Rurik, Grand Duke of Novgorod, Founder of the Rurikid Dynasty

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Rurik of Novogorod (Ruß), Grand Duke of Novgorod

Russian: Рюрик of Novogorod (Ruß), Свеаланд Новгородский князь, German: Rurik (Roderick) von Novgorod (Ruß), Großherzog von Novgorod, Dutch: Rurik (Roderick) van Novgorod (Ruß), Grote Hertog van Novgorod, French: Rurik (Roderic) de Novgorod (Ruß), grand duc de Novgorod
Also Known As: "Riurik", "Rørik", "Roderick", "of Holmgård"
Birthplace: Scandinavia
Death: Died in Veliky Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast, Russia
Place of Burial: Peredolskaya Volost, Batetsky District, Novgorod Oblast, Russia
Immediate Family:

Son of Unknown father of Rurik and Umila, dau. of Gostomysl
Husband of Ingrid of Norway and Efanda Princess of Urman, Grand Duchess of Novgorod
Father of Ephanda Ruriksdotter; Son of Rurik Rurikid and Igor I of Kiev, Prince of Rus
Half brother of Sineus; Truvor Obodrite; Uma and Izborsk (Beozersk) Rus' Denmark 0- Oklogsland

Occupation: Prince Of Holmgård (Novgorod), Ryska rikets grundare, founded the Rurik Dynasty which ruled Russia until the 17th century, викингски военачалник
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Rurik, Grand Duke of Novgorod, Founder of the Rurikid Dynasty

The connection of Umila to Rurik as his mother is controversial and based only upon the writings of Vasily Tatishchev.

Tatishchev's work, published after his death in 1750, is purported to be based on the Ioachim Chronicle an ancient manuscript which he discovered but was then lost. Modern thinking is that the nature of the Ioachim Chronicle is highly dubious.

Tatishchev (a Rurikid himself) claimed that Rurik was of Wendish extraction and went so far as to name his wife, Ufanda of Norway (Endvinda? Alfrind?); mother, Umila; his maternal grandfather, Gostomysl; and a cousin, Vadim.


Rurik / Riurik / Рюрик / (c. 830 – 879) Haplotype N1c1d1 (genetic DNA group) Born: Unknown, Mecklenburg, Roslagen, Svealand

Died: 879, Novgorod

Father: Goldau / Goldav of Obodrite

Mother: Unknown

Spouse: Efanda of Urman (Edvina Alfrind Ingrid) and Unknown

Issue [two possible children]: Igor, and Unknown

In addition to Igor, Rurik have probably had other children, since in the Russian-Byzantine treaty of 944 were mentioned two nephews of Igor Rurikid - Igor and Akun.

Rurik (d. 879 in Novgorod) is identified sometimes with konung Rorik (Hrørek) of Jutland Hedebyu (Denmark) (d. before 882). This is a different profile. Rurik - representative of the princely family Obodrite, and its name - it's a Slavic tribal nickname associated with the falcon, which is the Slavic languages ​​are also called Rarog.

Note: The earliest generations of the so-called Rurikid family are reconstructed solely on the basis of the sparse information in the "Povest' vremennykh let" or 'Tale of the Years of Time', better known as the Primary Chronicle and also sometimes known as Nestor´s Chronicle. As pointed out by Franklin & Shepard, the extant manuscripts of the Primary Chronicle which date from the 12th century should not be taken at face value as they must have been compiled from patchy sources of information. It is likely that the compilers exaggerated the role of Rurik's family in the 9th and 10th centuries, in order to establish a lengthy, credible history for the Russian principalities which were flourishing by the 12th century. Any reconstructed genealogy of the Rurikid dynasty during the early years, as well as all dates and even names, must be viewed with caution.


Rurik was a Varangian chieftain who gained control of Ladoga in 862, built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod, and founded the Rurik Dynasty which ruled Kievan Rus and then Galicia-Volhynia until the 14th and Muscovy until the 16th century.

Even though some historians emphasize folklore roots for the Rurik legend and consequently dismiss Rurik as a legendary figure, there is a controversy about his ethnic origins in Eastern Europe.


