Sihtric "Silkbeard" Olafsson, King of Dublin (981 - 1042) MP

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Nicknames: "Sigtrygg", "Sigtrygg II", "King of Dublin", "Silkbeard Olafsson"
Birthplace: Dublin,Leinster,Dublin,Ireland
Death: Died in 'Across The Sea's', possibly Wales
Occupation: King of Dublin, Kung i Dublin, Konge i Irland 881-888
Managed by: Al Dawson
Last Updated:

About Sihtric "Silkbeard" Olafsson, King of Dublin

Sigtrygg Olavsson, mest kjent som Sigtrygg Silkeskjegg (norrønt Sigtryggr Silkiskeggi) og i irske tekster for Sitric mac-Aulaffe, var sønn av kong Olav Kvåran Sigtriggson, eller ved hans irske navn Amlaíb Cuarán, og Gormflaith. Sistnevnte gjenkjennes fra Njåls saga som Kormloð. Det beskrivende tilnavnet ‘Silkeskjegg’ gir signaler om en mann med selvbevisst utseende og et velfrisert skjegg. Han var vikingenes leder i slaget ved Clontarf i 1014, skjønt flere kilder sier at han selv ikke tok aktivt del.

Olav Kvåran styrte som konge av Dublin fra 945 til han abdiserte etter slaget ved Tara i 980. Han døde i religiøs tilbaketrukkethet på Iona i 981.

I 989 etterfulgte Sigtrygg Silkeskjegg sin bror, Járnkné Olavsson, eller ved hans irske navn Glun Iarainn, som konge av Dublin. Járnkné hadde styrt fra 980 til 989, og i hans tid hadde Dublin, etter nederlaget ved Tara, indirekte akseptert overkongen Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaills overherredømme. Det ser ut som om Sigtrygg prøvde å hevde Dublins selvstendighet straks han overtok, Máel Sechnaill ledet en hær mot byen og beleiret den i tre uker. Sigtrygg ble tvunget til å akseptere vilkår som blant annet en fast avgift i gull til overkongen. (Det er uenighet om når dette skjedde, flere kilder mener det skjedde mens Járnkne fortsatt var hersker. Dublin feiret i 1988 milennium ut fra at byen kom under irsk kontroll i 988).

I 994 ble Sigtrygg Silkeskjegg fordrevet fra Dublin av et opprør ledet av Hymar (av Waterford?), men kom tilbake innen et år og fordrev Hymar.

I 998 gjorde hans onkel, kong Máelmorda av Leinster opprør mot Irlands overkonge, Brian Ború, og allierte seg med Sigtrygg og Dublin. I 999 ble Sigtrygg og Máelmorda beseiret av Brian i slaget ved Glen Mama. I fredsforhandlingene giftet Brian en av sine døtre til Sigtrygg og tok selv dennes mor, Gormflaith, til hustru.

I 1012 gjorde Maelmorda igjen opprør mot Brian, og Sigtrygg var igjen alliert med ham. Brian hadde i mellomtiden skilt seg fra Gromflaith, og det fortelles at hun sammensverget seg med sønnen mot Brian Ború. Hun skal blant annet ha vært den som fikk Sigtrygg til å søke støtte fra jarl Sigurd på Orknøyene og Brodir av Man. Konflikten møtte sitt klimaks i slaget ved Clontarf utenfor Dublin. Selv om irene seiret ble den aldrende Brian Ború drept, mens Sigtrygg selv skal ha vært trygt bak murene i Dublin.

Sigtrygg Silkeskjegg giftet seg med Slani ingen Briain O'Brien. De fikk følgende barn:

Olav (-~1030)

Harald (irsk Amlaíb (-1034)

Godfrid (eller Guthfrith, irsk Gofraid) (-1036)

Sigtrygg Silkeskjegg ble etterfulgt av Echmarcach mac Ragnaill (= «Hestemann» Ragnarsson) i 1036. Han døde i 1042.

-------------------- Amlaíb mac Sitriuc

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Amlaíb mac Sitriuc ("Amhlaeibh, son of Sitric", or Olaf Sigtryggsson) was the son of the Hiberno-Norse King of Dublin, Sigtrygg Silkbeard, a member of the Uí Ímharr dynasty. His ancestors included Brian Boru, Olaf Cuaran and Gormflaith, who were influential in medieval Ireland. He was ransomed by the Gaelic lord of Brega and later killed in England by Anglo-Saxons while on his way on pilgrimage to Rome in 1034. Some of his descendants later became the Lords of Gwynedd in Wales.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Life
         o 1.1 Family
         o 1.2 Politics
   * 2 Footnotes
   * 3 References

