Sir Thomas Buxton, 1st Baronet

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Thomas Fowell Buxton

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Essex, England
Death: Died in Northrepps, Norfolk, UK
Immediate Family:

Son of Thomas Fowell Buxton and Anna Buxton
Husband of Hannah Buxton
Father of Priscilla Buxton London Female Anti-Slavery Society; Sir Edward North Buxton, 2nd Bt.; Thomas Fowell Buxton; Charles Buxton and Thomas Fowell Buxton
Brother of Anna Forster; Charles Buxton and Sarah Maria Buxton

Managed by: Henry Gurney Buxton
Last Updated:

About Sir Thomas Buxton, 1st Baronet

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Collection Level Description: Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton and Priscilla Buxton Letters Reference: GB 0162 MSS. Brit. Emp. s. 547 Title: Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton and Priscilla Buxton Letters Dates of Creation: 1824-1834 Extent: 16 ff.

Language of Material: eng

Administrative/Biographical History

Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786-1845), philanthropist, received his higher education from 1803 at Trinity College, Dublin, where he received the university gold medal. In 1807, he married Hannah Gurney, by whom he had three sons and two daughters, though his eldest son and two other children died in 1820.

In 1808 he joined the firm of Truman, Hanbury, & Co., brewers, of Spitalfields, London, where he interested himself in various local charitable undertakings, especially those connected with education, the Bible Society, and the sufferings of the weavers. He also organised a system of relief for the population of the area in 1816. At this time, he published 'An Inquiry, whether Crime and Misery are produced or prevented, by our present system of prison discipline' (London, J. & A. Arch, 1818), a book which led to the formation of the Society for the Reformation of Prison Discipline (whose committee he later joined) and also, indirectly, to an investigation into the management of the gaols in Madras, India.

From 1818 to 1837 he represented Weymouth as M.P.; at the same time he devoted himself to the preparation of a work on prison discipline, the foundation of a savings bank and salt fish market in Spitalfields, an inquiry into the management of the London Hospital, and the formation of a new Bible Association. Taking a close interest in the operation of the criminal laws, he supported Mackintosh's motion in 1820 for abolishing the death penalty for forgery.

In 1824, Wilberforce, leader of the anti-slavery party in the House of Commons, asked Buxton to become his successor. Buxton, who had been a member of the African Institution and an active supporter of the movement for some years, accepted, and pursued the cause vigorously until the abolition of British slavery in 1834. He also campaigned against the apprenticeship system in the West Indies after emancipation. After losing his seat in 1837, he sought the abolition of the slave trade in Africa itself, and published 'The African Slave Trade' (London, John Murray, 1839). He recommended various measures, including the formation of treaties with native chiefs, the purchase of Fernando Po as a local headquarters and market of commerce, the formation of a company to introduce agriculture and commerce into Africa, and an expedition up the River Niger to set forward preliminary arrangements. The Society for the Extinction of the Slave Trade and the Civilisation of Africa was established, but the Niger expedition ended disastrously, with the deaths of forty-one members of the party from the African fever.

Eventually, the expedition produced positive results for the British, including the opening up of Central Africa and the formation of an important trade in cotton and other articles. However, its failure affected Buxton badly, and his health deteriorated. For the few years until the end of his life, he devoted himself to his estates near Cromer, Norfolk, where he established plantations and model farms. Awarded a baronetcy in 1840, he is commemorated by a statue by Thrupp in the north transept of Westminster Abbey.

source http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/dept/scwmss/wmss/online/blcas/buxton-tf4.html

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Thomas_Buxton,_1st_Baronet

Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, 1st Baronet (7 April 1786 – 19 February 1845) was an English Member of Parliament, brewer, abolitionist and social reformer.


Buxton was born at Castle Hedingham, Essex, England. His father was also named Thomas Fowell Buxton. His mother's maiden name was Anna Hanbury. She was a Quaker (member of the Religious Society of Friends). Through the influence of his mother, Buxton became a close friend of Joseph John Gurney and his sister, Elizabeth Fry, who were both prominent Quakers. Buxton married their sister Hannah Gurney, of Earlham Hall, Norwich in May 1807. He lived at Northrepps Hall in Norfolk.


Early life


In 1808, Buxton's Hanbury family connections led to an appointment to work at the brewery of Truman, Hanbury & Company, in Brick Lane, Spitalfields, London. In 1811, he was appointed a partner in the business, now renamed Truman, Hanbury, Buxton & Co; he later became sole owner of the company.


Although he was a member of the Church of England, Buxton attended Friends meetings with the Gurneys and became involved in the social reform movement being led by Friends. He helped raise money for the weavers of London who were forced into poverty by the factory system. He provided financial support for Elizabeth Fry’s prison reform work and became a member of her Association for the Improvement of the Female Prisoners in Newgate.


