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Rabbi Shlomo Luria [Maharshal]

Hebrew: Rabbi Shlomo רבי שלמה בן יחיאל לוריא
Nicknames: "מהרש"ל", "חכמת שלמה", "Yam Shel Shlomo", "Rashal", "Maharshal", "מר"ל", "Maharshal מהרש"ל"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Brest-Litovsk, , Lithuania
Death: Died in Lublin, Lubelskie, Poland
Cause of death: 12th of Kislev, 5334
Place of Burial: Lublin, Lubelskie, Poland
Immediate Family:

Son of Yechiel Luria of Slutzk, ben Avraham and wife, Yechiel ben Avraham) Luria
Husband of Lipka Luria
Father of Miriam Isserlis (Luria); Rabbi Zev Benjamin Wolf Luria; Isaac Ashkenazi Luria; Valentina Ashkenazi; wife, David Auerbach and 7 others
Brother of Avraham Luria; Jakov? Luria; (No Name); Mordechai Luria; Shimon Luria, [of Padua - Medico] and 1 other

Occupation: Rabbi and ABD, Maharsha"l, אב"ד לובלין
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Shlomo Luria - Maharshal -

Leading rabbinical authority of his generation.

Solomon Luria (1510 - November 7, 1574) (Hebrew: שלמה לוריא) was one of the great Ashkenazic poskim (decisors of Jewish law) and teachers of his time.

He is known for his work of Halakha, Yam Shel Shlomo, and his Talmudic commentary Chochmat Shlomo.

Luria is also referred to as Maharshal מהרש"ל (Hebrew abbreviation: Our Teacher, Rabbi Solomon Luria), or Rashal רש"ל (Rabbi Solomon Luria).

Luria was born in Posen, Poland (or in Brest Litovsk, Lithuania). His father, Yechiel Luria, grandson of Jehiel Luria A.B.D. of Brest-Litovsk, was the rabbi of the Lithuanian city of Slutzk and an eminent Talmudist.

The Luria family could trace it roots back to Rashi;

Maharshal was also a cousin of Moshe Isserles. Luria studied in Lublin under Rabbi Shalom Shachna, and later in the Ostroh yeshiva under Kalonymus Haberkasten; he later married Lipka, daughter of Rabbi Kalonymus. Students in the yeshiva included Joshua Falk.

The Maharshal served as Rabbi in Brisk and various Lithuanian communities for 15 years.

When Haberkasten assumed the position of rosh yeshiva in Brisk, Luria replaced him as the official rabbi of the city and region of Ostroh. Luria later succeeded Shalom Shachna as head of the famed Lublin Yeshiva, which attracted students from all over Europe. Due to various internal problems in the yeshiva, he opened his own yeshiva. The building, known as the "Maharshal's shul", remained intact until World War II.

Yam Shel Shlomo, Luria's major work of Halakha, was written on sixteen tractates of the Talmud; however, it is extant on only seven. In it, Maharshal analyzes key sugyot (passages) and decides between various authorities as to the practical halacha. Maharshal, famously, objected to Isserles's method of presenting halakhic rulings without discussing their derivation. He wrote Yam Shel Shlomo to "probe the depths of the halacha" and to clarify the process by which those halachot are reached.

Chochmat Shlomo is a gloss, and comments, on the text of the Talmud. One function of this work is to correct textual errors. In establishing the correct text Maharshal scrutinized the published editions of the Talmud as well as the commentaries of Rashi, Tosafot, and other Rishonim.

His comments were later published by his son; an abridged version of Chochmat Shlomo appears in nearly all editions of the Talmud today, at the end of each tractate.

The original, separately printed version, is far more extensive, and has now been re-published in the Metivta/Oz ve-Hadar edition of the Talmud. The Chidah writes that "I've heard from elders, that the Maharshal is extremely deep; and most hasagot from the Maharshah on the Maharshal, aren't hasagot if the reader will delve deep into the subject".

Maharshal also wrote:

   * Yeri'ot Shlomo, a supercommentary on Rashi's commentary on the Torah (in fact a commentary on Elijah Mizrachi's supercommentary on Rashi);
   * Amudei Shlomo, a commentary on Sefer Mitzvot Gadol ("SeMag") of Rabbi Moses ben Jacob of Coucy;
   * A collection of Responsa; see History of Responsa: Sixteenth century.