[edit] Life

The raven banner, used as a symbol of Norse Dublin

[edit] Family

Amlaíb was the son of the ruling King of Dublin, Sigtrygg Silkbeard (d. 1042), and his wife Sláine.[1][2] Amlaíb's maternal grandparents were the King of Munster and High King of Ireland, Brian Boru (d. 1014), and his first wife.[1][3] His paternal grandfather was Olaf Cuarán (d. 981), the powerful King of York and of Dublin.[1] Olaf's wife was Gormflaith (d. 1030), a "beautiful, powerful and intriguing Irish woman" who later married Boru at the same time Sigtrygg married Sláine.[3]

Amlaíb had four half-brothers: Artalach (d. 999),[4] Oleif (d. 1013), Godfrey (d. 1036), Glúniairn (d. 1031).[1] Oleif was killed in immediate vengeance for the burning of the Norse city of Cork.[5] Glúniairn was killed by the people of South Brega in 1031.[6] Godfrey was killed in Wales, possibly by a first cousin.[7] Amlaíb was outlived by his half-sister Cellach, who died in 1042 in the same month as her father.[8]

[edit] Politics

In 1027, after the death of Máel Sechlainn in 1022 and the chaos which accompanied the subsequent bids for the High Kingship by the Irish princes, Sigtrygg Silkbeard was forced to make a new alliance with the men of Brega.[9] Amlaíb joined Donnchad of Brega in a raid on Staholmock, County Meath.[10] The army of Sigtrygg and Donnchad was defeated by the men of Meath under their king, Roen Ua Mael Sechlainn.[11][10] Sigtrygg rallied to the fight again, and fought a battle at Lickblaw where Donnchad and Roen were slain.[11][10]

In 1029, Amlaíb was taken prisoner by the new lord of Brega, Mathghamhain Ua Riagain, who exacted a ransom of 1200 cows.[2] Further conditions of the agreement necessitated payment of another 140 British horses, 60 ounces of gold and of silver, "the sword of Carlus", the Irish hostages of Leinster and Leath Cuinn, "four hostages to Ua Riagain as a security for peace, and the full value of the life of the third hostage."[2] Added to the total, 80 cows "for word and supplication"[2] were to be paid to the man who entreated for Olaf's release.[12] The incident illustrates the importance of ransoming noble captives, as a means of political manipulation, increasing one's own revenues and exhausting the resources of one's foes.[12] The demand of British horses also suggests that Dublin was one of the main ports for importing horses into 11th century Ireland, and that Amlaíb's family may have been personally involved in husbandry.[12]

According to the 17th century Annals of the Four Masters, Amlaíb mac Sitriuc "was slain by the Saxons" on his way on a pilgrimage to Rome in 1034.[13] He was survived by one Ragnhild, who was the mother of Gruffydd ap Cynan, from whom the Lords of Gwynedd were descended.[1]

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e Hudson, p 83
  2. ^ a b c d "Part 13 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 819. http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/T100005B/text013.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-10. 
  3. ^ a b MacManus, p 278
  4. ^ "Sihtric". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. http://www.oxforddnb.com/public/index.html?url=/view/article/25545. Retrieved on 2009-03-14. 
  5. ^ "Part 11 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 769. http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/T100005B/text011.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-10. 
  6. ^ "Part 13 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 823. http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/T100005B/text013.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-10. 
  7. ^ Hudson, p 82
  8. ^ "Part 14 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 843. http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/T100005B/text014.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-10. 
  9. ^ Hudson, p 109-110
 10. ^ a b c Hudson, p 110
 11. ^ a b "Part 13 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 815. http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/T100005B/text013.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-10. 
 12. ^ a b c Hudson, p 111
 13. ^ "Part 14 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 831. http://www.ucc.ie/celt/online/T100005B/text014.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-10. 

[edit] References

   * Hudson, Benjamin T (2005). Viking pirates and Christian princes: dynasty, religion, and empire in the North Atlantic (Illustrated ed.). United States: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195162374, ISBN 9780195162370. 
   * MacManus, Seumas (1921). The Story of the Irish Race: A Popular History of Ireland. Ireland: The Irish Publishing Co. ISBN 0-517-06408-1.

-------------------- In 989, Sigtrygg Silkbeard Olafsson (known also as Sihtric and "Sitric" in Irish texts) succeeded his half-brother, Glúniairn ("Iron-knee"), as King of Dublin. In 998, his cousin, King Mael Mordha of Leinster, rebelled against the High King of Ireland, Brian Ború. In 999, Sigtrygg was defeated alongside his cousin at the Battle of Glen Mama.

To negotiate peace, Brian married one of his daughters to Sigtrygg and took Gormflaith as wife. However, when Brian divorced Gormflaith, she began plotting with Sigtrygg against him. Sigtrygg gained the support of Sigurd Hlodvirsson of Orkney and Brodir of the Isle of Man, and the conflict came to its climax at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014.

Sigtrygg was the leader of the Vikings in that battle, though he himself did not take part. Though the Irishmen were victorious, Brian was killed while Sigtrygg was safe behind the walls of Dublin. -------------------- Sigtrygg Silkbeard

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Sigtrygg Silkbeard Olafsson (known also as "Sitric" in Irish texts) was the son of King Olaf Cuaran and Gormflaith. He was the leader of the Vikings at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, though he himself did not take part.

