William Garrard (Gerrard), MP, Lord Mayor of London
|Also Known As:||"William Gerard"|
|Birthplace:||Dornley, Buckinghamshire, England|
|Death:||Died in St. Magnus Parish, Buckinghamshire, England|
|Place of Burial:||Church of St. Magnus the Martyr|
|Occupation:||Mayor, Merchant, Lord Mayor of London 1555|
|Managed by:||Jocelynn Elaine Oakes|
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About Sir William Garrard, MP, Lord Mayor of London
Son of John Gerrard, a grocer, who in 1507 was living in the parish of St. Magnus the Martyr, near London Bridge.
Knighted and made Lord Mayor of London 1555.
M.P. London 1557-8;
President Bethlem and Bridewell 1558-9;
President St. Bartholomew's Hospital 1559-71 (Treasurer 1548-9);
Surveyor-General Hospitals 1566-7; Comptroller-General Hospitals 1556-71
Will dated April 15,1570; proved January 12 1572.
Father of Sir John Garrarde (Lord Mayor 1601-2) and father-in-law of Sir George Barne (Lord Mayor 1586-7).
Described as "a grave, sober, wise and discreet citizen equal with the best and inferior to none of our time."
-------------------- Sir William GERRAD, Lord Mayor of London was born in 1507 in Dorney Bucks, England two years before Henry VIII became King of England. He was only a few years old when Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. He married Isabel Nethermill of Coventry, Warwickshire, England when he was 23 years old. He was elected Lord Mayor of London in 1555 when Queen Mary was on the throne.
In certain documents he is described as
Williemus Garrard de Dorney.
He was knighted in 1555 (Shaw's Knights of England; 1906). He was a member of the Haberdashers Company and dwelt in Pissing Conduit in Christopher's Parish and was buried at St. Magnus, in which parish he was born." He owned property in Sittingborne, Newington and Milton.
His arms are Argent, on a fess sable, a lion passant on the field. His crest is a leopard sejant proper. He was a merchant and adventurer. I found on the internet a copy of a contract (treaty) between Queen Elizabeth (who followed Queen Mary) and Duke Vasiliwich of Russia granting him certain exclusive trading rights with Russia. He died on September 27, 1571 at the age of 64. -------------------- Sir William Garrard, Lord Mayor of London was born in Dorney Bucks, England two years before Henry VIII became King of England. Dorney, lies 2 ½ miles west of Eton and Eton adjoins Windsor Castle. It, and an adjoining manor, Boveney, was owned by the "Girrard family, and afterward by Charles H. Palmer, whose ancestor, Sir James Palmer, Knight, married the daughter of Sir William Garrard.
William was a leading merchant adventurer. His arms are Argent, on a fess sable, a lion passant on the field. His crest is a leopard sejant proper.
In certain documents William is described as Williemus Garrard de Dorney.
"Sir William Garrard, lord major of London 1555-1556, and father of Anne, wife of Sir George Barne, the younger, was knighted in 1555 (Shaw's Knights of England; 1906; ii; 69). He was a member of the Haberdashers Company and dwelt in Pissing Conduit in Christopher's Parish and was buried at St. Magnus, in which parish he was born." (Stow's Survey of London and Westminster; 6th ed. 1755; ii; 279.) He owned property in Sittingborne, Newington and Milton.
Sir William Garrard married Isabel Nethermill of Coventry, Warwickshire, England when he was 23 years old. He was elected Lord Mayor of London in 1555 when Queen Mary was on the throne. In certain documents he is described as Williemus Garrard de Dorney.
He was knighted in 1555, the same year that he was elected Lord Mayor of London. He was a member of the Haberdashers Company and dwelt in Pissing Conduit in Christopher's Parish. The Haberdashers Company received it Royal Charter in 1448 and was responsible for the regulation of cloth merchants in London. The organization still exists but is now an education and charitable institution. The Pissing Conduit has been described as “a little postern of stone set up with a cesterne of lead inside it, opposite the south-east corner of the Stocks Market (in London)” It is called the "pissing Conduit" from its running a small stream of water. It is referred to several times by Shakespeare. Sir William Garrard died on September 27, 1571 and was buried at St. Magnus the Martyr. He owned property in Sittingborne, Newington and Milton.
Following is the first paragraph of a letter written in 1570 that tells of a shipping adventure of Sir William Garrard involving “Freebooters” which presumably are pirates. The letter is to the Emperor of Russia.
