Sir William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham

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About Sir William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham

William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham (c. 1510–1573), English Lord High Admiral, was the son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk by his second wife Agnes Tilney (d. May, 1545), daughter of Hugh Tilney of Boston and Eleanor Tailboys. Agnes was Elizabeth Tilney's first cousin.

He was popular with Henry VIII of England, and was deputy Earl Marshal at the coronation of Anne Boleyn. Anne was daughter to his elder half-sister Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire.

William was sent on missions to Scotland and France. But in 1541, William was charged with abetting Catherine Howard, his niece and fifth Queen consort of Henry VIII, in committing adultery, and was convicted of misprision of treason, but pardoned. He was made governor of Calais in 1552 and Lord High Admiral in 1553. He was created Baron Howard of Effingham in 1554 for his defence of London in the rebellion of Thomas Wyatt the younger against Mary I of England.

He befriended the Princess Elizabeth Tudor, but his popularity with the navy saved him from the resentment of Mary. When the princess became Queen Elizabeth I, William had great influence with her and filled several important posts.

William married Margaret Gamage, daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage and Margaret St. John.

His son Charles Howard, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham is famous in English naval history and was created Earl of Nottingham.

The later Earls of Effingham descended from his younger son William Howard. His daughter Douglas Howard [sic] was born in 1545, married first John Sheffield, 2nd Baron Sheffield of Butterwick, secondly (in secret) Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester and thirdly Edward Stafford.

His descendant (through his son William) Francis Howard, 5th Baron Howard of Effingham (d. 1695), inherited the barony of Howard of Effingham on the death of his cousin, Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Nottingham, 4th Baron Howard of Effingham in 1681.

Francis' son, Francis Howard, 1st Earl of Effingham (1683–1743) was created Earl of Effingham in 1735. This earldom became extinct on the death of Richard Howard, 4th Earl of Effingham in 1816 but was created again in 1837 in favour of Kenneth Alexander Howard, 1st Earl of Effingham (1767–1845) another of his descendants, who had succeeded to the barony of Howard of Effingham in 1816.

Whitgift School currently stands on the site of the former estate of the family, and a model of HMS Ark Royal adorns the clock tower to commemorate this. A full-length portrait of Effingham, by Mytens, hangs above the fireplace in the Billiards Room at Nostell Priory, home of the current Lord St Oswald, and a National Trust property, near Wakefield, West Yorkshire. [edit]References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.,_1st_Baron_Howard_of_Effingham

Born: ABT 1510

Acceded: 11 Mar 1553

Died: 21 Jan 1572/3, Hampton Court Palace, Richmond, England

Buried: 29 Jan 1572/3, Reigate Church

Notes: Knight of the Garter. The Complete Peerage vol.V,pp.9-10. The Complete Peerage does not show the children.

Father: Thomas HOWARD (2º D. Norfolk)

Mother: Agnes TILNEY (D. Norfolk)

Married 1: Catherine BROUGHTON (d. 23 Apr 1535 - bur. Lambeth) (dau. of John Broughton and Anne Sapcote) BEF 18 Jun 1531


1. Agnes (Anne) HOWARD (M. Winchester)

Married 2: Margaret GAMAGE (B. Howard of Effingham) (b. ABT 1515 - d. 1 May 1581 - bur. 18 May 1581, Reigate) (dau. of Sir Thomas Gamage and Margaret St. John) BEF 1536


