Sitric Cáech mac Ímair, King of Dublin & York

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Sitric Cáech mac Ímair

Norse, Old: Sigtryggr Ívarsson
Also Known As: "Sitric Gále", "Sigtrygg Caoch", "Sigtrigg", "King of Jorvik"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Dublin, Ireland
Death: Died in Dublin, Ireland
Place of Burial: York, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Ivarr Gudrodson, king of Dublin and Wife of Ívarr Guðrøðsson
Husband of NN Sithric's first wife of York, St Edith of Polesworth and Eadgyth
Father of Gothfrith Gofraid Sitricsson King Of Dublin; Harald, King of Limerick and Olaf Sithricsson, King of Dublin & York
Brother of Guðþormr (Gudröd) Ívarsson King of Dublin; NN mac Ímair and Barid mac Ímair

Occupation: king of Dublin & York, Kung i Dublin, Irland, och Northumberland, England, King of Dublin and Northumbria, Kung i Northumbria, Konge i Dublin, Irland 917-920 og Northumberland, kung av dublin och northumberland, KING OF DUBLIN & YORK, King of Limerick
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Sitric Cáech mac Ímair, King of Dublin & York

Sigtrygg or Sithric of York

Married:

1. (first wife), three sons: Harald, Olaf, Guthfrith

2. Eadgyth of Wessex, no children

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigtrygg_Caech

SIHTRIC "Caoch", grandson of IMAR, son of --- (-[926/27]). The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin” and “Ragnall grandson of Imar with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech” in 917[1157]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar” defeated “Niall son of Aed king of Ireland…in the battle of Cenn Fuait” in 917 and that he “entered Ath Cliath” in the same year[1158]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar abandoned Ath Cliath” in 920[1159]. He invaded Mercia in 920 with an army from Dublin, destroying Davenport in Cheshire[1160]. Simeon of Durham records that "King Sihtric stormed Devonport" in 920[1161].

He succeeded his first cousin in 921 as SIHTRIC King of York. He proposed an alliance to Æthelstan King of Wessex, which was sealed in 926 by his marriage to King Æthelstan's sister. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 927 of "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners…at an immature age"[1162]. Simeon of Durham records the death of "Sihtric king of the Northumbrians" died in 926[1163]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 925 of “Sitric son of Imhar lord of the Dubhghoill and Finnghoill”[1164]. Florence of Worcester records the death of "Northanhymbrorum rex Sihtricus", undated but dateable to [926/27] from the context[1165].

m firstly ---. The name of Sihtric's first wife is not known but the fact of this earlier marriage is dictated by the chronology of his sons.

m secondly (Tamworth 30 Jan 926) EADGYTH of Wessex, daughter of EDWARD I “the Elder” King of Wessex & his first wife Ecgwynn ([895/902]-, bur Tamworth). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that "King Athelstan [gave] Sihtric king of Northumbria…his sister in marriage" at Tamworth 30 Jan 925[1166]. The Book of Hyde names "Athelstanum…et Elfredum et Edgytham" as the children of King Eadweard "ex concubina Egwynna", specifying that Eadgyth married "Sirichio regi Northanhymbrorum" and was buried at Tamworth[1167]. Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance which Sihtric King of York proposed to her brother. After her husband's death, she became a nun at Polesworth Abbey, Warwickshire in 927, transferring to Tamworth Abbey, Gloucestershire where she was elected Abbess. Later canonised as St Edith of Polesworth or St Edith of Tamworth, her feast day is 15 or 19 July[1168].

King Sihtric & his first wife had three children:

a) HARALD (-killed 940). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aralt grandson of Imhar, the son of Sitric, lord of the foreigners of Luimneach” was killed in 938 “in Connaught by the Caenraighi of Aidhne”[1169]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 940 of "Aralt grandson of Ímar at the hands of the Connachta”[1170].

