Samuel Adams (1657 - 1737) MP

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Birthplace: Chelmsford, Middlesex County, Massachusetts Bay Colony, (Present USA)
Death: Died in Canterbury, Windham County, Province of Connecticut, (Present USA)
Occupation: Millwright
Managed by: Janet Farmer
Last Updated:

About Samuel Adams

Excerpt from: “The Genealogical History of Henry Adams of Braintree, Mass., and his Descendants, also John Adams of Cambridge, Mass, 1632-1897” complied and edited by Andrew N. Adams, published by the author 1898: The Tuttle Company, Printers, Rutland, VT. [This is transcribed exactly as it appears in the book. msac] <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<

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Children of Lieut. Thomas' (1612) (Henry') and Mary (- Adams ; res. Chelmsford, Mass. i. Mary-', b. in Braiutree, Mass., July 24, 1643; d. soon, as per Braintree record. 1. ii. Jonathan', b. in Concord, Mass., Jan. 6, 1646; m. Aug. 29, 1681, Leah Gould (Goole ?) twin dau. of Francis and Rose Gould of Chelmsford, Mass. She d. 1718. He -was a farmer in or nigh Littleton, Mass ; d. in Chelmsford, 25 Nov., 1712. 2. iii. Pelatiah', (twin) b. in Concord, Jan. 6, 1640; m. 1670-80, Euth . She d. 18 Sept., 1719. He d. in Chelmsford, 29 April, 1725. 3. iv. Timothy', b. in Concord, (April 2?) Feb. 15, 1648; m. Mary . He d. in Chelmsford, 1 Julj^, 1708. V. George, b. in Concord, March 29, 1650; probably d. j'oung.

4.

vi. Samuel, b. in Chelmsford about 1652-3; m. Mary , who d. 28 March. 1718, in Canterbury, Conn. He was a millwright; removed to Charlestown, Mass., and thence to Canterbury, Conn. , where |^he was a prominent citizen and d. 26 Nov., 1727. He sold his property in Charlestown to Joseph Randall, in 1697, according |to Bond; the deed was acknowledged at Plainfield, Conn., in 1714-5. He was one of the first board of selectmen in Canterbury, chosen May 31, 1699. Both he and his son Samuel, Jr., received each one and one-half shares of land as original first settlers in the division of April, 1723. He is said to have had twelve children, five of whom died young. His will, made and signed with his mark, Aug. 7, 1727, probated at Plainfield, Dec. 4, 1727, and on record at Willimantic, speaks of his sons as three in number, and four daughters, but names only Henry and Thomas, Abigail and Margaret, the portions of Abigail and Margaret to remain in the hands of the executor.

vii. Edith", b. in Chelmsford, Feb. 21, 1655; probably d. num. viii. Rebecca', b. in Chelmsford, Sept. 18, 1657; d. young. ix. Elizabeth-', b. in Chelmsford, Oct. 21, 1658-9; died j^oung. X. Thomas', b. in Chelmsford, July 22, 1660; d. 20 Nov. same j-ear. xi. Mary, b. in Chelmsford, Oct. 29, 1664; m. Cooper, as per will. Note—The Concord records give the births of Jonathan, Felatiah. Timothj- and George; that of Samuel is not to be found.

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Children of Samuel, (1053) [4] (Lieut. Thomas', Henry') and Mary ( ) Adams ; res, Canterbury, Conn. 16.

i. Abigail, b. in Chelmsford, Mass., about ; m. July 26, 1709, Paul

Davenport, son of Chas. and Waitstill (Smith) Davenport of Dorchester, Mass. ; b. Jan. 30, 1683. 17.

ii. Capt. Joseph\ b. in Chelmsford, about 1682-3; m. (1) July 23. 1708, Eunice Spalding; d. 5 April, 1726. m. (2) April 4, 1728, Mrs. Susanna (Woodward) Adams, dau. of

Daniel and Elizabeth (Dana) Woodward of Preston, Conn., and widow of William Adams; b. 1693; d. 29 April, 1790; buried in Baldwin cemetery. So. Canterbury, Conn. He was a first settler in Canterbury, large land dealer and prominent man, called Joseph. Esq; " d. 3 March, 1752; age 70.

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--------------------

A GENEALOGICAL HISTORY

OF HENRY ADAMS

4.

vi. Samuel, b. in Chelmsford about 1652-3; m. Mary , who d. 28 March. 1718, in Canterbury, Conn. He was a millwright; removed to Charlestown, Mass., and thence to Canterbury, Conn. , where he was a prominent citizen and d. 26 Nov., 1727. He sold his property in Charlestown to Joseph Randall, in 1697, according |to Bond; the deed was acknowledged at Plainfield, Conn., in 1714-5. He was one of the first board of selectmen in Canterbury, chosen May 31, 1699. Both he and his son Samuel, Jr., received each one and one-half shares of land as original first settlers in the division of April, 1723. He is said to have had twelve children, five of whom died young. His will, made and signed with his mark, Aug. 7, 1727, probated at Plainfield, Dec. 4, 1727, and on record at Willimantic, speaks of his sons as three in number, and four daughters, but names only Henry and Thomas, Abigail and Margaret, the portions of Abigail and Margaret to remain in the hands of the executor.

