SUGREEVA VANARA, THE KING OF MONKEYS. (deceased)

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About SUGREEVA VANARA, THE KING OF MONKEYS.

THE KING, of the monkeys, he is dethroned by his evil brother Bali due to a misunderstanding when both fight a water buffalo together and Sugreeva accidentally leaves Bali trapped in a cave, thinking he is dead. Bali then defeats Sugreeva and bansishes him to the forest. Rama and Lakshmana form an alliance with Sugreeva and help him regain his throne and defeat Bali. In return, Sugreeva pledges his monkey The story of Sugriva is part of the Ramayana and, in an abbreviated version, is also present in the Mahabharata. Sugriva and Vali have a disagreement Rama Meets Sugreeva Vali ruled the kingdom of Kishkindha; his subjects were the vanaras, or monkeys. Tara was his wife. One day, a raging demon by the name of Maayaavi came to the gates of the capital and challenged Vali to a fight. Vali accepted the challenge, but when he sallied forth, the demon fled in terror into a deep cave. Vali entered the cave in pursuit of the demon, telling Sugriva to wait outside. When Vali did not return, and upon hearing demonic shouts in the cave and seeing blood oozing from its mouth, Sugriva concluded that his brother had been killed. With a heavy heart, Sugriva rolled a boulder to seal the cave's opening, returned to Kishkindha, and assumed kingship over the vanaras. Vali, however, ultimately prevailed in his combat with the demon and returned home. Seeing Sugriva acting as king, he concluded that his brother had betrayed him. Though Sugriva humbly attempted to explain himself, Vali would not listen. As a result, Sugriva was ostracized from the kingdom, Vali forcibly took Sugriva's main wife, Rumā, and the brothers became bitter enemies.[1] Sugriva then goes on to live on Rishyamukh as its the only place on earth that Vali cannot tread on. Vali was previously cursed by Sage Matang and hence cannot lay a foot on this piece of land. Doing so would cause his death. [edit]Sugriva makes an alliance with Rama

Rama and Lakshmana Meet Sugriva at Matanga’s Hermitage In exile, Sugriva made the acquaintance of Rama, the Avatar of Vishnu, who was on a quest to rescue his wife Sita from the demon Ravana, king of the Rakshasas. Rama promised Sugriva that he would kill Vali and would reinstate Sugriva as the king of the monkeys. Sugriva, in turn, promised to help Rama with his quest.[2] [edit]Rama kills Vali; Sugriva takes over the vaanara kingdom

Killing of Vali Monkey Together, Sugriva and Rama went to seek out Vali. While Rama stood back, Sugriva shouted a challenge, and dared him to battle. The brothers rushed at each other, fighting with trees and stones, with fists, nails and teeth. They were evenly matched and indistinguishable to the observer, until Sugriva's counsellor Hanuman stepped forward and placed a garland of flowers around Sugriva's neck. It was then that Rama emerged with his bow and drove an arrow through Vali's heart. When Vali had expired, Sugriva reclaimed the monkey kingdom, took back Vali's (and his former) wife, Rumā, and took over Vali's main wife, Tara, who became empress, and her son by Vali, Angada, who became crown prince.[3] [edit]Tara convinces Sugriva to help Rama to conquer Lanka and to rescue Sita

Tara and Sugriva with Lakshmana. When Rama decided to move against Lanka, he was angered because Sugriva spent his time carousing and seemed to forget his pledge to help Rama. Rama's brother, Lakshmana, was about to destroy the monkey kingdom and kill Sugriva. It was only after the diplomatic intervention of Tara that Lakshmana was pacified. Then through Tara's efforts Sugriva and Rama were reconciled. Sugriva sent his trusted advisor Hanuman to determine Sita's whereabouts. Hanuman's finding was that Ravana was holding Sita captive in his island fortress of Lanka Then Sugriva placed his army of monkeys at Rama's disposal. The army crossed into Lanka by means of a specially erected bridge and laid siege to Ravana's citadel. After some hard fighting, the monkeys prevailed over the demons, Rama slew Ravana, and Sita was liberated.[4] During the battle, Sugriva almost came to a violent death when he decided to take on the Rakshasa Kumbhakarna, a brother of Ravana. Seeing the demon in the middle of the fray, Sugriva attacked him with the trunk of a sala tree. The tree, however, merely broke over the demon's head. Kumbhakarna then seized Sugriva and dragged him off, and no doubt would have killed him but for the timely intervention of Rama's brother Lakshmana.[5] [edit]Sugriva and his fight with Lava & Kusha

Sugreeva fight with Ravana On Lakshmana’s request and after Guru Vasistha’s approval Rama plans to do Ashvamedha Yagya. At this auspicious occasion he calls Sugriva along with Angada, Nala, Neela, Jambavantha and Hanuman to come to Ayodhya. Rama greets and hugs Sugriva, Jambavantha and others on their arrival to Ayodhya. The Yagya horse was captured by Lava and Kusha brothers. In the Rama’s army the news spreads that two muni kumara’s has captured the Yagya’s horse. Shatrughana walks and fights with Lava and he was defeated by Lava. Then Lakshamana comes and he was also defeated by Lava. Then Bharata asks Rama to give him the permission to go to set horse free from both muni Kumara. Sugriva and Hanumana also request Rama to permit them to go along with Bharata in the battle. Lava and Kusha defeat Bharata and Sugriva and take Hanumana as a prisoner. Hanumana was the only servant to Rama that knew that Lava and Kush were the sons of his master & Sita and thus allowed himself to be imprisoned by his master's sons.[6] Sugreev and Baali were two brothers. Baali was elder and Sugreev was younger. Their mortal father's name was RIKSH RAAJ. Otherwise Baali was Indra's son, and Sugreev was SOORYA's son.

Please read the details of Birth of Baali and Sugreev -

How these two brothers were born is an interesting story. On the peak of Sumeru Parvat there is Brahmaa's court - in 100 Yojan wide area. Once Brahmaa Jee was doing Tapasyaa, two drops of tears fell from His eyes. Brahmaa Jee took them in His hand wiped His hand with His body. Later when He shook His hand one drop fell on the ground. A Vaanar was born from that drop. He said to Vaanar - "You stay on the peak of this mountain. After some time it will be good to you."

The Vaanar went away and started living there on fruits and flowers. He used to offer flowers to Brahmaa Jee daily. Thus a long time passed. One day Riksh Raaj got thirsty so he looked for a pond, and as he bent down to drink water, he saw his shadow in that water. He thought "Who is this my enemy here? I will kill him." And he jumped into the water. But when he came out he found himself changed into a beautiful woman.

By chance both Soorya and Indra were passing from there. Both saw that beautiful woman, and had a desire to have her. Indra's semen got ejaculated and fell on the head of the woman, so a Vaanar was born from that. Because he was born from her hair, he was called Baali (Baal means hair in Hindi); while Sun's semen got ejaculated and fell on her neck, so another Vaanar was born from there and was called Sugreev (Su means good, and Greev means neck in Hindi).

Indra gave a qualitative gold necklace to Baali and Soorya appointed Hanumaan in the service of Sugreev. After this that woman again became Riksh Raaj. Thus Riksh Raaj was both their mother as well as mortal father. After some time Riksh Raaj went to Brahmaa Jee. Brahmaa Jee asked him to live in Kishkindhaa Nagaree and sent a messenger with him to appoint his elder son as the king of that Nagaree. Vaanar were already living there. So all started living there. Baali was appointed the king of Vaanar. After some time Riksh Raaj died. First Online: January 01, 2006 Page Last Updated: June 30, 2012

Background

Brothers Vali and Sugreeva are the royal apes of Kishkindha forest. However, Vali has denied the younger brother his fair share after a misunderstanding, and has banished the younger brother from the kingdom.

Meanwhile, brothers Rama and Laxmana are searching for Sita.

Friendship of Rama and Sugreeva

On their long search, Rama and Laxmana reached Rishyamukha mountains. Sugreeva spotted them, and impressed by their royal appearance sent his assistant monkey Maruti (a.k.a. Hanuman), to befriend them. Rama was equally eager to meet Sugreeva. Maruti then took them to Sugreeva's forest court.

kamat.com/Kamat's Potpourri

Rama Meets Sugreeva Painting by Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi, 1912

Apparently, Sugreeva had preserved the ornaments Sita threw at him, as a symbol of identity, when Rawana was carrying her away through air. Listening to Rama's story, Sugreeva showed the ornaments to Rama, which he instantly recognized as his wife's. Rama's grief was great at the sight of lost Sita's jewelry. Sugreeva promised him all help to find out Sita's whereabouts. Rama in return promised to kill the usurper Vali and get back Sugreeva's lost kingdom.