2. Douglas HOWARD (B. Sheffield of Butterwick)

3. Charles HOWARD (1° E. Nottingham)

4. William HOWARD of Lingfield (Sir)

5. Frances HOWARD (C. Hertford)

6. Martha HOWARD

7. Henry HOWARD

8. Edward HOWARD (b. ABT 1550 - d. 15 Apr 1554)

9. Mary HOWARD (B. Sutton of Dudley)

10. Catherine HOWARD (Maid of Honour) (d. 22 Sep 1598)

11. Margaret HOWARD

12. Thomas HOWARD (b. ABT 1561 - d. 1600)

13. Dorothy HOWARD (b. ABT 1558)

14. Anne HOWARD (b. ABT 1560)

15. Elizabeth HOWARD(b. ABT 1562)

16. Richard HOWARD (b. ABT 1564)

Eldest son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk by his second wife, Agnes Tilney. Educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, under Gardiner, and came to court at an early age. In 1531 Howard went on his first embassy to Scotland, and was entertained by James V at St. Andrews. His mission seems to have been to propose a marriage between James and the Princess Mary. He was liked and trusted by Henry VIII and was with him at Boulonge; and at Anne Boleyn coronation was Deputy Earl Marshal; and he was sent on missions to Scotland and France. In Feb 1534-5 he went to Scotland to invest James V with the Garter (State Papers Henry VIII, v. 2 ; Diurnal of Occurrents, Bannatyne Club, 19). Chapuys, who suspected much more than was really designed by the mission, added, in his letter to Carlos V, 'People are astonished at the despatch of so stupid and indiscreet a man'. But Queen Margaret on 4 Mar wrote to Henry, commending Howard's 'honorable, pleasaunt, and wys' behaviour. King James V, who a few days previously bore similar testimony, offered him the confiscated lands and goods of James Hamilton, the sheriff of Linlithgow, brother of Patrick Hamilton. These Howard refused, and Hamilton was restored to favour. In 1535 he was in France on diplomatic business (Chronicle of Calais, Camd. Soc. p. 45). In Feb 1535-6 Howard was again sent to Scotland, in company with William Barlow, the bishop-elect of St. Asaph, to recommend to James and his court the adoption in Scotland of Henry's ecclesiastical policy. Howard was instructed to set forth 'his grace's proceed-inges', and to 'inculce and harpe uppon the spring of honour and proffit'. He had also to propose to James an interview with Henry. He returned to Scotland once more in Apr 1536 (Hamilton Papers, i. 29, &c.; Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 20).

In 1537 and 1541 Howard was engaged on an embassy to France (cf. State Papers Henry VIII, vol. viii. pt. v. contd.) While there Cromwell informed him and his colleague, the bishop of Worcester, of the death of Jane Seymour, and, at the King's request, asked them to report which of the French princesses would be suitable for her successor.

His wife, Margaret Gamage, was one of the ladies of his sister, Queen Catherine Howard. In Dec 1541, when Catherine was arrested, both Margaret and her husband were tried and found guilty of concealing her unchastity. They were later pardoned. They lost, however, the manor and rectory of Tottenham, which had been granted to them in 1537 (Newcourt, Repertorium, i. 753). Howard accompanied the Earl of Hertford in the invasion of Scotland of 1544. In the same year he took part in the siege of Boulogne, and in 1546 one of the many orders in council directed to him instructed him to prepare ships for the 'sure wafting' of the money which Wotton and Harrington were to convey to the army in France.

From 29 Oct 1552 to Dec 1553 he was Lord Deputy and Governor of Calais, and 14 Nov 1553 Lord High Admiral; Lord Clinton, however, the former admiral, did not resign at once, so that the patent was not made out until 10 Mar 1553-4. In Oct of that year Privy Councillor under Edward VI. On 2 Jan 1553-4 he received the Spanish ambassadors at the Tower wharf, and rode with them up through the city to Durham Place. William was made Knight of the Garter in 1554. When Sir Thomas Wyatt approached London, Howard was very active in the defence of the Queen. He shut Ludgate in Wyatt's face. 'And that night' (3 Feb 1553-4), says Wriothesley, 'the said Lord Admirall watched the [London] Bridge with iii c men, and brake the drawbridge, and set rampeers with great ordinance there'. Created Baron Howard of Effingham 11 Mar 1553/4 for his defence of London during the rebellion. The manor of Effingham (Surrey) had been granted to him by Edward VI in 1551. Perhaps his arguments with the Queen saved the life of princess Elizabeth after that affair. He befriended Elizabeth, but his popularity with the Navy saved him from Mary resentment. He became Elizabeth's principal protector during the months that followed. By the next year his loyalty to the princess made him a suspected person; the Imperial Ambassador wrote to his master that it was "highly probable" that Howard knew of and consented to plots in which Elizabeth was believed to be involved. In Apr 1555, he urged in Council that her restrictions be removed and that she be brought back to Court. In 1554 he remonstrated with Gage for his ill-usage of the princess, had a conversation with her in the Tower in 1555, and when in 1558 Elizabeth came as a prisoner to Hampton Court, he visited her, and 'marvellous honorably used her grace'. His obvious support of the heir finally brought him the loss of his great office of Lord Admiral. He met Felipe of Spain when he came to England at the Needles, and though there were fears that he would carry him away to France, he brought him safely to Southampton. In 1555 he conveyed Felipe to Flanders. But he was still exposed to suspicion, the popularity that Elizabeth and her cause brought him made Howard a dangerous enemy, so Mary found it expedient to mollify him with a pension and finally with appointment as Lord Chamberlain. In 1558 Mary designed to send him on an embassy to France, but he was too ill to go.