In 989, he succeeded his half-brother, Glúniairn ("Iron-knee"), as King of Dublin. In 998, his cousin, King Mael Mordha of Leinster, rebelled against the High King of Ireland, Brian Ború. In 999, Sigtrygg was defeated alongside his cousin at the Battle of Glen Mama. To negotiate peace, Brian married one of his daughters to Sigtrygg and took Gormflaith as wife. However, when Brian divorced Gormflaith, she began plotting with Sigtrygg against him. Sigtrygg gained the support of Sigurd Hlodvirsson of Orkney and Brodir of the Isle of Man, and the conflict came to its climax at the Battle of Clontarf. Though the Irishmen were victorious, Brian was killed while Sigtrygg was safe behind the walls of Dublin. He died in 1036. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitric_Silkbeard

Sigtrygg II Silkbeard Olafsson (also Sihtric, Sitric[1] and Sitrick in Irish texts; or Sigtryg[2] and Sigtryggr[3] in Scandinavian texts) was a Hiberno-Norse King of Dublin (possibly AD 989–994; restored or began 995–1000; restored 1000 and abdicated 1036) of the Uí Ímair dynasty. He was caught up in the abortive Leinster revolt of 999–1000, after which he was forced to submit to the King of Munster, Brian Boru. His family also conducted a double marriage alliance with Boru, although he later realigned himself with the main leaders of the Leinster revolt of 1012–1014. He has a prominent role in the 12th-century Irish Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh and the 13th-century Icelandic Njal's Saga, as the main Norse leader at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014.

Sigtrygg's long reign spanned 46 years, until his abdication in 1036.[4] During that period, his armies saw action in four of the five Irish provinces of the time. In particular, he conducted a long series of raids into territories such as Meath, Wicklow, Ulster, and perhaps even the coast of Wales. He also came into conflict with rival Norse kings, especially in Cork and Waterford.

He went on pilgrimage to Rome in 1029, and founded Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin in 1038. Although Dublin underwent several reversals of fortune during his reign, on the whole trade in the city flourished. He died in 1042.[4]

-------------------- Sigtrygg Silkbeard

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sigtrygg II Silkbeard Olafsson (also Sihtric, Sitric[1] and Sitrick in Irish texts; or Sigtryg[2] and Sigtryggr[3] in Scandinavian texts) was a Hiberno-Norse King of Dublin (AD 989–994; restored 994–1000; restored 1000–1036) of the Uí Ímair dynasty. He was caught up in the abortive Leinster revolt of 999–1000, after which he was forced to submit to the King of Munster, Brian Boru. His family also conducted a series of marriage alliances with Boru, although he later realigned himself with the main leaders of the Leinster revolt of 1012–1014. He has a prominent role in the 12th century Irish Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh and the 13th century Icelandic Njal's Saga as the main Norse leader at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014.

Sigtrygg survived the battle, and his long reign spanned forty-six years, until his abdication in 1036.[4] During that period, his armies saw action in four of the five Irish provinces of the time. In particular, he conducted a long series of raids into territories such as Meath, Wicklow, Ulster and perhaps even the coast of Wales. He also saw conflict with rival Norse kings, especially in Cork and Waterford.

He went on pilgrimage to Rome in 1029, and founded Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin in 1038. Although Dublin underwent several reversals of fortune, on the whole trade in the city flourished. He died in 1042.[4]

Family

Sigtrygg was of Danish ancestry.[2] He was a son of Olaf Cuarán (also called Kváran), King of York and of Dublin, and Gormflaith.[3] Gormflaith was the daughter of the King of Leinster, Murchad mac Finn,[5] and was sister of his successor, King Máel Mórda of Leinster.[3] She had previously been married first to the King of Meath and High King of Ireland, Máel Sechnaill.[3] She was a beautiful, powerful and intriguing Irish woman,[3] who according to the 13th century Icelandic Njál's saga, was "the fairest of all women, and best gifted in everything that was not in her own power, but it was the talk of men that she did all things ill over which she had any power".[3][6] Sigtrygg's paternal half-brother was Glúniairn, "Iron-knee", who ruled as King of Dublin from 980–989.

