Václav I Duke of Bohemia, Saint

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Václav I Duke of Bohemia, Saint

Also Known As: "Wenceslaus I", "Saint Wenceslaus"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Prague, Bohemia
Death: Died in Stara Boleslav, Bohemia
Place of Burial: Cesky Krumlov - St. Vitus Church, Czech Republic
Immediate Family:

Son of Vratislav I, Duke of Bohemia and Drahomíra ze Heveller (Stodor), księżna czeska
Husband of NN. ks. Przemyślid
Father of Sbraslav ks. Przemyślid
Brother of Boleslav I Duke of Bohemia, książę Czech; Strezislava the Pretty; Pribislava, Princess Of Bohemia, Princess Of Bohemia and Spitihnev, Prince Of Bohemia, Prince Of Bohemia

Occupation: Český kníže
Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Václav I Duke of Bohemia, Saint

Saint Wenceslas I, Duke of Bohemia (1)

M, #150026, d. 929

Last Edited=10 Jul 2005

    Saint Wenceslas I, Duke of Bohemia was the son of Vratislav I, Duke of Bohemia. (1) 

He died in 929. (1) He was also reported to have died in 935. (2)

    Saint Wenceslas I, Duke of Bohemia was a member of the House of Premysl. (1) He succeeded to the title of Duke of Bohemia in 921. (1)

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p15003.htm#i150026

--------------------

Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wenceslaus or Wenceslas (Czech: Václav, Help:IPA [ˈva:tslaf] (help·info), former Věnceslav [Vientseslaf]) (c. 907 – September 28, 935) was duke (kníže) of Bohemia from 921 until his death. Wenceslas is best known in the English-speaking world as the subject of the Christmas carol "Good King Wenceslas".

He was the son of Vratislav I, Duke of Bohemia from the Přemyslid dynasty. His father was raised in a Christian milieu through his father, Bořivoj, who was converted by Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, the "apostles to the Slavs". His mother Drahomíra was the daughter of a pagan tribal chief of Havolans and was baptized at the time of her marriage. Wenceslaus himself is venerated as Saint Wenceslaus and is the main patron saint of the Czech state.

Childhood

In 921, when Wenceslaus was thirteen, his father died and he was brought up by his grandmother, Saint Ludmila, who raised him as a Christian. A dispute between the fervently Christian regent and her daughter-in-law drove Ludmila to seek sanctuary at Tetín Castle near Beroun. Drahomíra, who was trying to garner support from the nobility, was furious about losing influence on her son and arranged to have Ludmila strangled at Tetín on September 15, 921.

According to some legends, having regained control of her son, Drahomíra set out to convert him to the old pagan religion. According to other legends she was herself a Christian. Very little is known about her rule.

Career

In 924 or 925 Wenceslaus assumed government for himself and had Drahomíra exiled. After gaining the throne at the age of eighteen, he defeated rebellious duke of Kouřim named Radslav. He also founded a rotunda consecrated to St Vitus at Prague Castle in Prague, present day St Vitus Cathedral.

Early in 929 the joint forces of Arnulf of Bavaria and Henry I the Fowler reached Prague in a sudden attack, which forced Wenceslaus to pledge allegiance to the latter.[clarify] This was materialized in resuming the payment of a traditional tribute which was first imposed already in 806. One of the possible reasons for the attack was the formation of the anti-Saxon alliance between Bohemia, Polabian Slavs and Magyars.

[edit]Death

In September of 935 (in older sources 929), a group of nobles allied with Wenceslaus's younger brother, Boleslaus (Boleslav I of Bohemia), in a plot to kill the prince. After inviting his brother to the feast of Saints Cosmas and Damian in Stará Boleslav, three of Boleslaus' companions, Tira, Čsta and Hněvsa murdered him on his way to church. Boleslaus thus succeeded him as the Duke/Prince (kníže) of Bohemia.

According to Cosmas's chronicle, one of Boleslav's sons was born on the day of Wenceslaus's death, and because of the ominous circumstance of his birth the infant was named Strachkvas, which means "a dreadful feast".

There are discrepancies in the records regarding the date of Wenceslaus's death. It has been argued that Wenceslaus's remains were transferred to St Vitus's Church in 932, ruling out the later date; however, the year 935 is now favoured by historians as the date of his murder (note: a St. Joseph Catholic Missal, c.1962, gives the date of death in 938).