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Samuel Adams was born in about 1645, probably at New Haven, Connecticut Colony. The only home-town he could really recall, however, was Fairfield, also in Connecticut, to which he had moved with his parents as a boy. Fairfield had been set­tled about six years before his birth, so was in his early experience still a young com­munity. Let us progress to the year 1670, when Samuel was a man, but not yet mar­ried, and read what Mrs. Elizabeth Hubbell Schenck, in her History of Fairfield, says about Samuel=s town of that period. By then Fairfield was thirty years old, and Athe shire-town of the county. It was large and flourishing, and in point of influence second to no other town in the colony. It was represented in the General Assembly and the court of commissioners by men who had been educated at Harvard. Every spring and fall its inns and private residences were crowded with the ablest men in the country, drawn hither to attend the county courts. Judges and commissioners from Long Island, and all classes of people from the towns under the jurisdiction of Con­necti­cut, from Milford to Westchester, Rye and Long Island, made their way here to seek redress for wrongs, to contend for their chartered liberties, or to take the oath of allegiance to the king and be made freemen. . . . Vessels bringing the attendants of the court across from Long Island, anchored in Black Rock harbor, the seaport of Fairfield.

           AThe town wore a bustling, cheerful appearance on these occasions. A liberal old-time hospitality prevailed among all classes. Dinners, tea-drinkings, balls and par­ties were frequent. Grave judges presided in the court-room in powdered wigs and scho­lastic gowns. With all the efforts made to appear democratic, an aristocratic style was the rule among the best families. Gentlemen wore long-waisted, tight-fitting coats with skirts which reached to the knee, sparkling all the way down the front with genu­ine gold and silver buttons. Their silk and velvet waistcoats were embroidered and trimmed with lace, from which immaculate finely worked shirt frills stood out con­spic­uously. High plated stocks of silk or satin, stiff with buckram, and fastened behind with silver, steel or brass clasps, confined the white frill or collar around the throat. Their breeches were of velvet, colored cloth and silk, clasped at the knee over silk stockings, with silk and velvet bows, or gold and silver buckles. They also wore rib­bon bows, and gold and silver buckles on their shoes. Long circular cloaks lined with gay colors were worn as outside wraps. It was about this time that the military cocked hat, with a brim full six inches in width was introduced, upon which some wore the long plume of the reign of Charles I. This hat was first turned up on one side, then on both sides, and finally on three sides. The latter style gave rise to the name of the >three cornered cocked hat.= Ladies wore rich embroidered and brocaded silk and velvet petticoats, with tight-fitting velvet waists and short over-skirts of another material; mutton-leg sleeves, trimmed with turned up white ruffles, fur, lace or fringe. They wore full ruffles of embroidered lace or linen cambric around the throat. Gay silk stockings, high-heeled silk and satin shoes and slippers, decorated with handsome gold or silver buckles, were worn upon their dainty feet. Their hair was dressed high, with soft curls around the forehead. Their hats were pretty, with moderately high crowns and wide brims and feathers. Their cloaks were long, graceful and circular in form, often of gay red or blue cloth, and sometimes of other material, or velvet, trimmed with fur. Chains for the neck were worn by both ladies and gentlemen. Ladies also wore silver and gold girdles and chatelaines, from which, on Sundays, were suspended costly bound Bibles and hymn-books.@ The average citizen wore clothes much less fancy.
           Most of the Fairfield homes were built of wood, the frames being Aoak tim­bers, from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter. The rafters were but a little smaller, across which >ribs = were laid at regular distances. Over these, shingles of cedar were fastened with large wrought-iron nails. Oak clapboards, smoothed with a shaving-knife, and lapping over each other, covered the sides of the building. Oaken planks covered the floors. The rooms on the first floor were not more than seven feet in height, and about six and a half on the second floor. The beams, with the planks of the second floor, formed the ceilings of the first story. Panes of diamond shape, set in two leaden frames fastened to the sides of the house, and opening from the centre out­ward, were the style of windows used. The outer doors were made of double oaken planks, fas­tened together with large iron nails or spikes, in the angles of diamonds. For a long time the outer doors were secured by heavy bars of wood, and afterwards with large iron hinges and latches. The latter were made fast with an oaken plug of wood, which hung in the day time from a string attached to the latch. When in use the latch was down. The expression Athe latch is always up for you@ was a frequent mode of wel­come. At a later date enormous locks and keys, with brass or iron door-knockers came into use.
           ABesides the kitchen and bedroom adjoining it, there were but seldom more than two rooms on the first floor. . . . The most wonderful part of one of these dwell­ings was the chimney, built in the centre of the house upon a stone foundation of twelve feet square. The fire-place in the kitchen extended across the full length of the chimney. The hearth consisted of one or more large flat stones, fitted into the floor, and extending well out into the room. From heavy iron sockets, fastened on the right side against the back of the chimney, swept a long iron crane. From this hung iron trammels, each with rows of holes one above the other, into which hooks were fitted, by means of which the pots and kettles used in cooking could be raised or lowered over the fire. On the right side, and opening into the chimney, was built a huge brick oven used for baking purposes. Near the front of the fire-place, on each side of the jambs, were seats of brick, on which a person could sit with ease, and on a cold win­ter=s day with comfort. It was not an unusual thing in the early part of winter to see hams and pieces of bacon suspended from a long pole, fastened at a sufficient height up the chimney to smoke and yet not to cook them. . . . On the mantel-piece were silver, glass, or brass candlesticks, with dipped candles of home-make, and also small trays for the snuffers. Over the mantel was usually a closet in the bricks.
           AThe manner of building a fire in these chimneys was one of the scientific arts of the time. First a huge green log of oak or hickory, full six or seven feet long, was brought in, and placed against the back of the chimney. This was called the back-log. On the top of this was laid another log, not quite as large however, called the back-stick. The ponderous iron andirons, surmounted with Turks-heads, were then placed against the back-log. Well towards the front of the andirons was laid another round, knotty stick of medium size, called the fore-stick, between which, and the back log, chips, dry pine, and split wood were curiously filled in. Then a tin tinder-box was