An incident involving the ransom of one of Sigtrygg's sons late in his reign, in which "seven score British horse" were mentioned in the list of demands,[7] suggests that Dublin was one of the main ports for importing horses into 11th century Ireland, and that Sigtrygg and his family may have been personally involved in husbandry.[8]

[edit]King of Dublin

Sigtrygg succeeded his paternal half-brother Glúniairn as King of Dublin in 989.[4] The Irish chronicles record curiously little information about Sigtrygg, his family or Dublin during the first five years of his reign. The reason for this silence was the arrival of the future King of Norway, Olaf Tryggvason, who took up residence in Dublin for a few years after marrying Sigtrygg's sister Gytha.[9] Tryggvason had met Gytha while raiding along the coasts of the Irish Sea.[9] The presence of a powerful Viking leader in Dublin was a deterrent to Irish raids, and Trygvason might have been weakening Sigtrygg's foes by plundering them.[10]

The return of Tryggvason to Norway in 994 coincided with the temporary expulsion of Sigtrygg from Dublin by his rival, King Ivar of Waterford.[11] Ivar's force of three ships may have numbered no more than 120 men, showing the limited warfare of the time, and Sigtrygg was back within a year.[11] In 995, Sigtrygg and his nephew, Muirchertach Ua Congalaich, attacked the church at Donaghpatrick in County Meath.[11] In retaliation, Máel Sechnaill entered Dublin and took the ring of Thor and the sword of Carlus.[11] Sigtrygg then attacked Kells and Clonard in 997.[11] In 998, Máel Sechnaill and the King of Munster, Brian Ború, forced Sigtrygg to recognise their lordship by giving hostages.[11]

These events made Sigtrygg realise the wealth of Dublin made him an attractive target for enemies, and that his city needed powerful allies well as walls for security.[11] The Dublin countryside would be insufficient to provide resources for competition with powerful Irish princes.[11] Sigtrygg first allied with his maternal uncle, Máel Mórda, King of the Uí Fáeláin of north Leinster.[11] In 999, they defeated the King of Leinster Donnchad mac Domhnaill, and made him prisoner at Dublin.[11]

[edit]First Leinster revolt against Boru

Further information: Battle of Glenn Máma

Late in 999, the Leinstermen, historically hostile to domination by either the Uí Néill overkings or the King of Munster, allied themselves with the Norse of Dublin and revolted against Brian Boru.[1] This was Sigtrygg's second alliance with Máel Mórda.[11] Brian's forces inflicted a crushing defeat on the united Leinster-Dublin army at the Battle of Glenmama, and followed up the victory with an attack on the city of Dublin.[1] The 12th century Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh gives two accounts of the occupation: that Brian remained in Dublin from Christmas Day until Epiphany (6 January), or from Christmas Day until St. Brigid's Day (1 February).[11] The later Annals of Ulster date the Battle of Glenmama to 30 December, 999,[12] while the Annals of Inisfallen date Brian's capture of the city to 1 January, 1000.[13] In any case, in 1000 Brian plundered the city, burned the Norse fortress and expelled Sigtrygg.[1]

According to the Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh, Sigtrygg's flight from the city brought him north, first to the Ulaid and then to Aéd of Cenél nEógain.[14] Since Sigtrygg could find no refuge in Ireland, he eventually returned, submitted to Brian, gave hostages and was restored to Dublin.[1] This was three months after Brian ended his occupation in February.[11] In the meantime, Sigtrygg may have temporarily "turned pirate" and been responsible for a raid on St David's in Wales.[14]

Brian gave his own daughter by his first wife in marriage to Sigtrygg.[3] Brian in turn took as his second wife Sigtrygg's mother, the now thrice-married Gormflaith.[3]

[edit]The years between the revolts

Dublin enjoyed a sustained period of peace while Sigtrygg's men served in the armies of Brian.[15] Sigtrygg never forgot the insult of the Ulaid, and in 1002 he had his revenge when his soldiers served in Brian's campaign against the Ulaid and ravaged their lands.[11][15] His fleet raided Ulster, and he plundered Kilclief and Inis Cumhscraigh, taking many prisoners from both.[16] They served under Brian against the Ulaid again in 1005, and against the Northern Uí Néill in 1006 and 1007.[15] With the submission of the last of the Northern Uí Néill Kingdoms, Cenél Conaill to Brian in 1011, he was formally recognised as High King throughout Ireland.[15]

A remembrance of Sigtrygg's reign during these years is preserved in the late medieval Icelandic Saga of Gunnlaug Serpent's Tongue.[17] Only fragments survive of the verses in the Sigtryggsdrápa, a drápa composed by the skald Gunnlaug Illugason who visited Sigtrygg's court.[17] The verses praise Sigtrygg for his royal ancestry, and also give an impression of Dublin as a busy, thriving port at this time.[17] Archaeological excavations of ships, gold, clothing and pieces for games from around this time seem to confirm the description.[17] According to the prose, Sigtrygg himself considered awarding the poet with ships and gold, but upon further consideration granted him a new suit of clothes.[17]

[edit]Second Leinster revolt against Boru

Further information: Battle of Clontarf

Some time in the 1010s, Brian Boru divorced Queen Gormflaith, and she began engineering opposition to the High King.[18] Around 1012, relations between Brian and Leinster had become so strained that revolt broke out among the Leinstermen.[19] Sigtrygg aligned himself with the forces of Máel Mórda, leader of the revolt, and the chiefs Ua Ruairc, Ua Néill and others.[20] Together, they defeated Brian's ally Máel Sechnaill near the town of Swords, and Brian for the moment was unable to render assistance.[20]

