Seqenenre Tao . ., Pharaoh of Egypt

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About Seqenenre Tao . ., Pharaoh of Egypt

Seqenenre Tao II

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Tao II the Brave)

Seqenenre Tao II

Sekenenre Taa

Pharaoh of Egypt

Reign 1560 or 1558 BC, likely only a few years,

Dynasty 17th

Predecessor Senakhtenre Tao I

Successor Kamose

Royal titulary[show]

Consort(s) Ahhotep I, Ahmose Inhapi, Sitdjehuti

Children Kamose, Ahmose I, Ahmose-Nefertari, Henutemipet, Meritamon, Nebetta, Sipair, Tumerisy, Binpu, Ahmose, Henuttamehu

Father Senakhtenre

Mother Tetisheri

Burial Mummy found in Deir el-Bahri cache

Monuments Palace and fortifications at Deir el-Ballas

Seqenenre Tao II, (also Sekenenra Taa), called The Brave, ruled over the last of the local kingdoms of the Theban region of Egypt in the Seventeenth Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. He probably was the son and successor to Senaktenre Tao I the Elder and Queen Tetisheri. The dates of his reign are uncertain, but he may have risen to power in the decade ending in 1560 BC or in 1558 BC (based on the probable accession date of Ahmose I, the first ruler of the eighteenth dynasty). (see Egyptian chronology). With his queen, Ahhotep I, Seqenenre Tao II fathered two pharaohs, Kamose, his immediate successor who was the last pharaoh of the seventeenth dynasty and Ahmose I who, following a regency by his mother, was the first pharaoh of the eighteenth.

Seqenenre Tao II is credited with starting the opening moves in the war of liberation against the Hyksos, which was ended by his son Ahmose.

Later New Kingdom literary tradition states that Seqenenre Tao II came into contact with his Hyksos contemporary in the north, Aawoserra Apopi. The tradition took the form of a tale in which the Hyksos king Apopi sent a messenger to Seqenenre in Thebes to demand that the Theban hippopotamus pool be done away with, for the noise of these beasts was such, that he was unable sleep in far-away Avaris. Perhaps the only historical information that can be gleaned from the tale is that Egypt was a divided land, the area of direct Hyksos control being in the north, but the whole of Egypt paying tribute to the Hyksos kings.

Seqenenre Tao II participated in active diplomatic posturing, which consisted of more than simply exchanging insults with the Asiatic ruler in the North. He seems to have led military skirmishes against the Hyksos and, judging from the vicious head wound on his mummy in the Cairo Museum, may have died during one of them.

His son and successor Wadj-kheper-re Kamose, the last ruler of the seventeenth dynasty at Thebes, is credited with launching a successful campaign in the Theban war of liberation against the Hyksos, although he is thought to have died in the campaign. His mother, Ahhotep I, is thought to have ruled as regent after the death of Kamose and continued the warfare against the Hyksos until Ahmose I, the second son of Seqenenre Tao II and Ahhotep I, was old enough to assume the throne and complete the expulsion of the Hyksos and the unification of Egypt.

Contents [hide]

1 Monumental construction

2 Mummy

3 References

4 Other References

[edit]Monumental construction

The relatively short length of the reign of Seqenenre Tao II did not allow for the construction of many monumental structures, but it is known that he built a new palace made of mud brick at Deir el-Ballas. On an adjacent hillside overlooking the river, the foundations of a building were found that almost certainly was a military observation post. [2]

Interestingly, a relatively large amount of pottery known as Kerma-ware was found at the site, indicating that a large number of Kerma Nubians were resident at the site. It is thought that they were there as allies of the pharaoh in his wars against the Hyksos. [3]

[edit]Mummy

Mummified head of Seqenenre depicting his battlewounds

Seqenenre's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with those of later, eighteenth and nineteenth dynasty leaders, Ahmose I (his second son to be pharaoh), Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the twenty-first dynasty pharaohs Psusennes I, Psusennes II, and Siamun.