Here is the copy of a letter sent to the Emperour of Moscouie by Christopher Hodsdon and William Burrough, Anno 1570 (the spellings are as originally written:
Most mightie Empefour of Moscouie (Russia). Whereas Sir William Garrard and his felowship the company of English merchants, this last Winter sent hither to the Narue three ships laden with merchandise, which was left here, and with it Christopher Hodsdon one of the sayd felowship, and their chiefe doer in this place, who
when hee came first hither, and vntil such time as hee had dispatched those ships from hence, was in hope of goods to lade twelue or thirteene sails of good ships, against this shipping, wherefore he wrote vnto the sayd Sir William Garrard and his companie to send hither this spring the sayd number of thirteene ships. And because that in their comming hither wee found the Freebooters on the sea, and supposing this yeere that they, would be very strong, he therefore gaue the said sir William and his companie aduise to furnish the sayd number of ships so strongly, as they should bee able to withstand the force of the Freebooters: whereupon they haue according to his aduice sent this yeere thirteene good ships together well furnished with men and munition, and all other necessaries for the warres, of which 13. ships William Burrough one of the said felowship is captaine generall, into whom there was giuen in charge, that if hee met with any the Danske Freebooters, or whatsoeuer robbers and theeues that are enimies to to your highnesse, he should doe his best to apprehend and take them. [Fiue ships of Freebooters taken.]
He was a merchant and adventurer. I found on the internet a copy of a contract (treaty) between Queen Elizabeth (who followed Queen Mary) and Duke Vasiliwich of Russia granting Sir William Garrard certain exclusive trading rights with Russia.
Sir William Garrard was involved with Sir Thomas Gresham in the building of the Royal Exchange in London in 1565. He is mentioned in the will of King Edward VI as being the Sheriff of London. He died on September 27, 1571 at the age of 64.
Sir William Garrarde’s honors in a report of London “Aldermen” are:
Knighted before 28 Feb 1556;
M.P. London 1557 - 1558;
President Bethlem and Bridewell 1558 - 1559;
President St. Bartholomew's Hospital 1559 - 1571 (Treasurer 1548 - 1549);
Surveyor-General Hospitals 1566 - 1567;
Comptroller-General Hospitals 1556 - 1571
Will dated April 15, 1570; proved January 12, 1572.
Father of Sir John Garrarde (Lord Mayor 1601 - 1602) and father-in-law of Sir George Barne (Lord Mayor 1586 -1587).
Sir William has been described as "a grave, sober, wise and discreet citizen equal with the best and inferior to none of our time."
William and his father John changed the spelling of their name Garard by adding the extra r, some even changed the e to a making it Garrard
- A genealogical and heraldic history of the extinct and dormant baronetcies ... By John Burke, John Bernard Burke (sir.). Page 213.
-------------------- Family and Education b. by 1518, 1st s. of John Garrard of London. m. by 1539, Isabel, da. of Julian Nethermill of Coventry, Warws., 5s. 1da. Kntd. by 29 Feb. 1556.1
Alderman, London 1547-d., sheriff 1552-3, mayor 1555-6, auditor 1556-8; master, Haberdashers’ Co. 1557; consul, Russia Co. 1555-6, gov. 1561-d.; assistant, Merchant Adventurers’ Co. 1564; gov. mineral and battery works 1568.2
Biography William Garrard was born in the parish of St. Magnus the Martyr near London Bridge, the son of a London grocer. Garrard himself became a haberdasher and married the daughter of a Coventry draper, who by his will of 1539 left £6 13s.4d. to each of the Garrard children. The family was then living in Garrard’s native parish, where his goods were valued at £200 for subsidy. He later moved to St. Christopher le Stocks.3
In 1545 Garrard was one of a number of commoners appointed by the court of aldermen to devise new means for the relief of poverty, and for the next four years he served as a surveyor of the poor; he took ‘great and manifold pains’ in drawing up the constitutions of the new hospitals, was a governor of Christ’s Hospital in 1553-4, of Bridewell in 1558-9 and of St. Bartholomew’s from 1559 until his death, surveyor of all the city’s hospitals in 1566-7 and their comptroller general from 1568. Exempted from the shrievalty in 1551, he was elected sheriff the following year and mayor in 1555, probably receiving his knighthood in this capacity. He was returned by London to the last Parliament of Mary’s reign, but the ‘Mr. Garrard’ who was one of four Members deputed by the Commons on 5 Feb. 1558 to consider Walter Ralegh’s claim to privilege is more likely to have been William Gerard II, one of the Members for Chester. It was another namesake, William Garrard II, who had sat in the Parliament of March 1553 for Wootton Bassett.4
