Romanos II, Byzantine Emperor

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Romanos II, Byzantine Emperor

Nicknames: "император Роман II Лакапин", "Ρωμανός Β' της Μακεδονίας", "Byzantine Emperor II /Romanus/"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Constantinople, Byzantium (Today's Istanbul, Turkey)
Death: Died in (Byzantium), (Constantinople), Istanbul, Turkey
Place of Burial: King of Byzantine
Immediate Family:

Son of Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, Byzantine Emperor; Konstantinos VII Emperor of the Byzantine Empire; Hélène Lekapene, Empress Consort of the Byzantine Empire and Eleni Lekapene Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Husband of Theophano Phokas, Byzantine Empress and Berta Eudocia
Father of Βασίλειος Β / Basilus II Lecapenus, Byzantine Emperor; Thefania av Bysants; Constantine VIII Porphyrogenitos, Byzantine Emperor and Anna Porphyrogeneta, Princess Of Bulgaria
Brother of Isaakios I Komnenos; Agatha; Maria Irini, Princess Of The Byzantine Empire; Kristophoros Prince Of The Byzantine Empire BYZANTINE EMPIRE, Prince Of The Byzantine Empire and Leo
Half brother of Konstantinos Skleros

Occupation: Emperor, Empereur, de Byzance, Emperor of Constantinople, Kejsare, Empereur de Byzance 959-963, Kejsare av Bysants
Managed by: David Colin Bertelsen
Last Updated:

About Romanos II, Byzantine Emperor

  • Born: 938-939
  • Marriage (1): Bertha
  • Marriage (2): Theofano of Byzantium in 956
  • Died: 15 Mar 963 aged 24
  • Cause of his death: was poisoned.

Romanos II or Romanus II (Greek: Ρωμανός Β΄, Rōmanos II) (938–15 March 963) was a Byzantine emperor. He succeeded his father Constantine VII in 959 at the age of twenty-one, and died suddenly in 963.

Life

Romanos II was a son of Emperor Constantine VII and Helena Lekapene, the daughter of Emperor Romanos I and his wife Theodora. Named after his maternal grandfather, Romanos was married, as a child, to Bertha, the illegitimate daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy. On April 6, 945, after the fall of the Lekapenoi, Constantine VII crown his son Romanos co-emperor. With Hugh out of power in Italy and dead by 947, and Bertha herself dead in 949, Romanos secured the promise from his father that he would be allowed to select his own bride. Romanos' choice fell on an innkeeper's daughter named Anastaso, whom he married in 956 and renamed Theophano.

In November 959 Romanos II succeeded his father on the throne, among rumors that he or his wife had sped up the end of Constantine VII by poison. Romanos carried out a virtual purge of his father's courtiers and replaced them with his own friends and those of his wife. Among the persons removed from court were the Empress Mother, Helena, and her daughters, all of them being relegated to a monastery. Nevertheless, many of Romanos' appointees were able men, including his chief adviser, the eunuch Joseph Bringas.

The pleasure-loving sovereign could also leave military matters in the adept hands of his generals, in particular the brothers Leo and Nikephoros Phokas. In 960 Nikephoros Phokas was sent with a fleet of 1,000 dromons, 2,000 chelandia, and 308 transports (entire fleet was manned by 27,000 oarsmen and marines) carrying 50,000 men to recover Crete from the Muslims. After a difficult campaign and the 9-month siege of Chandax, Nikephoros successfully re-established Byzantine control over the entire island in 961. Following a triumph celebrated at Constantinople, Nikephoros was sent to the eastern frontier, where the Emir of Aleppo Sayf al-Daula was engaged in annual raids into Byzantine Anatolia. Nikephoros conquered Cilicia and even Aleppo in 962, sacking the palace of the Emir and taking possession of 390,000 silver dinars, 2,000 camels, and 1,400 mules. In the meantime Leo Phokas and Marianos Argyros had countered Magyar incursions into the Byzantine Balkans.

After a lengthy hunting expedition Romanos II took ill and died on March 15, 963. Rumor attributed his death to poison administered by his wife Theophano. Romanos II's reliance on his wife and on bureaucrats like Joseph Bringas had resulted in a relatively capable administration, but built up resentment among the nobility, which was associated with the military.

General Notes:

Romanus II succeeded his father Constantine VII as Byzantine emperor in 959 at the age of twenty-one, and died, poisoned, it was believed, by his wife Theophano, in 963.

As a child he was married to Bertha, the illegitimate daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, but, with Hugh out of power in Italy and dead by 947, and Bertha herself dead in 949, Romanus secured the promise from his father that he would be allowed to select his own bride. Romanus' choice fell on an innkeeper's daughter named Anastaso, whom he married and renamed Theophano.