When Elizabeth became queen he had great influence with her and filled several important posts. He was reappointed Lord Chamberlain and resumed his diplomatic role. Early in 1559 Lord Howard, accompanied with his eldest son, Charles, went as negotiator to the peace conference at Cateau-Cambresis. He supported the Queen against the northern earls in the rebellion of 1569 and in 1572, ceased to be Lord Chamberlain on becoming Lord Privy Seal.

Margaret, Lady Howard of Effingham, was listed among the ladies of honor in 1558/9. In 1578/9, she took delivery of New Year’s gifts for the Queen. Her name is sometimes written as “Lady Haward”. There was a portrait of Margaret Gamage in the Pembroke collection in 1561.

William Howard was one of the considerable body of Elizabethan officeholders who went to their graves complaining that they were being driven into beggary by their sacrifices to the Queen's service. No doubt the complaints were uttered partly in the hope that travail would be rewarded and because their expense and responsability stood as evidence of the Queen's trust. But with Lord William the whimperings of sacrifice seem to have been justified. He received pensions and lands and had access to the Crown which should have brought a shower of gifts from office-seekers. But his expenses at court were high, his large family included several daughters to be married off, and the offices in his direct gift were not many. As a result he was never able to build more than a modesdy comfortable landed estate. From his father he had lands worth not quite £100 a year, but all except the manor of Little Bookham in Surrey had quickly been sold. From Henry VIII he had received Reigate Priory -which became one of the principal family residences and stayed in the hands of his descendants through the seventeenth century- Eastbrooke and Southwick manors in Sussex, West Humble in Surrey, and the priory of Barnstaple in Devon. From Edward VI, Howard got Great Bookham (an important Surrey manor), the smaller manor of Effingham from which he took his title, and a moiety of Reigate Manor. Mary gave him lands in Devonshire and Somersetshire, which he sold, and Elizabeth added the manor of Kingswood Liberty. In 1560 Howard bought Blechingley (valued at £45 a year), with another important residence and influence over a parliamentary borough, and lands at Lingfield, Hackstal, and Billeshurst. The properties, most of them in Surrey, were worth altogether about £400 a year. Salaries and pensions provided him with as much again, but he found that his total income of £86i 6s. 8d. was totally inadequate to meet his needs. In a document prepared for the Queen about 1565, he said that his expenses exceeded £l,500 a year without reckoning anything "put in to my persse for to spend in hawkyng and hontyng & in rewards gyvyn for my pleasiuir" or for repairs to his house or for the dowry of two hundred marks a year for his eldest daughter. His expense for going on progress ran to two hundred pounds a year, and gifts and rewards at Christmas and New Year's cost another hundred pounds. He was £2,OOO in debt and saw no way to recover himself or to provide a living for his younger children without a substancial gift from the Queen. Of course, William Howard may have been exaggerating the disparity between income and expense in the hope of maximizing the grant to relieve it. But certainly he thought that he was being ruined in his service to the crown and that the Queen should lift him up from poverty. In the next few years, he did make some kind of settlement with his creditors without selling any more lands, but he remained relatively poor for the rest of his life. There is a story that during his last years he begged to be made an Earl but was refused because he lacked the means to support such a dignity.

Lord William's friendship with the Queen and his recognized fidelity to her interests during difficult times had created a fund of good will upon which his son Charles could hope to draw. But it might also be possible to argue that during his last years Lord William, by occupying one of the major offices, may have kept Charles from receiving important preferment. Charles's father, however, was evidently declining by 1570, which mar have meant that Charles took over some partion of the chamberlain's duties. By the end of 1572, Lord William was no longer able to carry on and gave up his staff. But because he still needed any salary and perquisites the crown could supply him, he was made Lord Privy Seal, an officer whose responsibilities had become insignificant. He condnued to decline, and late in Jan 1573, he died "full of years and honour, being of most approved fidelity and unshaken courage". He was buried, in accordance with a will drawn up in 1569, in the church at Reigate.