Sigtrygg sent his son Oleif to lead a fleet south to Munster to burn the Viking settlement of Cork.[15] The fleet also attacked Cape Clear, and seems to have crippled the naval power of Brian which was concentrated in Cork.[15]

According to Njál's saga, Gormflaith "egged on her son Sigtrygg very much to kill King Brian",[6] and to that end sent him to win first the support of Earl Sigurd of Orkney, and then of Bróðir and Óspak of Man, at any price.[20] Sigtrygg arrived in Orkney for Sigurd's Yule feast, at which he sat in a high seat between the two brothers-in-law, Earl Sigurd of Orkney and Earl Gilli of the Southern Isles.[6] The saga also records that Sigtrygg was much interested by the tidings of the Burning of Njáll Þorgeirsson at Bergþórshvoll and what had happened since.[6] Afterwards, Sigtrygg bade Sigurd to go to war with him against Brian.[21] In spite of Sigurd's initial hesitance and the advice of his men, he eventually agreed that he would come to Dublin by Palm Sunday with all his host, on the condition that if they slew Brian, he would marry Gormflaith and become King of Ireland.[21][22]

Sigtrygg went next to Man, where he persuaded Bróðir too to come to Dublin by Palm Sunday.[19][23] Sigtrygg also promised Bróðir that, if successful, he would be allowed marry Gormflaith and become King of Ireland; the terms of this agreement, however, were to be kept secret.[24] Óspak was dissatisfied with the arrangement,[22] and refused to "fight against so good a king".[21]

When the two sides faced at the Battle of Clontarf, on Good Friday in 1014, the battle claimed the lives of the main commanders on both sides: principally Brian and his son Murchad on the Munster side; and Máel Mórda, Sigurd and Bróðir on the Leinster-Norse side.[25] According to Irish sources, Sigtrygg did not take part in the battle, but instead was holding the garrison in reserve in Dublin.[26] The Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh records that Sigtrygg was able to observe the progress of the battle and the movement of the battle standards from the ramparts of his fortress.[27] As the modern Irish medievalist historian Donnchadh Ó Corráin notes, Sigtrygg "wisely kept within the city and lived to tell the tale."[25]

However, earlier Scandinavian sources (notably the Orkneyinga saga, Njál's saga and the Darraðarljóð, composed soon after the battle) contend that he did actually fight valiantly at Clontarf.[27] The Darraðarljóð, whose pagan tones shows the persistence of paganism among the Vikings of Dublin, describes the Valkyries as following the "young king" Sigtrygg into battle.[28] Njal's Saga records that Sigtrygg was on the wing opposite Óspak of Man for the whole battle, and that Óspak eventually put the king to flight.[29]

[edit]Reign after Clontarf

Immediately after Clontarf, the Sigtrygg's fortunes seemed to decline, even though he remained with his kingdom intact.[30] Máel Sechnaill, now recognised again as High King, was undoubtedly the main beneficiary of the battle's results.[30] In 1015, plague struck Dublin and Leinster, and Máel Sechnaill seized the opportunity by marching south to burn Dublin's suburbs.[30] While Sigtrygg was able to ally with Leinster for another attack on Meath in 1017, the alliance was dissolved when Sigtrygg blinded his cousin Bróen, Máel Morda's son and heir, in Dublin.[30]

In 1018, Kells was plundered by Sigtrygg; he "carried off innumerable spoils and prisoners, and slew many persons in the middle of the church."[31] These captives would either have been ransomed or sold off into Dublin's lucrative slave trade.[32] However, a victory was also gained against Sigtrygg at Delgany in County Wicklow, when he raided south in 1021:[32] the new King of Leinster, Augaire mac Dúnlainge, "made a dreadful slaughter of the foreigners" in the Kingdom of Breifne.[33] In 1022, the Dublin fleet sailed north against the Ulaid, only to be destroyed in a naval battle against Niall mac Eochaid, after which the Norse crews and ships were taken prisoner.[32]

According to the American medievalist historian Benjamin Hudson, "matters went from bad to worse" for Sigtrygg after the death of Máel Sechnaill in 1022.[34] The great Irish princes began to compete for the High Kingship, and the political situation in Ireland became chaotic as there was no clear choice for supremacy.[34] Accordingly, "Dublin became a prize for those who would rule Ireland and wanted the town's wealth to finance their ambitions."[34]

Hostages were taken from Sigtrygg by Flaithbertach Ua Néill, King of Cenél nEógain and the Uí Néill, and Donnchad mac Briain of Munster in 1025 and 1026 respectively, in support of their bids for the High Kingship.[34] These hostages brought no security, and Dublin was raided in 1026 by Niall mac Eocada of the Ulaid in revenge for the naval attack of 1022.[35] Sigtrygg was forced to make a new alliance with the men of Brega.[36] In 1027, Sigtrygg's son Olaf joined Donnchad of Brega in a raid on Staholmock, County Meath.[36] The army of Sigtrygg and Donnchad was defeated by the men of Meath under their king, Roen Ua Mael Sechlainn.[37][36] Sigtrygg rallied to the fight again, and fought a battle at Lickblaw where Donnchad and Roen were slain.[37][36]