Garrard’s wide trading interests put him among the great London merchants. He was one of the Merchant Adventurers with whom in 1552 Cecil negotiated a loan of £40,000 to the crown, in 1564 he was an assistant of the Company and in the following year he and ‘others of such merchants as specially use to transport cloths over the sea’ were consulted by the Privy Council about a complaint by the London clothworkers. From the European market he moved into the newly developing ones beyond. A voyage to Barbary in 1552 was followed by several to Guinea, which in turn led him into the slave trade. He was an active promoter of John Hawkins’s† second expedition of 1564, additional funds for which were raised at a meeting at his house, as well as of the disastrous voyage of 1568, which cost him and his partners nearly £21,000, including 45 negroes valued at nearly £6,000. He was by then also governor of what became known as the Russia Company: a ‘principal doer’ in promoting the first voyage of 1553, Garrard was one of the four consuls appointed in 1555 and by 1561 he was a governor. From then until his death he was, if not always the sole governor, the effective head of the Company, which was often called by his name.5
The yield of these enterprises is hard to assess, for although Garrard died a wealthy man, with lands in three counties, he had acquired most of these early in his career, before embarking on his more risky ventures. His grandfather had been a small landowner in Kent, and in 1545 Garrard bought the manor of Southfleet in that county from (Sir) William Petre, who was to name him an overseer of his will; he also bought back the family house, the Lion, at Sittingbourne and left it to his brother’s heir. When not in London, however, Garrard evidently preferred his manor house at Dorney, bought in 1542 and enlarged with a ‘new gallery and closet made over the porch’. By his will of 15 Apr. 1570 he left Dorney and all his lands in Buckinghamshire to his eldest son, with the reversion to Southfleet after his wife’s death. One of the overseers of the will was his son-in-law George Barne†. Garrard died in London, probably at his house in St. Christopher’s parish, on 27 Sept. 1571 and was buried in St. Magnus the Martyr, the parish church of his childhood. An inventory of his goods survives.6
Ref Volumes: 1509-1558 Author: Helen Miller Notes 1. Date of birth estimated from marriage. Vis. Herts. (Harl. Soc. xxii), 144; PCC 6 Alenger; City of London RO, Guildhall, rep. 16, f. 495; jnl. 16, f. 370v. 2. City of London RO, rep. 11, f. 346v; 13(2), f. 338; jnl. 16, f. 201; 17, f. 41; W. Herbert, Livery Cos. ii. 539; CPR, 1554-5, p. 57; 1563-6, pp. 178-80; T. S. Willan, Early Hist. of Russia Co. 285; Sel. Chs. of Trading Cos. (Selden Soc. xxviii), 19. 3. PCC 3 Daper, 6 Alenger; E179/144/120. 4. City of London RO, jnl. 15, ff. 213v, 317v, 384-4v; 16, ff. 142v, 201; rep. 13(1), f. 93v; 13(2), f. 338; 14, ff. 73, 216v, 392, 535; 15, ff. 126, 281, 379, 473v; 16, ff. 110, 401, 502v; CJ, i. 48. 5. G. D. Ramsay, London in International Pol. 36, 55, 160, 225; J. W. Burgon, Sir Thomas Gresham, i. 466; CPR, 1554-5, pp. 55-59; 1563-6, pp. 178-80; APC, vii. 278; O. de Smedt, De Engelse Natie te Antwerpen, i. 213; CSP For. 1558-9, p. 217; Hakluyt, Voyages, ii. 392; iii. 14, 39, 64, 93, 109, 167, 177; vi. 138-40, 145-52, 262; T. S. Willan, Muscovy Merchants of 1555, pp. 27-28, 35 et passim; Lansd. 6, ff. 48-51; 11, ff. 47-49; Stow, Annales, 609. 6. C142/159/41; PCC 3 Daper; F. G. Emmison, Tudor Sec. 70 et passim; LP Hen. VIII, xx; Arch. Cant. xlii. 38-40; VCH Bucks. iii. 223; NRA 7619, p. 35.
Sir William Garrard, MP, Lord Mayor of London's Timeline
Dornley, Buckinghamshire, England
Woolrich, Kent, England
Lord Mayor of London
September 27, 1571
St. Magnus Parish, Buckinghamshire, England
Church of St. Magnus the Martyr