brought into use, which resembled a tin pint-cup with a lid, on the top of which was a candle-socket. There was an inner lid which covered the tow, or tinder, and upon which, when not in use, a piece of rough steel and a flint stone were kept. The only matches known in those days were of home manufacture, and consisted of pine splints tipped with roll brimstone. It happened occasionally that a housekeeper neglected to keep her tinder-box well filled, and her matches prepared, when her only resort to kin­dle a fire was to borrow a shovelful of burning coals from the nearest neighbor, who not unfrequently lived two miles distant. A fire was kindled by striking the flint stone against the rough steel; the tinder caught fire from the sparks, from which the brim­stone splints were lighted, and immediately applied to the pine wood in the fire-place, when with one loud roar, quite equal to artillery, the blazing wood leaped up the great throat of the chimney in streams of flaming fire. The sap which oozed from the ends of the green wood sent out a most delicate and pleasant odor through the room, all aglow with cheerful light. . . . If the green wood at any time defied the strong draft of the chimney, a pair of hand bellows, which usually hung by the side of the fire-place, was brought into use.

           AFood . . . consisted mostly of wild game, bear=s flesh, venison, swine and poul­try. Cattle and sheep were not often killed until the herds became numerous. Even milk at first was used almost by drops, lest the supply of cream for butter and cheese should fall short in the winter.
           AThe chief viands at breakfast were wheaten, Indian, and corn breads, Johnny-cakes, apple-pie, cheese, gingerbread and doughnuts, with some substantial dish of meat, game, fish or pork.@ Also common were Ahasty-pudding and milk, bean-porridge soup, flavored with salt pork, and home-made beer. . . .
           AWhen the apple and peach orchards were of yielding age, cider, with apple and peach brandy came into common use. The orchards were kept with great care, and a keeper was appointed by the town to nurse and attend to them. But while our fore­fathers indulged in the use of home-made brandy, they did so with judgment. The disgrace of being intoxicated cost too much in those days to be frequently indulged in. . . . There is no doubt but that some of them were occasionally imprudent and took a little too much, but what they drank was free from adulteration.
           AThe dinner hour was at noon, and was called the hour of >nooning. = The first course for many years was a large Indian-meal pudding, with an appropriate sauce.@ A story is related about a farmer in one of Fairfield=s smaller villages Awho was so mean as not to be willing that his slaves should eat freely of turkey and goose on a Thanks­giving-Day, and gave out word that the one who ate the most liberally of pudding should have the most turkey and goose. Not seeing the trap set for them, the poor things ate so much pudding that they had no appetite left for anything else, over which some of them cried with vexation. Boiled pork accompanied with vegetables, boiled, baked and roast beef, venison, and poultry, were among the principal dishes at dinner. Roast meats and poultry were cooked before the fire in a tin oven with an open front, sometimes called a Dutch oven. Turkeys and geese were often roasted before the fire, and were suspended by a long string from the ceiling, and turned frequently by some person stationed to attend to them.
           AAn amusing story is told of a little colored boy who, upon seeing the string break on a Thanksgiving Day, ran into the parlor, crying out, >O, Massa! please 

come, de Thanksgiving has tumbled into de fire and dirtied hiself all ober!=

           ASuccotash was an Indian dish which the English soon learned the art of preparing. Baken beans, boiled and baked Indian pudding, samp and hominy were every-day dishes. Fish was eaten on Saturday, but never on Friday.@
           The evening meal Aconsisted of cold meats, delicious corn and rye bread, and plain cakes. The latter were baked in an iron covered vessel called a spider, set upon a bed of coals, and with coals heaped on the lid. Raised cake, or loaf-cake filled with plums, became a favorite cake at weddings. . . .
           AThe principal table utensils were made of pewter, which came in sets of platters, plates, spoons, and tea dishes. The platters and plates sometimes were ornamented with the family coat of arms. These pewter sets were kept well polished and shone like silver. Some of the rich had spoons, flagons, beakers, and cups of silver. But as a general thing such table-ware was not very abundant.@
           Now that we have examined the homes of Samuel and his countrymen, let us learn about some of the laws passed in their time. They are of interest to us in regard to what Samuel conversed about with his neighbors, and what was required of him and them.
           In 1670 an agreement was made with the Indians to purchase six miles of land lying north of the original Fairfield plantation, the price of thirty pounds to be paid for it, thirty pounds worth of truckling or trading cloth, at ten shillings a yard. To the man appointed to provide the cloth the town agreed to pay in winter wheat at five shillings per bushel, or Indian corn at two shillings per bushel. A tax was laid upon the town in specie to pay for the purchase of this cloth.
           Every male in the various Connecticut plantations Afrom fourteen years old & upward, except assistants, commissioners, or ministers of the gospel,@ was ordered to work one day annually, in June, in cutting down and clearing underwood, Athat so there may be pasture, under a penalty of five shillings.@ If the officers of the town neglected to appoint a day for this work, a fine of five pounds was imposed upon them.
           It was customary to declare a thanksgiving day each year, and in 1670 the third Wednesday in November was appointed, that all the towns in the colony should praise God Afor the continuation of the Gospel of Peace; so good a measure of health; the removal of sickness from some of the plantations; for a blessing upon their labors & upon the fruits of the earth; & for the peace of the country.@
           From the records of 1674 we learn that a person, called a hayward, was ordered to be appointed in each town, to guard the hedges and fences; to protect horses, cattle and sheep, and to impound stray cattle. An officer was also appointed in each town to examine merchantable corn, grain, and pork sold by the pound.
           In 1675 stringent laws were passed for a more effectual and speedy way to carry the overland mail from New York to Boston, Fairfield being in between the two. Mrs. Schenck tells us that Aa postman was dispatched on the first Monday of each month from New York to Boston, with letters and small packages free of postage. In order to prevent postmen from loitering at taverns, stated allowances were made for them and their horses. . . . From the middle of October to the last of April, the post­man was granted eight pence extra for every night spent on the way for oats for his horse. The inn-keepers were ordered to take great pains that the horses were not 

deprived of their allowance. They were to charge at the rate of six pence a meal for the postman, four pence for grass for a horse, and the same for oats or hay for one night. A fine was imposed upon any one who detained the postman without good cause.@