The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 9, 1886. A vivid description by Gaston Maspero provides an account of the injury that was done to the pharaoh at his death:

“ ...it is not known whether he fell upon the field of battle or was the victim of some plot; the appearance of his mummy proves that he died a violent death when about forty years of age. Two or three men, whether assassins or soldiers, must have surrounded and despatched him before help was available. A blow from an axe must have severed part of his left cheek, exposed the teeth, fractured the jaw, and sent him senseless to the ground; another blow must have seriously injured the skull, and a dagger or javelin has cut open the forehead on the right side, a little above the eye. His body must have remained lying where it fell for some time: when found, decomposition had set in, and the embalming had to be hastily performed as best it might. The hair is thick, rough, and matted; the face had been shaved on the morning of his death, but by touching the cheek we can ascertain how harsh and abundant the hair must have been. The mummy is that of a fine, vigorous man, who might have lived to a hundred years, and he must have defended himself resolutely against his assailants; his features bear even now an expression of fury. A flattened patch of exuded brain appears above one eye, the forehead is wrinkled, and the lips, which are drawn back in a circle about the gums, reveal the teeth still biting into the tongue.[4] ”

It has been convincingly argued that the wound across the forehead of Seqenenre Tao II was caused by an axe, similar to some that have been found in Tell el-Dab'a. Egyptian axes of the same period are distinctly different in shape and would not have caused a similar wound.[5] That provides one leg of an argument of a case against an attack by fellow Egyptians.

Given the angle of a neck wound, possibly caused by a dagger, it is most likely that the pharaoh was prone or lying down when the fatal blows were struck. [6] In addition, the absence of wounds to the arms or hands (which would be expected if the victim were actively defending himself) indicates that the very first blow must have incapacitated Seqenenra Tao II.

The common theory is that he died in a battle against the Hyksos, although the other long-standing theory is that he was killed while sleeping; [7] whatever the circumstance, sources agree that he was lying down on his right side when attacked, either asleep, or already wounded and incapacitated from battle when the final mortal blows were struck.

His mummy was hastily embalmed, likely using the materials that were at hand upon his death, lending further support for having been killed in battle, rather than at the royal court. X-rays that were taken of the mummy in the late-1960s show that no attempt had been made to remove the brain or to add linen inside the cranium or eyes, both normal embalming practice for the time. In the opinion of James Harris and Kent Weeks who undertook the forensic examination at the time the x-rays were taken, Tao II's mummy is the worst preserved of all the royal mummies held at the Egyptian Museum, and they noted that a "foul, oily smell filled the room the moment the case in which his body was exhibited was opened", which is likely due to the poor embalming process and the absence of the use of absorbing natron salts, leaving some bodily fluids in the mummy at the time of burial. [8]

He is the earliest royal mummy on display in the recently revamped (2006) Royal Mummies Hall at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.[9]

Forrás / Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tao_II_the_Brave

Szekenenré Ta-aa [szerkesztés]

Megtekintett lap (+/-)

A Wikipédiából, a szabad enciklopédiából.

Elődje:

Szenahtenré Ta-aa Egyiptomi fáraó

XVII. dinasztia Utódja:

Kamosze

Szekenenré Ta-aa

Dzsehuti-aa

Uralkodása i. e. 1558–1554

Prenomen

Szekenenré

Aki úgy sújt le, mint Ré

Nomen

Dzsehuti-aa

Thot hatalmas

Apja Szenahtenré Ta-aa

Anyja Tetiseri

Főfelesége Ahhotep

Mellékfeleségek Ahmesz-Inhapi, Szitdzsehuti

Gyermekei Kamosze (?), I. Jahmesz, Ahmesz-Nofertari, Henutemipet, Meritamon, Nebetta, Szipair, Tumeriszi, Binpu, Ahmesz, Henuttamehu

Fontosabb

építkezései Dejr el-Ballász-i palota és katonai tábor

Szekenenré Ta-aa az ókori egyiptomi XVII. dinasztia utolsó előtti fáraója. Uralkodása alatt zajlott az Egyiptom északi vidékét megszállva tartó hükszószok kiűzésének első szakasza, mely utóda, Kamosze alatt folytatódott és a XVIII. dinasztiát megalapító I. Jahmesz alatt fejeződött be. Szekenenré a harcok során esett el.