By the terms of the will, he did not leave his son a rich man. Most of his properties had been settled by another instrument, which does not survive; the will mentions only the manor of Esher, which was to go to Charles along with his robes and collar of the Garter (a grant contrary to the statutes of the order). The younger son, William, got a small money grant, and the rest of the estate after debts were paid went to Lady Howard, who was asked to see that dowries were pro vided for daughters still unmarried. The language used concerning Esher implies that the manor was in Lord Howard's possession, but it had been given by Mary to the bishops of Winchester, who still held it in 1573. What Howard may have had was a promised lease, since Charles did get a lease in 1578 by threatening that if Bishop Horne would not co-operate he would "compass his object in some other way, without any regard for the Bishop's feelings". From sources other than the will it is known that the lands at Lingfield and Great Bookham were settled on the younger son and that Reigate and its lands went to the jointure of the widow. When she died in 1581, Charles Howard paid a livery fine of £58 3s. 6d. for delivery of lands into his possession.

Sources: Collins's Peerage Kenny, R.: Elizabeth's Admiral,_1st_Baron_Howard_of_Effingham

William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham (c. 1510 – 12 January 1573), was the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk by his second wife, Agnes Tilney.[1] Howard served four monarchs, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, in various official capacities, most notably on diplomatic missions and as Lord Admiral and Lord Chamberlain of the Household.

Biography Lord William Howard was born about 1510, the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk by his second wife, Agnes Tilney, the daughter of Hugh Tilney of Skirbeck and Boston, Lincolnshire and a daughter of Walter Tailboys.[2][a]

Howard was brought to court at a young age after completing his education at Trinity Hall, Cambridge.[3] In 1531 he was sent on an embassy to Scotland by King Henry VIII, and accompanied the King to Boulogne in October 1532. In May 1533, as deputy to his stepbrother, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, he served as Earl Marshal at the coronation of his niece, Anne Boleyn, the daughter of his half sister, Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire. On 10 September 1533, Howard bore the canopy over his great-niece princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth I). In 1534 Howard went to Scotland. His instructions including getting the measurements of James V of Scotland from the Bishop of Aberdeen, Lord High Treasurer of Scotland. Then Howard's tailor would make Henry VIII's nephew a new suit of clothes as a present. Howard would then broach the subject of the two Kings meeting in person.[4] In February 1535 he was sent again to Scotland to invest James V with the Order of the Garter and brought a present of 'great horses.' Howard met James V at Stirling Castle on Good Friday. They discussed a possible meeting of the two Kings at Newcastle at Michaelmas. Margaret Tudor praised his abilities and wrote that her son James V, "lykkis hym right weill."[5]

In June 1535 he was in France as a member of the English embassy authorized to negotiate with the French Admiral, Philippe de Chabot. In February 1536 he was again in Scotland, this time for the purpose of persuading the Scottish King to adopt Henry VIII's religious policy. He returned to Scotland again in April. He was again in France in 1537. On 11 December 1539 he was among those who welcomed King Henry VIII's fourth bride, Anne of Cleves at Calais.[6]

While on an embassy to France in 1541 Lord Howard was charged with concealing the sexual indiscretions of his young niece, Katherine Howard, Henry VIII's fifth Queen, and was recalled to England to stand trial. On 22 December 1541 Lord Howard, his wife, and a number of servants who had been alleged witnesses to the Queen's misconduct were arraigned for misprision of treason, convicted, and sentenced to life imprisonment and loss of goods. Howard and most of the others were pardoned after Queen Katherine's execution on 13 February 1542.[7]

In 1544 Lord Howard accompanied the Earl of Hertford's forces in the invasion of Scotland. It was reported that he was hurt in the cheek by an English arrow during fighting on Edinburgh's Royal Mile.[8] In July of that year he took part in the siege of Boulogne. On 27 May 1545 the King's Council ordered Howard to ‘repayre to serve uppon the sees’. Later orders show that he detained several foreign vessels while patrolling the English Channel. In May 1546 he was entrusted with the sum of £12,000 to pay the English army at Calais. In connection with these duties he was referred to as ‘vice-admiral’ to the then Lord Admiral, Viscount Lisle. When Lisle's attendance was required in May 1546 at negotiations which resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Ardres on 7 June 1546, he turned command of the English fleet over to Howard.[9]