           In 1676, in order to suppress extravagance, as well as to discourage persons of humble walks in life from aiming to appear in public above their station, the following law was passed: AWhereas, excess in apparell amongst us is unbecoming a wilderness condition, & the profession of the gospel, whereby the rising generation is in danger to be corrupted, which practices are testified against in God=s Holy Word, it is there­fore ordered by this Courte & authority thereof that whatsoever person shall wear gold or silver lace, or gold or silver buttons, silk ribbons, or other superfluous trimings, or any bone-lace above three shillings per yard, or silk scarfs, the list makers of the respec­tive towns are hereby required to assesse such persons so offending (or their husbands, parents or masters, under whose government they are,). . .@ unless their estate is above the ordinary degree.
           In probably 1675 or 1676 Samuel married Mary Meeker, and they settled into their own home, to which came a good number of children as the years went by. During those years the settlers in New England had Indian, and other political and military, problems which effected each person in one way or another, but in telling about Samuel=s and Mary=s lives we will confine ourselves to examining the domestic aspects of their time.
           In 1678 we find a law passed that in order to prevent fires every house owner was ordered to keep a long ladder on his house. Each house owner was also ordered Ato sweep his chimneys in the winter once a fortnight, & in the summer once a month.@ Two men were appointed to carry out this duty. If the chimney sweepers and the house owners could not agree about the necessity of sweeping any chimney, they were to submit the question to some indifferent person.
           During 1679 Fairfield was visited by a most alarming epidemic, though we know not the character of the disease. From a document to be found in the State House at Hartford the following account is given: AFairfield, 1679.CA sore sickness attended with an uncommon mortality in this town, though very healthy in neighboring towns. There died about 70 persons within three months & there was hardly enough well persons to tend the sick and bury the dead.@ Samuel and Mary were fortunate at this time not to lose anyone from their family.
           New England was generally afflicted. Sickness prevailed in many of the settlements; the crops were visited with mildew and blight; and caterpillars and worms destroyed the vegetables and fruits. In consequence of these conditions the third of June was set apart by the General Court Aas a day of public humiliation & prayer.@
           From 1680 a document about Connecticut Colony has survived, part of which tells us a little about conditions in Samuel=s and Mary=s lives:
           Our chief trade is with Boston, where clothing is purchased & paid for with what provisions we raise. . . .
           Our buildings are generally of wood; some of them are of stone & brick; many of them of good strength & comlynesse for a wilderness; both those of wood, stone & brick. . . .
           Great care is taken to instruct the people in the Christian religion by ministers catechising them & preaching to them twice every Sabbath day, and on Lecture days; and by masters of families according to our laws, instructing & catechising their children & servants. . . .
           Every town provides for its own poor & impotent people. Seldom any want relief, labor being dear, viz: 2s. & sometimes 2s., 6d. for a day laborer. Provision is cheap, viz: wheat 4s. a bushel, Winchester measure; peas 3s; Indian corn 2s. 6d.; pork 3d. per lb.; beef 22d. pr. lb.; butter 6d. pr. lb. [An s. stands for shillings and a d. for pence.]
           Beggars & vagabonds are not suffered; but as soon as discovered bound out to service. . . .

           In 1681, on account of abuse in the colony in branding horses, private persons were forbidden to brand them. Each owner was required to take his horse to the regu­larly appointed brander of the town in which he lived, under penalty of forty shillings. No bargain or sale of any horse was made binding unless recorded in the town Brand Book where he was sold. It was also ordered that Aif any person should take up, or brand or mark any horse contrary to this order, he shall pay for the first offense five pounds to the treasury, or be whipt ten lashes on the naked body; for the second offense he shall pay ten pounds or be whipped twenty lashes; for the third offense he shall be committed to the house of correction, & there be kept at hard labor & with coarse diet for six months, & be whipped once a quarter severely, or pay a fine of twenty pounds.@ All stray horses not branded, over two years old, were to be sent to the constable, who was to cry them for three days in the three next towns; and if no owner appeared by the end of three weeks, he, with the advice of the nearest assistant or commissioner, was to sell them, or mark them for the use of the county.
           During the year 1685 a special event took place in Fairfield. The meeting-house was enriched with a bell, which no doubt was a source of great delight alike to the aged and to the youth of the town. Many of those who were born in England had not probably heard the sound of a church bell since they left their native land, and the cheering peals were undoubtedly most welcome. To those numerous ones like Samuel, Mary, and their children, who had probably never heard a church bell at all, we can im­ag­ine that it was equally as pleasing. It became the custom to ring this bell at twelve o=clock noon, and at nine in the evening, at which time the law required all peace-abiding citizens to be at home, these ringings being in addition to calls to meetings, etc.
           Particular attention was paid by the Assembly in 1691 to furthering educational interests in the several towns in the colony. It appears that notwithstanding the orders requiring all children, as well as servants, to attend school, there were many persons unable to read in English, and thereby incapable of reading the Bible or Athe good laws of the colony.@ Because of this the court decreed Athat all pastors & mas­ters should cause their respective children & servants to read distinctly the English tongue@; and that the grand jurymen in each town should once a year visit each fam­ily, and satisfy themselves whether all children under age, and servants, were making due progress in learning. If it was found that parents, guardians or masters neglected this law, their names were to be sent in to the county court, where they were to be 

fined twenty shillings for each child or servant who had not been sent to school, Aunless the child or servant was proven incapacitated to learn.@

           In 1694 Samuel passed away. His and Mary=s youngest child was at that time only seventeen months old. Mary did not remain a widow long, but married Moses Lyon. He died in 1698, and no children are mentioned in his probate record. Mary next married the widower John Thorpe, and by him had probably two children. He died in 1720. Mary=s death date is not known, but she was still alive in 1721.