A recent DNA research project by Dr. Andrzej Bajor of Poland, under the auspices of the Family Tree DNA Rurikid Dynasty Project of FamilyTree DNA company, seeks to more accurately place Rurik within the light of history and out of the shadows of legend, while simultaneously trying to map his modern descendants. The DNA results of 191 men claiming to be Rurikid descendants indicate that most (68%) of the them had haplogroup N1C1, tagged with L550, characteristic of the southern Baltic and Scandinavian people. Further genetic studies seem to indicate the existence of two major haplogroups among modern Rurikids: the descendants of Vladimir II Monomakh (Monomakhoviches) and some others are of N1c1 group (130 people or 68%), while the descendants of a junior prince from the branch of Oleg I of Chernigov (Olgoviches) and some others (total 45 peoples or 24%) are of R1a and R1b haplogroups typical for Slavic, Germanic and Celts peoples. According to the Russian Newsweek magazine it indicates that it could have been a non-paternity event in the Chernihiv branch during wars between royal clans. The project of Bajor started with test of 12 well documented genealogy-traced Rurikid descendants, from widely varying branches (two Gagarins, a Khilkov, Vadbolsky, Puzyna, Kropotkin, Lobanov-Rostovsky, Shakhovskoy, Myshetsky, Solomin, Rzhevsky, Putyatin), whose Y-DNA shows they belong to the same N1C1 agnatic lineage, some of them did additional 67 markers test that allowed to establish unique Rurikid DNA pattern.

Rurikid descendants

The Rurikid dynasty went on to rule Kiev and its vast Empire. After the disintegration of Kievan Rus' in the 13-14th centuries, the dynasty continued to rule two of the three successor states. One, Galicia-Volhynia, was ruled by the Rurikid dynasty until the deaths of Andrew and Lev II in 1323. The other was the north-eastern principality of Vladimir-Suzdal, which later became the Grand Duchy of Moscow and eventually the Tsardom of Russia. The last Tsar from the Rurikid dynasty was Fedor I, who died in 1598. One descendant of the Rurikid Grand Prince of Tver was Catherine the Great, who married Peter III of the Romanov dynasty in 1745, uniting the two dynasties. Composer Modest Mussorgski, anarchist Peter Kropotkin and filmmaker Jacques Tati were descended from Rurik in the male line, as are many noble Russian families. Among these descendants of Rurik are the Volkonsky, Belosselsky-Belozersky, Obolensky, Shuyski, Dolgorukov, Khilkoff, Repnin, Gorchakov, Gagarin, and Putyatin families, as well as Ruthenian families of Ostrogski, Massalski, and Czetwertyński. Through the Ukrainian-born wife of the twelfth-century King Henry I of France, many Western Europeans, noble and commoner alike, can claim descent from Rurik. Henry's queen had been born Anne of Kiev, daughter of Yaroslav the Wise, probably a great-great-great-grandson of Rurik. ______________________________________________________

(Моля, спазвайте нашата работа, or in English: We ask that you save our work. Ben notes: Apparently it is a text that explains that Rurik is really Bulgarian by the name of Lachin. However, it provides only assertion and no sources to back it.)

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From the English Wikipedia entry:


There is a debate over how Rurik came to control Ladoga and Novgorod. The only information about him is contained in the 12th-century Russian Primary Chronicle, which states that Chuds, Slovene (one of the tribes of eastern Slavs), Merias, Veses and Krivichs (also a slavic tribe) "…drove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, and set out to govern themselves".

Afterwards the tribes started fighting each other and decided to invite Rurik to reestablish order.

Rurik remained in power until his death in 879.

He married Efanda (Edvina Alfrind Ingrid) of Urman. His successors (the Rurik Dynasty), however, moved the capital to Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus, which persisted until 1240, the time of Mongol invasion. A number of extant princely families are patrilineally descended from Rurik, although the last Rurikid to rule Russia, Vasily IV, died in 1612.

There is a large 9th-century funerary barrow in Novgorod Oblast called Shum Gora, intricately defended against looting.[clarification needed] It remains to be excavated. The local inhabitants refer to it as Rurik's Grave.

Disputed origin

Even though some historians emphasize folklore roots for the Rurik legend and consequently dismiss Rurik as a legendary figure, there is a controversy about his ethnic origins in Eastern Europe.