Killing of Vali

With Rama's assistance Sugreeva was able to challenge Vali in combat. Finally, the arrow shot from a distance by Rama killed the powerful warrior monkey, Vali.

kamat.com/Kamat's Potpourri

Killing of Vali Monkey Painting by Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi

It is said that Rama could not identify who was Vali and Sugreeva! The artist has shown a garland around Sugreeva's shoulder that Rama might have used to distinguish who is his friend and who was Vali.

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SUGREEVA's Timeline

-5077
April 3, -5077
Hampi, Karnataka, India

Sugreeva, Ramayana
Sugreeva, the monkey-king of Kishkindha aided Rama in the rescue operation of Sita.

In Hindu mythology Sugreeva was the younger brother of Vali, and the ruler of the kingdom Kishkindha. In some legends Sugreeva is depicted as son of Surya, the sun God. As the leader of monkeys Sugriva helped Rama to search and liberate his wife, Sita from the captivity of Rakshasa king Ravana.

Another legend says that Sugreeva is the son of Ahalya and Indra. Ahalya was the beautiful wife of Sage Gautama. Lord Indra and Surya came in the guise of sage Gautama and they had union with Ahalya. Ahalya had two sons, Sugreeva and Vali, who came from Indra and Surya respectively. At first they both were human beings but as soon as sage Gautama came to know that they were not his sons he threw Vali and Sugreeva in oceans and cursed them to turn into monkeys.

Vali ruled the kingdom of Kishkindha to the subjects of Vanara or monkeys. Tara was his wife and Sugreeva was his brother. At first the two brothers were very closed to each other. One day, a raging demon came to the gate of the capital and challenged Vali in a fight. Vali accepted the challenge but as soon as he proceeded towards the demon it was afraid and flew away in a deep cave. Vali entered the cave chasing the demon and asked his younger brother Sugreeva to guard the entrance of the cave. Sugreeva waited there for a long time but nobody came out.

Instead Sugreeva could hear great roar of the demon and the blood oozed out from the mouth of the cave. Sugreeva with a heavy heart concluded that his bother Vali had died in the battle and sealed the mouth of the cave by rolling a boulder. He returned to the Kishkindha and gave the news to other monkeys. He then took the charge of the kingdom as the ruler. But Vali was alive and conquered the battle. When ultimately he could return home he found that Sugreeva had become the king of Kishkindha. Vali decided that his brother Sugreeva had betrayed him. Though Sugreeva humbly tried to explain everything but Vali was not ready to listen anything. As a result he banished Sugreeva from Kishkindha and the two brothers, who were once good friends, became enemies.

In exile, Sugriva met Shri Rama, who was the avatar of Vishnu. Rama was searching for his wife Sita who was kidnapped and captivated by Ravana, the demon king of Lanka. Sugreeva joined Rama in quest of Sita. Rama promised in return that he would kill Vali and would re-enthrone Sugreeva as the king of Kishkindha.

Rama and Sugreeva went for Vali. Rama stood back while Sugreeva accused Vali for taking over his wife and kingdom and challenged him in a fight. The two monkey brothers, Vali and Sugreeva rushed to each other, fighting with trees and stones and with fist, teeth and nails. They both look alike and indistinguishable in the eyes of the observer. So Sugreeva`s counceller Hanuman stepped forward and put a garland of flowers around Sugreeva`s neck. Rama then could easily distinguish Vali and killed him by driving an arrow through Vali`s heart. When Vali had expired Sugreeva married his widow Tara and anointed in the throne of Kishkindha.

Sugreeva sent his most trusted companion Hanuman to find Sita. Hanuman returned with the news that Ravana, the demon king had captivated Sita in his island fortress of Lanka. When Rama decided to set for Lanka, Sugreeva also joined him along with his monkey-army to help him. When the army reached the seashore they built a special bridge across the sea to reach Lanka. The army also protected Rama in his citadel. After the great battle, Rama killed Ravana and Sita was liberated.

During the battle Sugreeva almost died when he decided to face a Rakshasa Kumbhakarna, the brother of Ravana. Sugreeva attacked the demon with the trunk of the Sala tree. The tree merely broke over Kumbhakarna`s head. The demon then caught hold of Sugreeva and dragged him off. He was sure to kill him but Rama`s brother Lakshman interfered and saved Sugreeva`s life.

-5077
Hampi, Karnataka, India

The Kishkindha Kanda is set in the monkey citadel Kishkindha. Rama and Lakshmana meet Hanuman, the greatest of monkey heroes and an adherent of Sugriva, the banished pretender to the throne of Kishkindha.[47] Rama befriends Sugriva and helps him by killing his elder brother Vali thus regaining the kingdom of Kiskindha, in exchange for helping Rama to recover Sita.[48] However Sugriva soon forgets his promise and spends his time in debauchery. The clever monkey Queen Tara, second wife of Sugriva (initially wife of Vali), calmly intervenes to prevent an enraged Lakshmana from destroying the monkey citadel. She then eloquently convinces Sugriva to honor his pledge. Sugriva then sends search parties to the four corners of the earth, only to return without success from north, east and west.[49] The southern search party under the leadership of Angad and Hanuman learns from a vulture named Sampati that Sita was taken to Lanka.[49][50]

-5077
-5077
Hampi, Karnataka, India

Kishkindha (kannada: ಕಿಶ್ಕಿನ್ದಾ, IAST: Kiṣkindhā, Devanagari: किष्किन्धा) is the mythical monkey (Vanara) kingdom of the Vanara King Sugriva, the younger brother of Bali, in the Indian mythology of Ramayana times. This was the kingdom where he ruled with the assistance of his friend, Hanuman.
Kishkindha

View of Kishkindha
This kingdom is identified to be the regions around the Tungabhadrariver (then known as Pampa Saras) near Hampi in Karnataka. The mountain near to the river with the name Rishimukha where Sugriva lived with Hanuman, during the period of his exile also is found with the same name.
During the time of Ramayana i.e., Treta Yuga, the whole region was within the dense forest called Dandaka Forest extending from Vindhyarange to the South Indian peninsula. Hence this kingdom was considered to be the kingdom of Vanaras which in Sanskrit means "apes", "monkeys" or "forest-animals". During Dwapara Yuga, thePandava Sahadeva was said to visit this kingdom, as per the epicMahabharata, during his southern military campaign to collect tribute for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice.

-5076
April 16, -5076
Hampi, Karnataka, India

BALI & SUGRIVA ROARED ON APRIL 3, 5076 BC.

A stone bas relief at Banteay Srei in Cambodia depicts the combat between Vali and Sugriva. In the middle, the two brothers are shown fighting. To the right, Rama fires his bow. To the left, Vali lies dying in the arms of another monkey.
Sugriva challenged Vali to a fight. When Vali sallied forth to meet the challenge, Rama emerged from the forest to shoot and kill him with an arrow, from the back of a tree.
Now Rama faces the injured Vali. A dying Vali told Rama if you are searching your wife you should have come to me for help and friendship. Whoever took Sita even if it is Ravana I have defeated them and would have taken them at your feet and at your mercy.
So Vali asked the following questions:
• What was my crime?
• Even if I committed a crime (with my brother), what is your right to kill me?
• The third statement shows Vali's disapproval of the way Rama killed him. He says, "I was fighting with some other person and was not careful enough when you shot me."
Rama makes the following replies to Vali:
• The younger brother should be treated like a son. Even if he made a mistake you should forgive him, specially when he promised to respect you for your whole life.
• About his authority he said he had permission from King Bharat to spread righteousness and punish evils.
• The third argument he quoted how great kings did hunting of deers in the past. In fact, Baali in principle could also be kept in the category of deers and a hunting king does not care whether the deer was careful or not.

September 14, -5076
Rameshwaram, Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu, India

HANUMAN RETURNS

57)

Hanuma leaps from the coast of Lanka and touches Mount Mainaka, which he came across in the way. He advances further and roars at the top of his voice at the Mount Mahendra, so as to bring jubilation to the monkeys awaiting his return there. Jambavan tells the monkeys, who moved by jumps with joy on hearing Jambavan, that Hanuma has returned successfully, from his expedition as way evident from his jubilant roar. Having greeted Jambavan, Angada and others on alighting on the summit of Mount Mahendra, Hanuma narrates to them briefly the story of his discovery of Seetha. Applauding Hanuma, prince Angada, who was eager to hear the story, sits down on a rock along with all others.