b) OLAF [Anlaf] Sihtricson (-Iona [978/80]). He was accepted as OLAF King of York by the Northumbrians in 927 after the death of his father, and was supported by his uncle Guthfrith who came from Dublin. However, Æthelstan invaded Northumbria and expelled Olaf who joined his father's former associates in Ireland[1171]. Florence of Worcester records that "Northhymbrenses" chose "regem Northmannorum Anlafum" as king, undated but dateable to [941] from the context[1172]. Siimeon of Durham records that "the son of Sihtric named Onlaf reigned over the Northumbrians" in 941 but was driven out in 943[1173]. He lost the territories gained by Olaf Guthfrithson to Edmund King of Wessex in 942, and he was driven out of York and deposed in favour of his cousin Rægnald. He returned to Northumbria in 944, reasserting himself as king in opposition to Rægnald, but he was expelled by Edmund King of Wessex later that year[1174]. Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund expelled "king…Anlaf the son of Sihtric and [king] Reignold the son of Guthferth" from Northumbria in 944[1175]. Florence of Worcester records that Eadmund King of Wessex expelled "duos reges, Anlafum regis…Sihtrici filium, et Reignoldum Guthferthi filium" from Northumbria, undated but dateable to [944] from the context[1176]. He returned to York once more in 949, expelling King Erik "Blodøks/Blood-axe", but was finally driven out in his turn by Erik in 952. King of Dublin 941/43, 945/49 and 953/981.

- KINGS of DUBLIN.

c) GUTHFRITH (-after 951). Florence of Worcester records that "filio illius Guthfertho", who had succeeded his father, was expelled after the death of "Northanhymbrorum rex Sihtricus", undated but dateable to [926/27] from the context[1177], but this appears to confuse Guthfrith, son of Sihtric, with Sihtric´s other son Olaf or which Sihtric´s brother also named Guthfrith. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Godfrey son of Sitric with the foreigners of Ath-cliath” plundered “churches of Meath” in 949[1178]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Gothfrith son of Sitriuc with the foreigners of Ath Cliath” plundered churches in 951[1179].

--------------------

Sihtric Caech, King of Northumbria1

M, #102919, d. 927

Last Edited=3 Dec 2005

    Sihtric Caech, King of Northumbria married Saint Edith (?), daughter of Eadweard I, King of Wessex and Ecgwyn (?), on 30 January 926 at Tamworth, Gloucestershire, England. (1) 

He died in 927. (1)

    Sihtric Caech, King of Northumbria gained the title of King of Northumbria. (1)

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10292.htm#i102919

--------------------

Sitric or Sigtrygg of Dublin.

Three children by his first unknown wife

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/IRELAND.htm

SIHTRIC "Caoch" (-927). The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin” and “Ragnall grandson of Imar with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech” in 917[1021]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar” defeated “Niall son of Aed king of Ireland…in the battle of Cenn Fuait” in 917 and that he “entered Ath Cliath” in the same year[1022]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar abandoned Ath Cliath” in 920[1023]. He invaded Mercia in 920 with an army from Dublin, destroying Davenport in Cheshire[1024]. Simeon of Durham records that "King Sihtric stormed Devonport" in 920[1025]. He succeeded his first cousin in 921 as SIHTRIC King of York. He proposed an alliance to Æthelstan King of Wessex, which was sealed in 926 by his marriage to King Æthelstan's sister. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 927 of "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners…at an immature age"[1026]. Simeon of Durham records the death of "Sihtric king of the Northumbrians" died in 926[1027]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 925 of “Sitric son of Imhar lord of the Dubhghoill and Finnghoill”[1028].

m firstly ---. The name of Sihtric's first wife is not known but the fact of this earlier marriage is dictated by the chronology of his son Olaf.

m secondly (Tamworth 30 Jan 926) EADGYTH of Wessex, daughter of EDWARD I “the Elder” King of Wessex & his first wife Ecgwynn ([895/902]-, bur Tamworth). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that "King Athelstan [gave] Sihtric king of Northumbria…his sister in marriage" at Tamworth 30 Jan 925[1029]. The Book of Hyde names "Athelstanum…et Elfredum et Edgytham" as the children of King Eadweard "ex concubina Egwynna", specifying that Eadgyth married "Sirichio regi Northanhymbrorum" and was buried at Tamworth[1030]. Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance which Sihtric King of York proposed to her brother. After her husband's death, she became a nun at Polesworth Abbey, Warwickshire in 927, transferring to Tamworth Abbey, Gloucestershire where she was elected Abbess. Later canonised as St Edith of Polesworth or St Edith of Tamworth, her feast day is 15 or 19 July[1031]. King

Sihtric & his first wife had three children:

(a) HARALD (-killed 940). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aralt grandson of Imhar, the son of Sitric, lord of the foreigners of Luimneach” was killed in 938 “in Connaught by the Caenraighi of Aidhne”[1032]. The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 940 of "Aralt grandson of Ímar at the hands of the Connachta”[1033].