According to the Primary Chronicle Rurik was one of the Rus, a Varangian (sea travelers, perhaps VIKINGS) tribe likened by the chronicler to Danes, Swedes, Angles, and Gotlanders. In the 20th century, archaeologists partly corroborated the chronicle's version of events. It was discovered that the settlement of Ladoga, whose foundation has been ascribed to Rurik, was actually established in the mid-8th century. Earthenware, household utensils, and types of buildings from the period of Rurik's foundation correspond to patterns then prevalent in Jutland. (For the Redhead Encyclopedia entry, please see below.)

Some Slavic historians (B.A. Rybakov and his followers among them) argue that the account of Rurik's invitation was borrowed by a pro-Scandinavian chronicler from a hypothetical Norse document. For instance, the Primary Chronicle states that Rurik arrived to Slavic lands with two brothers, Sineus and Truvor, and sent them to rule the towns of Beloozero and Izborsk, respectively. Instead of connecting Sineus to Signjotr and Truvor to Torvald, they suggest that the chronicler read a hypothetical Scandinavian document and misinterpreted the Norse words 'sine hus' (with house) and 'tru voring' (with loyal guard) as the names of Rurik's brothers: Sineus and Truvor.

There is another theory that Rurik, on account of common intermarriages between Varangians and Slavic women, was of mixed Slavic-Varangian descent. This theory is based on the information of the first modern historian of Russia, Vasily Tatishchev (a Rurikid himself), who claimed that Rurik was of Wendish extraction. He went so far as to name his mother, Umila; his maternal grandfather, Gostomysl; and a cousin, Vadim. Rurik's father were from Finland. Those who assume good faith on Tatishchev's part point out that he based his account on the lost Ioachim Chronicle.

Last there is a theory that identifies Rurik with the Danish Viking lord Rorik of Dorestad, who ruled the western coast from Jutland down to northern France.

There is a popular legend of Rurik and his brothers, was published in the 30s of the XIX century French traveler and writer Xavier Marmier in his book "The Nordic letter." He wrote it in northern Germany, in Mecklenburg peasants who lived on the lands of the former bodrichey, by that time fully Germanize. The legend tells that in the VIII century, the tribe managed Obodrite king named Godlav, the father of three boys, the first of which was called the Peaceful Rurik, the second - a Victorious Siwar, the third - Truvaom Faithful. The brothers decided to go in search of glory in the land to the east. After many terrible deeds and fighting brothers came to Russia, whose people suffered under the burden of long tyranny, but did not dare to rebel. Brothers Obodrite awakened the local people asleep courage, led an army and overthrow their oppressors. Restoring peace and order in the country, the brothers decided to return to the old father, but a grateful people begged them not to go and take the place of former kings. So Rurik received Novgorod principality (Nowoghorod), Siwar - Pskov (Pleskow), Truvar - Belozersk (Bile-Jezoro). Because after a while the younger brothers died, leaving no legitimate heirs, Rurik annexed their principality to his becoming the founder of the dynasty. It should be noted that this is the only mention of Rurik in western folklore, although the date of the legend can not be established. Tradition written a century later after the publication of Mecklenburg genealogy Rurik.

-------------------- -------------------- Enligt viss forskning anses han som grundare av Ryska riket. Vissa källor menar att var en Sveahövding från Roslagen och därav namnet. Andra sammanbinder honom med en storman från Danmark vars namn var Roric eller att han har finskt eller slaviskt ursprung

О {profile::pre} (Русский)

Дата – 28 марта

Тип праздника – языческий (Скандинавия)

День Рагнара Лодброка отмечается в скандинавских странах 28 марта. Саги говорят о том, что тысячу сто лет тому назад на острове Зеландия (Дания) жил вождь Рагнар по прозвищу Лодброк, что значит "Кожаные Штаны". Прозвище он получи за то, что в детстве угодив в змеиное логово, остался в живых благодаря жестким кожаным штанам.

Рагнар Лодброк - легендарный конунг Дании и Швеции, представитель рода Инглингов, правивший примерно в 8 или 9 веках.

Достоверных источников, подтверждающих существование Рагнара, нет. В основном подробности его жизни и деятельности известны из скандинавских саг. Предполагают, что исторический Рагнар (если таковой был) действовал в первой половине IX века и был одним из наиболее влиятельных военных вождей Дании. Вероятно, он был сыном Сигурда Кольцо.

