Túathal Teachtmhar, 106th High King of Ireland

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Túathal Teachtmhar mac Fiachu, Ard rí na h'Éireann

Also Known As: "Tuathal Techtmar", "Tuathal Teachtmar", "Teachtmar", "Teachtman", "Feidhlindieth Teachtman", "Legitimate", "Túathal Techtmar ("the legitimate")", "son of Fíachu Finnolach", "was a High King of Ireland", "according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition. He is..."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Ireland
Death: Died in Moylinny, near Larn, Antrim, Ireland
Place of Burial: Ireland
Immediate Family:

Son of Fiacha Finnfolaidh, High King of Ireland and Eithne Nar nic Imgheal of Alba
Husband of ???; Baine Ingen Sqaile; Eithne Imgel; Baine ingen Sqaile, o Alba and unkn Teachdmar
Father of High King of Ireland, Rechtmar; Fedilmid Rechtmar; Fedelm Derg ingen . TUATHAIL; Fedlimid Rechtmar, 108th High King of Ireland; Dairne ingen Túathal Teachtmhar and 3 others
Brother of Fiacha Cassán and Findmall

Occupation: 106th (116th) High King of Ireland, Ruler of Ceannagubha Near Tara, Midi (meath), Ireland
Managed by: Lynn Diane Riemann
Last Updated:

About Túathal Teachtmhar, 106th High King of Ireland

Based on merged profiles,

Birth Date circa 100, 106

-SPF -------------------- Túathal Techtmar ("the legitimate"),[1] son of Fíachu Finnolach, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He was said to have been the ancestor, through his grandson Conn of the Hundred Battles, of the Uí Néill and Connachta dynasties. However, the name may also have originally referred to an eponymous deity[2].

Legend

Túathal was the son of a former High King deposed by an uprising of "subject peoples" who returned at the head of an army to reclaim his father's throne. The oldest source for Túathal's story, a 9th century poem by Mael Mura of Othain, says that his father, Fíacha Finnolach, was overthrown by the four provincial kings, Elim mac Conrach of Ulster, Sanb (son of Cet mac Mágach) of Connacht, Foirbre of Munster and Eochaid Ainchenn of Leinster, and that it was Elim who took the High Kingship. During his rule Ireland suffered famine as God punished this rejection of legitimate kingship. Túathal, aided by the brothers Fiacha Cassán and Findmall and their 600 men, marched on Tara and defeated Elim in battle at the hill of Achall. He then won battles against the Ligmuini, the Gailióin, the Fir Bolg, the Fir Domnann, the Ulaid, the Muma, the Fir Ól nÉcmacht and the Érainn, and assembled the Irish nobility at Tara to make them swear allegiance to him and his descendants.[3][4]

Later versions of the story suppress the involvement of the provincial nobility in the revolt, making the "subject peoples" the peasants of Ireland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn[5] adds the detail of Túathal's exile. His mother, Eithne Imgel, daughter of the king of Alba (originally meaning Britain, later Scotland), was pregnant when Fíachu was overthrown, and fled to her homeland where she gave birth to Túathal. Twenty years later Túathal and his mother returned to Ireland, joined up with Fiacha Cassán and Findmall, and marched on Tara to take the kingship.

The Annals of the Four Masters[6] features a similar revolt a few generations earlier, led by Cairbre Cinnchait, against the High King Crimthann Nia Náir. On this occasion Crimthann's son Feradach Finnfechtnach is the future king who escaped in his mother's womb, although the Annals claim he returned to reclaim his throne only five years later. The story repeats itself a few generations later with Elim's revolt against Fíachu, and the exile and return of Túathal. Geoffrey Keating[7] harmonises the two revolts into one. He has Crimthann hand the throne directly to his son, Feradach, and makes Cairbre Cinnchait, whose ancestry he traces to the Fir Bolg, the leader of the revolt that overthrew Fíachu, killing him at a feast. The pregnant Eithne flees as in the other sources. Cairbre rules for five years, dies of plague and is succeeded by Elim. After Elim had ruled for twenty years, the twenty or twenty-five year old Túathal was prevailed upon to return. He landed with his forces at Inber Domnainn (Malahide Bay). Joining up with Fiacha Cassán and Findmall and their marauders, he marched on Tara where he was declared king. Elim gave battle at the hill of Achall near Tara, but was defeated and killed.

Túathal fought 25 battles against Ulster, 25 against Leinster, 25 against Connacht and 35 against Munster. The whole country subdued, he convened a conference at Tara, where he established laws and annexed territory from each of the four provinces to create the central province of Míde (Meath) around Tara as the High King's territory. He built four fortresses in Meath: Tlachtga, where the druids sacrificed on the eve of Samhain, on land taken from Munster; Uisneach, where the festival of Beltaine was celebrated, on land from Connacht; Tailtiu, where Lughnasadh was celebrated, on land from Ulster; and Tara, on land from Leinster.