Buxton was elected as a Member of Parliament for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis in 1818. As an MP he worked for changes in prison conditions and criminal law and for the abolition of slavery, in which he was helped by his sister-in-law Louisa Gurney Hoare. He also opposed capital punishment and pushed for its abolition. Although he never accomplished this last goal during his lifetime, he did help to reduce the number of crimes punishable by death from more than two hundred to eight.


Thomas and Hannah Buxton had eight children. Four of them died of whooping cough during a five-week period around April 1820. Another one died of consumption some time later.


Abolitionism


The slave trade had been abolished in 1807, but Buxton began to work for the abolishment of slavery itself. He helped found the Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery (later the Anti-Slavery Society) in 1823. He took over as leader of the abolition movement in the British House of Commons after William Wilberforce retired in 1825. His efforts paid off in 1833 when slavery was officially abolished in the British Empire. Buxton held his seat in Parliament until 1837.


In 1839 Buxton urged the British government to make treaties with African leaders to abolish the slave trade. They sent a team (not including Buxton) to the Niger River Delta in 1841 that set up a headquarters and began negotiations. The party suffered so many deaths from disease that the government called them back.


David Livingstone was strongly influenced by Buxton’s arguments that the African slave trade might be destroyed through the influence of “legitimate trade” and the spread of Christianity, which helped inspire him to become a missionary in Africa and to fight the slave trade all his life.


In 1840 Buxton was created a baronet. His health failed gradually, which some believed was caused by the disappointment over the failed mission to Africa. He died a few years later. There is a monument to him in Westminster Abbey, and a memorial to the emancipation of slaves and dedicated to Buxton in Victoria Tower Gardens (commissioned by his son Charles Buxton MP, the Buxton Memorial Fountain, designed by Samuel Sanders Teulon, was initially erected in Parliament Square, but was removed in 1940 and moved to its current location in 1957). Fowell Close in Earlham, Norwich, is named after him.


Recent memorials


A representation of Buxton can be also seen on the current English five pound note. He is the figure wearing glasses in the group on the left-hand side of Elizabeth Fry.


In February 2007 a plaque was attached in his memory to the Norwich Friends Meeting House in Upper Goat Lane.


Buxton Road, part of the main route between Weymouth and the Isle of Portland is named after Sir Thomas Buxton, where he was Member of Parliament for 19 years. The road runs past Bellfield Park, his former home in Wyke Regis.


There are plans to erect a permanent memorial to Buxton in Weymouth.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Fowell_Buxton

Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, 1st Baronet (7 April 1786 – 19 February 1845) was an English Member of Parliament, brewer, abolitionist and social reformer.

Buxton was born at Castle Hedingham, Essex, England. His father was also named Thomas Fowell Buxton. His mother's maiden name was Anna Hanbury. She was a Quaker (member of the Religious Society of Friends). Through the influence of his mother, Buxton became a close friend of Joseph John Gurney and his sister, Elizabeth Fry, who were both prominent Quakers. Buxton married their sister Hannah Gurney, of Earlham Hall, Norwich in May 1807. He lived at Easneye, Hertfordshire.

Early life

In 1808, Buxton's Hanbury family connections led to an appointment to work at the brewery of Truman, Hanbury & Company, in Brick Lane, Spitalfields, London. In 1811, he was appointed a partner in the business, now renamed Truman, Hanbury, Buxton & Co; he later became sole owner of the company.

Although he was a member of the Church of England, Buxton attended Friends meetings with the Gurneys and became involved in the social reform movement being led by Friends. He helped raise money for the weavers of London who were forced into poverty by the factory system. He provided financial support for Elizabeth Fry’s prison reform work and became a member of her Association for the Improvement of the Female Prisoners in Newgate.

Buxton was elected as a Member of Parliament for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis in 1818. As an MP he worked for changes in prison conditions and criminal law and for the abolition of slavery. He also opposed capital punishment and pushed for its abolition. Although he never accomplished this last goal during his lifetime, he did help to reduce the number of crimes punishable by death from more than two hundred to eight.

Thomas and Hannah Buxton had eight children. Four of them died of whooping cough during a five-week period around April 1820. Another one died of consumption some time later.

Abolitionism

The slave trade had been abolished in 1807, but Buxton began to work for the abolishment of slavery itself. He helped found the Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery (later the Anti-Slavery Society) in 1823. He took over as leader of the abolition movement in the British House of Commons after William Wilberforce retired in 1825. His efforts paid off in 1833 when slavery was officially abolished in the British Empire. Buxton held his seat in Parliament until 1837.