-------------------- Samuel Adams was born in about 1645, probably at New Haven, Connecticut Colony. The only home-town he could really recall, however, was Fairfield, also in Connecticut, to which he had moved with his parents as a boy. Fairfield had been set­tled about six years before his birth, so was in his early experience still a young com­munity. Let us progress to the year 1670, when Samuel was a man, but not yet mar­ried, and read what Mrs. Elizabeth Hubbell Schenck, in her History of Fairfield, says about Samuel's town of that period. By then Fairfield was thirty years old, and Athe shire-town of the county. It was large and flourishing, and in point of influence second to no other town in the colony. It was represented in the General Assembly and the court of commissioners by men who had been educated at Harvard. Every spring and fall its inns and private residences were crowded with the ablest men in the country, drawn hither to attend the county courts. Judges and commissioners from Long Island, and all classes of people from the towns under the jurisdiction of Con­necti­cut, from Milford to Westchester, Rye and Long Island, made their way here to seek redress for wrongs, to contend for their chartered liberties, or to take the oath of allegiance to the king and be made freemen. . . . Vessels bringing the attendants of the court across from Long Island, anchored in Black Rock harbor, the seaport of Fairfield.

The town wore a bustling, cheerful appearance on these occasions. A liberal old-time hospitality prevailed among all classes. Dinners, tea-drinkings, balls and par­ties were frequent. Grave judges presided in the court-room in powdered wigs and scho­lastic gowns. With all the efforts made to appear democratic, an aristocratic style was the rule among the best families. Gentlemen wore long-waisted, tight-fitting coats with skirts which reached to the knee, sparkling all the way down the front with genu­ine gold and silver buttons. Their silk and velvet waistcoats were embroidered and trimmed with lace, from which immaculate finely worked shirt frills stood out con­spic­uously. High plated stocks of silk or satin, stiff with buckram, and fastened behind with silver, steel or brass clasps, confined the white frill or collar around the throat. Their breeches were of velvet, colored cloth and silk, clasped at the knee over silk stockings, with silk and velvet bows, or gold and silver buckles. They also wore rib­bon bows, and gold and silver buckles on their shoes. Long circular cloaks lined with gay colors were worn as outside wraps. It was about this time that the military cocked hat, with a brim full six inches in width was introduced, upon which some wore the long plume of the reign of Charles I. This hat was first turned up on one side, then on both sides, and finally on three sides. The latter style gave rise to the name of the >three cornered cocked hat. Ladies wore rich embroidered and brocaded silk and velvet petticoats, with tight-fitting velvet waists and short over-skirts of another material; mutton-leg sleeves, trimmed with turned up white ruffles, fur, lace or fringe. They wore full ruffles of embroidered lace or linen cambric around the throat. Gay silk stockings, high-heeled silk and satin shoes and slippers, decorated with handsome gold or silver buckles, were worn upon their dainty feet. Their hair was dressed high, with soft curls around the forehead. Their hats were pretty, with moderately high crowns and wide brims and feathers. Their cloaks were long, graceful and circular in form, often of gay red or blue cloth, and sometimes of other material, or velvet, trimmed with fur. Chains for the neck were worn by both ladies and gentlemen. Ladies also wore silver and gold girdles and chatelaines, from which, on Sundays, were suspended costly bound Bibles and hymn-books.@ The average citizen wore clothes much less fancy.

Most of the Fairfield homes were built of wood, the frames being oak tim­bers, from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter. The rafters were but a little smaller, across which ribs were laid at regular distances. Over these, shingles of cedar were fastened with large wrought-iron nails. Oak clapboards, smoothed with a shaving-knife, and lapping over each other, covered the sides of the building. Oaken planks covered the floors. The rooms on the first floor were not more than seven feet in height, and about six and a half on the second floor. The beams, with the planks of the second floor, formed the ceilings of the first story. Panes of diamond shape, set in two leaden frames fastened to the sides of the house, and opening from the centre out­ward, were the style of windows used. The outer doors were made of double oaken planks, fas­tened together with large iron nails or spikes, in the angles of diamonds. For a long time the outer doors were secured by heavy bars of wood, and afterwards with large iron hinges and latches. The latter were made fast with an oaken plug of wood, which hung in the day time from a string attached to the latch. When in use the latch was down. The expression the latch is always up for you was a frequent mode of wel­come. At a later date enormous locks and keys, with brass or iron door-knockers came into use.

Besides the kitchen and bedroom adjoining it, there were but seldom more than two rooms on the first floor. . . . The most wonderful part of one of these dwell­ings was the chimney, built in the centre of the house upon a stone foundation of twelve feet square. The fire-place in the kitchen extended across the full length of the chimney. The hearth consisted of one or more large flat stones, fitted into the floor, and extending well out into the room. From heavy iron sockets, fastened on the right side against the back of the chimney, swept a long iron crane. From this hung iron trammels, each with rows of holes one above the other, into which hooks were fitted, by means of which the pots and kettles used in cooking could be raised or lowered over the fire. On the right side, and opening into the chimney, was built a huge brick oven used for baking purposes. Near the front of the fire-place, on each side of the jambs, were seats of brick, on which a person could sit with ease, and on a cold win­ter=s day with comfort. It was not an unusual thing in the early part of winter to see hams and pieces of bacon suspended from a long pole, fastened at a sufficient height up the chimney to smoke and yet not to cook them. . . . On the mantel-piece were silver, glass, or brass candlesticks, with dipped candles of home-make, and also small trays for the snuffers. Over the mantel was usually a closet in the bricks.