He went on to make war on Leinster, burning the stronghold of Aillen (Knockaulin) and imposing the bórama, a heavy tribute of cattle, on the province. One story says this was because the king of Leinster, Eochaid Ainchenn, had married Túathal's daughter Dairine, but told Túathal she had died and so was given his other daughter, Fithir. When Fithir discovered Dairine was still alive she died of shame, and when Dairine saw Fithir dead she died of grief.

Túathal, or his wife Baine, is reputed to have built Ráth Mór, an Iron Age hillfort in the earthwork complex at Clogher, County Tyrone. He died in battle against Mal mac Rochride, king of Ulster, at Mag Line (Moylinny near Larne, County Antrim). His son, Fedlimid Rechtmar, later avenged him.

Historical context

Dates

The Annals of the Four Masters gives the date of Túathal's exile as AD 56, his return as 76 and his death as 106. Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Érinn broadly agrees, dating his exile to 55, his return to 80 and his death to 100. The Lebor Gabála Érenn places him a little later, synchronising his exile with the reign of the Roman emperor Domitian (81-96), his return early in the reign of Hadrian (122-138) and his death in the reign of Antoninus Pius (138-161).

The first of the Goidels?

The scholar T. F. O'Rahilly suggested that, as in many such "returned exile" stories, Túathal represented an entirely foreign invasion which established a dynasty in Ireland, whose dynastic propagandists fabricated an Irish origin for him to give him some spurious legitimacy. In fact, he proposed that Túathal's story, pushed back to the 1st or 2nd century BC, represented the invasion of the Goidels, who established themselves over the earlier populations and introduced the Q-Celtic language that would become Irish, and that their genealogists incorporated all Irish dynasties, Goidelic or otherwise, and their ancestor deities into a pedigree stretching back over a thousand years to the fictitious Míl Espáine.[8]

Romans in Ireland?

Taking the native dating as broadly accurate, another theory has emerged. The Roman historian Tacitus mentions that Agricola, while governor of Roman Britain (AD 78 - 84), entertained an exiled Irish prince, thinking to use him as a pretext for a possible conquest of Ireland.[9] Neither Agricola nor his successors ever conquered Ireland, but in recent years archaeology has challenged the belief that the Romans never set foot on the island. Roman and Romano-British artefacts have been found primarily in Leinster, notably a fortified site on the promontory of Drumanagh, fifteen miles north of Dublin, and burials on the nearby island of Lambay, both close to where Túathal is supposed to have landed, and other sites associated with Túathal such as Tara and Clogher. However, whether this is evidence of trade, diplomacy or military activity is a matter of controversy. It is possible that the Romans may have given support to Túathal, or someone like him, to regain his throne in the interests of having a friendly neighbour who could restrain Irish raiding.[4][10] The 2nd century Roman poet Juvenal, who may have served in Britain under Agricola, wrote that "arms had been taken beyond the shores of Ireland",[11] and the coincidence of dates is striking.

References

  1. ^ Dictionary of the Irish Language, Compact Edition, Royal Irish Academy, 1990, p. 582. O'Rahilly (1946), p. 170, believed that Techtmar derived from techt ("going"), and meant "of the great journeying", "voyaging from afar", or the like.
  2. ^ Anne Ross Pagan Cletic Britain , Academy Chicago Publishers (1996), p225. Ross indicates the name may be derived from Teuto-valos meaning 'Ruler of the People'
  3. ^ T. F. O'Rahilly, Early Irish History and Mythology, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1946, pp 154-161
  4. ^ a b R. B. Warner, "Tuathal Techtmar: A Myth or Ancient Literary Evidence for a Roman Invasion?", Emania 13, 1995, pp. 23-32
  5. ^ R. A. Stewart Macalister (ed. & trans.), Lebor Gabála Érenn: The Book of the Taking of Ireland Part V, Irish Texts Society, 1956, p. 307-321
  6. ^ Annals of the Four Masters M9-106
  7. ^ Geoffrey Keating, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn 1.38, 39, 40
  8. ^ O'Rahilly 1946, pp. 161-170
  9. ^ Tacitus Agricola 24
 10. ^ Vittorio di Martino, Roman Ireland, The Collins Press, 2006
 11. ^ Juvenal, Satires 2.159-160

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuathal_Techtmar -------------------- 106 High King of Ireland