Важнейшие события, приписываемые Рагнару — нападение на Францию и захват Парижа в 845 году и нападение на английское королевство Нортумбрию в 865. В ходе последнего войско Рагнара было разбито, сам он попал в плен и по приказу короля Аэллы был сброшен в яму с ядовитыми змеями, где умер мучительной смертью.

Согласно сагам, многочисленные сыновья Рагнара (Ивар Бескостный, Бьорн Железнобокий и другие) в 867 вторглись в Англию, отомстили за гибель отца и положили начало датскому завоеванию острова. Сыновья Рагнара пленили и затем казнили короля Аэллу, который умер в жестоких мучениях.

Некоторые источники называют период правления Лодброка 750–794, другие — 860–865 годы. Наиболее вероятными считают годы правления Лодброка с 835 до самой смерти в 865 году, когда он проявил себя в качестве влиятельного военачальника и диктатора. Возможно, что королем Лодброк был признан только последние пять лет своей жизни.

Рагнар был язычником, провозгласившим себя одним из прямых потомков бога Одина. Его излюбленной военной стратегией было совершение набегов на христианские города во время религиозных праздников - Лодброк знал, что именно в такое время все военачальники и солдаты присутствуют на церковной службе.

К 845 году Лодброк был уже влиятельным правителем, и, наверное, — современником первого правителя Руси, викинга Рюрика. Лодброк всегда искал новых приключений, постоянно ощущая беспокойство, что его пиратствующие сыновья когда-нибудь совершат более заметный поступок, затмив тем самым славу отца.

В 845 году Лодброк разорил Западную Францию, поднявшись по Сенне на 120 драккарах и уничтожив разделенную на две части армию французского короля Карла Лысого, и захватил Париж, за возвращение которого викинг-захватчик потребовал большой выкуп. Возвращаясь домой викинги Рагнара разорили монастырь Св. Бергена в Сент-Омере.

В этот день язычники почитают этого храброго воина прочтением саг о его подвигах. Празднование этого дня сегодня - прославление храбрости и мужества. В этот день произносится тост в честь Рагнара и читается его Сага. -------------------- КИЕВСКОТО БЪЛГАРСКО КНЯЖЕСТВО

В края на ІХ век град Киев става столица на независимо княжество. Това е естествена последица от икономическото, културното и политическо развитие на района, а не прищявка на варяга Рюрик с дружината му от скандинавски произход. Варягите несъмнено са играли съществена роля в борбата за надмощие в районите на Киев и Новгород, но според летописа на Волжска България - Български летописи - Джагфар тарихи6, Рюрик /с българското име Лачин/ е брат на кан Джилки /855-882 г./ и син на кан Урус Айдар /805-855 г./. След смъртта на последния във Волжска България започват междуособни борби между кан Джилки като законен наследник и застъпник на исляма, и Лачин/Рюрик/ - по-малкия син, поддържник на старата вяра. През първата половина на ІХ век районът около Киев и на север до Балтийско море, който е северозападната част от Велика България, наречен „Ак Урус” – Бяла България за разлика от остатъчната Волжска България, наречена ”Кара Урус” – Черна България, е управляван от таркан Будим /787-859 г./, син на кан Крум и брат на кан Омуртаг. В контекста на политическите реалности по Северното Причерноморие и изобщо на територията на бивша Велика България това означава зависимост на Киев от Дунавска България. Не случайно в Джагфар тарихи са отбелязани приятелството и дружеските връзки между Шамбат, един от първите български владетели на Киев и брат на Кубрат, и Аспарух, както и обезателството поето от Аспарух, след смъртта на Шамбат да попечителства наследниците му, останали в най-западните части на Велика България. Поради особено благоприятното си местоположение, Киев става стратегическа цел за Рюрик /Лачин/, тъй като цетралните райони на Волжска България остават твърдо под властта на брат му кан Джилки. За овладяването на Киев, Лачин/Рюрик/ използва военна подкрепа както от хазарите, така и от варягите. При военни действия с променлив успех, на страната на Рюрик участва варягът Асколд /Халиб/, а на страната на кан Джилки, варягите Ерик и синът му Олег/Салахби/. От 875 г. българинът Джун, внук на Будим и варягът Олег /Салахби/, син на Ерик са съуправители на Киевска и Новгородска област, зависими от Волжска България и настойници на сина на Рюрик – Угор Лачин, който е държан под стража. В 911 г. синът на Асколд , Худ, завзема Киев и издига за княз сина на Рюрик - българинът Угор Лачин /Игор Рюриков/. С това прекъсва политическата зависимост на Киев както от Волжска, така и от Дунавска България. Основоположникът Лачин /Рюрик/, синът му Угор /Игор/ – княз до 945 г. и останалите князе от Рюриковия род укрепват властта си над околните славянски племена, развиват и укрепват икономическата и политическа независимост на княжеството от Хазарския хаганат и поддържат близки отношения с Аспарухова България. Те остават в историята като създатели на киевската княжеска и по-късно царска династия, не поради нов, чужд или специален етнически произход. И преди тях владетелите на Киев са българи. Не и поради религиозни причини. Те също са езичници, както и предшествениците си. Не и поради династична приемственост, защото предшествениците им също са преки наследници на български канове. Те стават основоположници на Киевската княжеска и царска династия, защото извоюват пълната независимост на Киевското княжество.