Tartalomjegyzék [elrejtés]

1 Származása, családja

2 Uralkodása

2.1 A hükszósz háború

2.2 Építkezései

3 Múmiája

4 Titulatúra

5 Hivatkozások

Származása, családja [szerkesztés]

Szenahtenré Ta-aa fáraó fia volt[1] (bár egyes feltételezések szerint a két fáraó azonos, ez esetben Szekenenré apja nem ismert[2]), anyja a XVIII. dinasztia ősanyjaként tisztelt, közrendű származású Tetiseri királyné. Testvérét, Ahhotepet tette meg nagy királyi hitvessé, tőle született több más gyermeke közt a későbbi I. Jahmesz fáraó. Még két felesége ismert, ők szintén a testvérei voltak, tőlük egy-egy lánya született (Ahmesz-Inhapitól Ahmesz-Henuttamehu, Szitdzsehutitól Ahmesz).[3]

A leggyakoribb feltételezés szerint a fia volt közvetlen utódja, Kamosze, valójában azonban ennek a fáraónak származásáról semmit nem tudni, koporsóján nem látható a királyság jelképe, az ureuszkígyó.[4] Elképzelhető az is, hogy Kamosze valójában Szekenenré öccse volt, és azért ő lépett trónra Jahmesz helyett, mert a nehéz háborús helyzetben nem volt célszerű gyermek fáraót ültetni a trónra.[5]

Uralkodása [szerkesztés]

A hükszósz háború [szerkesztés]

Szekenenré feltehetőleg rokonságban állt a XVII. dinasztia több korábbi királyával. Egyiptomnak a második átmeneti korban történt megosztottsága idején, mikor Alsó-Egyiptomot az ázsiai eredetű hükszósz megszállók tartották uralmuk alatt, Szekenenré családja a Théba központú déli területeket kormányozta. A harc kezdetéről a XIX. dinasztia idejéből, a Sallier I. papiruszon maradt fenn egy elbeszélés, mely szerint a hükszósz Aauszerré Apepi arra panaszkodott Szekenenrének, hogy a thébai vízilovak ordítása nem hagyja aludni. Tekintve, hogy Apepi fővárosa, Avarisz több mint 700 kilométerre van Thébától, Apepi csak ürügyet keresett a háborúra.[6] A papiruszon Szekenenré Théba fejedelmeként szerepel, királyként, akinek egész Egyiptom adót fizet, egyedül Apepit említik.[7]

A háborúnak a Szekenenré és Kamosze alatt zajló szakaszáról kevesebb forrás maradt fenn, mint az I. Jahmesz alattiról. A legfontosabb bizonyíték arra, hogy nagy csaták zajlottak, magának a fáraónak a múmiája, melyből kitűnik, hogy Szekenenrét csatabárddal fejbe vágták, majd mikor már a földön feküdt, tőrrel nyakonszúrták.[8]

Építkezései [szerkesztés]

A háború mellett Szekenenrének kevés alkalma nyílt építkezni, a legjelentősebb általa emelt épületegyüttes, a Thébától 40 km-re északra, a mai Dejr el-Ballásznál épült település valószínűleg katonai megfigyelőpont volt, a nagy mennyiségben előkerült kermai eredetű tárgyak tanúsága szerint valószínűleg egy núbiai sereg állomásozott itt. A vályogtéglából emelt épületek közt volt egy hatalmas, fallal körülvett palota, valamint magánházak, egy textilműhely, munkások házai, karámok. Egy mára elpusztult épület alapját képező teraszhoz hatalmas lépcső vezetett fel. A palota falait emberek és fegyverek ábrázolásai díszítik.[4]