--------------------

known by the acronym "Maharshal"

He was rabbi of Brest-Litovsk and founded a yeshivah there. Later, he served in Ostraha, and in 1555 he became the rabbi of Lublin.

His approach to the study of the Talmud was rational, and he criticized those who relied on the commentators and codifiers rather than on the actual text. He stressed the importance of ascertaining the correct textual rendition of each passage of the Talmud and its major commentators (Rashi and the Tosafot). Unlike Rabbenu Tam, who attempted to show that every textual variant might be correct in the context, Luria was always interested in finding the accurate reading. While emphasizing the importance of using the Talmud as the basic source for decisions, he made a point of exhaustively studying every possible work with a bearing on the subject before issuing his own decision on questions of Halakhah. Luria wrote Yam shel Shelomo (Solomon's Sea) of which only part has been published. On the other hand, his Hokhmat Shelomo (Solomon's Wisdom), which is a short work on the different tractates of the Talmud, has been published in almost every edition of the Talmud since printed.

Taken from - "Solomon Luria." The New Encyclopedia of Judaism. The Jerusalem Publishing House, Ltd., 1989, 2002. Answers.com 06 Jul. 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/solomon-luria

--------------------

Information from jewishencyclopedia.com

Solomon b. Jehiel Luria:

Rabbi and author; born in Brest-Litovsk, Lithuania, 1510; died at Lublin Nov. 7, 1573. When still a youth his parents sent him to Posen, where he studied under the guidance of his grandfather Rabbi Isaac Klauberia. He left Posen in 1535, owing to an extensive fire which destroyed his grandfather's property. On his return to his native place he assiduously continued his studies. Here he married Lipka, daughter of Rabbi Kalonymus. After some time he was elected rabbi of Brest, and established a yeshibah there. About 1550 he received the appointment of rabbi and head of the yeshibah at Ostrog, and in 1555 he moved to Lublin, where he became head of the famous yeshibah.

His Method of Study.

Concerning his method of study and teaching he says: "I was painstaking always to trace the last source of the Halakah, which I used to discuss with my friends and pupils, spending sometimes a week in research and close reasoning till I came upon the root of the matter; then I used to put it down in my book. And it was always my habit to quote all the opinions of my predecessors, according to their rank of authority, also the decisions and rulings of those who compiled the responsa, in order to avoid the suspicion of plagiarism or the reproach that I had overlooked the opinion of some great authority. In two years I did not reach in my studies further than half of the tractate Yebamot. I spent a whole year on two chapters of the tractate Ketubot; and the chapter 'Miẓwat Ḥaliẓah' Yebamot] took me half a year." It is therefore not surprising that Luria was very independent, and was not afraid to say in public: "Do not take any notice of what people have been accustomed till now to consider as permitted; for most of them used to read only the 'Ṭur. Oraḥ Ḥayyim' by Rabbi Jacob ben Asher. He gave permission in the name of his father, Rabbi Asher; and in his introduction he even asserts that whenever he quotes the ruling of his father, it should be considered as decisive for practise. And, indeed, many people took it for granted that it is to be looked upon as the last and absolute decision, as though it were handed down to us as a tradition of Moses from Mount Sinai. The fact that he agrees with his father does not pledge us to agree with him; indeed, so it is in many ritual matters that the general usage is against him." Nor does he spare even Joseph Caro, whom he accuses of having occasionally expressed merely superficial views in his effort to harmonize conflicting laws, as well as of having sometimes based his decisions on the reading of corrupt texts.

With even more asperity he speaks of Benjamin Zeeb and his responsa, "Binyamin Ze'eb," which he warns the public are worthless and full of plagiarisms. Of some of the rabbis of his time he says as follows: "The ordained are many; but those who know something are few. The number of overbearing ones is steadily increasing, none of whom knows his place. As soon as they are ordained they begin to domineer and, by means of their wealth, to gather about themselves disciples, just as lords hire slaves to run before them. They rule over the scholars and the congregation. They excommunicate and anathematize, and they ordain pupils who did not study under them, and receive therefor money and reward. They are always seeking their own interests."

Friendship with Isserles.