(b) OLAF [Anlaf] Sihtricson (-Iona [978/80]). He was accepted as King of York by the Northumbrians in 927 after the death of his father, and was supported by his uncle Guthfrith who came from Dublin. King of Dublin 941/43, 945/49 and 953/981.

- see below.

(c) GUTHFRITH (-after 951). The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Godfrey son of Sitric with the foreigners of Ath-cliath” plundered “churches of Meath” in 949[1034]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Gothfrith son of Sitriuc with the foreigners of Ath Cliath” plundered churches in 951[1035].

--------------------

Sigtrygg II (Gale) SIGTRYGGSSON

Yrke: Kung i Dublin, Irland, 917-920 och Northumberland, England

Far: Sigtrygg (den blinde) SIGURDSSON (865 - 888)

Född: omkring 885 Irland, Dublin 1)

Död: omkring 927 Irland, Dublin 2)

Familj med Eadgyth (Edit) ENGLAND (897 - 937)

Vigsel: 925-07-30 England, Tamworth, Staffordshire 3)

Barn: Harald SIGTRYGGSSON (916 - 940)

Noteringar

Kallas också Sigtrygg 'Enöga' eller Sigtrygg 'Enöye'. (Källa: G.V.C Young, 1986)

Kung i Dublin på Irland 917-920. (Källa: Irlands regentlängd)

Sigtrygg var sønn av Sigurd Ivarrson, som var bror til Bård, Sigurd og Guttorm. (Källa: Tom Björnstad)

Källor

1) Tom Björnstad, Norge (webbplats)

2) Landsarkivets bibliotek, G.V.C. Young, Isle of Man, England

3) Directory of Royal Genealogical Data, Hull, England

Senast uppdaterad 010604 -------------------- Father is either Sitric I, or brother Guthrom Ivarsson - sons of Ivarr the Boneless. -------------------- Sigtrygg Caech

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Sigtrygg Caech (or Sihtric) (died 927) was a Norse-Gael King of Dublin who later reigned as king of York. His epithet means the 'Squinty'. He belonged to the Uí Ímair kindred.

The Annals of Ulster records the arrival of two viking fleets in Ireland in 917, one led by Ragnall and the other by Sigtrygg, both of the Uí Ímair kindred. They fought a battle against Niall Glundub in which the Irish were routed, and according to the annals Sigtrygg then "entered Áth Cliath", i.e. Dublin, which we must assume means that he took possession of it.[1] Ragnall Uí Ímair went on to Scotland[2], and then conquered York and became king there.

Sigtrygg fought several battles with Niall Glundub. Warfare is recorded in 918, and in 919 Niall and several other Irish pettykings where killed in a major battle at Dublin.[3]. This was probably the most devastating defeat ever inflicted on the Irish by the Norse, and Sigtryggs possession of Dublin seemed secure. Sigtrygg however left Dublin already in 920 or 921, the pious annalist claims he left "through the power of God".[4] The truth of it was that Sigtrygg had ambititions elsewhere, and following Ragnall's death he became king of York. His kinsman Gothfrith ruled in Dublin.

Sigtrygg attacked the kingdom of Mercia from the Mersey which formed part of the border between Mercia and the Viking Kingdom of York.[5] He also commanded Viking forces in the Battle of Confey and other battles.

In 926 he married King Athelstan of England's sister in a political move designed by Athelstan to build up his influence in the north of England. Sigtrygg died suddenly only a year later in 927.[6]

Sigtrygg's son Olaf, whom the Irish nicknamed Cuaran, later succeded him both as king of Dublin and of York.

References

  1. ^ Annals of Ulster (AU) 917.3,4,5
  2. ^ AU 918.4
  3. ^ AU 918.6, 919.3
  4. ^ AU 920.5
  5. ^ http://www.btinternet.com/~timeref/hprs.htm#J771 TimeRef - Sihtric (Norse King of York)
  6. ^ Higham, Kingdom of Northumbria, pp. 186–190; Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England, pp. 339–340.

-------------------- Sitric Caoch ua Ímair, rí Dubgall & Finngall, was related to the English king Aethelstan.

Sitric also went by the name of Sitric "the Blind" and also Sitric Gále and also Sihtric Caoch the Dane and also Sigtryggr (Old Norse). He was referred to as lord of the foreigners of Luimneach.