He was a pleasure-loving sovereign, but showed judgment in the selection of his ministers. The great event of his reign was the reconquest of Crete from the Saracen Arabs by his general and eventual successor, Nicephorus Phocas in 961.

Den østromerske keiser protesterte mot Otto "den Store"'s keiserverdighet, som i sin tid mot Karl "den Store"'s, og sa til hans utsending at det rett og slett var en skandale at en saksisk barbar våget å legge seg til en så opphøyet titel. For å fremtvinge en anerkjennelse, rykket Otto da inn i de østromerske besittelsene i Syd-Italia, men samtidig tilbød han forsoning ved å foreslå ekteskap mellom sin og Adelheis unge sønn Otto og en bysantisk prinsesse. Som Ottos utsending dro biskop Liutprand til Konstantinopel for å fremføre frieriet. Men den stolte østromerske keiseren var mektig forarget over at tyskerne hadde rykket inn på hans område og ville slett ikke høre tale om noen dynastisk forbindelse. Liutprand ble behandlet som en spion og fikk ikke engang foretrede for keiseren. Da han langt om lenge likevel ble mottatt ved hoffet, begynte keiseren å spørre ham ut om Ottos stridskrefter. Da biskopen hadde svart på spørsmålene, tordnet keiseren: "Du lyver! Din herres krigere duger hverken til å ride eller til å kjempe til fots. De store skjoldene de bruker og de tunge panserne og hjelmene, for ikke å snakke om de lange sverdene, gjør begge deler umulig, og" - la han hånlig til - "drikk og fråtsing hindret dem også, for de har gjort buken til sin gud; motet deres er bare en rus og tapperheten drukkenskap. Forresten har din herre ingen flåte. Jeg alene er mektig til sjøs. Jeg skal angripe ham med mine skip, ødelegge havnebyene hans og alt land langs elvene. Og hvem skulle vel kunne motstå meg til lands, jeg, som har like mange krigere, som det finnes bølger i havet og stjerner på himmelen!"

Da Liuprand ville svare ham, ble han hysjet ned og hånet med ordene: "Dere er slett ikke romere men langobarder!" I stedet for å oppta dette som en fornærmelse, ga biskopen til svar at de østromerske keisere kunne føre sine aner tilbake til brodermorderen Romulus. "Vi langobarder og andre germanere" - fortsatte han - "forakter romernavnet i den grad at vi bruker det som skjellsord når vi er fortørnet på noen. For med navnet romer forbinder vi alt som tenkes kan av nedrighet, feighet, griskhet, lystenhet, løgnaktighet, ja over hodet alle laster."

Følgen ble naturligvis at keiseren i sin vrede befalte Liutprand å gå tilbake til sitt losji, hvor han ble behandlet så dårlig at han ble alvorlig syk. Han var mer død enn levende da han omsider ble satt på fri fot og fikk lov til å reise hjem igjen. Men selv da ble han utsatt for forferdelige trusler og fornærmelser.

Romanos regjerte svakt. Dog ble Kreta erobret fra maurerne under hans regjeringstid. De ble også overvunnet i Lilleasien og Syria.

Noted events in his life were:

• Acceded: Emperor of Byzantium, 959.

--------------------

Romanos II was a son of Emperor Constantine VII and Helena Lekapene, the daughter of Emperor Romanos I and his wife Theodora. Named after his maternal grandfather, Romanos was married, as a child, to Bertha, the illegitimate daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, who changed her name to Eudokia after her marriage. On April 6, 945, after the fall of the Lekapenoi, Constantine VII crown his son Romanos co-emperor.[citation needed][clarification needed] With Hugh out of power in Italy and dead by 947, and Bertha herself dying in 949, Romanos secured the promise from his father that he would be allowed to select his own bride. Romanos' choice fell on an innkeeper's daughter named Anastaso, whom he married in 956 and renamed Theophano.

In November 959 Romanos II succeeded his father on the throne, among rumors that he or his wife had contributed to the death of Constantine VII by poisoning him. Romanos purged his father's courtiers of his enemies and replaced them with his friends and those of his wife. Among the persons removed from court were the Empress Mother, Helena, and her daughters, all of them being sent to a nunnery. Nevertheless, many of Romanos' appointees were able men, including his chief adviser, the eunuch Joseph Bringas.