The manner of building a fire in these chimneys was one of the scientific arts of the time. First a huge green log of oak or hickory, full six or seven feet long, was brought in, and placed against the back of the chimney. This was called the back-log. On the top of this was laid another log, not quite as large however, called the back-stick. The ponderous iron andirons, surmounted with Turks-heads, were then placed against the back-log. Well towards the front of the andirons was laid another round, knotty stick of medium size, called the fore-stick, between which, and the back log, chips, dry pine, and split wood were curiously filled in. Then a tin tinder-box was brought into use, which resembled a tin pint-cup with a lid, on the top of which was a candle-socket. There was an inner lid which covered the tow, or tinder, and upon which, when not in use, a piece of rough steel and a flint stone were kept. The only matches known in those days were of home manufacture, and consisted of pine splints tipped with roll brimstone. It happened occasionally that a housekeeper neglected to keep her tinder-box well filled, and her matches prepared, when her only resort to kin­dle a fire was to borrow a shovelful of burning coals from the nearest neighbor, who not unfrequently lived two miles distant. A fire was kindled by striking the flint stone against the rough steel; the tinder caught fire from the sparks, from which the brim­stone splints were lighted, and immediately applied to the pine wood in the fire-place, when with one loud roar, quite equal to artillery, the blazing wood leaped up the great throat of the chimney in streams of flaming fire. The sap which oozed from the ends of the green wood sent out a most delicate and pleasant odor through the room, all aglow with cheerful light. . . . If the green wood at any time defied the strong draft of the chimney, a pair of hand bellows, which usually hung by the side of the fire-place, was brought into use.

Food . . . consisted mostly of wild game, bears flesh, venison, swine and poul­try. Cattle and sheep were not often killed until the herds became numerous. Even milk at first was used almost by drops, lest the supply of cream for butter and cheese should fall short in the winter.

The chief viands at breakfast were wheaten, Indian, and corn breads, Johnny-cakes, apple-pie, cheese, gingerbread and doughnuts, with some substantial dish of meat, game, fish or pork.@ Also common were Ahasty-pudding and milk, bean-porridge soup, flavored with salt pork, and home-made beer. . . .

When the apple and peach orchards were of yielding age, cider, with apple and peach brandy came into common use. The orchards were kept with great care, and a keeper was appointed by the town to nurse and attend to them. But while our fore­fathers indulged in the use of home-made brandy, they did so with judgment. The disgrace of being intoxicated cost too much in those days to be frequently indulged in. . . . There is no doubt but that some of them were occasionally imprudent and took a little too much, but what they drank was free from adulteration.

The dinner hour was at noon, and was called the hour of nooning. The first course for many years was a large Indian-meal pudding, with an appropriate sauce. A story is related about a farmer in one of Fairfields smaller villages Awho was so mean as not to be willing that his slaves should eat freely of turkey and goose on a Thanks­giving-Day, and gave out word that the one who ate the most liberally of pudding should have the most turkey and goose. Not seeing the trap set for them, the poor things ate so much pudding that they had no appetite left for anything else, over which some of them cried with vexation. Boiled pork accompanied with vegetables, boiled, baked and roast beef, venison, and poultry, were among the principal dishes at dinner. Roast meats and poultry were cooked before the fire in a tin oven with an open front, sometimes called a Dutch oven. Turkeys and geese were often roasted before the fire, and were suspended by a long string from the ceiling, and turned frequently by some person stationed to attend to them.

An amusing story is told of a little colored boy who, upon seeing the string break on a Thanksgiving Day, ran into the parlor, crying out, O, Massa! please come, de Thanksgiving has tumbled into de fire and dirtied hiself all ober!

Succotash was an Indian dish which the English soon learned the art of preparing. Baken beans, boiled and baked Indian pudding, samp and hominy were every-day dishes. Fish was eaten on Saturday, but never on Friday.

The evening meal Aconsisted of cold meats, delicious corn and rye bread, and plain cakes. The latter were baked in an iron covered vessel called a spider, set upon a bed of coals, and with coals heaped on the lid. Raised cake, or loaf-cake filled with plums, became a favorite cake at weddings. . . .

The principal table utensils were made of pewter, which came in sets of platters, plates, spoons, and tea dishes. The platters and plates sometimes were ornamented with the family coat of arms. These pewter sets were kept well polished and shone like silver. Some of the rich had spoons, flagons, beakers, and cups of silver. But as a general thing such table-ware was not very abundant.

Now that we have examined the homes of Samuel and his countrymen, let us learn about some of the laws passed in their time. They are of interest to us in regard to what Samuel conversed about with his neighbors, and what was required of him and them.

In 1670 an agreement was made with the Indians to purchase six miles of land lying north of the original Fairfield plantation, the price of thirty pounds to be paid for it, thirty pounds worth of truckling or trading cloth, at ten shillings a yard. To the man appointed to provide the cloth the town agreed to pay in winter wheat at five shillings per bushel, or Indian corn at two shillings per bushel. A tax was laid upon the town in specie to pay for the purchase of this cloth.

Every male in the various Connecticut plantations from fourteen years old & upward, except assistants, commissioners, or ministers of the gospel, was ordered to work one day annually, in June, in cutting down and clearing underwood, Athat so there may be pasture, under a penalty of five shillings. If the officers of the town neglected to appoint a day for this work, a fine of five pounds was imposed upon them.