Though Luria was not on very good terms with most of his contemporaries, yet he formed an intimate friendship with Rabbi Moses Isserles of Cracow, as may be seen from their correspondence. But this friendship did not prevent Luria from remonstrating with Isserles when he learned that the latter was devoted to the study of philosophy, for he exhorted him with the words: "Thou art turning to the wisdom of the uncircumcised Aristotle. Wo unto my eyes that they have seen such a thing! This is a sin for such a prince in Israel." The adherents of the Cabala he censured severely, saying: "These modern ones pretend to belong to the sect of the cabalists. . . . They can not see in the light of the Zohar, which they do not understand. . . . Therefore, do not go in their ways. Have nothing to do with things secret."

Luria's works include:

(1) "Ḥokmat Shelomoh" (Cracow, 1582), critical notes on the Talmud and its earlier commentaries; it has been appended to the later editions of the Talmud;

(2) Responsa (Lublin, 1574);

(3) "Yam shel Shelomoh" (Prague, 1615, and later), novellæ on different treatises of the Talmud: on Baba Ḳamma; on Ḥullin (Cracow, 1646); on Yebamot (Altona, 1740); on Beẓah (Lublin, 1636); on Ḳiddushin (Berlin, 1766); and on Giṭṭin (ib. 1766);

(4) "Yeri'ot Shelomoh," supercommentary on the commentary of Elijah Mizraḥi on Rashi, prepared for print by his pupil Jehiel ben Meshullam;

(5) "'Ammude Shelomoh" (Basel, 1600), commentary on the book of precepts by Rabbi Moses of Coucy;

(6) "'Aṭeret Shelomoh";

(7) "Zemirot" (Venice, 1602), commentary on the "Sha'are Dura" of Isaac of Düren (Lublin, 1598), liturgical songs; and others.

Many of Luria's works are still extant in manuscript.

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http://wiki.geni.com/index.php/Jewish_Dynasties

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Source:

http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=10138&hilite=ec75e5d3-2c1f-4e6a-897a-e43c62c3cafa&st=%d7%90%d7%a4%d7%a8%d7%99%d7%9d+%d7%a4%d7%99%d7%a9%d7%9c&pgnum=172

_______________________________________________

-------------------- Solomon Luria (1510 - November 7, 1573) (Hebrew: שלמה לוריא) was one of the great Ashkenazic poskim (decisors of Jewish law) and teachers of his time. He is known for his work of Halakha, Yam Shel Shlomo, and his Talmudic commentary Chochmat Shlomo. Luria is also referred to as Maharshal מהרש"ל (Hebrew abbreviation: Our Teacher, Rabbi Solomon Luria), or Rashal רש"ל (Rabbi Solomon Luria).

Biography

Luria was born in Posen. His father, Yechiel Luria, was the rabbi of the Lithuanian city of Slutzk and an eminent Talmudist. The Luria family claims descent from Rashi.[1] Such claims, however, should be treated with suspicion.[2] Luria studied in Lublin under Rabbi Shalom Shachna, and later in the Ostroh yeshiva under Kalonymus Haberkasten; he later married Lipka, daughter of Rabbi Kalonymus. Students in the yeshiva included Joshua Falk. The Maharshal served as Rabbi in Brisk and various Lithuanian communities for 15 years.

When Haberkasten assumed the position of rosh yeshiva in Brisk, Luria replaced him as the official rabbi of the city and region of Ostroh. Luria later succeeded Shalom Shachna as head of the famed Lublin Yeshiva, which attracted students from all over Europe. Due to various internal problems in the yeshiva, he opened his own yeshiva. The building, known as the "Maharshal's shul", remained intact until World War II. Methodology

"Luria rejected contemporary talmudic and legal methodology. He dismissed the then current belief that legal opinions of earlier generations were almost sacrosanct. Luria maintained that his generation had just as equal access to knowledge as those that came before it. Luria believed that it was incumbant upon scholars in each generation to comb the sources from their talmudic beginnings through the tosafists to their own day, analyzing and weighing each matter and all opinions before coming to a well-considered conclusion. To draw legal conclusions on the basis of a simple majority among three leading medieval authorities as Joseph Karo had done in his sixteenth century code of Jewish law, the Shulhan 'aruk, was, in Luria's opinion, simply wrong. Unlike his contemporaries, Luria was unfettered by the weight of medieval halakic traditions and had the independence and boldness of character to overturn almost any opinion in his passionate search for truth."[3]

Works

Yam Shel Shlomo, Luria's major work of Halakha, was written on sixteen tractates of the Talmud; however, it is extant on only seven. In it, Maharshal analyzes key sugyot (passages) and decides between various authorities as to the practical halacha. Maharshal, famously, objected to Isserles's method of presenting halakhic rulings without discussing their derivation. He wrote Yam Shel Shlomo to "probe the depths of the halacha" and to clarify the process by which those halachot are reached.