The pleasure-loving sovereign could also leave military matters in the adept hands of his generals, in particular the brothers Leo and Nikephoros Phokas. In 960 Nikephoros Phokas was sent with a fleet of 1,000 dromons, 2,000 chelandia, and 308 transports (entire fleet was manned by 27,000 oarsmen and marines) carrying 50,000 men to recover Crete from the Muslims[1]. After a difficult campaign and the 9-month siege of Chandax, Nikephoros successfully re-established Byzantine control over the entire island in 961. Following a triumph celebrated at Constantinople, Nikephoros was sent to the eastern frontier, where the Emir of Aleppo Sayf al-Daula was engaged in annual raids into Byzantine Anatolia. Nikephoros conquered Cilicia and even Aleppo in 962, sacking the palace of the Emir and taking possession of 390,000 silver dinars, 2,000 camels, and 1,400 mules. In the meantime Leo Phokas and Marianos Argyros had countered Magyar incursions into the Byzantine Balkans.

After a lengthy hunting expedition Romanos II took ill and died on March 15, 963. Rumor attributed his death to poison administered by his wife Theophano, but there is no evidence of this.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanos_II

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Kjesare. Death: 15 mars 962/63

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Romanus II, Emperor of Constantinople held the office of Co-regent of Constantinople in 945. He succeeded to the title of Emperor Romanus II of Constantinople in 959

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanos_II

Romanos II

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Romanos II

Ρωμανός Β΄

Emperor of the Byzantine Empire

Romanos II from "Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum"

Byzantine Emperor

Reign November 959 – 15 March 963

Coronation 6 April 945 as co-emperor

Predecessor Constantine VII

Successor Nikephoros II

Spouse Eudokia of Italy

Theophano

Issue

Basil II

Constantine VIII

Anna Porphyrogeneta

Dynasty Macedonian

Father Constantine VII

Mother Helena Lekapene

Born c. 938

Died 15 March 963

(aged 44–45)

Romanos II or Romanus II (Greek: Ρωμανός Β΄, Rōmanos II) (938–15 March 963) was a Byzantine emperor. He succeeded his father Constantine VII in 959 at the age of twenty-one, and died suddenly in 963.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Life
   * 2 Family
   * 3 References
   * 4 External links

[edit] Life

Death of Romanos II

Romanos II was a son of Emperor Constantine VII and Helena Lekapene, the daughter of Emperor Romanos I and his wife Theodora. Named after his maternal grandfather, Romanos was married, as a child, to Bertha, the illegitimate daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, who changed her name to Eudokia after her marriage. On April 6, 945, after the fall of the Lekapenoi, Constantine VII crown his son Romanos co-emperor.[citation needed][clarification needed] With Hugh out of power in Italy and dead by 947, and Bertha herself dying in 949, Romanos secured the promise from his father that he would be allowed to select his own bride. Romanos' choice fell on an innkeeper's daughter named Anastaso, whom he married in 956 and renamed Theophano.

In November 959 Romanos II succeeded his father on the throne, among rumors that he or his wife had contributed to the death of Constantine VII by poisoning him. Romanos purged his father's courtiers of his enemies and replaced them with his friends and those of his wife. Among the persons removed from court were the Empress Mother, Helena, and her daughters, all of them being sent to a nunnery. Nevertheless, many of Romanos' appointees were able men, including his chief adviser, the eunuch Joseph Bringas.

The pleasure-loving sovereign could also leave military matters in the adept hands of his generals, in particular the brothers Leo and Nikephoros Phokas. In 960 Nikephoros Phokas was sent with a fleet of 1,000 dromons, 2,000 chelandia, and 308 transports (entire fleet was manned by 27,000 oarsmen and marines) carrying 50,000 men to recover Crete from the Muslims[1]. After a difficult campaign and the 9-month siege of Chandax, Nikephoros successfully re-established Byzantine control over the entire island in 961. Following a triumph celebrated at Constantinople, Nikephoros was sent to the eastern frontier, where the Emir of Aleppo Sayf al-Daula was engaged in annual raids into Byzantine Anatolia. Nikephoros conquered Cilicia and even Aleppo in 962, sacking the palace of the Emir and taking possession of 390,000 silver dinars, 2,000 camels, and 1,400 mules. In the meantime Leo Phokas and Marianos Argyros had countered Magyar incursions into the Byzantine Balkans.

After a lengthy hunting expedition Romanos II took ill and died on March 15, 963. Rumor attributed his death to poison administered by his wife Theophano, but there is no evidence of this and Theophano would have been risking much by exchanging the secure status of a crowned Augusta with the precarious one of a widowed Regent of her very young children. Romanos II's reliance on his wife and on bureaucrats like Joseph Bringas had resulted in a relatively capable administration, but this built up resentment among the nobility, which was associated with the military. In the wake of Romanus' death, his Empress Dowager, now Regent to the two co-emperors, her underage sons, was quick to marry the general Nikephoros Phokas, and acquire another general, John Tzimiskes, as her lover, having them both elevated to the imperial throne in succession. The rights of her sons were, however, safeguarded and eventually, when Tzimiskes died at war, Basil II (her elder son) became senior emperor.