He was leader of a group of exiled Irish Norse from Lancashire and Cumbria who retook Dublin in 914 at Ireland. According to the Annals of the Four Masters (915): "Sitric, grandson of Imhar, with his fleet, took up at Ceann-fuait, in the east of Leinster. / Sitrioc, ua h-Iomhair cona chobhlach do ghabháil oc Cind Fuaith i n-airer Laighen." ( (an unknown value)).

He slew rí Laigin Augaire mac Ailella Uí Muiredaig in 917 at the Battle of Cennfuait; according to the Annals of Ulster (917): "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar entered Áth Cliath. / Sitriuc h. Imair do tuidecht i n-Ath Cliath."

Sitric recaptured Dublin, and reestablished the Viking kingdom there in 917. According to the Annals of the Four Masters (917): "The battle of Ath-cliath (i.e., of Cill-Mosamhog, by the side of Ath-cliath) was gained over the Irish, by Imhar and Sitric Gale, on the 17th of October, in which were slain Niall Glundubh, son of Aedh Finnliath, King of Ireland, after he had been three years in the sovereignty. / Cath Atha Cliath (.i. i Cill Mo Samhócc la toebh Atha Cliath) for Ghaoidhealaibh ria n-Gallaibh .i. ria n-Iomhar & ria Sitriug Gále, .i. in xv October, in ro marbhadh Niall Glúndubh, mac Aedha Finnleith rí Ereann iar m-beith dó trí bliadhna isin righi." ( (an unknown value)). According to the Annals of Ulster (917): "Sitriuc, grandson of Ímar, landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin. Ragnall, grandson of Ímar, with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech. A slaughter of the foreigners at Neimlid in Muma. The Eóganacht and the Ciarraige made another slaughter. / Sitriuc h. Imair cona chobluch do ghabail oc Cinn Fhuait i n-airiur Laigen. Ragnall h. h-Imair cona chobluch ailiu co Gallu Locha Da Chaech. Ár n-Gall oc Neimlid la Mumain. Ár n-aile la Eoganacht & Ciaraidhe."

Sitric was King of Dublin between 917 and 920. According to the Annals of Ulster (918): "Warfare between Niall son of Aed, king of Temair, and Sitriuc grandson of Ímar. / Cocadh iter Niall m. Aedho, ri Temhrach, & Sitriuc h. n-Imair."

Sitric attacked the English midland kingdom of Mercia from the Mersey frontier in 919. He married unknown (?) before 920.

According to the Annals of Ulster (920): "Sitriuc, grandson of Ímar, abandoned Áth Cliath, through the power of God. / Sitriuc ua h-Imair do derghiu Atha Cliath per potestatem diuinam."

Sitric was King of York between 921 and 927; he was King of Northumbria circa 925.

Sitric acknowledged the superiority of King Athelstan with his marriage to Athelstan's sister. According to the Annals of the Four Masters (925): "Sitric, son of Imhar, lord of the Dubhghoill and Finnghoill, died. / Sitriuc ua h-Iomhair, tighearna Dubhghall & Fionnghall, d'écc." ( (an unknown value)).

Sitric married Edith of Wessex, daughter of King Edward "the Elder" of the English and his mistress Ægwina, on 30 January 925 at Tamworth, West Midlands (she was not the mother of our ancestor Amlaib).

According to the Chronicon Scotorum (927): "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar, king of the white foreigners and the dark foreigners, dies." According to the Annals of Ulster (927): "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners, died at an immature age. / Sitriuc h. Imair, ri Dubgall & Finngall, inmatura etate mortuus est."

See "My Lines"

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p318.htm#i12042 )

from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm )

--------------------

Sigtrygg Caech (or Sihtric) was a Norse-Gael King of Dublin who later reigned as King of York. His epithet means the "Squinty." He belonged to the Uí Ímair Viking kindred.

The Annals of Ulster records the arrival of two Viking fleets in Ireland in 917, one led by Ragnall and the other by Sigtrygg. They fought a battle against Niall Glundub in which the Irish were routed, and according to the annals Sigtrygg then "entered Áth Cliath" (Dublin), which we must assume means that he took possession of it.

Sigtrygg fought several battles with Niall Glundub. Warfare is recorded in 918, and in 919 Niall and several other Irish petty kings were killed in a major battle at Dublin. This was probably the most devastating defeat ever inflicted on the Irish by the Norse, and Sigtryggs possession of Dublin seemed secure. Sigtrygg however left Dublin already in 920 or 921, the pious annalist claims he left "through the power of God." The truth of it was that Sigtrygg had ambitions elsewhere: He became king of York.