58) Sampaati informs Angada about Seetha, Ravana, and Lanka after narrating his and his brother Jataayu's flights and plights. Sampaati narrates what he has seen when Seetha was abducted by Ravana and concludes her to be Seetha for she was incessantly calling for Rama's help. He gives an account of the lavish city Lanka as an eagle which has seen that city from this shore of ocean, though he cannot fly as the scorching sun previously burnt both of his wings. Then the returnless monkeys on getting a bare beacon of indication from the lighthouse called Sampaati, they feel highly rejoiced on the seashore.

59) Describing the plight of Seetha to his fellow monkeys, Hanuma expresses his feeling that it behooved them all to see Rama only after restoring Seetha from Lanka. Hanuma says that even single-handed, he is capable of destroying that City of Lanka with its troops of demons, and killing Ravana, much more so when accompanied by heroic, mighty and powerful monkeys. Then, he recounts the past heroic exploits of Jambavan, Angada, Neela, Panasa, Mainda and Dvivida. Hanuma thus incites them all to decided consciously of a war against Lanka.

60)
Angada suggest with enthusiasm that Seetha must be restored by them only, after conquering Lanka. But Jambavan replies that it is not proper for them to do like that; without enquiring about Rama's intention.

61)


Leaving Mount Mahendra and leaping ahead towards Kishkindha, the monkeys on their way halt at Madhuvana, a protected grove abounded in honey which was dear to Sugreeva and guarded by the monkey, Dadhimukha. When the monkeys started to enjoy drinking of honey in the grove with the permission of Prince Angada, Dadhimukha hinders in their way. The monkeys bruise Dadhimukha with their nails and teeth.

62)
The monkeys enter Madhuvana and partake the honey in plenty, as permitted by Hanuma and Angada. Singing and dancing as if in a drunken state, the monkeys were obstructed by those guarding the grove. The terrific monkeys warded off the guards, nay, they even dragged them by their knees and tossed them up in the air. The guards then went to Dadhimukha, the chief of the garden-guards and complained him of the matter. Dadhimukha along with his followers appears on the scene and invade the monkeys with trees and rocks. Angada thrashed Dadhimukha with his arms and made him fall on the ground. Dadhimukha along with his followers then proceed to Kishkindha to report the matter to him. Dadhimukha bows down and touches Sugreeva's feet as a mark of salutation.
63)
Dadhimukha comes to Sugreeva and reports that Madhuvana, the grove abounding in honey, has been damaged by monkeys headed by Angada and Hanuma. When Lakshmana in the vicinity enquires Sugreeva about the matter, Sugreeva says that by hearing about the jubilation of the monkeys, it can be concluded that Seetha has been traced out. Assuaging Dadhimukha, Sugreeva asks him to send without delay, Hanuma, Angada and others to him, so as to hear about their efforts in tracing out Seetha.

64
Coming back to Madhuvana as instructed by Sugreeva, and craving forgiveness of Angada, Dadhimukha submits to him that he along with the other monkeys are urgently required by Sugreeva. Angada and other monkeys including Hanuma spring forward into the air towards Kishkindha. Even before the arrival of those monkeys, Sugreeva explains to Rama the valid reasons for concluding that Seetha has since been found. Angada, Hanuma and other, monkeys approach Sugreeva. Then, Hanuma apprises Rama of the discovery of Seetha. Hearing the news, Rama and Lakshmana were thrilled with joy and looked on Hanuma with a high esteem.
65) )
Angada, Hanuma and other monkeys approach Rama, Lakshmana and Sugreeva at Mount Prasravana. When monkeys start narrating the news of Seetha, Rama asks further details of Seetha. Then, the monkeys request Hanuma to explain the occurrences to Rama in detail. Then, Hanuma appraises Rama of Seetha's presence at the foot of a Simsupa tree in the midst of female-demons. After narrating the incidents related by her and delivering to Rama the jewel for the head, earlier handed-over by Seetha as a token, Hanuma conveys her message to Rama.
66)
Rama, presses the jewel for the head, dispatched by Seetha on his bosom and speaks to Sugreeva, telling him that by seeing that excellent jewel he obtains the sight of Seetha, her father and father-in-law. Rama urges Hanuma, to repeat the words spoken by Seetha.
67)
Hanuma narrates at length an incident connected with a crow that occurred during the sojourn of Seetha with Rama at Chitrakuta, which was related by Seetha by way of a token of remembrance. Seetha then describes her miserable state to Hanuma and requests him to ask Rama, Lakshmana and Sugreeva to come to Lanka to destroy Ravana together with his army. Hanuma consoles Seetha, saying that Rama and Lakshmana would reduce Lanka to ashes and take her back to Ayodhya. When Hanuma further requests Seetha to give a token of remembrance to be handed over to Rama, she gives him a jewel for the head as a token.
68)
Hanuma informs Rama how Seetha expressed her grave doubt as to how monkeys and bears can leap across a vast sea, as well as her appeal to Rama to destroy Ravana along with his entire army in Lanka and take her back to Ayodhya. Hanuma further informs Rama, how he resolved her doubt by explaining the prowess of the troops of monkeys and bears, commanded by Sugreeva as also how he brought solace and peace to her from her worries.
69)

December 4, -5076
Sri Lanka

JOURNEY TO LANKA STARTED BY RAM ON19TH SEPTEMBER 5076 BC.
ARMY REACHED FORT LOCATED ON THE HILL ON 12 TH OCTOBER, 5076 BC.. MEGANATH WAS KILLED BY LAXMAN ON 23RD NOVEMBER 5076 BC.
Yuddha kanda 61) to 70)
SUMMARY OF YUDDHA KANDA CHAPTERS GIVEN BELOW.

VALMiki Rämäyana
Book Six - Yuddha Kända
Contents
Chapter 1 : Rama appreciates Hanuma and embraces him
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Chapter 2 : Sugreeva comforts Rama
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Chapter 3 : Rama requests Hanuma to describe Lanka in detail
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Chapter 4 : Rama fixes an auspicious hour for the departure
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Chapter 5 : Sri Rama recollects the lotus-eyed Seetha
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Chapter 6 : Ravana calls a meetings of his ministers
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Chapter 7 : The demons inspire Ravana
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Chapter 8: All demons eulogising their strengths
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Chapter 9 : Vibhishana speak words of morality
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Chapter 10 : Vibhishana advises Ravana to restore Seetha to Rama
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Chapter 11 : Ravana goes again to the assembly hall
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Chapter 12 : Ravana instructs Prahasta to defend Lanka
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Chapter 13 : Mahaparsva's advise to Ravana
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Chapter 14 : Vibhishana informs about the power of Rama's arrow
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Chapter 15 : Indrajit criticizes Vibhishana
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Chapter 16 : Ravana refuses to hear the words of Vibhishana
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Chapter 17 : Vibhishana reaches Rama’s places
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Chapter 18 : Vibhishana joins as an associate in Rama’s side
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Chapter 19 : Vibhishana seeks refuge at the feet of Rama
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Chapter 20 : Ravana sends Shuka to Sugreeva as an ambassador
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Chapter 21 : Rama becomes angry at the ocean
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Chapter 22 : Sea-god advices Rama with joined palms to build a bridge
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Chapter 23 : Rama explains to Lakshmana the various portents
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Chapter 24 : Rama orders for release of Suka
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Chapter 25 : Suka explains the strength of the enemy's army to Ravana
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Chapter 26 : Ravana enquires about the various monkey leaders
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Chapter 27: Sharana describes the individual strength of the army
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Chapter 28: Shuka enumerates the enemies
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Chapter 29: Ravana reprimands Shuka and Sarana
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Chapter 30: Ravana dispatches Sardula the demon-spy
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Chapter 31: Rama enters Lanka at Suvela Mountain
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Chapter 32: Seetha sees the illusory head and bow
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Chapter 33: Sarama restores confidence to Seetha
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Chapter 34: Sarama consoles Seetha
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Chapter 35: Seetha asks Sarama about Ravana's decision
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Chapter 36: Ravana abuses Malyavan
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Chapter 37: Vibhishana sends spies into Lanka
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Chapter 38: Rama decides to stay on Suvela mountain
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Chapter 39: Rama and others see the charming garden on Suvela mountain
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Chapter 40: On seeing Ravana Sugreeva bounces on him
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Chapter 41: Rama sends Angada to Ravana
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Chapter 42: Ravana commands his army to commence combat
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Chapter 43: The duels arose between the monkeys and demons
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Chapter 44: Indrajit comes back in an invisible form
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Chapter 45: Two scions of Raghu dynasty fall on the ground
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Chapter 46: Ravana applauds his son for his daring act
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Chapter 47: Seetha bursts into sobs after hearing about Rama and Lakshmana
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Chapter 48: Trijata reassures Seetha
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Chapter 49: Vibhishana approaches Rama
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Chapter 50: Garuda the King of Birds appears
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Chapter 51: Dhumraksha enters the battle field
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Chapter 52: Dhumraksha along with army attacks the monkeys
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Chapter 53: Ravana sends Vajradamstra
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Chapter 54: Vajradamstra shows terror among the monkeys
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Chapter 55: Ravana next sends Akampana
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Chapter 56: Akampana enters the battle-field
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Chapter 57: Ravana asks Prahasta to go to the battle