It was customary to declare a thanksgiving day each year, and in 1670 the third Wednesday in November was appointed, that all the towns in the colony should praise God Afor the continuation of the Gospel of Peace; so good a measure of health; the removal of sickness from some of the plantations; for a blessing upon their labors & upon the fruits of the earth; for the peace of the country.

From the records of 1674 we learn that a person, called a hayward, was ordered to be appointed in each town, to guard the hedges and fences; to protect horses, cattle and sheep, and to impound stray cattle. An officer was also appointed in each town to examine merchantable corn, grain, and pork sold by the pound.

In 1675 stringent laws were passed for a more effectual and speedy way to carry the overland mail from New York to Boston, Fairfield being in between the two. Mrs. Schenck tells us that Aa postman was dispatched on the first Monday of each month from New York to Boston, with letters and small packages free of postage. In order to prevent postmen from loitering at taverns, stated allowances were made for them and their horses. . . . From the middle of October to the last of April, the post­man was granted eight pence extra for every night spent on the way for oats for his horse. The inn-keepers were ordered to take great pains that the horses were not deprived of their allowance. They were to charge at the rate of six pence a meal for the postman, four pence for grass for a horse, and the same for oats or hay for one night. A fine was imposed upon any one who detained the postman without good cause.

In 1676, in order to suppress extravagance, as well as to discourage persons of humble walks in life from aiming to appear in public above their station, the following law was passed: AWhereas, excess in apparell amongst us is unbecoming a wilderness condition, the profession of the gospel, whereby the rising generation is in danger to be corrupted, which practices are testified against in Gods Holy Word, it is there­fore ordered by this Courte authority thereof that whatsoever person shall wear gold or silver lace, or gold or silver buttons, silk ribbons, or other superfluous trimings, or any bone-lace above three shillings per yard, or silk scarfs, the list makers of the respec­tive towns are hereby required to assesse such persons so offending (or their husbands, parents or masters, under whose government they are,). . unless their estate is above the ordinary degree.

In probably 1675 or 1676 Samuel married Mary Meeker, and they settled into their own home, to which came a good number of children as the years went by. During those years the settlers in New England had Indian, and other political and military, problems which effected each person in one way or another, but in telling about Samuel's and Mary's lives we will confine ourselves to examining the domestic aspects of their time.

In 1678 we find a law passed that in order to prevent fires every house owner was ordered to keep a long ladder on his house. Each house owner was also ordered Ato sweep his chimneys in the winter once a fortnight, & in the summer once a month. Two men were appointed to carry out this duty. If the chimney sweepers and the house owners could not agree about the necessity of sweeping any chimney, they were to submit the question to some indifferent person.

During 1679 Fairfield was visited by a most alarming epidemic, though we know not the character of the disease. From a document to be found in the State House at Hartford the following account is given: Fairfield, 1679. A sore sickness attended with an uncommon mortality in this town, though very healthy in neighboring towns. There died about 70 persons within three months & there was hardly enough well persons to tend the sick and bury the dead. Samuel and Mary were fortunate at this time not to lose anyone from their family.

New England was generally afflicted. Sickness prevailed in many of the settlements; the crops were visited with mildew and blight; and caterpillars and worms destroyed the vegetables and fruits. In consequence of these conditions the third of June was set apart by the General Court Aas a day of public humiliation & prayer.

From 1680 a document about Connecticut Colony has survived, part of which tells us a little about conditions in Samuel's and Mary's lives:

Our chief trade is with Boston, where clothing is purchased & paid for with what provisions we raise. . . .

Our buildings are generally of wood; some of them are of stone & brick; many of them of good strength & comlynesse for a wilderness; both those of wood, stone & brick. . . .

Great care is taken to instruct the people in the Christian religion by ministers catechising them & preaching to them twice every Sabbath day, and on Lecture days; and by masters of families according to our laws, instructing & catechising their children & servants. . . .

Every town provides for its own poor & impotent people. Seldom any want relief, labor being dear, viz: 2s. & sometimes 2s., 6d. for a day laborer. Provision is cheap, viz: wheat 4s. a bushel, Winchester measure; peas 3s; Indian corn 2s. 6d.; pork 3d. per lb.; beef 22d. pr. lb.; butter 6d. pr. lb. [An s. stands for shillings and a d. for pence.]

Beggars & vagabonds are not suffered; but as soon as discovered bound out to service. . . .

In 1681, on account of abuse in the colony in branding horses, private persons were forbidden to brand them. Each owner was required to take his horse to the regu­larly appointed brander of the town in which he lived, under penalty of forty shillings. No bargain or sale of any horse was made binding unless recorded in the town Brand Book where he was sold. It was also ordered that Aif any person should take up, or brand or mark any horse contrary to this order, he shall pay for the first offense five pounds to the treasury, or be whipt ten lashes on the naked body; for the second offense he shall pay ten pounds or be whipped twenty lashes; for the third offense he shall be committed to the house of correction, & there be kept at hard labor & with coarse diet for six months, & be whipped once a quarter severely, or pay a fine of twenty pounds.  All stray horses not branded, over two years old, were to be sent to the constable, who was to cry them for three days in the three next towns; and if no owner appeared by the end of three weeks, he, with the advice of the nearest assistant or commissioner, was to sell them, or mark them for the use of the county.

During the year 1685 a special event took place in Fairfield. The meeting-house was enriched with a bell, which no doubt was a source of great delight alike to the aged and to the youth of the town. Many of those who were born in England had not probably heard the sound of a church bell since they left their native land, and the cheering peals were undoubtedly most welcome. To those numerous ones like Samuel, Mary, and their children, who had probably never heard a church bell at all, we can im­ag­ine that it was equally as pleasing. It became the custom to ring this bell at twelve o=clock noon, and at nine in the evening, at which time the law required all peace-abiding citizens to be at home, these ringings being in addition to calls to meetings, etc.