Sigtrygg attacked the kingdom of Mercia from the Mersey which formed part of the border between Mercia and the Viking Kingdom of York. He also commanded Viking forces in the Battle of Confey and other battles.

In 926 he married King Athelstan of England's sister in a political move designed by Athelstan to build up his influence in the north of England. Sigtrygg died suddenly only a year later in 927.

Sigtrygg was the grandson of Ímar, "king of the Northmen of all Britain and Ireland," perhaps the same person as Ivar the Boneless, whose death was reported by the Annals of Ulster in 873. We have no information on the intervening generation.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitriuc_ua_%C3%8Dmair for more information. --------------------

 Sitric Caoch ua Ímair, rí Dubgall & Finngall was related to Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin; the son of Sihtric, king of Deira, and was related to the English king Aethelstan.2 Sitric Caoch ua Ímair, rí Dubgall & Finngall also went by the name of Sitric "the Blind". Also called Sitric Gále.3 He was referred to as lord of the foreigners of Luimneach.4 Also called Sigtryggr Old Norse.5 Also called Sihtric Caoch the Dane. Also called Sitric Caoch. He was a witness where Sitric mac Ímair can almost certainly be ruled out as the possible father of Sitric ua Ímair, because Vikings were very rarely named after their fathers.5 Sitric Caoch ua Ímair, rí Dubgall & Finngall was born circa 890. The grandson of Ivar, King of Dublin and York. He was the son of N.N. mac Ímair. Sitric Caoch ua Ímair, rí Dubgall & Finngall was leader of a group of exiled Irish Norse from Lancashire and Cumbria who retook Dublin in 914 at Ireland. Annals of the Four Masters 915: "Sitric, grandson of Imhar, with his fleet, took up at Ceann-fuait, in the east of Leinster. / Sitrioc, ua h-Iomhair cona chobhlach do ghabháil oc Cind Fuaith i n-airer Laighen." ( (an unknown value)).6 He witnessed the death of rí Laigin Augaire mac Ailella Uí Muiredaig in 917 at the Battle of Cennfuait; Killed by Viking Sitric ua Imair.7,8,9 Annals of Ulster 917: "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar entered Áth Cliath. / Sitriuc h. Imair do tuidecht i n-Ath Cliath."10 Sitric Caoch ua Ímair, rí Dubgall & Finngall defeated the Leinstermen and killed Augaire mac Ailella, king of Laigin, and Máel Mórda mac Muirecáin, king of Airthir Liphi, in 917 at the Battle of Cennfuait.9,5,11 He re-captured Dublin, and re-established the Viking kingdom there in 917.11 Annals of the Four Masters 917: "The battle of Ath-cliath (i. e. of Cill-Mosamhog, by the side of Ath-cliath) was gained over the Irish, by Imhar and Sitric Gale, on the 17th of October, in which were slain Niall Glundubh, son of Aedh Finnliath, King of Ireland, after he had been three years in the sovereignty. / Cath Atha Cliath (.i. i Cill Mo Samhócc la toebh Atha Cliath) for Ghaoidhealaibh ria n-Gallaibh .i. ria n-Iomhar & ria Sitriug Gále, .i. in xv October, in ro marbhadh Niall Glúndubh, mac Aedha Finnleith rí Ereann iar m-beith dó trí bliadhna isin righi." ( (an unknown value)).3 Annals of Ulster 917: "Sitriuc, grandson of Ímar, landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin. Ragnall, grandson of Ímar, with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech. A slaughter of the foreigners at Neimlid in Muma. The Eóganacht and the Ciarraige made another slaughter. / Sitriuc h. Imair cona chobluch do ghabail oc Cinn Fhuait i n-airiur Laigen. Ragnall h. h-Imair cona chobluch ailiu co Gallu Locha Da Chaech. Ár n-Gall oc Neimlid la Mumain. Ár n-aile la Eoganacht & Ciaraidhe."12 He slew rí Airthir-Liphi Máel Mórda mac Muirecáin Uí Fáeláin in battle in 917 at the Battle of Cennfuait; Killed by Sitric ua Imair.13,5,14 King of Dublin between 917 and 920. Annals of Ulster 918: "Warfare between Niall son of Aed, king of Temair, and Sitriuc grandson of Ímar. / Cocadh iter Niall m. Aedho, ri Temhrach, & Sitriuc h. n-Imair."15 Sitric Caoch ua Ímair, rí Dubgall & Finngall attacked the English midland kingdom of Mercia from the Mersey frontier in 919. He married unknown (?) before 920; Previous marriage.5 Annals of Ulster 920: "Sitriuc, grandson of Ímar, abandoned Áth Cliath, through the power of God. / Sitriuc ua h-Imair do derghiu Atha Cliath per potestatem diuinam."16 King of York between 921 and 927.5 King of Northumberland circa 925.17 Sitric Caoch ua Ímair, rí Dubgall & Finngall acknowledged the superiority of King Athelstan with his marriage to Athelstan's sister. Annals of the Four Masters 925: "Sitric, son of Imhar, lord of the Dubhghoill and Finnghoill, died. / Sitriuc ua h-Iomhair, tighearna Dubhghall & Fionnghall, d'écc." ( (an unknown value)).18 He married Edith of Wessex, daughter of Edward "the Elder", King of the English and Ægwina , mistress of King Edward the Elder, on 30 January 925 at Tamworth, West Midlands; Not the mother of Amlaib.5,17 Chronicon Scotorum 927: "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar, king of the white foreigners and the dark foreigners, dies."19 Annals of Ulster 927: "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners, died at an immature age. / Sitriuc h. Imair, ri Dubgall & Finngall, inmatura etate mortuus est."20 Sitric Caoch ua Ímair, rí Dubgall & Finngall died in 927.5,2,20