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Chapter 58: Vibhishana explains the prowess of Prahasta
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Chapter 59: Ravana himself appears on the battle-front
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Chapter 60: Ravana sends demons to wake up Kumbhakarna
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Chapter 61: Rama enquires about Kumbhakarna
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Chapter 62: Kumbhakarna enters the abode of Ravana
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Chapter 63: Kumbhakarna reassures Ravana
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Chapter 64: He advises Kumbhakarna
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Chapter 65: Kumbhakarna rebukes Mahodara
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Chapter 66: Angada reassures the monkeys to return to the battle
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Chapter 67: Kumbhakarna was slain in battle
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Chapter 68: Ravana’s grief over the deaths
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Chapter 69: Death of Narantaka
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Chapter 70: Hanuma kills Trishira
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Chapter 71: Lakshmana kills Atikaya
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Chapter 72: Ravana’s grief over Atikaya’s death
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Chapter 73: Rama and Lakshmana fell unconscious
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Chapter 74: Hanuma’s journey to Himalayas
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Chapter 75: The battle resumes
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Chapter 76: Sugreeva kills Kumbha
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Chapter 77: Kumbha’s brother, Nikumbha faces the battle
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Chapter 78: Ravana orders Makaraksha
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Chapter 79: Makaraksha challenges Rama to fight with him
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Chapter 80: Ravana instructs Indrajit to enter the battle field.
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Chapter 81: Indrajit places illusory live image of Seetha
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Chapter 82: Hanuma Leads the monkey army
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Chapter 83: Seetha has been killed by Indrajit
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Chapter 84: Vibhishana tells the secret of conjuring trick
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Chapter 85: Rama sends Lakshmana to kill Indrajit
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Chapter 86: Indrajit enters the battle-filed again
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Chapter 87: Indrajit’s harsh words to Vibhishana
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Chapter 88: A fierce battle starts between Lakshmana and Indrajit
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Chapter 89: Vibhishana destroys many demons
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Chapter 90: Indrajit’s horse was killed
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Chapter 91: Lakshmana and others were treated by Sushena
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Chapter 92: Ravana feels distressed over his son's death
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Chapter 93: Rama destroys the troops of demons
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Chapter 94: The female-demons lament over the death of their kit and kin
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Chapter 95: Ravana fights fiercely with monkeys
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Chapter 96: Sugreeva kills Virupaksha
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Chapter 97: Sugreeva kills Mahodara
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Chapter 98: Angada kills Mahaparsva
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Chapter 99: The battle between Rama and Ravana
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Chapter 100: Ravana runs away from the battle-field
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Chapter 101: Hanuma brings mountain with life giving herbs
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Chapter 102: Ravana gets severely hurt
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Chapter 103: Ravana’s charioteer carries away Ravana in the chariot
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Chapter 104: Ravana re-approached the battle-field
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Chapter 105: Sage Agastya’s advice
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Chapter 106: Rama spoke to Matali
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Chapter 107: Rama and Ravana perform a fierce battle
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Chapter 108: Rama kills Ravana
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Chapter 109: Rama directs Vibhishana to perform the obsequies to Ravana
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Chapter 110: All the consorts of Ravana lament
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Chapter 111: Madodari laments on Ravana’s death
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Chapter 112: Vibhishana’s installation
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Chapter 113: Hanuma informs Seetha about Rama’s victory
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Chapter 114: Vibhishana brings Seetha to Rama
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Chapter 115: Rama disowns her and asks her to seek shelter elsewhere.
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Chapter 116: Seetha’s taunting reply to Rama
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Chapter 117: Gods reach Lanka and approach Rama
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Chapter 118: The fire-god appears in person from the burning pyre
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Chapter 119: Lord Shiva informs Rama about his father
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Chapter 120: Indra’s boon to Rama
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Chapter 121: Rama prepares to leave for Ayodhya
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Chapter 122: Rama along with Lakshmana and Seetha ascend the aerial car
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Chapter 123: Rama shows to Seetha the places
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Chapter 124: Rama lands at Sage Bharadwaja hermitage
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Chapter 125: Hanuma informs Bharata about Rama’s return
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Chapter 126: Hanuma recounts to Bharata about Rama in the forest
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Chapter 127: Bharata commands for appropriate arrangements for the reception of Rama in the City of Ayodhya
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Chapter 128: Sri Rama pattabhishekam (It is customary to read this chapter once reading of Sundara Kanda is finished)
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Chapter 61) Rama sees Kumbhakarna with a colossal body and enquires Vibhishana about a report of him. Then Vibhishana apprises Rama about Kumbhakarna and narrates his story of his getting curse from Brahma, imprecating him to sleep apparently Vibhishana adds that on an appeal from Ravana Brahma relaxed the curse saying that Kumbhakarna would keep sleeping for every six months and then waking up for a day in a year Vibhishana informs Rama that Ravana got Kumbhakarna awakened and is sending now to the battle. Rama then orders Neela the commander-in-chief to marshal his entire army of monkeys in their appropriate positions in Lanka. On hearing Rama's orders the army of monkeys start their fighting operation.
Chapter 62) Kumbhakarna enters the abode of Ravana and sees his worried brother sitting inPushpaka, a self-moving aerial car. Kumbhakarna asks Ravana about the nature of work to be done by him and whether he has to kill anyone. Ravana replies that Rama has come with troops of monkeys including Sugreeva, after crossing the ocean by a bridge, to wage a battle Ravana requests Kumbhakarna to show his terrible prowess in killing all the adversaries in battle.
Chapter 63) Kumbhakarna abuses Ravana for his utter disregard of the earlier advices given by his well-wishers like Vibhishana, due to his sheer arrogance and neglect of the scriptures which enumerate the king's duties. Ravana replies to Kumbhakarna that bygone is a bygone and asks him to proceed to the battle-front. Then, Kumbhakarna reassures Ravana and promises him that all the adversaries would be destroyed by him in the ensuing battle.
Chapter 64) Mahodara excitedly speaks to Kumbhakarna about the true character of virtue, worldly gain as well as sensuous pleasure in a person and supports Ravana for his actions. He advises Kumbhakarna not to go single-handed to fight with mighty Rama, but to take the army with him. Mahodara then suggests to Ravana a strategy to fulfill his purpose without a combat.
Chapter 65) Kumbhakarna rebukes Mahodara for rendering a wrong advice to Ravana. He asserts Ravana, saying that he will annihilate Rama in battle. Ravana gets pleased and orders Kumbhakarna to wipe off the monkeys together with Rama and Lakshmana in battle. Then, Ravana arranged for ornamentation of the various limbs of Kumbhakarna with various types of jewellery, before sending him to the battle. As Kumbhakarna sallies forth to the battle, several bad omens appear on all sides. Kumbhakarna disregards these portents and marches ahead for the battle. Seeing the colossal form of Kumbhakarna, all the monkeys get frightened and take to their heels.
Chapter 66) Seeing Kumbhakarna coming with his colossal body and emitting a tremendous roar, the monkeys scare away. Angada reassures the monkeys, who then return to the battle field to resume fight. When the monkeys start attacking Kumbhakarna, the latter crushes some monkeys with rage. Then again, the monkeys get frightened and run away in different directions. Angada then restores the monkeys to confidence once more and all the monkeys stand awaiting the command of Angada.
Chapter 67) Restored to confidence by Angada, all the monkeys return to the battle-field. Dvivida, a leader of the monkeys hurls a mountain towards Kumbhakarna, but it misses the target and falls on horses, elephants and chariots of the enemy. Dvivida hurls another mountain and some demons are killed. Hanuma strikes Kumbhakarna with a large mountain-peak and injures him severely. In reply, Kumbhakarna strikes on Hanuma's chest with his spike. Then, Kumbhakarna strikes other monkey-chiefs who attack him. Thousands of monkeys then ascend Kumbhakarna's body and encounters him with their nails, fists, teeth and arms. In response, Kumbhakarna destroys all those monkeys with his spike. When Angada, the leader of the monkeys, attacks Kumbhakarna, the latter strikes Angada violently and Angada falls unconscious. Then, Kumbhakarna begins his attack on Sugreeva. But, Sugreeva strikes Kumbhakarna's chest with a mountain, but the mountain only breaks into pieces. When Kumbhakarna throws his spike towards Sugreeva in retaliation, Hanuma stops it on the way and breaks it off. Then, Kumbhakarna hurls a mountian-crust on Sugreeva to make him unconscious and takes him away on his shoulders to Lanka. When Sugreeva regains consciousness, he tears off the ears and nose of Kumbhakarna with his sharp nails and teeth. In relation, Kumbhakarna thren Sugreeva down and crushed him. Then Sugreeva bounces into the air and gets re united with Rama. Kumbhakarna thereafter takes his hammer and begins to attack the monkeys and bears. Then, Lakshmana starts to attack Kumbhakarna with his arrows. But, Kumbhakarna appreciates the valour of Lakshmana and proceeds towards Rama to fight with him. Rama discharges some arrows with 'Roundra' spell towards Kumbhakarna. Those arrows disappear into Kumbhakarna's chest and make him weapon-less. In retaliation, Kumbhakarna hurls a mountain-peak towards Rama and even before the mountain-peak reaches Rama, it was split up into pieces by the arrows released by Rama. Thereupon, on the advice given by Lakshmana, all the monkeys climb straight upon Kumbhakarna's body. Kumbhakarna shakes them off with violence. Then, Rama employs a great missile and chops off one arm of Kumbhakarna. When Kumbhakarna with an uprooted tree in his arm, retailiates by running towards Rama, the latter with an arrow, presided over by Indra, hurls it on the former and chops off the second arm of Kumbhakarna, Rama then chops off the feet of Kumbhakarna with his arrows and finally slashes off his head.
Chapter 68) Hearing the news of Kumbhakarna having been killed by Rama, Ravana laments in various ways, thinking that he has virtually lost his right arm. Ravana initially faints on hearing the shocking news. On regaining consciousness, Ravana again wonders how the invincible Kumbhakarna was slain in battle. He feels sorry for not having listened to the sagacious advice of Vibhishana in the past.
Chapter 69) As Ravana is lamenting over the death of Kumbhakarna, Trishira (one of Ravana’s sons) consoles him and says that he will go to the battle-field and kill Rama. Hearing the words of Trishira, Ravana’s other sons (Devantaka, Narantaka and Atikaya) also come forward to join the fight. Then Ravana sends all them to the battle. He also sends Mahodara and Mahaparshva, his brothers to guard his sons. Mighty demons accompany them. The demons release arrows towards the monkeys, who see the demons coming in elephants, horses and chariots. The monkeys take huge rocks and trees to fight with the demons. Seeing several demons being killed in battle, Narantaka enters the field with his javelin and kills several monkeys. Meanwhile, those monkeys who were thrown down unconscious by Kumbhakarna earlier regain their consciousness and approach Sugreeva for help. Then, Sugreeva sends Angada for the fight. Narantaka hurls his javelin towards Angada’s chest, but the javelin breaks and falls down. Angada strikes Narantaka’s horse with his hand and the horse falls down dead. Then, Angada and Narantaka exchange the blows of their fists on each other in battle and finally, Narantaka dies.
Chapter 70) Mahodara, Trishira and Devantaka start attacking Angada. When Angada attacks them with trees, they chop off the trees and break away the rocks hurled at them. With a blow of Angada’s palm, Devantakas’s elephant falls down dead. Seeing Angada being surrounded by three valiant demons, Hanuma and Neela arrive there. With a blow of Hanuma’s fist, Devantaka dies. Trishira and Mahodara attack Neela with their arrows. Mahodara dies in the hands of Neela. Meanwhile, Hanuma and Trisira fight at each other. Hanuma finally kills Trishira, by chopping off his three heads by Trishira’s sword itself. Then, Mahaparshva, the demon comes to the battle field and attacks Rishabha, the monkey-warrior. By banging Mahaparshva’s mace on Mahaparshva Rishabha kills him.