In 1839 Buxton urged the British government to make treaties with African leaders to abolish the slave trade. They sent a team (not including Buxton) to the Niger River Delta in 1841 that set up a headquarters and began negotiations. The party suffered so many deaths from disease that the government called them back.

David Livingstone was strongly influenced by Buxton’s arguments that the African slave trade might be destroyed through the influence of “legitimate trade” and the spread of Christianity, which helped inspire him to become a missionary in Africa and to fight the slave trade all his life.

In 1840 Buxton was created a baronet. His health failed gradually, which some believed was caused by the disappointment over the failed mission to Africa. He died a few years later. There is a monument to him in Westminster Abbey, and a memorial to the emancipation of slaves and dedicated to Buxton in Victoria Tower Gardens (commissioned by his son Charles Buxton MP, the Buxton Memorial Fountain, designed by Samuel Sanders Teulon, was initially erected in Parliament Square, but was removed in 1940 and moved to its current location in 1957). Fowell Close in Earlham, Norwich, is named after him.

Recent memorials

A representation of Buxton can be also seen on the current English five pound note. He is the figure wearing glasses in the group on the left-hand side of Elizabeth Fry.

In February 2007 a plaque was attached in his memory to the Norwich Friends Meeting House in Upper Goat Lane.

Buxton Road, part of the main route between Weymouth and the Isle of Portland is named after Sir Thomas Buxton, where he was Member of Parliament for 19 years. The road runs past Bellfield Park, his former home in Wyke Regis.

Descendents of Sir Thomas Buxton

Buxton had a number of notable descendents, and the table below is intended to show the relationships between them.

Sir Edward North Buxton, 2nd Baronet (1812–1858): married Catherine Gurney

Sir Thomas Buxton, 3rd Baronet (1837–1915): married Lady Victoria Noel

Sir Thomas Fowell Victor Buxton, 4th Baronet (1865–1919}

Noel Edward Noel-Buxton, 1st Baron Noel-Buxton (1869–1948)

Charles Roden Buxton (1875–1942)

Harold Jocelyn Buxton (1880–?)

Leland William Wilberforce Buxton (1884–1967)

Samuel Gurney Buxton (1838–Feb 1909)

Edward North Buxton (1840–1924)

Henry Edmund Buxton (1844–1905)

Charles Louis Buxton (1846–1906)

Francis William Buxton (1847–1911)

Thomas Fowell Buxton (1822–1908): Married Rachel Gurney

Elizabeth Ellen Buxton (later Barclay) (1848-1919)

John Henry Buxton (1849–1934): Director of Truman, Hanbury, Buxton Brewery, Chairman of the London Hospital

Geoffrey Fowell Buxton (1852–1929): Director of Barclays Bank

Alfred Fowell Buxton (1854–1952): Chairman of London County Council

Barclay Fowell Buxton (1860–1946): Missionary

Murray Barclay Buxton (1889–1940)

Alfred Barclay Buxton (1891–1940)

George Barclay Buxton (1892–1917)

Barclay Godfrey Buxton (1895–1986)

Charles Buxton (1823–1871): married Emily Mary Holland

Bertram Henry Buxton (1852–1934)

Sydney Buxton, 1st Earl Buxton (1853–1934)

Writings

An Enquiry, Whether Crime and Misery are produced or prevented by our present system of Prison Discipline (1818)

The African Slave Trade and Its Remedy (London: J. Murray, 1839)

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-------------------- Sir Fowell Buxton, 1st Baronet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sir Fowell Buxton

Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, 1st Baronet (1 April 1786[1] – 19 February 1845) was an English Member of Parliament, brewer, abolitionist and social reformer.[2]

Buxton was born at Castle Hedingham, Essex. His father was also named Thomas Fowell Buxton. His mother's maiden name was Anna Hanbury. Through the influence of his mother, who was a Quaker, Buxton became a close friend of Joseph John Gurney and his sister Elizabeth Fry, who were both prominent Quakers. Buxton married their sister Hannah Gurney, of Earlham Hall, Norwich in May 1807. He lived at Northrepps Hall in Norfolk

Early life[edit]

In 1808, Buxton's Hanbury family connections led to an appointment to work at the brewery of Truman, Hanbury & Company, in Brick Lane, Spitalfields, London. In 1811 he was made a partner in the business, renamed Truman, Hanbury, Buxton & Co. Later he became sole owner.

Although he was a member of the Church of England, Buxton attended Friends meetings with members of the Gurneys and became involved in the social reform movement, in which Friends were prominent. He helped raise money for the weavers of London, who were being forced into poverty by the factory system. He provided financial support for Elizabeth Fry’s prison reform work and joined her Association for the Improvement of the Female Prisoners in Newgate.