Lord Howard's career received a check in 1547 with the downfall of his half-nephew Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. However the setback was temporary.[10] Lord Howard was an ally of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, then Earl of Warwick, in his coup against the Protector Somerset in October 1549,[11] and on 19 March 1551 received the manor of Effingham, Surrey,[12] and other properties by way of reward. On 29 October 1552 Northumberland secured Lord Howard's appointment as Lord Deputy and Governor of Calais, and in the same month he was sworn of the Privy Council. When the young King Edward VI died on 6 July 1553, Lord Howard held Calais for Queen Mary against the supporters of the nine days Queen, Lady Jane Grey.[13]

On 2 January 1554 Lord Howard was appointed to meet the Spanish ambassadors who had come to London to negotiate a marriage between Queen Mary and King Philip II of Spain.[14] Wyatt's rebellion broke out on 25 January, and Howard was among those who raised the militia to defend London. On 7 February 1554 he held Ludgate, preventing the rebels from entering the City and leading to their surrender a few hours later.[15] He was appointed to Queen Mary's Privy Council on 3 January 1554, and on 11 March was created Baron Howard of Effingham. On 20 March 1554 he was granted a patent as Lord Admiral, replacing Lord Clinton. On 9 October of that year he was made a Knight of the Garter.[16]

As Lord Admiral, Howard, with a fleet of 28 ships, met King Philip II on his arrival in England in 1555, and in August of that year escorted the King to Flanders.[17] In 1557 Howard's fleet transported a force under the command of the Earl of Pembroke to Calais.[18] Lord Howard's support for the accession of his great-niece, Princess Elizabeth, exposed him to suspicion, although he was never considered disloyal by Queen Mary.[19] In February 1558 Howard's patent as Lord Admiral was revoked, and on 12 February 1558 the office was restored to Lord Clinton.[20] Howard was compensated by a grant of the reversion of the office of Lord Chamberlain of the Household and an annuity of 200 marks, effective the previous September.[21]

Final Years After Queen Elizabeth's accession on 17 November 1558, Howard succeeded Edward Hastings as Lord Chamberlain and was appointed to the Privy Council. In early 1559 he was among those who negotiated the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis.[22] In August 1564 he accompanied the Queen on a visit to Cambridge, where he was awarded the degree of Master of Arts; on 6 October 1566 he was awarded a similar degree by the University of Oxford.[23] According to McDermott, he was a 'near constant attendee at privy council meetings during the 1560s', but by the latter part of 1572 he could no longer discharge his duties as Lord Chamberlain because of ill health, and the Queen appointed his nephew, the Earl of Sussex, to replace him, appointing Howard as Lord Privy Seal. Howard died at Hampton Court Palace on 12 January 1573, and was buried on 29 January at Reigate.[24]

Whitgift School currently stands on the site of the former Howard estate at Effingham.[citation needed] There is a full-length portrait of Lord Howard by Daniël Mijtens at Nostell Priory.[citation needed]

Family Lord Howard married firstly, before 18 June 1531, Katherine (died 23 April 1535), the daughter of John Broughton (died 23 January 1518)[25] of Toddington, Bedfordshire, by Anne Sapcote (died 14 March 1559), the daughter and heir of Sir Guy Sapcote by Margaret Wolston, daughter and heir of Sir Guy Wolston.[26][27] [28][29][30] They had one daughter, Agnes Howard, who married William Paulet, 3rd Marquess of Winchester. Katherine (née Broughton) was buried in the parish church of St Mary at Lambeth, where there is a monument to her memory.[30][31]

Lord Howard married secondly, on the 29th of June, 1533,[32] Margaret (died 1581), the third daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage of Coity, Glamorganshire and Margaret, the daughter of Sir John Saint John of Bletsoe, Bedfordshire, by whom he had four sons: Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, Sir William Howard of Lingfield, Edward and Henry, and five daughters, Douglas (wife firstly of John Sheffield, 2nd Baron Sheffield of Butterwick, Lincolnshire, secondly, of Sir Edward Stafford of Grafton),[33] Mary (wife of Edward Sutton, 4th Baron Dudley, and Richard Mompesson), Frances (wife of Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford),[34] Martha (wife of Sir George Bourchier), and Katherine.[35]

He is said to have had an illegitimate daughter, Katherine de Vere (died after 20 June 1504), who married Sir Robert Broughton, 'one of the richest non-baronial landowners in England'.[28] Broughton appointed the 13th Earl as supervisor of his will.[28]


Howard was thus the half brother of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, the 2nd Duke's eldest son and heir by his first marriage to Agnes Tilney's cousin, Elizabeth Tilney.