There is a tradition which states that Saint Wenceslaus's loyal servant, Podevin, avenged his death by killing one of the chief conspirators. Podevin was executed by Boleslav.

[edit]Canonization and other memorials

After his death, Wenceslaus was canonised as a saint due to his martyr's death, as well as several purported miracles that occurred after his death. Wenceslaus is the patron saint of the Czech people and the Czech Republic. His feast day is September 28. Since the year 2000, this day is a public holiday in the Czech Republic, celebrated as Czech Statehood Day. In his honour, a statue of Wenceslaus clad in armour on horseback stands in Prague's Václavské náměstí (Wenceslaus Square). The sculptor was Josef Václav Myslbek. A memorable parody of this statue, created by David Černý, hangs in a Lucerna Palace gallery near the square. He is also the patron saint of one of Chicago's most architecturally significant churches, St. Wenceslaus.

Wenceslaus in fiction

There are many legends about King Wenceslaus. An old legend says that a huge army of knights sleep inside Blaník, a mountain in the Czech Republic. The knights will wake and under the command of St. Wenceslaus will help the Motherland when it is in ultimate danger. (See also King in the mountain legends)

There is a similar legend in Prague, which says that when the Motherland is in danger or in its darkest times and close to ruin, the equestrian statue of King Wenceslaus in Wenceclaus Square will come to life, raise the army sleeping in Blaník, and upon crossing the Charles Bridge his horse will stumble and trip over a stone that will reveal the legendary sword of Bruncvík. With this sword, King Wenceslaus will slay all the enemies of the Czechs, bringing peace and prosperity to the land.

He is the subject of the popular Boxing Day and Christmas Carol "Good King Wenceslas".

There is a 1994 television film entitled Good King Wenceslaus which is a highly fictional account of his early life. The film stars Jonathan Brandis in the title role, supported by Leo McKern, Stefanie Powers, and Joan Fontaine as Ludmila.

Wenceslaus is a major character in Ogden Nash's comic epic poem "The Christmas that Almost Wasn't," in which a boy awakens Wenceslaus and his knights to save a kingdom from usurpers who have outlawed Christmas.

References

St. Wenceslaus at the Catholic Encyclopedia

St. Wenceslaus at the Patron Saints Index

St. Wenceslaus at Catholic Online

--------------------

Saint Wenceslaus or Saint Wenceslas (Czech: Václav) Help:IPA [ˈva:tslaf] (help·info), (c. 907 – September 28, 935) was duke (kníže) of Bohemia from 921 until his death. Wenceslas is best known in the English-speaking world as the subject of the Christmas carol "Good King Wenceslas."

He was the son of Vratislav I, Duke of Bohemia from the Přemyslid dynasty. His father was raised in a Christian milieu through his father, Bořivoj, who was converted by Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, the "apostles to the Slavs". His mother Drahomíra was the daughter of a pagan tribal chief of Havolans and was baptized at the time of her marriage. Wenceslaus himself is venerated as Saint Wenceslaus and is the main patron saint of the Czech state.

Contents [hide]

1 Childhood

2 Reign

3 Death

4 Canonization and other memorials

5 Wenceslaus in legend

6 References

6.1 Footnotes


[edit] Childhood

In 921, when Wenceslaus was thirteen, his father died and he was brought up by his grandmother, Saint Ludmila, who raised him as a Christian. A dispute between the fervently Christian regent and her daughter-in-law drove Ludmila to seek sanctuary at Tetín castle near Beroun. Drahomíra, who was trying to garner support from the nobility, was furious about losing influence on her son and arranged to have Ludmila strangled at Tetín on September 15, 921.

According to some legends, having regained control of her son, Drahomíra set out to convert him to the old pagan religion. According to other legends she was herself a Christian. Very little is known about her rule.

[edit] Reign

In 924 or 925 Wenceslaus assumed government for himself and had Drahomíra exiled. After gaining the throne at the age of eighteen, he defeated a rebellious duke of Kouřim named Radslav. He also founded a rotunda consecrated to St Vitus at Prague Castle in Prague, which exists as present-day St Vitus Cathedral.

