
1113
Age 23
Bristol, Gloucestershire, , England
1113
Age 23
England
1115
1115
Age 25
Gloucestershire, England
1116
November 23, 1116
Age 26
Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England
1116
Age 26
Of, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England