YUDDHA KANDA-CHAPTER 74 IN PROSE
After having been struck by Brahma’s missile released by Indrajit, Rama and Lakshmana became unconscious. Sixty-seven crores of monkeys fainted. Hanuma and Vibhishana, however in consciousness, roared about in the battle-front with torches in their hands, making a search of Jambavan. They find Jambavan. Jambavan requests Hanuma to proceed to Himalayas, by crossing over the ocean and to bring four important herbs, viz. Mrita Sanjivani, Vishalya karani, Suvarna karani and Sandhani; so as to bring succour to the fainted army of monkeys. Hanuma begins his journey to Himalayas and reaches Mount Rishabha, where the wonderful herbs exist. Hanuma searches for the four wonderful herbs. But the herbs appear invisible for him. Hanuma uproots the mountain clothed with the four celestial herbs and carries it along with him. Inhaling the odour of those herbs, Rama, Lakshmana and all the monkeys regain their normal health.

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Ayodhya, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

RAMAYANA SITES IN SRILANKA.

Ramayana Sites in Sri Lanka
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the poet Valmiki and an important part of the Hindu canon. One of the most important literary works of ancient India, the Ramayana consists of 7 chapters (Kanda), and narrates the story of Rama’s wife Sita being abducted by Ravana, the demon (Rakshasa) king of Lanka.
According to the Ramayana, King Ravana brought Sita Devi from India in a "Pushpaka Vimana" which is widely known in Sri Lanka as the "Dandu Monara Yanthranaya," or Large Peacock Machine in Sinhala.
The Ramayana has fascinated many generations, and had a profound impact on art and culture in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
For over thousands of years, the Ramayana, epic of Asia, has had an unshakeable hold on the beliefs of vast multitudes of Asia’s teeming millions. As diverse span of humanity as Kashmiri pandits and Cambodian fishermen, it is the universal heritage of all humanity.
A rich legacy of sites and temples in the country where the most significant events of this epic took place - Lankapura - Sri Lanka. Though some people do not believe that the present Sri Lanka is the one mentioned in the Ramayana, when we investigate the area, there is still much convincing tradition therein and many sites identified with the Ramayana.
Sri Lanka is the proud custodian of more than 50 Ramayana sites from the place of Sita Devi’s captivity to the battlefields where vast armies clashed, to the groves of exotic herbs dropped by Hanuman, to the ultimate theater of war where Lord Rama slew Ravana, the ten-headed demon-king.
People living in the areas where great events took place remember to this day the connection of their soil to the great epic. An oath taken at the spot where Sita Devi undertook "Agni Pariksha" is still considered valid in village courts or grama sabhas. The color of the soil of the ancient battlefield is still red today, and is still surrounded by lighter colored earth. One of the airports of Ravana, torched by Hanuman when he came looking for Sita Devi, still has a scorched-earth look. A patch of darker soil surrounded by brown earth. Exotic alpine Himalayan species are found suddenly amidst tropical Sri Lankan vegetation, the legacy of Hanuman’s heroic voyage carrying a mountain with life-restoring herbs.
Incredibly, the names of places have come down to modern times unchanged. Though great social, cultural and religious changes have taken place in Sri Lanka since.
Sri Lanka shares a special bond with India geographically, historically, culturally and spiritually. The Ramayanabegins with Ayodhya in India and climaxes at Lankapura.
People in Sri Lanka through generations believed that king Ravana ruled this country. There are many sites in Sri Lanka which are connected to the Ramayana. Below is a list of places which have been identified as connected to the Ramayana and listed in sequential order.