In 1029, Sigtrygg's son Olaf was taken prisoner by the new lord of Brega, Mathghamhain Ua Riagain.[7] Sigtrygg was forced to pay a ransom of 1200 cows.[7] Further conditions of the peace agreement necessitated Sigtrygg paying another 140 British horses, 60 ounces of gold and of silver, "the sword of Carlus", the Irish hostages of Leinster and Leath Cuinn, "four hostages to Ua Riagain as a security for peace, and the full value of the life of the third hostage."[7] Added to the total, 80 cows "for word and supplication"[7] were to be paid to the man who entreated for Olaf's release.[8] The incident illustrates the importance of ransoming noble captives, as a means of political manipulation, increasing one's own revenues and exhausting the resources of one's foes.[8]

The 1030s saw a revival of fortunes for Sigtrygg. In 1030, he allied with the King of England, Cnut, and together their fleets raided Wales.[38] A Dublin colony was established in Gwynedd, and for the following years Sigtrygg was at the height of his power.[38] In 1032, without allies, Sigtrygg won a victory on the Boyne estuary of a type previously unseen by his dynasty for two decades, against a coalition of three kingdoms:[36] over 300 members of the Conailli, the Ui Tortain, and the Ui Meith were captured or killed at the Battle of Inbher Boinne.[39] In 1035, he plundered the celebrated stone church Ardbraccan in Meath, burned 200 men inside and carried another 200 off into captivity.[36] (In revenge, the church at Swords was plundered and burned by Conchobhar Ua Maeleachlainn,[40] who in turn took away cattle and captives.[36])

Meanwhile, in a renewal of ancient feuds that same year, Sigtrygg executed at Dublin the Norse Lord of Waterford, Ragnall[40] — a grandson of the Ivar who had expelled Sigtrygg from Dublin in 994.[36] However, Sigtrygg was forced to abdicate in 1036 by Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, Lord of the Isles.[38] He died in exile, at an unknown place, in 1042.[38]

[edit]Issue and legacy

Sigtrygg married Brian Boru's own daughter, Sláine, and they had one son: Olaf (d. 1034).[4] According to the Annals of the Four Masters, Olaf "was slain by the Saxons" on his way on a pilgrimage to Rome.[40] He was survived by one Ragnhild, from whom Gruffydd ap Cynan and the Kings of Gwynedd were descended.[4]

Separately from Sláine, Sigtrygg had five children: Artalach (d. 999), Oleif (d. 1013), Godfrey (d. 1036), Glúniairn (d. 1031) and Cellach (d. 1042).[38][4] The annals record the death of Oleif — "son of the lord of the foreigners" — who was killed in immediate vengeance for the burning of Cork.[41] Glúniairn was killed by the people of South Brega in 1031.[42] Godfrey was killed in Wales in 1036 by one Sitric, "son of Glúniairn" — as factionalism was common among Viking settlers, this could have been the same Glúniairn as Sigtrygg's half-brother, thus making Godfrey and his killer cousins.[43] Sigtrygg's daughter Cellach died in the same month as her father.[44]

Sigtrygg was also, according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, "a patron of the arts, a benefactor of the church, and an economic innovator."[38] In the 990s, he established the first mint in Ireland at Dublin.[38] He established a bishopric at Dublin and in 1028 he made a pilgrimage to Rome.[38][45] It is thus possible to attribute the origins of the establishment of territorial bishoprics in Ireland on the Roman model, one of the most important results of 11th century Irish Church Reform, to Sigtrygg.[46] He went on to found Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin in 1038, making it the oldest stone building in Dublin, the oldest cathedral in Ireland and unique as the only cathedral in the British Isles of Danish origin.[2] The Cathedral was later rebuilt in 1172 by Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, also known as "Strongbow",[2] following the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland.

[edit]See also

Early Medieval Ireland 800–1166

History of Dublin

[edit]Footnotes

^ a b c d e Ó Corráin, p 123

^ a b c d Winn, p 46

^ a b c d e f g h Mac Manus, p 278

^ a b c d e f Hudson, p 83

^ "Part 13 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 821. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ a b c d "Chapter 153 - Kari goes abroad". Njal's Saga. www.sagadb.org. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.

^ a b c d e "Part 13 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 819. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ a b c Hudson, p 111

^ a b Hudson, p 84

^ Hudson, p 85

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Hudson, p 86

^ "Entry for AD 999 of the Annals of Ulster". Annals of Ulster. University College Cork. 745. Retrieved on 2009-03-16.