Family 1

unknown (?)

Children

   * Aralt mac Sitric of Dublin+ d. 9384
   * Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin+ b. b 920, d. 9811,21,22

Family 2

Edith of Wessex b. circa 899, d. before March 927

http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p318.htm#i12042 -------------------- http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/IRELAND.htm#_Toc389126206

c) SIHTRIC (-killed 896). He presumably succeeded his brother as King [of Dublin]. The Annals of Ulster record in 893 "a great dissension among the foreigners of Ath Cliath and they became dispersed, one section following Imar´s son, and the other Sigfrith the jarl”[1177]. The Annals of Ulster record in 894 that "Imar´s son came again to Ireland”[1178]. It is assumed that this passage refers to Sihtric whose departure is implied by the passage dated 893 in the same source. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 896 of "Sitriuc son of Imar killed by other Norsemen”[1179].

[1177] Annals of Ulster, 893.3, p. 347. [1178] Annals of Ulster, 894.4, p. 349. [1179] Annals of Ulster, 895.4, p. 349. -------------------- Sitric Cáech


"King of the Fair Foreigners and the Dark Foreigners"


Sitric Cáech, also known as Sitric Gále,[nb 1] (Old Norse: Sigtryggr, died 927) was a Viking[nb 2] leader who ruled Dublin and then Viking Northumbria in the early 10th century. He was a grandson of Ímar and a member of the Uí Ímair. Sitric was most probably among those Vikings expelled from Dublin in 902, whereafter he may have ruled territory in the eastern Danelaw in England. In 917, he and his kinsman Ragnall ua Ímair sailed separate fleets to Ireland where they won several battles against local kings. Sitric successfully recaptured Dublin and established himself as king, while Ragnall returned to England to become King of Northumbria. In 919, Sitric won a victory at the Battle of Islandbridge over a coalition of local Irish kings who aimed to expel the Uí Ímair from Ireland. Six Irish kings were killed in the battle, including Niall Glúndub, overking of the Northern Uí Néill and High King of Ireland.[nb 3]


In 920 Sitric left Dublin for Northumbria, with his kinsman Gofraid ua Ímair succeeding him as king. That same year he led a raid on Davenport, Cheshire, perhaps as an act of defiance against Edward the Elder, King of the Anglo-Saxons. In 921 Ragnall ua Ímair died, with Sitric succeeding him as King of Northumbria. Though there are no written accounts of conflict, numismatic evidence suggests there was a Viking reconquest of a large part of Mercia in the following few years. An agreement of some sort between the Vikings of Northumbria and the Anglo-Saxons was achieved in 926 when Sitric married a sister of Æthelstan, perhaps Edith of Polesworth. Sitric also converted to Christianity, though this did not last long and he soon reverted to paganism. He died in 927 and was succeeded by his kinsman Gofraid ua Ímair. Sitric's son Gofraid later reigned as King of Dublin, his son Aralt as King of Limerick, and his son Amlaíb Cuarán as king of both Dublin and Northumbria.