About Rurik, Grand Duke of Novgorod, Founder of the Rurikid Dynasty (svenska)

Från Wikipedia:

Rurik eller Rjurik född omkring 800, död omkring 879, var enligt den ryska Nestorskrönikan en varjag (nordman) som sägs vara grundare av Kievriket och stamfader till den fursteätt som styrde fram till 1598. Hans egentliga nordiska namn anses ha varit Rörik (Hrörekr). Några säkra historiska uppgifter om vem Rurik var eller varifrån han kom finns inte, men enligt Nestorkrönikan tillhörde han dock den varjagiska (nordiska) stam som hette ruser och som av de flesta historiker anses vara desamma som svearna.


Rurik eller Rjurik född omkring 800, död omkring 879, var enligt den ryska Nestorskrönikan en varjag (nordman) som sägs vara grundare av Kievriket och stamfader till den fursteätt som styrde fram till 1598. Hans egentliga nordiska namn anses ha varit Rörik (Hrörekr).

Några säkra historiska uppgifter om vem Rurik var eller varifrån han kom finns inte, men enligt Nestorkrönikan tillhörde han dock den varjagiska (nordiska) stam som hette ruser och som av de flesta historiker anses vara desamma som svearna. Klart är dock att han kom till Ladoga, huvudstad i Slavija. Det skedde vid en tidpunkt i historien när Novgorod sannolikt ännu inte existerade (staden omnämns första gånegn 859 och var då belägen vid dagens Rjurikovo Gorodisjtje, Ruriks stad).

I Ladoga har arkeologer funnit en nordisk kyrkogård med bland annat kvinnogravar. Kyrkogården har varit i bruk under åren 850-925, har arkeologerna slagit fast. Det finns olika teorier om nordmännens ankomst och maktövertagande. Men det mesta är inte belagt historiskt och Ruriks historia är i mångt och mycket en gåta.

Enligt Nestorskrönikan (som enbart finns bevarad i två omskrivna versioner: Laurentian codex och Hypatian codex) tog han tillsammans med två bröder år 862 makten över Kievriket. Dessa två bröder anses dock av vissa forskare ha uppstått vid transkriberingar av krönikan varvid de fornnordiska begreppen "sine hus" (blodsfränder/hushåll) och "thru voring" (svurna hirdmän/krigare) skall av ryska krönikörer ha kommit att tolkas som namnen Sineus respektive Truvor.

Ruriks son Igor, egentligen Ingvar, (född 875, död 945), var furste i Kiev, mellan 912 och 945. Rurik och hans bröder kallas i krönikan för ruser, som sägs vara ett slags varjager. Enligt den övervägande majoriteten historiker både i Sverige och internationellt var Rurik från Sverige. Det hindrar dock inte att exempelvis vissa finska spekulationer gör gällande att han var av finsk-ugrisk härkomst. En dansk forskare har föreslagit att Rurik var en jylländsk storman vid namn Røric. Vissa ryska historiker vill göra gällande att Rurik egentligen var en vendisk (slavisk) storman och härrörde från den polsk-tyska Östersjökusten.