Buxton was elected to Parliament for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis in 1818. As an MP he worked for changes in prison conditions and criminal law and for the abolition of slavery, in which he was helped by his sister-in-law Louisa Gurney Hoare.[3] He also opposed capital punishment and pushed for its abolition. Although he never accomplished this last goal during his lifetime, he worked to restrict those crimes for which capital punishment was sentenced; the number of crimes punishable by death was reduced from more than 200 to eight.

Thomas and Hannah Buxton had eight children. Four of them died of whooping cough over a five-week period around April 1820. Another one died of consumption some time later. Abolitionism[edit]

                                                                                                                                  
Buxton is on the left edge in this painting which is of the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention.[4] Move your cursor to identify him or click icon to enlarge

The slave trade had been abolished in 1807, but Buxton began to work for the abolition of the institution of slavery. In 1823 he helped found the Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery (later known as the Anti-Slavery Society). In the House of Commons in May 1823, Buxton introduced a resolution condemning the state of slavery as "repugnant to the principles of the British constitution and of the Christian religion", and called for its gradual abolition "throughout the British colonies". He also pressured the government to send dispatches to the colonies to improve the treatment of slaves.[5] Buxton took over as leader of the abolition movement in the British House of Commons after William Wilberforce retired in 1825.

He achieved his goal in 1833, when slavery was officially abolished in the British Empire, except in India, where it was part of the indigenous culture. Buxton held his seat in Parliament until 1837.

In 1839 Buxton urged the British government to make treaties with African leaders to abolish the slave trade. The government in turn backed the Niger expedition of 1841 (not including Buxton) put together by missionary organizations, which was also going to work on trade. More than 150 people were part of the expedition, which reached the Niger Delta and began negotiations. The British suffered such high mortality from fevers, with more than 25% of the group dying rapidly, that they cut short the mission in 1841.

David Livingstone was strongly influenced by Buxton's arguments that the African slave trade might be destroyed through the influence of "legitimate trade" (in goods) and the spread of Christianity. He became a missionary in Africa and fought the slave trade all his life.

In 1840 Buxton was created a baronet. His health failed gradually – according to some, due to disappointment over the failed mission to Africa. He died five years later.

Founding chairman of RSPCA[edit]

On 16 June 1824 a meeting was held at Old Slaughter's Coffee House, St. Martin's Lane, London that created the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (It became the RSPCA when Queen Victoria gave royal assent in 1840.)[6] The 22 founding members included William Wilberforce, Richard Martin, Sir James Mackintosh, Basil Montagu, and Rev. Arthur Broome. Buxton was appointed chairman for the year 1824.[7]

Legacy and honors[edit] A plaque is dedicated to him in Norwich Cathedral. A monument to him stands in Westminster Abbey. A memorial to the emancipation of slaves, dedicated to Buxton, was installed in Victoria Tower Gardens. Commissioned by his son Charles Buxton MP, the Buxton Memorial Fountain was designed by Samuel Sanders Teulon and installed in Parliament Square. In 1940 it was removed during the German bombings of London in World War II. It was installed at its present location in 1957. Also named after Sir Buxton is Fowell Close in Earlham, Norwich. In the 21st century, a representation of Buxton is printed on the current English five-pound note. He is the figure wearing glasses in the group on the left-hand side of Elizabeth Fry. In February 2007 a memorial plaque in his honor was installed at the Norwich Friends Meeting House in Upper Goat Lane. In Weymouth, Dorset, which he served for 19 years as MP, the main route to the Isle of Portland is named Buxton Road. It runs past Bellfield Park, his former home in Wyke Regis. There are plans in Weymouth to erect a permanent memorial to him.[8]

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image Buxton is on the left edge in this painting which is of the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention.[4] Move your cursor to identify him or click icon to enlarge

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Sir Thomas Buxton, 1st Baronet's Timeline

1786
April 7, 1786
Essex, England
1807
May 13, 1807
Age 21
1808
February 25, 1808
Age 21
Cromer, Norfolk, England, United Kingdom
1810
1810
Age 23
1812
September 16, 1812
Age 26
Norwich,,Norfolk,England
1821
August 29, 1821
Age 35
1823
November 18, 1823
Age 37
Cobham, Surrey, UK
1833
1833
Age 46

Buxton lead the Parliamentary campaign responsible for the
1833 Act freeing the 700,000
slaves then held in the West Indies and elsewhere in the British Empire.

1845
February 19, 1845
Age 58
Northrepps, Norfolk, UK