Background


The ruling Vikings of Dublin were expelled from the city in 902 by a joint force led by Máel Finnia mac Flannacán, overking of Brega and Cerball mac Muirecáin, overking of Leinster.[4] Those Vikings that survived the capture of the city split into different groups; some went to France, some to England, and some to Wales.[5] Archaeological evidence suggests Dublin remained occupied in the years immediately following this expulsion, perhaps indicating only the ruling elite were forced to leave.[6] However, Viking raids on Irish settlements continued, and in 914, a large Viking fleet travelled to Waterford.[7] The arrival of this fleet marked the re-establishment of Viking rule over parts of Ireland, and was followed by more Vikings settling in Limerick the following year.[8]


The main historical sources for this period are the Norse sagas and the Irish annals. Some of the annals, such as the Annals of Ulster, are believed to be contemporary accounts, whereas the sagas were written down at dates much later than the events they describe and are considered far less reliable. A few of the annals such as the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland and the Annals of the Four Masters were also complied at later dates, in part from more contemporary material and in part from fragments of sagas.[9] According to Downham: "apart from these additions [of saga fragments], Irish chronicles are considered by scholars to be largely accurate records, albeit partisan in their presentation of events".[10]


Biography


The British Isles in the early tenth century Sitric is presumed to have left Dublin with the rest of the ruling Vikings in 902.[11] Coins dating from the period bearing the legend "Sitric Comes" (Earl Sitric), and the mintmark "Sceldfor" (Shelford), have been found as part of the Cuerdale Hoard, perhaps indicating that he ruled territory in the eastern Danelaw during his exile from Ireland.[12] The Anglo-Saxons conquered all of the Danelaw south of the Humber by 918, but there is no mention of Earl Sitric in English sources, suggesting he was no longer ruling there at the time.[13]


The earliest mention of Sitric in the Irish Annals is in 917 when he and Ragnall, another grandson of Ímar, are described as leading their fleets to Ireland.[14] Sitric sailed his fleet to Cenn Fuait in Leinster, and Ragnall sailed his fleet to Waterford. Niall Glúndub, overking of the Northern Uí Néill saw these Vikings as a threat, and he marched an army south to repel them. The Vikings fought against the men of the Uí Néill at Mag Femen in County Tipperary and claimed victory, though only through timely reinforcement by Ragnall and his army.[15] This was followed by another at the Battle of Confey (also known as the Battle of Cenn Fuait), against Augaire mac Ailella, overking of Leinster, who died in the battle. Augaire's death marked the end of effective opposition to the Vikings' return to Ireland. Sitric led his men on a triumphant return to Dublin, where he established himself as king, while Ragnall returned to England and soon became King of Northumbria.[14]


According to Downham, the departure of Ragnall and his contingent of warriors may have emboldened Niall Glúndub to try to expel the Uí Ímair from Ireland once again.[16] In 919 Niall led a coalition of northern Irish kings south to Dublin. The forces of Sitric and Niall met near Islandbridge in modern day County Dublin (dated 14 September by the Annals of Ulster).[17] The resulting Battle of Islandbridge was an overwhelming victory for Sitric and his forces, with Niall falling in battle alongside one of his kinsmen. Five other kings, and a kinsman of the ruler of the Southern Uí Néill also died fighting against Sitric's army.[nb 4][16]


In 920 the Annals of Ulster report that Sitric left Dublin "through the power of God". Sitric travelled to Northumbria where he assumed the kingship of Northumbria, succeeding his kinsman Ragnall who died the following year.[19] Sitric was followed as King of Dublin by his brother or cousin Gofraid ua Ímair.[nb 5][11] In 920 Ragnall had submitted to Edward the Elder, King of the Anglo-Saxons. That same year, following his departure from Dublin, Sitric led a raid in Davenport, Cheshire, in violation of the terms of submission agreed between Ragnall and Edward.[20] Smyth has suggested that this was an act of defiance by Sitric, indicating to Edward that he would not submit to him like Ragnall.[21]