Early in 929 the joint forces of Arnulf of Bavaria and Henry I the Fowler reached Prague in a sudden attack, which forced Wenceslaus to pledge allegiance to the latter.[clarify] This resulted in resuming the payment of a traditional tribute which was first imposed in 806. One of the possible reasons for the attack was the formation of the anti-Saxon alliance between Bohemia, Polabian Slavs and Magyars.

[edit] Death

In September of 935 (in older sources 929) a group of nobles allied with Wenceslaus's younger brother, Boleslaus (Boleslav I of Bohemia), in a plot to kill the prince. After inviting his brother to the feast of Saints Cosmas and Damian in Stará Boleslav, three of Boleslaus' companions--Tira, Čsta and Hněvsa--murdered him on his way to church. Boleslaus thus succeeded him as the Duke/Prince (kníže) of Bohemia.

According to Cosmas's Chronicle, one of Boleslav's sons was born on the day of Wenceslaus's death, and because of the ominous circumstance of his birth the infant was named Strachkvas, which means "a dreadful feast".

A statue of Saint Wenceslaus and other patrons of The Czech Republic (St Adalbert/Vojtěch of Prague, St Ludmila, St Prokop and St Agnes "Czech") is located at Wenceslaus square in Prague.

There are discrepancies in the records regarding the date of St Wenceslaus's death. It has been argued that Wenceslaus's remains were transferred to St Vitus's Church in 932, ruling out the later date; however, the year 935 is now favored by historians as the date of his murder.[1]

There is a tradition which states that Saint Wenceslaus's loyal servant, Podevin, avenged his death by killing one of the chief conspirators. Podevin was executed by Boleslav.

[edit] Canonization and other memorials

After his death, Wenceslaus was canonized as a saint due to his martyr's death, as well as several purported miracles that occurred after his death. Wenceslaus is the patron saint of the Czech people and the Czech Republic. His feast day is September 28.

Since 2000, this day is a public holiday in the Czech Republic, celebrated as Czech Statehood Day.

In his honor, a statue of Wenceslaus clad in armour on horseback stands in Prague's "Václavské Náměstí" (Wenceslaus Square). The sculptor was Josef Václav Myslbek. A memorable parody of this statue, created by David Černý, hangs in a Lucerna Palace gallery near the square.

He is also the patron saint of one of Chicago's most architecturally significant churches, St. Wenceslaus.

[edit] Wenceslaus in legend

There are many legends about King Wenceslaus. An old one claims a huge army of knights sleep inside Blaník, a mountain in the Czech Republic. The knights will wake and under the command of St. Wenceslaus will help the Motherland when it is in ultimate danger (see also King in the mountain legends).

There is a similar legend in Prague which says that when the Motherland is in danger or in its darkest times and close to ruin, the equestrian statue of King Wenceslaus in Wenceclaus Square will come to life, raise the army sleeping in Blaník, and upon crossing the Charles Bridge his horse will stumble and trip over a stone, revealing the legendary sword of Bruncvík. With this sword, King Wenceslaus will slay all the enemies of the Czechs, bringing peace and prosperity to the land.

He is the subject of the popular Boxing Day and Christmas Carol "Good King Wenceslas."

There is a 1994 television film entitled Good King Wenceslaus which is a highly fictional account of his early life. The film stars Jonathan Brandis in the title role, supported by Leo McKern, Stefanie Powers, and Joan Fontaine as Ludmila.[2]

Wenceslaus is a major character in Ogden Nash's comic epic poem "The Christmas that Almost Wasn't," in which a boy awakens Wenceslaus and his knights to save a kingdom from usurpers who have outlawed Christmas.[3]

[edit] References

-------------------- Według Wikipedii. : " Wacław I Święty, również Święty Wacław (ur. ok. 907, zm. 28 września 929 lub 935[1]) – czeski książę z dynastii Przemyślidów, męczennik i święty Kościoła Katolickiego.

Spis treści

   1 Biografia
   2 Ikonografia
   3 Patronat
   4 Kanonizacja
   5 Dzień obchodów
   6 W kulturze
   7 Zobacz też
   8 Przypisy

Biografia

Był synem księcia Wratysława I i pogańskiej księżniczki Drahomiry. Gdy Wacław miał trzynaście lat, Wratysław I zmarł, a jego wychowaniem w duchu chrześcijańskim zajęła się babka, późniejsza święta Ludmiła, a nie matka, która wychowywała jego młodszego brata Bolesława. Około roku 925 Wacław rozpoczął rządy w kraju, wygnał z niego Drahomirę i Bolesława, i rozpoczął proces ugruntowania chrystianizacji Czech – wtedy właśnie wzniesiono przedromańską rotundę, której pozostałości znajdują się obecnie pod katedrą św. Wita na Hradczanach w Pradze.