[edit] Family

Romanos II probably never consummated his first marriage to Bertha of Italy. By his second wife Theophano, he had at least three children:

  1. Basil II
  2. Constantine VIII
  3. Anna, who married Vladimir I of Kiev.

[edit] References

  1. ^ The above numbers are disputed. Most historians accept 100 dromons, 200 chelandia, 308 transports and a total of 77,000 men. The Byzantine navy was the continuation of the Roman navy. Also, Byzantine Navy, Wikipedia
   * Leo the Deacon, Histories
   * Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 By Frederick Lewis Weis, Line 147-20
   * The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.
   * George Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State, 1969.
   * This article incorporates text from the article "Romanus II" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
   * John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Apogee, 1991.

[edit] External links

   * Media related to Romanus II at Wikimedia Commons

Romanos II

Macedonian Dynasty

Born: 938 Died: 963

This page was last modified on 6 August 2010 at 10:24.

--------------------

ROMANOS ([937/38]-15 Mar 963). Theophanes Continuatus records that "Romanus imperator" was 21 years old when he succeeded "patre suo Constantino Porphyrogenneto"[822]. He was crowned co-emperor 6 Apr 945. He succeeded his father in 959 as Emperor ROMANOS II. -------------------- Romanos II

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Romanos II or Romanus II (Greek: Ρωμανός Β΄, Rōmanos II) (938–15 March 963) was a Byzantine emperor. He succeeded his father Constantine VII in 959 at the age of twenty-one, and died suddenly in 963.

Life

Romanos II was a son of Emperor Constantine VII and Helena Lekapene, the daughter of Emperor Romanos I and his wife Theodora. Named after his maternal grandfather, Romanos was married, as a child, to Bertha, the illegitimate daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy. On April 6, 945, after the fall of the Lekapenoi, Constantine VII associated his son Romanos on the throne. With Hugh out of power in Italy and dead by 947, and Bertha herself dead in 949, Romanos secured the promise from his father that he would be allowed to select his own bride. Romanos' choice fell on an innkeeper's daughter named Anastaso, whom he married in 956 and renamed Theophano.

In November 959 Romanos II succeeded his father on the throne, among rumors that he or his wife had sped up the end of Constantine VII by poison. Romanos carried out a virtual purge of his father's courtiers and replaced them with his own friends and those of his wife. Among the persons removed from court were the Empress Mother, Helena, and her daughters, all of them being relegated to a monastery. Nevertheless, many of Romanos' appointees were able men, including his chief adviser, the eunuch Joseph Bringas.

The pleasure-loving sovereign could also leave military matters in the adept hands of his generals, in particular the brothers Leo and Nikephoros Phokas. In 960 Nikephoros Phokas was sent with a fleet of 1,000 dromons, 2,000 chelandia, and 308 transports carrying 50,000 men to recover Crete from the Muslims. After a difficult campaign and the 9-month siege of Chandax, Nikephoros successfully re-established Byzantine control over the entire island in 961. Following a triumph celebrated at Constantinople, Nikephoros was sent to the eastern frontier, where the Emir of Aleppo Sayf al-Daula was engaged in annual raids into Byzantine Anatolia. Nikephoros conquered Cilicia and even Aleppo in 962, sacking the palace of the Emir and taking possession of 390,000 silver dinars, 2,000 camels, and 1,400 mules. In the meantime Leo Phokas and Marianos Argyros had countered Magyar incursions into the Byzantine Balkans.

After a lengthy hunting expedition Romanos II took ill and died on March 15, 963. Rumor attributed his death to poison administered by his wife Theophano. Romanos II's reliance on his wife and on bureaucrats like Joseph Bringas had resulted in a relatively capable administration, but built up resentment among the nobility, which was associated with the military.

[edit]Family

Romanos II probably never consummated his first marriage to Bertha of Italy. By his second wife Theophano, he had at least three children:

Basil II

Constantine VIII

Anna, who married Vladimir I of Kiev.

References

Leo the Deacon, Histories

Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 By Frederick Lewis Weis, Line 147-20

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.

George Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State, 1969.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "Romanus II", a publication now in the public domain.

John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Apogee, 1991.

-------------------- Possibly was poisoned by his wife

view all 17

Romanos II, Byzantine Emperor's Timeline

929
929
Constantinople, Byzantium (Today's Istanbul, Turkey)
956
956
Age 27
957
957
Age 28
Constantinople, Turkey - 2nd wife
958
958
Age 29
Constantinople,Byzantium
959
959
Age 30
Emperor
959
Age 30
Emperor
959
Age 30
Emperor
960
960
Age 31
Of, Constantinople, Cnstantinople, Turkey
960
Age 31
Constantinople, Constantinople, Turkey
963
March 13, 963
Age 34
Constinople, Turkey