Neither the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle nor Æthelweard's Chronicon makes mention of Sitric in the years 921–924, i.e. between his installation as King of Northubmria and the death of Edward the Elder.[22] However, there are coins in existence which were minted at Lincoln during the period that bear Sitric's name.[23] These are an important piece of evidence since they suggest Sitric ruled a large area south of the Humber, a claim contradicted by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which says that all the 'Danes' in Mercia (i.e. south of the Humber) submitted to Edward in 918.[24] These coins might indicate Viking reconquest of a large area in the years 921–924, which if it did happen went unremarked upon by the Chronicle. Edward's control of Mercia likely stretched the kingdom's resources to breaking point, allowing Sitric to exploit the ill-will towards Edward that existed among the populace there, with Edward being unable to effectively oppose Sitric. Downham suggests that the silence of the Chronicle might be due to Edward's failing power in the latter years of his reign, and its tendency to only record successes and not failures. His death in 924 is not recorded by a number of important Frankish, Welsh and Irish annals, suggesting a fall in importance and standing from the zenith of his power in 920.[22]


Edward the Elder's successor, Æthelstan, met with Sitric at Tamworth in 926.[25] The Chronicle does not mention the reason for the meeting, but it reports that an unnamed sister of Æthelstan was married to Sitric. Several years previously, in 918, Æthelstan's predecessor had used a royal marriage to bring Mercia under Wessex control. According to Smyth, the fact the marriage between Sitric and Æthelstan's sister occurred at the old Mercian royal centre at Tamworth reinforces the suggestion that this marriage was supposed to perform as a similar function to the one in 918.[26] The agreement reached at Tamworth seems to have necessitated Sitric's conversion to Christianity, though he soon reverted to paganism.[27] Sitric died the following year and was succeeded by his kinsman Gofraid ua Ímair.[28] The Annals of Ulster describe his death:


Sitric, grandson of Ímar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners, died at an immature age.[29]

Family


In the annals Sitric is sometimes identified by the use of one of his epithets, or by the use of "ua Ímair", meaning "grandson of Ímar", but never with a patronymic. As such, it is not possible to identify which of the three known sons of Ímar (Bárid, Sichfrith or Sitriuc) - if any - was the father of Sitric. One possible reason for the lack of a patronym might be that Sitric was the child of a son of Ímar who never ruled Dublin, or who spent most of his time outside Ireland, thus making Sitric's legitimacy to rule Dublin dependent the identity of his grandfather, not his father. Another possibility is that Sitric was a grandson of Ímar through a daughter, again with his right to rule dependent on his grandfather.[19] Sitric's kinsmen Ímar, Ragnall, Amlaíb and Gofraid are the other known grandsons of Ímar identified by the use of "ua Ímair". All except for Amlaíb ruled as either King of Dublin or King of Northumbria at one time or another.[30]


The Annals of Clonmacnoise mention two sons of Sitric, Auisle and Sichfrith, falling at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937.[31] Another son, Aralt, ruled as King of Limerick for an unknown length of time until his death in battle in 940. Sitric's son Amlaíb Cuarán (d. 981) reigned twice each as King of Dublin and King of Northumbria, and may have been the basis of the Middle English romance character Havelok the Dane.[32] Gofraid (d. 954) may have been another son though his father his only named as "Sitric" so it is not possible to say conclusively he was a son.[33] According to the Orkneyinga saga, a daughter of Sitric named Gytha was married to Olaf Tryggvason, King of Norway. According to Hudson, this is unlikely to be correct, since the marriage is said to have occurred sixty-three years after Sitric's death. It is much more likely that Gytha was actually a granddaughter of Sitric through his son Amlaíb Cuarán.[34]


Sitric married an unnamed sister of Æthelstan in 926.[25] Historians generally describe her as Æthelstan's only full sister, but Maggie Bailey points out that this rests on the late testimony of William of Malmesbury, and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle makes no such distinction when recording her marriage to Sitric.[35] William did not know her name, but traditions first recorded at Bury in the early twelfth century identify her as Saint Edith of Polesworth. The truth of his identification is debated, but regardless of her name but it is likely that she entered a nunnery in widowhood.[36] According to some late sources, such as the chronicler John of Wallingford, Amlaíb Cuarán was the son of Sitric and this West Saxon princess.[37]

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Sitric Cáech mac Ímair, King of Dublin & York's Timeline

885
885
Dublin, Ireland
915
915
Age 30
Ireland
916
916
Age 31
Dublin, Irland
917
917
- 920
Age 32
England
918
918
Age 33
York, United Kingdom
925
January 30, 925
Age 40
Tamworth, Staffordshire, United Kingdom
927
March 927
Age 42
Dublin, Ireland
927
Age 42
York, England
????