The Kidnapping of Sita by Ravana
Ravana was the king of Lanka and another 9 kingdoms. He was known as Dasis (or Dasa Shirsha) meaning 10 heads, because he had ten crowns, one each for his ten kingdoms.
His sister Surpanakha went to Jambudweepa for some business. Surpanakha chanced upon Rama at his hermitage and became enamored with the handsome prince. Rama being faithful to his wife, Sita, did not respond and asked Surpanakha to approach Lakshmana who was unmarried. Surpanakha, who felt humiliated by this, tried to attack Sita in anger saying Sita was the cause of the men’s contempt for her. Lakshmana then intervened and cut off Surpanakha’s nose.
Surpanakha, terrified and in pain, flew at once to Lanka to seek the protection of Ravana. When Ravana asked his sister for the cause, Surpanakha said that she had seen Sita, a lady of incomparable beauty, and wanted to bring her for Ravana. Ravana resolved to take revenge for the insult his sister had suffered, as well as to get lovely Sita for him self, and set out to abduct Sita and bring her to Lanka.
Ravana, using a golden deer as a decoy, visited Sita when she was alone. In the guise of an old sage, he abducted and brought her to Weragantota in Lanka in his plane, the Pushpaka vimana.
Weragantota means the "place of aircraft landing" in Sinhala. This is the first place Sita Devi was brought to Lankapura (capita city of king Ravana). These jungles are the place where the city of Lankapura once stood. The city had a beautiful palace for Queen Mandothari surrounded by waterfalls, streams and varieties of flora and fauna. Sita Devi was kept at Queen Mandothari’s palace at Lankapura. The place Sita was held captive is called Sita Kotuwa, which means "Sita’s Fort" in Sinhala. It is believed Ravana had an aircraft repair center atGurulupotha close to Sita Kotuwa. Sita devi was kept in queen Mandothari’s palace until she was moved to Sita Kotuwa and then on to Ashoka Vatika. The remains that are found here are the remnants of later civilizations. In Valmiki's depiction, King Ravana’s vimana resembled a huge peacock. The vimana in Sinhala language means "Dhandu Monara" which is known as "flying peacock," and hence the name Gurulupotha, which means "parts of birds" in Sinhala. This is also called Gavagala.
Sita Taken from Sita Kotuwa to Ashok Vatika (also known as Ashoka / Asoka Vanam)
Ravana moved Sita from Sita Kotuwa to Ashok Vatika the salubrious garden in the mountains. The route too was said to be spectacularly beautiful, as Ravana wanted to show Sita the beauty of his kingdom. The barren land atop the mountain range is believed to be the route in which King Ravana took Sita devi from his capital city Lankapura to Ashoka Vatika, which was a paradise on earth. The Chariot Path atop the mountain range is still visible. Till date no vegetation grows on this passage except grass. King Ravana is believed to have taken this passage on top of these hills to show Sita devi the beauty of his kingdom.
Ashok Vatika is the garden where Ravana held Sita captive. This is in the area of Sita Eliya, close to the city of Nuwara Eliya. The stream that runs from the hill catered to the needs of Sita devi during her stay at Ashok Vatika. She is said to have bathed in this stream. The Hakgala Gardens located at the base of the Hakgala Rock forms part of the famed Ashok Vatika. The Sita Pokuna is a barren area atop the Hakgala Rock Jungle where Sita was kept captive. The Sita Amman Temple is located at this spot. It is interesting to note that foot prints akin to Hanuman’s are found by this river and some are of small size and some are of large size, which tells us of the immense powers of Hanuman transforming himself into any size.
About a century ago three images were discovered in the stream, one of which was that of Sita. It is believed that the deities have been worshipped at this spot for centuries. Now there is temple for Lord Rama, Sitadevi, Lakshmana, and Hanuman by the side of this stream.
The summit of the mountain next to the mountain range overlooking Frotoft Estate in Pussallawa is the place where Hanuman first set his foot on mainland Lanka. This mountain known as Pawala Malai is visible from this mountain range. These hills stand tall in-between King Ravana’s capital city and Ashoka Vatika.
The Sita tear pond is found en route by the chariot route, and is believed to have been formed by the tears of Sita devi. It has not dried up since, even during severe droughts when the adjoining rivers dry up. Visitors could also see the famed Sita Flowers which are endemic to this area. In this area there are many large trees whose bright red blooms add color to the scenery. These flowers are called Sita flowers. The peculiarity of these flowers is the configuration of the petal’s, stamen and pistils, which resemble a human figure carrying a bow, and is said to represent Lord Rama. These flowers are unique only to this area in the whole of Sri Lanka.
Search for Sita
Sugriva, ruler of the Vanara or special monkey kingdom, ordered his monkey armies to search for Sita in all four corners of the earth. Hanuman, Angada, Jambavan and other heroes traveled southwards. Hanuman was the only one strong enough to cross the ocean to reach Lanka. Whilst crossing the ocean, Hanuman was tested bySurasa Devi, the Naga maiden en-route to Lanka. This place is now called Nagadipa.
Hanuman meets Sita at Ashok Vatika and is Captured by Ravana
Hanuman after meeting Sita at Ashok Vatika, decided to test the strength of King Ravana and his army of Rakshasas. He invited battle by uprooting trees and destroying the garden. Upon being captured by the Rakshasa guards, Hanuman was brought in the presence of Ravana. As a punishment, Hanuman’s tail was set on fire. Hanuman in turn set fire to the houses in the city. Ussangoda is one such torched area.
On the way back to India Hanuman rested at Mani Kattuthar. The hilltop where Hanuman is believed to have rested after meeting Sita devi is known as Mani Kattuthar. This is a rock in the Labookelle estate. Hanuman met Sita devi and on his way to announce this happy information to Lord Rama, rested on this hilltop. Today an open temple with statues of Lord Rama, Sita devi, Lakshmana, and Hanuman stands on top of it. Locals visit the temple often.
Near by is the village of Kondagala, known as Kondakalai in Tamil, where Sita is said to have deranged her hair whilst passing the place. Kondakalai (Kondagala), like many other cities and villages in Sri Lanka, also derives its name from the Ramayana. When King Ravana took Sita devi in a chariot to Ashoka Vatika, her hairs got deranged because of the speed of the chariot. "Konda kalai" in Tamil means "deranging of hair." Till date the villagers live with the legacy of this event.
The village also contains Sita Gooli which are rice balls offered by Ravana to Sita; which she refused and threw away. When King Ravana carried Sita devi on his chariot to Ashoka Vatika, he provided her with vitaminized rice balls for refreshment. But Sita devi who did not want to consume anything provided by King Ravana, scattered the rice balls all over the place during her journey, and they are found till date along the chariot track. The local people call these rice balls Sita Gooli and they prescribe them for their children as a cure for stomach disorders and headaches. The farmers too keep them in their cash boxes or grain pots for prosperity. It is claimed that carbon dated testing has been done in Tokyo and Delhi on these rice balls and ascertained them to be more than five thousand years old.
Sita is Hidden after the visit of Hanuman
Upon hearing Hanuman’s threat and seeing his capabilities, King Ravana decided to hide Sita at various secret locations as a precautionary measure. Ravanagoda, which means Ravana’s place in the Kotmale area, is one such complex of tunnels and caves.