^ Hudson, p 86-87

^ a b Hudson, p 87

^ a b c d e f Hudson, p 95

^ "Part 10 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 745. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ a b c d e Hudson, p 94

^ MacManus, p 278-279

^ a b Ó Corráin, p 129

^ a b c MacManus, p 279

^ a b c "Chapter 154 - Gunnar Lambi's son's slaying". Njal's Saga. www.sagadb.org. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.

^ a b MacManus, p280

^ "Chapter 155 - Of signs and wonders". Njal's Saga. www.sagadb.org. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.

^ MacManus, p 279-280

^ a b Ó Corráin, p 130

^ MacManus, p 281

^ a b Hudson, p 101

^ Hudson, p 103

^ "Chapter 156 - Brian's battle". Njal's Saga. www.sagadb.org. Retrieved on 2009-03-03.

^ a b c d Hudson, p 104

^ "Part 12 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 793. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ a b c Hudson, p 108

^ "Part 12 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 799. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ a b c d Hudson, p 109

^ Hudson, p 109-110

^ a b c d e f g h Hudson, p 110

^ a b "Part 13 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 815. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ a b c d e f g h "Sihtric". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved on 2009-03-14.

^ "Part 13 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 825. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ a b c "Part 14 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 831. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ "Part 11 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 769. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ "Part 13 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 823. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ Hudson, p 82

^ "Part 14 of the Annals of the Four Masters". Annals of the Four Masters. University College Cork. 843. Retrieved on 2009-03-10.

^ Richter, p 124-125

^ Richter, p 125

[edit]References

Hudson, Benjamin T (2005). Viking pirates and Christian princes: dynasty, religion, and empire in the North Atlantic (Illustrated ed.). United States: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195162374, ISBN 9780195162370.

MacManus, Seumas (1921). The Story of the Irish Race: A Popular History of Ireland. Ireland: The Irish Publishing Co. ISBN 0-517-06408-1.

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh (1972). Ireland Before the Normans. Ireland: Gill and Macmillan.

Richter, Michael (2005). Medieval Ireland: the enduring tradition (Revised, illustrated ed.). Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 0717132935, ISBN 9780717132935.

Winn, Christopher (2007). I Never Knew that about Ireland. Illustrated by Osawa, Mai (Illustrated ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 0312368801, ISBN 9780312368807.

Opposition to Brian Boru

Máel Mórda mac Murchada of Leinster may have hoped that by defying Brian, he could enlist the aid of all the other regional rulers Brian had forced to submit to him. If so, he must have been sorely disappointed; while the entire Province of Ulster and most of the Province of Connacht failed to provide the High King with troops, they did not, with the exception of a single ruler in Ulster, provide support for Máel Morda either. His inability to obtain troops from any rulers in Ireland, along with his awareness that he would need them when the High King returned in 1014, may explain why Máel Morda sought to obtain troops from rulers outside of Ireland. He instructed his subordinate and cousin, Sigtrygg, the ruler of Dublin, to travel overseas to enlist aid.

Sigtrygg sailed to Orkney, and on his return stopped at the Isle of Man. These islands had been seized by the Vikings long before and the Hiberno-Norse had close ties with Orkney and the Isle of Man. There was even a precedent for employing Norsemen from the isles; they had been used by Sigtrygg's father, Olaf Cuaran, in 980, and by Sigtrygg himself in 990. Their incentive was loot, not land. Contrary to the assertions made in the Cogadh Gaedhil re Gallaibh, this was not an attempt by the Vikings to reconquer Ireland. All of the Norsemen, both the Norse-Gaels of Dublin and the Norsemen from the Isles, were in the service of Máel Morda. It should also be remembered that the High King had 'Vikings' in his army as well; mainly the Hiberno-Norse of Limerick (and probably those of Waterford, Wexford, and Cork as well), but also, according to some sources, a rival gang of Norse mercenaries from the Isle of Man.

Essentially this could be characterised as an Irish civil war in which foreigners participated as minor players.

Along with whatever troops he obtained from abroad, the forces that Brian mustered included the troops of his home Province of Munster, those of Southern Connacht, and the men of the Province of Meath, the latter commanded by his old rival Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill. He may have outnumbered Máel Morda's army, since Brian felt secure enough to dispatch a mounted detachment under the command of his youngest son, Donnchad, to raid southern Leinster, presumably hoping to force Máel Morda to release his contingents from there to return to defend their homes. Unfortunately for the High King, if he had had a superiority in numbers it was soon lost. A disagreement with the King of Meath resulted in Máel Sechnaill withdrawing his support (Brian sent a messenger to find Donnchad and ask him to return with his detachment, but the call for help came too late). To compound his problems, the Norse contingents, led by Sigurd Hlodvirsson, Earl of Orkney and Brodir of the Isle of Man, arrived on Palm Sunday, the 18 April. The battle would occur five days later, on Good Friday.

The fighting took place just north of the city of Dublin, at Clontarf (now a prosperous suburb). It may well be that the two sides were evenly matched, as all of the accounts state that the Battle of Clontarf lasted all day. Although this may be an exaggeration, it does suggest that it was a long, drawn-out fight.