Particular attention was paid by the Assembly in 1691 to furthering educational interests in the several towns in the colony. It appears that notwithstanding the orders requiring all children, as well as servants, to attend school, there were many persons unable to read in English, and thereby incapable of reading the Bible or Athe good laws of the colony. Because of this the court decreed Athat all pastors & mas­ters should cause their respective children & servants to read distinctly the English tongue@; and that the grand jurymen in each town should once a year visit each fam­ily, and satisfy themselves whether all children under age, and servants, were making due progress in learning. If it was found that parents, guardians or masters neglected this law, their names were to be sent in to the county court, where they were to be fined twenty shillings for each child or servant who had not been sent to school, Aunless the child or servant was proven incapacitated to learn.

In 1694 Samuel passed away. His and Mary's youngest child was at that time only seventeen months old. Mary did not remain a widow long, but married Moses Lyon. He died in 1698, and no children are mentioned in his probate record. Mary next married the widower John Thorpe, and by him had probably two children. He died in 1720. Mary's death date is not known, but she was still alive in 1721.

Historical information is from The History of Fairfield, by Mrs. Elizabeth Hubbell Schenck, 1889, Vol. 1, pp. 144-149, 152, 153, 171, 174, 202, 203, 205, 208, 212, 213, 215, 218, 228, 229, 264.

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Children of Samuel, (1053) [4] (Lieut. Thomas', Henry') and j\Iary ( ) Adams ; res, Canterbury, Conn. 16.

i. Abigail, b. in Chelmsford, Mass., about ; m. July 26, 1709, Paul

Davenport, son of Chas. and Waitstill (Smith) Davenport of Dorchester, Mass. ; b. Jan. 30, 1683. 17.

ii. Capt. Joseph\ b. in Chelmsford, about 1682-3; m. (1) July 23. 1708, Eunice Spalding; d. 5 April, 1726. m. (2) April 4, 1728, Mrs. Susanna (Woodward) Adams, dau. of

Daniel and Elizabeth (Dana) Woodward of Preston, Conn., and widow of William Adams; b. 1693; d. 29 April, 1790; buried in Baldwin cemetery. So. Canterbury, Conn. He was a first settler in Canterbury, large land dealer and prominent man, called Joseph. Esq; " d. 3 March, 1752; age 70.

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Children of Capt. Joseph\ (1682) [17] (Samuel, Lieut. Thomas', Henry') and Eunice (^Spalding) Adams; res. Canterbury, Conn. i. Joseph', b. in Canterbury, Conn., June 10, 1709; d. 7 Sept., 1709. 34. ii. Capt. Samuel, b. in Canterbury, Sept. 4, 1710; m. (1) 1731, Sarah Cady, dau. of Richard and Mary Cady; d. 7 Jan., 1736. m. (2) 1 739 , Abigail Adams, dau. of Samuel and Mary (Cady) Adams; b. Nov. 12, 1712. She m. 2nd Dea. Richard Hale, father of Capt. Nathan Hale, the American Spy. Shed, in Coventry, Conn., 21 Aug. 1809, age 89. " Capt. Samuel" d. in Canterbury, 27 Dec, 1760, (as per tombstone), age 51. 35. iii. Eunice, b. in Canterbury, July 25, 1713; m. Thomas Bradford, son of James and Edith Bradford; b. Nov. 14, 1712; res. Canterbury, Conn.

86.

iv. Lieut. Joseph, b. in Canterbury, Dec 6, 1715; m. 1738, Sarah Bradford, dau. of Lieut. James and Edith Bradford; b. Aug. 27, 1720; d. 20 March, 1807, age 86. He d. 6 Dec, 1780, age 65.

V. Mary\ b. in Canterbury, Aug. 5, 1719; m. Leach. 87.

vi. Parker% b. in Canterbury, Aprill8, 1722; m. May 9, 1745, Freelove

Fanning. Daniel Frost app. Nov. 5, 1799, to adm. his estate. Children of Capt. Josephs (1682) and Susanna (Adams) Adams.

vii. Susanua\ b. in Canterbury, Jan. 19, 1728-9; d. 3 Oct., 172-. 88. viii. Elihu', b. in Canterbury, June 11, 1731; m. March 6, 1753, Jerusha Adams, dau. of Eliashib and Deborah (Tracey) Adams; b. Aug 24, 1729; d. 24 Jan., 1815. He d. 22 Dec, 1804, in his 74th year. 39. is. Capt. Thomas b. in Canterbury, July 31, 1734; m. (1) March 7. 175 , Susanna Peck; d. 13 Feb., 1780. m. (2) Jan. 4, 1782, Mary Mudge; d. 27 Sept., 1814, in 77th year. He d. 22 April, 1815. Capt. Thomas' made will March 23, 1813^ proved May 20, 1815; names wife "Mary," sons Reuben and Erastus, and dau. Patty, the wife of Daniel Kingsbury.

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Samuel Adams of Chelmsford's Timeline

1656
February 1, 1656
Chelmsford, Middlesex, Massachusetts, New England
February 1, 1656
Chelmsford, Middlesex, Massachusetts
February 1, 1656
Chelmsford, Middlesex, Massachusetts
1657
February 1, 1657
Chelmsford, Middlesex County, Massachusetts Bay Colony, (Present USA)
February 1, 1657
Chelmsford, Middlesex County, Massachusetts Bay Colony
1679
May 17, 1679
Age 22
Fairfield, CT, USA
July 15, 1679
Age 22
Connecticut Colony, (Present USA)
1683
March 25, 1683
Age 26
Chelmsford, Middlesex, MA
1683
Age 25
Chelmsford, Middlesex, Massachusetts, United States
1684
February 3, 1684
Age 27