Istripura is another ingenious network of paths which are interconnected with all major areas of king Ravana’s city. Istripura means "Area of Women" in Sinhala. This refers to the retinue of ladies Ravana made available to look after Sita.
Konda Kattu Gala refers to the many intruding tunnels and caves in this area. This seems to be a part of a great ingenious network of paths, which is interconnected to all the major areas of King Ravana’s city. Sita devi took bath in this very stream and had dried her hair sitting on a rock and put clips to her hair, hence this rock is known as Konda Kattu Gala. This is situated in the Welimada Area.
Tunnel Network
This tunnel network proves beyond doubt the architectural brilliance of King Ravana. These tunnels served as a quick means of transport through the hills and also as a secret passage and networked all the important cities, airports and dairy farms. A close look at these tunnels indicates that they are man-made and not natural formations. The Buddhist shrine at Kalutara was once where King Ravana’s palace and a tunnel existed. Additional existing tunnel mouths are situated at Welimada, Ravana cave at Bandarawela, Senapitiya at Halagala, Ramboda, Labookelle, Wariyapola/Matale, and Sitakotuwa/Hasalaka, along with many more tunnels. Some have also said that Ravana had a tunnel that went all the way to South America, in which he had stored much of his gold and treasury.
Preparing for Battle
Gayathri Peedum is believed to be the place from where King Ravana’s son Meghanath propitiated Lord Shiva with penance and pujas, and in turn was granted super natural powers by Lord Shiva prior to the battle.Neelawari is located in the North of the country in the Jaffna peninsula and is where Lord Rama shot an arrow to the ground to obtain water for his army upon arriving at Lanka.
Dondra, Seenigama & Hikkaduwa are places in the South of Lanka where Sugriva (king of Vanaras, the special species of monkeys) prepared for his onslaught on King Ravana’s forces from the Southern flank.
War Breaks Out
During the height of the battle Indrajit, elder son of Ravana beheaded a lookalike of Sita Devi in front of Hanuman to break his spirit. This place is known as Sitawaka in the Avissawella area.
Yudhaganawa, meaning battlefield in Sinhala, is a place in Wasgamuwa where the major battles took place.
Upon being hit by Indrajit’s Brahmastra, both Rama, Lakshmana and the monkey army lay unconscious on the battle field. To cure them, Jambavan the veteran monkey instructed Hanuman to go to Sanjeevani Parvatha, the hill of herbs between Rishhaba and Kilasa peaks in the Himalayas and bring the necessary medicinal herbs. As he could not identify which herbs to select, Hanuman uprooted the entire peak with all the herbs growing there from the mountain and returned to Lanka.
Parts of the hill fell on five places in Sri Lanka; namely Rumassala in Galle, Dolukanda in Hiripitiya, Ritigalaclose to Habarana on the Habarana Anuradhapura road, Talladi in Mannar, and Katchchathivu in the north.
Lord Karthikaya Subramaniyam was requested to go to battle by Lord Indra to protect Lord Rama from king Ravana’s Brahmastra. This was at Kataragama, which is now a very popular place for worship among Sri Lankans.
The Fall of Ravana
Dunuvila lake is a place from which Lord Rama fired the Brahmastra arrow at king Ravana who was directing the war from Laggala. It is here that King Ravana was killed by Lord Rama’s brahmastharam. The top of Laggala is flat and is believed to have been affected by the power of the brahmastharam. "Dhunu" means "arrow" and "Vila" means "Lake," so it gets its name from this pastime.
The name Laggala is derived from the Sinhala term "Elakke Gala", which means Target Rock. Laggala served as a sentry point to observe Lord Rama’s army. The cartels behind the Dunuvila lake are called Laggala. It was from this rock the first glimpse of Lord Rama’s army was sighted and informed to King Ravana. This hill is geographically the highest part of the northern region of King Ravana’s city and on a clear day the north east side that is Thiru Koneshwaran and north west side that is Talai Mannar can be seen even today. King Ravana is believed to have done meditation on this rock and prayed to Lord Shiva at Thiru Koneshwaran from this point.
After Ravana’s death, his body was kept at Yahangala, meaning "Bed Rock" in Sinhala. This is situated along the Mahiyanganaya - Wasgamuwa road. King Ravana’s body was kept upon this rock so his countrymen could pay their last respects to their dear departed king. Geographically this rock is visible from miles away on its 3 sides.
After the War
Sita met Rama after the war, and Divurumpola is the place she under went the "Agni" test of fire where she proved her innocence and purity to Rama. Divurumpola means the "Place of Oath" in Sinhala. She came out unscathed and proved her innocence and purity.
The message of Rama’s victory over Ravana was sent to Sita. After a bath and adorned with jewels she was taken on a palanquin before Rama. Meeting her husband after such a long time she was overcome with emotion, but Rama seemed lost in thought. At length he spoke, "I have killed my enemy. I have done my duty as a true king. But you have lived for a year in the enemy’s abode. It is not proper I take you back now."
Sita was shocked. "You have broken my heart" she said, "only the uncultured speak like this. Have you forgotten the noble family I come from? Is it my fault Ravana carried me off by force? All the time, my mind, my heart, and soul were fixed on you alone, my lord!"
She turned to Lakshmana and said with tears streaming from her eyes, "prepare for me a fire. That is the only remedy for this sorrow of mine." Lakshmana, in suppressed anger, looked at Rama’s face, but there was no softening, he lighted a big fire. Sita reverently went round her husband and approached the blazing fire. Joining her palms in salutation, she said, "if I am pure, O fire, protect me." With these words she jumped into the flames. Then arose from out of the flames, Agni the fire-god, whom she had invoked. He lifted Sita from the flames unharmed, and presented her to Rama. "Don’t I know that she is spotless and pure at heart?" cried Rama, standing up to receive her. "It’s for the sake of the world that I made her go through this ordeal of fire, so that the truth may be known to all."
The spot was initially fenced and walled to protect it from the surrounding wilderness. Then a sapling of the Anuradhapura bodhi tree (one of the 30 original saplings) was planted as a mark of respect for the place. A small pagoda was built subsequently under the Bodhi tree. The temple depicts paintings of the Ramayana epic.
Today the temple is revered for the oath taken by Sita devi and even the legal system permits and accepts the swearing done at this temple while settling disputes between parties.
Vantharamulai is a place that Lord Rama, Sita Devi, Lakshmana, and Hanuman rested after the turmoil of the war. Amaranthakali is believed to be the place where they had the first meal after the war.
When returning to India in one of King Ravana’s vimanas, Rama felt he was followed by a Brahmahasti Dhosham, a malevolent black shadow or dark cloud capable of taking His life, as He had killed Ravana, a Brahmin. When the vimana was passing over Munneswaram, He felt the vimana vibrating, and at Muneswaram realized the "Brahmaasthi Dosham" was not following him at this particular point. So Rama felt safe from the "Brahmahasti Dhosham" at Munneswaram. So Lord Rama stopped the vimana at this juncture and asked Lord Shiva for a remedy. This is the place where Lord Rama prayed to Lord Shiva and where Shiva blessed Lord Rama and advised installing and praying to four lingams to get rid of the Dhosham. The first Lingam was installed at Manavari about 5 Km from here, near the banks of Deduru Oya. This was followed by the lingams at Thiru Koheneshwaram, Thiru Ketheshwaram, and Rameshwaram in India.
It is believed that Munneswaram predates the Ramayana and a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva was located here. Munneswaram means the first temple for Shiva (Munnu + Easwaran). A Shiva Lingam was already here when lord Rama visited the place.
After King Ravana’s death, Ravana’s brother Vibhishana was coroneted as a king of Lanka by Lakshmana atKelaniya. Kelaniya is the closest site to Colombo connected to the Ramayana.
There exists a Buddhist temple, the Kelaniya Buddhist Temple and shrine for King Vibishana. There are murals enshrined outside the Buddhist temple depicting the crowning of Vibishana. Vibishana is considered one of the four guardian deities of Sri Lanka, and temples for Vibishana are found throughout Sri Lanka. A painting of King Vibishana also adorns the new Parliament of Sri Lanka. In fact, there are no temples dedicated for Ravana, but many exist for Vibishana; this goes to prove that his stand towards Vedic Dharma & justice made people to revere him as a god in Sri Lanka.
The Kelani River is mentioned in the Valmiki Ramayana and Vibishana’s palace was said to be on the banks of this river. The reason Lakshmana crowned Vibishana was because Lord Rama had to return to India to continue his self-exile of 14 years to honor the commitment to His father, King Dasarath of Ayodhya. King Vibishana was considered a fair king, as he supported Rama against his own brother’s injustice. Many devotees that visit King Vibishana’s shrine pray to him asking his intervention to a fair recourse to their problems.

Other Places of Interests Connected to the Ramayana in Sri Lanka
1. Kanniya - The place where King Ravana carried out the last rites for his mother.
2. Gavagala or Ghoushala - King Ravana’s dairy farm.
3. Airports of King Ravana:
Thotupolakanda (means "Mountain Port" in Sinhala) at Horton plains
Weragantota (means "Place of Aircraft" landing in Sinhala) in Mahiyangana
Ussangoda (means "Area of Lift" in Sinhala) in the Southern coast
Wariapola (means "Aircraft Port" in Sinhala) in Matale and Kurunagala.
4. Neelawari -- A place where Lord Rama aimed an arrow to obtain water.
5. Panchamukha Anjanaya Temple, Kalubowila – This is the first Anjaneyar Temple in Sri Lanka and also the only Panchamukha (five faced) Anjaneyar Temple in Sri Lanka. It is the only temple in the world to have a chariot for Ajanyar. The chariot festival is held annually at end of December to the beginning of January. Hanuman’s mother is Anjan. Hanuman is known as Anjan + Aiyar = Anjaneyar in South India (Hamuman in North India).
6. Rama Temple at Rattota -- One of the few Rama’s temple in Sri Lanka.
7. Maha Ravanagoda / Kuda Ravanagoda -- Ravana’s places in the south.
8. Veedurupola - Buddhist temple dedicated to research on Ramayana.
9. Sri Baktha Hanuman Temple -- on the hills of Ramboda is a place where Hanuman was searching for Sita Devi. The name is also associated with Rama’s army. Rampadai means Rama’s force in Tamil. The Chinmaya mission of Sri Lanka built a temple with Hanuman as the presiding deity. On every full moon day special pujas are conducted and witnessed by thousands of devotees.
10. Manavari Temple is the first lingam installed and prayed to Lord Rama and till date this lingam is called as Ramalinga Shivan. Rameshwaram is the only other lingam in the world named after Lord Rama.
11. Rama Temple - Rattota. There are a few Rama temples in Sri Lanka, this is one of them. This is the only Rama temple in this area. This is a privately managed temple. This is one of the most scenic routes to travel from Matale to visit Laggala (on the northern side of Knuckles).
12. Kataragama Temple – This is the temple of Lord Karthikeya Subramaniam at Kataragama. Lord Karthikeya was requested to go to the battlefield by Lord Indra on the last day of war. This was done to protect Lord Rama from the wrath of the Brahmastra aimed by King Ravana which otherwise would have weakened Lord Rama. The benefit was that the most powerful brahmasthra weapon aimed at Lord Rama for the second time was rendered useless by the presence of Lord Karthikeya.
13. Ussangoda – According to the Ramayana, after meeting Sita devi, Hanuman dedicated to test the strength of the mighty King Ravana and his army of Rakshasas. In the events that unfolded, Hanuman’s tail was set on fire by the Rakshasas, who in turn went on to torch some parts of King Ravana’s empire. Ussangoda is one of the torched areas, which is said to have been an airport used by King Ravana.
14. Vishnu Devala, Dondra – These are the places from where King Sugriva of the Vanara’s started his onslaught on King Ravana’s force.
15. Ravana Goda – This is a place where Sita devi stayed during her transit. This area is also linked with tunnels and caves, which runs through to other parts of King Ravana’s kingdom. This is situated in the Kotmala area opposite to Ramboda rock. The main cave entrance was closed by an earth-slip in 1947. Locals believe this part of the complex was used as a prison by Ravana. The cave complex has not been fully explored.
16. Ravana’s mummy – An additional site connected to local belief, but yet to be discovered is the place where locals believe Ravana’s mummified body is hidden within the mountain range of Harasbatha, Ragalaand Walapane.
References