1. Richardson 2004, p. 237; McDermott 2008. 2. Richardson 2004, p. 237. 3. Richardson 2004, p. 237; McDermott 2008. 4. State Papers Henry VIII, vol 5, part IV part 2 (1836), 1-6, instruction for William Howard.

5. State Papers Henry VIII, vol 5, part IV part 2 (1836), 19-20, 38-42: Diurnal of Occurents, Bannatyne Club, (1830)

6. Weir 1991, pp. 392–393; McDermott 2008. 7. Weir 1991, pp. 474–475; Richardson 2004, p. 237; McDermott 2008. 8. Calendar of State Papers, Spain, vol.7, (1899), no. 89, French copy of an Imperial newsletter. 9. McDermott 2008; Loades 2008. 10. McDermott 2008. 11. McDermott 2008. 12. Cokayne 1926, p. 9. 13. McDermott 2008. 14. McDermott 2008. 15. Archer 2006; McDermott 2008. 16. Cokayne 1926, p. 9; McDermott 2008. 17. McDermott 2008. 18. McDermott 2008; Sil 2009. 19. McDermott 2008. 20. Duffin 2008. 21. McDermott 2008. 22. McDermott 2008. 23. Cokayne 1926, p. 9. 24. McDermott 2008; Cokayne 1926, p. 9.

25. A Who’s Who of Tudor Women: Brooke-Bu, compiled by Kathy Lynn Emerson to update and correct Wives and Daughters: The Women of Sixteenth-Century England (1984) Retrieved 1 June 2013.

26. Howard & Armytage 1869, p. 84.

27. After the death of John Broughton, Anne (née Sapcote) married secondly Sir Richard Jerningham (died 1525), and thirdly John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford.

28. a b c Ross 2011, p. 187. 29. Richardson II 2011, p. 417. 30. a b Lysons 1792, pp. 278-9.

31. 'Church of St Mary, Lambeth', Survey of London: volume 23: Lambeth: South Bank and Vauxhall (1951), pp. 104-117 Retrieved 1 June 2013.

32. Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic of Henry VIII, June 1533 33. Richardson 2004, pp. 237–238, 648. 34. Doran 2010. 35. Richardson 2004, p. 237; McDermott 2008.

References: Archer, Ian W. (2006). "Wyatt, Sir Thomas (b. in or before 1521, d. 1554), soldier and rebel". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30112. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Cokayne, George Edward (1926). The Complete Peerage, edited by the Honourable Vicary Gibbs V. London: St. Catherine Press. pp. 9–10.

Doran, Susan (2010). "Seymour, Edward, first earl of Hertford (1539?–1621), courtier". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/25161. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Duffin, Anne (2008). "Clinton, Edward Fiennes de, first earl of Lincoln (1512–1585), military commander". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 13 March 2011. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Howard, Joseph Jackson; Armytage, George John, eds. (1869). The Visitation of London Taken in the Year 1568 I. London: Harleian Society. p. 84. Retrieved 1 June 2013.

Loades, David (2008). "Dudley, John, duke of Northumberland (1504–1553), royal servant". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 13 March 2011. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Lysons, Daniel (1792). The Environs of London I. London: A. Strahan. pp. 278–9. Retrieved 1 June 2013. McDermott, James (2008). "Howard, William, first Baron Howard of Effingham (c.1510–1573), naval commander". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13946. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Richardson, Douglas (2011). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families II (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City. p. 417. ISBN 1449966381.

Richardson, Douglas (2004). Everingham, Kimball G., ed. Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc.

Ross, James (2011). John de Vere, Thirteenth Earl of Oxford (1442–1513); 'The Foremost Man of the Kingdom'. Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press.

Sil, Narasingha P. (2009). "Herbert, William, first earl of Pembroke (1506/7-1570), soldier and magnate". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13055. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

Weir, Alison (1991). The Six Wives of Henry VIII. New York: Grove Weidenfeld.


This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Archbold, William Arthur Jobson (1891). "Howard, William (1510?-1573)". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography 28. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 77–79.
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Sir William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham's Timeline

Effingham, Surrey, England
June 18, 1531
Age 21
Effingham, Surrey, England
December 1536
Age 26
Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England
Age 26
Age 30
Lingfield, Surrey, , England
Age 32
Farlingham, Norfolk, England
Age 34
Lambeth, Surrey, England
Age 35
Lambeth, Surrey, England
Age 36
Lambeth, Surrey, England
Age 38
Effingham, Surrey, England