Chochmat Shlomo is a gloss, and comments, on the text of the Talmud. One function of this work is to correct textual errors. In establishing the correct text Maharshal scrutinized the published editions of the Talmud as well as the commentaries of Rashi, Tosafot, and other Rishonim. His comments were later published by his son; an abridged version of Chochmat Shlomo appears in nearly all editions of the Talmud today, at the end of each tractate. The original, separately printed version, is far more extensive, and has now been re-published in the Metivta/Oz ve-Hadar edition of the Talmud. The Chida writes that "I've heard from elders, that the Maharshal is extremely deep; and most hasagot from the Maharsha on the Maharshal, aren't hasagot if the reader will delve deep into the subject".

Maharshal also wrote:

   Yeri'ot Shlomo, a super-commentary on Rashi's commentary on the Torah (in fact a commentary on Elijah Mizrachi's supercommentary on Rashi);
   Amudei Shlomo, a commentary on Sefer Mitzvot Gadol ("SeMag") of Rabbi Moses ben Jacob of Coucy;
   A collection of Responsa; see History of Responsa: Sixteenth century.

See also

   Elijah Ba'al Shem of Chelm - one of his famous students who, according to legend, could create a golem creature.
   Moshe ben Avraham - one of his students, author of the Mateh Moshe

References

   ^ For Solomon's descent and relatives see Anton Lourié, Die Familie Lourié. Vienna: Stern &Steiner, 1923.
   ^ Schellekens, Jona (2003), "Descent from Rashi: A 'Mythological Charter'" Avotaynu XIX (3), pp. 3-4.
   ^ Edward Aaron Fram, "Jewish Law and Social and Economic Realities in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Poland (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1991), 21-22.

External links

   Rabbi Solomon Luria, the Maharshal, ou.org
   Solomon b. Jehiel Luria, jewishencyclopedia.com

About רבי שלמה לוריא המהרש"ל (עברית)

נפטר י״ב כסליו של״ד ומנו״כ בלובלין

שימש ברבנות והרביץ תורה בבריםק, אוםטרהא (כמ״מ חותנו)

ולובלין, התיחם לגזע רש״י הק׳ וכמו שכתב בעצמו בים של שלמה

(יבמות פ״ב סי׳ ל״ג) ״ועל פי רש׳׳י יחוס בית אבי סמכתי

מחיבוריו. ים של שלמה, וחכמת שלמה על מם׳ הש״ם, עטרת שלמה

על שערי דורא, עמודי שלמה על הםמ״ג, יריעות שלמה על פי׳ רש״י

עה׳׳ת, פי׳ לזמירות של שבת, מנורת זהב טהור ושו״ת.

זוגתו מרת ליפקא(מל׳׳א ועי׳ טיב גיטין ש״ב אות ל׳ םק׳׳ג)

המהרש׳׳ל הוא חתן הג״ר קלמן בן ר׳ יעקב האברקשטיין, נפטר בערך

בשנת ש׳׳י, ריש מתיבתא ואב״ד בלבוב, אוםטרהא ובריםק, בסוף ימיו

עלה לירושלים והי׳ שם רב לעדת האשכנזים ומנו״ב בהר הזיתים,

והתראה פנים אל פנים עם רבינו האר״י (והביאו הר״ח וויטאל

בליקוטי תורה פרשת בהעלותך), על שם הנם שעשה שהחי׳ גוית גוי

אחד שהעלילו על היהודים שהרגוהו, נקרא רבי קלונימום בעל הנם

(מל״א, תח״י).

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Shlomo Luria - Maharshal -'s Timeline

1510
1510
Lithuania
1530
1530
Age 20
Kracow, Poland
1532
1532
Age 22
1534
1534
Age 24
Jerusalem, Israel
1540
1540
- 1550
Age 30
Brest-Litovsk, Lithuania
1550
1550
- 1555
Age 40
Ostrog, Volhynia, Ukraine
1555
1555
- 1573
Age 45
Lublin, Poland
1573
November 7, 1573
Age 63
Lublin, Lubelskie, Poland
November 7, 1573
Age 63
Lublin, Lubelskie, Poland
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