YUDDHA KANDA 121 TO 128
RETURN TO AYODYA & AFTER

On the basis of planetary configurations described in various other chapters of Valmiki’s Ramayan, the date on which Ravana was killed works out to be 4th December 5076 BC and Shri Rama completed 14 years of exile on 2nd January, 5075 BC and that day was also Navami of Shukla Paksha in Chaitra month. Thus Shri Rama had come back to Ayodhya when he was 39 years old (5114 – 5075).
Such sequential matching of important dates in the life of Lord Rama narrated in Valmiki’s Ramayan with astronomical dating done through planetary configurations cannot be a mere coincidence. It speaks volumes about the historicity of the era of Lord Rama!

121) Rama prepares to leave for Ayodhya. Even though Vibhishana requests Rama to remain at Lanka for some more time and receive his hospitality, Rama gently refuses to do so, adding that he needs to proceed to Ayodhya quickly, to see his mothers, brothers and people there. Vibhishana arranges the aerial car, Pushpaka to transport Rama and others to Ayodhya.

122) Rama commands Vibhishana to honour the monkeys with gold and precious stones. When Vibhishana has honoured them with the gifts, Rama along with Lakshmana and Seetha ascend the aerial car. When the monkeys and Vibhishana request Rama to permit them to accompany in the aerial car upto Ayodhya to witness his coronation-ceremony, Rama gladly permits them to do so. All of them start on their aerial journey in Pushpaka, the wonderful aerial car which can accommodate all, spaciously.

123) In the course of their flight to Ayodhya, Rama shows to Seetha, the whole City of Lanka, the battle-field where Ravana and other demons were killed, Nala-Setu the bridge which was built across the ocean, Mount Mainka, Setu-bandha (where the construction of the bridge was started), Mount Rishyamuka, Pampa River, Janasthana-forest, Panchavati, Godavari river, the hermitage of sage-Agastya, the hermitage of Atri and Anasuya, Mount Chitrakuta, Yamuna-river, the hermitage of Bharadwaja, Ganga-river, Sarayu-river and finally the City of Ayodhya.

124) Rama, travelling in the aerial car towards Ayodhya, lands at the hermitage of Bharadwaja the sage. When Rama enquires of Bhardwaja about the welfare of Ayodhya-City, Bharata and his mothers. Bharadwaja informs Rama about their welfare. Further, the sage informs that by virtue of his asceticism, he could know everything about the exploits of Rama from the day he left Ayodhya, till he destroyed Ravana. Then, Rama seeks a boon from Bharadwaja, asking him to make the trees on the route to Ayodhya, to bear fruit in the off-season for which the sage grants the boon. Thereupon, the troops of monkeys feasted on those fruits at will.

125) Rama asks Hanuma to proceed to Shringaberapura and communicate to Guha about his welfare and also to know the appropriate path to Ayodhya. Rama also asks Hanuma to go to Ayodhya and communicate to Bharata about his welfare and also the previous happenings at the forest and at Lanka, including the abduction of Seetha and her restoration, by killing Ravana in battle. Rama also asks Hanuma to inform Bharata, about their arrival at the proximity of Ayodhya, along with Sugreeva and Vibhishana. Accordingly, Hanuma approaches Guha and Bharata in Nandigrama and informs the pleasant news about the welfare of Rama as well as his impending return to Ayodhya. Bharata is overjoyed on hearing the glad tidings from Hanuma and offers him a number of valuable gifts, for having communicated the agreeable news to him.

126) Hanuma recounts to Bharata, broad details relating to the soujourn of Rama, Seetha and Lakshmana in the forest from the day Bharata takes wooden sandals of Rama, till the day Ravana is killed.

127) Bharata, after hearing the good news from Hanuma about the arrival of Rama, calls Shatrughna and commands him to make appropriate arrangements for the reception of Rama in the City of Ayodhya. Bharata departs with all others, for Nandigrama to receive Rama. The aerial car lands at Nandigrama. Bharata welcomes Rama and others, by embracing them and by greeting them joyously. Rama too offers his salutations to all his mothers, who come to receive him. Then, Bharata brings Rama’s wooden sandals and places them below the feet of Rama. Rama commands Pushpaka, the aerial car to return to Kubera, the lord of riches to whom it originally belonged.

128) At the request of Bharata to take back the kingdom of Ayodhya, Rama accepts the offer and sits on a seat. Bharata and Rama take their bath and get adorned for the occasion. Rama, mounting on an excellent chariot, sallies forth on a procession in the city accompanied by Bharata, Shatrughna, Lakshmana and Vibhishana. Nine thousand elephants follow the procession, with Sugreeva and other monkeys mounted on them. Some attendants and musicians with their musical instruments walk in front of Rama's procession. The citizens of Ayodhya host flags on every house. Rama returns to his paternal palace in Ayodhya. Sugreeva orders four of his monkeys to bring water from four oceans in jars given to them. Some monkeys brought water from five hundred rivers, as also from the four oceans for the purpose of the ceremony. Vasishta along with other brahmins as priests caused Rama to be consecrated with that water. The virgins, ministers, warriors, merchants, the four gods as well as other gods sprinkled sap of all kinds of herbs on Rama. Vasishta and other priests officiating the coronation-ceremony adorned Rama with an auspicious and charming crown. Then, Rama gives away presents to the priests as well as Sugreeva and Angada. Rama presents a pearl-necklace to Seetha and Seetha presents that necklace in turn to Hanuma. Rama further gives away presents to Vibhishana, Sugreeva, Jambavan and others on the occasion. Rama bids farewell to monkeys. The glory of the epic is complemented in the end by Valmiki.

-5076
Hampi, Karnataka, India
-5076
Sri Lanka

YUDDHA KANDA-CHAPTER 74 IN PROSE

After having been struck by Brahma’s missile released by Indrajit, Rama and Lakshmana became unconscious. Sixty-seven crores of monkeys fainted. Hanuma and Vibhishana, however in consciousness, roared about in the battle-front with torches in their hands, making a search of Jambavan. They find Jambavan. Jambavan requests Hanuma to proceed to Himalayas, by crossing over the ocean and to bring four important herbs, viz. Mrita Sanjivani, Vishalya karani, Suvarna karani and Sandhani; so as to bring succour to the fainted army of monkeys. Hanuma begins his journey to Himalayas and reaches Mount Rishabha, where the wonderful herbs exist. Hanuma searches for the four wonderful herbs. But the herbs appear invisible for him. Hanuma uproots the mountain clothed with the four celestial herbs and carries it along with him. Inhaling the odour of those herbs, Rama, Lakshmana and all the monkeys regain their normal health.

KATTUsseri is a small village in Alathur Taluk, in the Palakkad district of Kerala, south India. The festival of Pudiyankam-Kattusseri Vela is held here, as well as in the neighbouring village of Pudiyankam. The Vela is celebrated by the two villages owing to the birthday of the Puthukulangara Bhagavathy, the deity of the temple situated on the NH 47.
The name Kattusseri, or Kattussery, might have evolved over a period of time from the word "Kattu cheri", meaning a place located in the foothills of a forest, as Kattusseri is located in the foothills of a mountain named Veezhumala. There is a little-known ruin of an old temple at the peak of Veezhumala. Hindu legend states that Veezhumala is a piece fallen from Sanjeevani[disambiguation needed], which was being carried by the god Hanuman.
There is a Thirkkanav (Sree Krishna) Temple situated in the middle of the village with a huge temple pond (Amblakuzham) situated nearby. The Vela procession starts from the temple here.

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