Múmiája [szerkesztés]

Szekenenré fejének rajza

Sietve bebalzsamozott múmiáját a Dejr el-Bahari rejtekhelyen találták meg 1881-ben több más királymúmiával együtt; ma az övé a legrégebbi fáraómúmia, melyet a kairói Egyiptomi Múzeum kiállít.[9] A múmiát Gaston Maspero bontotta ki 1886. június 9-én. A múmiáról nem dönthető el pontosan, a csatatéren esett el, vagy cselszövés áldozata lett; az, hogy a tőrdöfés szögéből úgy tűnik, feküdt, amikor leszúrták, valamint hogy karján és kezén nem találtak sebeket, tehát annak ellenére, hogy erős testalkatú volt, nem védekezett a végső döfés ellen, azt mutatja, hogy nem volt képes védeni magát, helyt adott annak az elméletnek, mely szerint álmában támadtak rá, az azonban, hogy sietve balzsamozták be (még agyát sem távolították el), miután már teste bomlásnak indult, arra utal, harctéren eshetett el, és a fejét ért hatalmas ütés tette harcképtelenné, mielőtt leszúrták. Halálakor kb. negyvenéves lehetett.[10]

Titulatúra [szerkesztés]

A fáraók titulatúrájának magyarázatát és történetét lásd az Ókori egyiptomi címek szócikkben.

Hórusz-név

 	Haemuaszet

Aki felragyog Thébában

Nebti-név


Arany Hórusz-név


Alsó és Felső Egyiptom királya

Szekenenré

Aki lesújt, mint Ré

Ré fia

Dzsehuti-aa

Thot hatalmas

Forrás / Source:

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Szekenenr%C3%A9_Ta-aa

-------------------- http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per00461.htm#0 -------------------- Seqenenre Tao II, (also Sekenenra Taa), called The Brave, ruled over the last of the local kingdoms of the Theban region of Egypt in the Seventeenth Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. He probably was the son and successor to Senaktenre Tao I the Elder and Queen Tetisheri. The dates of his reign are uncertain, but he may have risen to power in the decade ending in 1560 BC or in 1558 BC (based on the probable accession date of Ahmose I, the first ruler of the eighteenth dynasty). (see Egyptian chronology). With his queen, Ahhotep I, Seqenenre Tao II fathered two pharaohs, Kamose, his immediate successor who was the last pharaoh of the seventeenth dynasty and Ahmose I who, following a regency by his mother, was the first pharaoh of the eighteenth.

Seqenenre Tao II is credited with starting the opening moves in the war of liberation against the Hyksos, which was ended by his son Ahmose.

Later New Kingdom literary tradition states that Seqenenre Tao II came into contact with his Hyksos contemporary in the north, Aawoserra Apopi. The tradition took the form of a tale in which the Hyksos king Apopi sent a messenger to Seqenenre in Thebes to demand that the Theban hippopotamus pool be done away with, for the noise of these beasts was such, that he was unable sleep in far-away Avaris. Perhaps the only historical information that can be gleaned from the tale is that Egypt was a divided land, the area of direct Hyksos control being in the north, but the whole of Egypt paying tribute to the Hyksos kings.

Seqenenre Tao II participated in active diplomatic posturing, which consisted of more than simply exchanging insults with the Asiatic ruler in the North. He seems to have led military skirmishes against the Hyksos and, judging from the vicious head wound on his mummy in the Cairo Museum, may have died during one of them.

His son and successor Wadj-kheper-re Kamose, the last ruler of the seventeenth dynasty at Thebes, is credited with launching a successful campaign in the Theban war of liberation against the Hyksos, although he is thought to have died in the campaign. His mother, Ahhotep I, is thought to have ruled as regent after the death of Kamose and continued the warfare against the Hyksos until Ahmose I, the second son of Seqenenre Tao II and Ahhotep I, was old enough to assume the throne and complete the expulsion of the Hyksos and the unification of Egypt.