There are many legends concerning how Brian was killed, from dying in a heroic man-to-man combat to being killed by the fleeing Viking mercenary Brodir while praying in his tent. He is said to be buried in the grounds of St. Patrick's Cathedral in the city of Armagh. Legend dictates he is buried at the north end of the church.

-------------------- Regnar Lodbrogs (formentlig) ældste søn Halfdan, der endte sine dage 877 efter kortvarigt at have været regent i York og måske også i Dublin, har som et nyt resultat af analysen en efterslægt: Her benyttes bl.a. navnet Sigfred/Sigfert/Siffert, og dem er der flere af. Den sidste (d. o.964) er formentlig en hidtidig outsider Sifred de Guines også kaldet den Danske, som herved knyttes til sin normanniske oprindelse. På vejen – dvs. i 880’erne - optræder der (som nævnt i klosterårbøgerne) en Sigfred og en Godfred i Flandern/Friesland, og begge kan indpasses som sønner af Halfdan. Den sidste gifter sig 883 med Gisela, datter af den da afdøde frankiske kejser Lothar, og får datteren Ragnhild, som senere bliver moder til Matilda gift med Henrik Fuglefænger. Den første, altså Sigfred, bliver samme år (883) konge i Dublin, for da er det hans ”tur” efter ovennævnte successionsregler. Godfred bliver myrdet 885 i Flandern, og Sigfred dræbes 888 i Dublin, formentlig af sin fætter Sigtryg.

http://www.vikingekonger.dk/Vikingekonger%20HTML/Centrale%20dele/Prologen.htm

-------------------- EITHER BRO COULD HAVE SIRED DESCENDENTS. NO CONVINCING EVIDENCE. --------------------

Sitric mac Amlaíb, rí Gall also went by the name of Sitric "Silk Beard". Also called Sigtryggr Silkiskeggi Óláfsson Old Norse.2,7 He was born before 981. He was the son of Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin and Gormlaith ingen Murchada Uí Fáeláin.1,2,3,4,5,6 Sitric mac Amlaíb, rí Gall became King of Dublin in 989.7 King of Dublin between 989 and 994.8 Annals of Ulster 994: "Sitriuc son of Amlaíb was expelled from Áth Cliath. / Sitriuc m. Amlaim do innarba a h-Ath Cliath."9 King of Dublin, restored between 995 and 1035.8 Annals of Tigernach 995: "h-Imur i n-Ath Cliath tar éis Sitriuca maic Amlaim."10 Annals of Tigernach 995: "Raghnall do marbad do Laignib. h-Imur iterum euasit et Sitriuc in réghnum eius."11 Annals of Ulster 999: "Donnchad son of Domnall, king of Laigin, was held prisoner by Sitriuc son of Amlaíb, i.e. king of the foreigners, and by Mael Mórda son of Murchad. The kingship of Laigin was afterwards given to Mael Mórda. / Donnchad m. Domnaill, ri Laigen, do ergabhail do Sitriuc m. Amhlaim, .i. ri Gall, & do Mhael Mordha m. Murchada. Righi Laigen do Mhael Mordhai iar suidhiu."12 He married Slani ingen Briain Dál gCais, daughter of Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig, *Ard-rí na h'Éireann* and Unknown (?), circa 1010.1,13,14 Annals of the Loch Cé 1021: "A victory by Ughaire, son of Dunlaing, king of Laighen, over Sitric, son of Amhlaibh, king of Ath-cliath, at Deilgne-Moghorog. / Maidhm ría n-Ughaire mac Dúnlaing, rí Laigen, for Sitrioc mac Amhlaibh, rí Atha Clíath ocon Deilgne Mo Ghoróg."15 Annals of the Loch Cé 1028: "Sitric, son of Amhlaibh, king of the Foreigners, and Flannagan Ua Ceallaigh, king of Bregha, went to Rome. / Sitreac mac Amhlaibh rí Gall, & Flannágan .H. Cellaigh, rí Bregh, do dhul do Róimh."16 Chronicon Scotorum 1028: "Sitric son of Amlaíb went to Rome, and Flannacán ua Cellaigh king of Brega."17 Sitric mac Amlaíb, rí Gall was deposed in 1036.18,2,7 He died in 1042.18,2,19,20 Annals of the Four Masters 1042: "Sitric, and Cailleach-Finain, his daughter, died in the one month. / Sitriucc & Cailleach Fíonáin, a inghen, d'écc i n-aen-mhi." ( (an unknown value)).21 Annals of Tigernach 1042: "Sitruic & Caillech Finnen a ingen, mortuus est."20

Family

Slani ingen Briain Dál gCais b. after 995

Children

   * Amlaíb mac Sitric, rí Gall+ b. c 1010, d. 10341,2
   * Cailleach Fíonáin of Dublin b. 1011?, d. 104221

http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p99.htm#i12039