Wzrost znaczenia chrześcijaństwa i polityka Wacława skutkowała zależnością Czech wobec Cesarstwa Niemieckiego, a to było sprzeczne z interesami części czeskiej elity, która popierała młodszego brata Wacława, Bolesława.

Bolesław zaprosił Wacława na uroczystości świętych Kosmy i Damiana do Starego Bolesławca. Tam wywiązała się kłótnia pomiędzy braćmi, Bolesław uderzył mieczem, Wacław uciekł do kościoła, ale zanim tam dobiegł zabiło go trzech rycerzy Bolesława Tira, Česta i Hněvsa. Wkrótce potem Wacław został uznany świętym jako męczennik[2].

O Wacławie mówią utwory hagiograficzne m.in. Druhá staroslověnská legenda o sv. Václavu (Kniha o rodu a utrpení svatého Václava). Według autora tej legendy został Wacław zmuszony obcować z kobietą i spłodził z nią syna o imieniu Zbrasłav. Żona Wacława była niewierna z jego własnym sługą. Wacław ponoć ich przyłapał na gorącym uczynku. Nie kazał ich jednak stracić, lecz wybaczył i szlachetnie sam udzielił im ślubu[3]. Ikonografia

W ikonografii Wacław I Święty często przedstawiany jest w zbroi, w stroju królewskim. Jego atrybutami są: sztylet - narzędzie jego śmierci, anioł podający mu włócznię, trumna niesiona przez anioły. Patronat

Święty Wacław został ustanowiony w 1436 jednym z czterech głównych patronów Królestwa Polskiego przez biskupa krakowskiego kard. Zbigniewa Oleśnickiego[4].

Współcześnie jest patronem Czech i Pragi. W Polsce wiele starych kościołów ma za patrona tego świętego, m.in. krakowska Katedra Wawelska (śś. Stanisława i Wacława), kościół św. Wacława w Radomiu czy też warszawska parafia św. Wacława na Pradze-Południe. Kanonizacja

Papież rozszerzył kult Wacława I przez „kanonizację równoważną”[5]. Dzień obchodów

Wspomnienie liturgiczne obchodzone jest w Kościele katolickim w dies natalis[6]. W kulturze

Książę Wacław jest bohaterem angielskiej kolędy Good King Wenceslas, zaczynającej się od słów Good King Wenceslas looked out, on the Feast of Stephen, według legend śpi on ze swoimi rycerzami na górze Blaník, żartobliwe przedstawienie świętego zaproponował David Černý w postaci rzeźby Koń. Zobacz też Portal Święci Portal: Święci

   wstawiennictwo świętych

Przypisy

   W literaturze i tradycji pojawiają się daty 929 oraz 935.
   Święty Wacław, męczennik. Internetowa Liturgia Godzin. [dostęp 2012-10-07].
   Zbigniew Mikołejko: Żywoty świętych poprawione. WAB, 2001. ISBN 83-88221-44-2.
   Ks. Arkadiusz Nocoń: Dzieje ustanowienia św. Jacka Głównym Patronem Polski. Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 2007, t. 40, z. 1, s. 97–113.. [dostęp 2013-03-22].
   Co to znaczy kanonizacja równoważna. L'Osservatore Romano, 12 maj 2012. [dostęp 2012-12-21].
   Domenico Agasso: San Venceslao Martire (wł.). 2001-02-01. [dostęp 2012-12-21]. "
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Václav I Duke of Bohemia, Saint's Timeline

907
907
Prague, Bohemia
925
925
Age 18
Bohemia,,
925
Age 18
Bohemia - aka Vaclav the Christian
935
September 28, 935
Age 28
Stara Boleslav, Bohemia
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Church Of St. Vitus, Prague
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Church of St. Vitus, Prague
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Church Of St. Vitus, Prague
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Church Of St. Vitus, Prague