The relatively short length of the reign of Seqenenre Tao II did not allow for the construction of many monumental structures, but it is known that he built a new palace made of mud brick at Deir el-Ballas. On an adjacent hillside overlooking the river, the foundations of a building were found that almost certainly was a military observation post.[2]

Interestingly, a relatively large amount of pottery known as Kerma-ware was found at the site, indicating that a large number of Kerma Nubians were resident at the site. It is thought that they were there as allies of the pharaoh in his wars against the Hyksos.

Seqenenre's mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, revealed in 1881. He was interred along with those of later, eighteenth and nineteenth dynasty leaders, Ahmose I (his second son to be pharaoh), Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the twenty-first dynasty pharaohs Psusennes I, Psusennes II, and Siamun.

The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 9, 1886. A vivid description by Gaston Maspero provides an account of the injury that was done to the pharaoh at his death:

“...it is not known whether he fell upon the field of battle or was the victim of some plot; the appearance of his mummy proves that he died a violent death when about forty years of age. Two or three men, whether assassins or soldiers, must have surrounded and despatched him before help was available. A blow from an axe must have severed part of his left cheek, exposed the teeth, fractured the jaw, and sent him senseless to the ground; another blow must have seriously injured the skull, and a dagger or javelin has cut open the forehead on the right side, a little above the eye. His body must have remained lying where it fell for some time: when found, decomposition had set in, and the embalming had to be hastily performed as best it might. The hair is thick, rough, and matted; the face had been shaved on the morning of his death, but by touching the cheek we can ascertain how harsh and abundant the hair must have been. The mummy is that of a fine, vigorous man, who might have lived to a hundred years, and he must have defended himself resolutely against his assailants; his features bear even now an expression of fury. A flattened patch of exuded brain appears above one eye, the forehead is wrinkled, and the lips, which are drawn back in a circle about the gums, reveal the teeth still biting into the tongue.

It has been convincingly argued that the wound across the forehead of Seqenenre Tao II was caused by an axe, similar to some that have been found in Tell el-Dab'a. Egyptian axes of the same period are distinctly different in shape and would not have caused a similar wound.[5] That provides one leg of an argument of a case against an attack by fellow Egyptians.

Given the angle of a neck wound, possibly caused by a dagger, it is most likely that the pharaoh was prone or lying down when the fatal blows were struck.[3] In addition, the absence of wounds to the arms or hands (which would be expected if the victim were actively defending himself) indicates that the very first blow must have incapacitated Seqenenra Tao II.

The common theory is that he died in a battle against the Hyksos, although the other long-standing theory is that he was killed while sleeping;[6] whatever the circumstance, sources agree that he was lying down on his right side when attacked, either asleep, or already wounded and incapacitated from battle when the final mortal blows were struck.

His mummy was hastily embalmed, likely using the materials that were at hand upon his death, lending further support for having been killed in battle, rather than at the royal court. X-rays that were taken of the mummy in the late-1960s show that no attempt had been made to remove the brain or to add linen inside the cranium or eyes, both normal embalming practice for the time. In the opinion of James Harris and Kent Weeks who undertook the forensic examination at the time the x-rays were taken, Tao II's mummy is the worst preserved of all the royal mummies held at the Egyptian Museum, and they noted that a "foul, oily smell filled the room the moment the case in which his body was exhibited was opened", which is likely due to the poor embalming process and the absence of the use of absorbing natron salts, leaving some bodily fluids in the mummy at the time of burial.[7]

He is the earliest royal mummy on display in the recently revamped (2006) Royal Mummies Hall at the Egyptian Museum, Cairo.[8]

According to authors Robert Lomas and Christopher Knight, Seqenenre Tao II would have been the mysterious character called Hiram Abif mentioned in Freemasonic rituals, whose death is described in an extremely similar manner.