Några kilometer söder om Novgorod ligger en plats med tjocka kulturlager som sedan 1800-talet kallats för Rjurikovo Gorodisjtje ("Ruriks gamla stad"). Denna plats har undersökts arkeologiskt på senare år och uppvisar många fynd av nordiska typ från 800-talet. Dock är forskningen tveksam till om Rurik verkligen kan anses vara tillräckligt bevisad som historisk person. En vikingahövding vid namn Rörik finns även omnämnd i klosterkällor som den som med sin här erövrade regionen motsvarande dagens Friesland på Nordsjökusten år 850.

Rurik-ätten härskade i Ryssland till år 1598.

Ur Nestorkrönikan Översättning av Gabriella Oxenstierna, 1998

859 . Varjagerna från andra sidan havet tog skatt från tjuderna och från slaverna, från mererna, från vepserna och från krivitjerna. Medan kozarerna tog skatt från poljanerna, severerna och vjatitjerna - de tog ett vitt ekorrskinn per härd.

862. De jagade bort varjagerna över havet och gav dem ingen skatt och började själva härska. Men det fanns ingen rätt bland dem och släkt reste sig mot släkt och det blev inbördes kamp emellan dem och de började kriga mot sig själva. Och de sade till varandra: "Låt oss söka oss en furste som skall härska över oss och döma rätt." Och de drog över havet till varjagerna, till ruserna. Ty dessa varjager kallades ruser på samma sätt som andra kallas svear, andra åter normanner och angler och ytterligare andra för goter - på samma sätt även dessa. Och tjuderna, slaverna, krivitjerna och vepserna sade till ruserna: Vårt land är stort och rikt, men det finns ingen ordning i det. Kom och var furstar över oss." Och man valde tre bröder med deras släkter och de tog med sig alla ruserna och kom. Den äldste, Rurik, bosatte sig i Novgorod, den andre, Sineus, bosatte sig vid Beloozero, och den tredje, Truvor, i Izborsk. Och efter dessa varjager fick det rusiska landet sitt namn: folken i Novgorod är av varjagisk släkt, tidigare var de slaver. Två år senare dog Sineus och hans bror Truvor. Och Rurik tog makten och förlänade åt sina män olika städer - en fick Polotsk, en Rostov och en annan Beloozero. I dessa stä-der är varjagerna inflyttare, medan de ursprungliga invånarna i Novgorod var slaver, i Polotsk krivitjer, i Rostov merer, i Beloozero vepser, i Murom muroma; och över dem alla härskade Rurik. Han hade två män, som inte var av hans släkt, inte heller av bojarsläkt och de bad att få resa till Kejsarstaden med sin släkt. Och de begav sig iväg längs Dnepr, och när de passerade förbi, fick de på ett berg syn på en liten stad. Och de frågade och sade: "Vems stad är detta?" Och man sade. "Det fanns tre bröder, Kij, Sjtjek och Choriv, som byggde denna lilla stad, och de dog, och vi, deras släkt bor här och betalar skatt till kozarerna. Askold och Dir stannade kvar i denna stad och samlade kring sig många varjager och började härska över poljanernas land, och då härskade Rurik i Novgorod

År 879 Då Rurik dött överlämnade han sitt furstendöme till Oleg, som var av hans släkt, sedan han i hans vård överlämnat sin son Igor, ty denne var minderårig.

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Rurik, Grand Duke of Novgorod, Founder of the Rurikid Dynasty's Timeline

Age 32

According to the ancient Russian chronicle of the XII century "Tale of Bygone Years," in 862 Varangian Rurik and his brothers at the invitation of such tribes as the Chud, Ilmen Slovenes, Krivichi and the whole was intended to reign in Novgorod. This event, which traditionally is measured from the beginning of statehood of Eastern Slavic historiography was the code name calling of the Varangians. The chronicler described the cause of strife invitations, swept lived in Novgorod lands Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes. Rurik came with his entire clan, called Rus, ethnicity is still debated.

Rurik first went to Ladoga, and only in 864 to the area of Novgorod and established the town. Novgorod was build 2 years after the death of Rurik.

Age 46
Novgorod, Novgorod, Russia
Age 48
Novgorod, Russia
Age 49
Veliky Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast, Russia
Age 49
Peredolskaya Volost, Batetsky District, Novgorod Oblast, Russia
Age 49
Age 49
November 30, 1929
Age 49
November 30, 1929
Age 49