Tuathal Teachtmhar
77 A.D.
Son of Fiacha Finnfolaidh (104). When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gave him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battles in Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms, he thought fit to take, as he accordingly did with their consent, fron each of the four divisions or provinces Munster, Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster, a considerable tract of ground which was the next adjoining to Uisneach (where Tuathal had a palace): one east, another west, a third south, and a fourth on the north of it; and appointed all four (tracts of ground so taken from the four provinces) under the name of Midhe or "Meath" to belong for ever after to the Monarch's own peculiar demesne for the maintenance of his table; on each of which several portions he built a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors; for every of which portions the Monarch ordained a certain chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial Kings from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It was this Monarch that imposed the great and insupportable fine (or "Eric") of 6,000 cows or beeves, as many fat muttons, (as many) hogs, 6,000 mantles, 6,000 ounces (or "Uinge") of silver, and 12,000 (others have it 6,000) cauldrons or pots of brass, to be paid every second year by the province of Leinster to the Monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the death of his only two daughters Fithir and Darina. (See Paper "Ancient Leinster Tributes," in the Appendix). This tribute was punctually taken and exacted, sometimes by fire and sword, during the reigns of forty Monarchs of Ireland upwards of six hundred years, until at last remitted by Finachta Fleadhach, the 153rd Monarch of Ireland, and the 26th Christian Monarch, at the request and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. At the end of thirty years' reign, the Monarch Tuathal was slain by his successor Mal, A.D. 106. This Monarch erected Royal Palace at Tailtean; around the grave of Queen Tailte he caused the Fairs to be resumed on La Lughnasa (Lewy's Day), to which were brought all of the youth of both sexes of a suitable age to be married, at which Fair the marriage articles were agreed upon, and the ceremony performed. Tuathal married Baine, the dau. of Sgaile Balbh, King of England. It is worthy of remark that Tacitus, in his "Life of Agricola," states that one of the Irish princes, who was an exile from his own country, waited on Agricola, who was then the Roman general in Britain, to solicit his support in the recovery of the kingdom of Ireland; for that, with one of the Roman legions and a few auxiliaries, Ireland could be subdued. This Irish prince was probably Tuathal Teachtmar, who was about that time in Alba or (Caledonia). Tuathal afterwards became Monarch of Ireland, and the Four Masters place the first year of his reign at A.D. 76; and as Agricola with the Roman legions carried on the war against the Caledonians about A.D. 75 to 78, the period coincides chronologically with the time Tuathal Teachtmar was in exile in North Britain; and he might naturally be expected to apply to the Romans for aid to recover his sovereignty as heir to the Irish Monarchy.

Sources: www.familysearch.org

             The High Kings of Ireland - W.I. Explorer - Google (31.5.2010) S.Bain.
-----------------------------

Tuathal Teachtmhar (the Legitimate), King of Ireland, b. ca. 057, d. ca. 106 in Moin An Chatha, Dal Ariadhe, Ireland, he became king of Ireland, ca. 076 in Tara, Ireland, cause of death was slaying by Mal.

Fiacha Finnfolaidh, King of Ireland, d. ca. 056 in Ireland, cause of death was the slaughter of Magh Bolg.

Mother: Eithne, Princess of Alba

There was famine in Ireland from the death of Fiacha Finnfolaidh until the reign of Tuathal Teachtmar. He defeated the other kings to become High King and reigned for thirty years. He fought one hundred thirty three battles in those thirty years, and may have had help from the Romans. He annexed territory around Tara to make Meath the Royal Province, and imposed Bórama (Boromean or cattle tribute) on Leinster.

Spouse: Baine, d. ca. 111

Source: Ancient Kings of Ireland - Google. (31.5.2010) -------------------- His mother had fled to her homeland when her husband was overthrown which is why his birth was in Scotland. Of Clogher, Tyronne, Ireland ~ he & his wife built Rath Mor, an Iron Age hillfort. Died in battle at Mag Line. -------------------- Túathal Techtmar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Tuathal Techtmar)

Túathal Techtmar ("the legitimate"),[1] son of Fíachu Finnolach, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He was said to have been the ancestor, through his grandson Conn of the Hundred Battles, of the Uí Néill and Connachta dynasties.

Túathal Techtmar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Tuathal Techtmar)

Túathal Techtmar ("the legitimate"),[1] son of Fíachu Finnolach, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He was said to have been the ancestor, through his grandson Conn of the Hundred Battles, of the Uí Néill and Connachta dynasties.

Legend

Túathal was the son of a former High King deposed by an uprising of "subject peoples" who returned at the head of an army to reclaim his father's throne. The oldest source for Túathal's story, a 9th century poem by Mael Mura of Othain, says that his father, Fíacha Finnolach, was overthrown by the four provincial kings, Elim mac Conrach of Ulster, Sanb (son of Cet mac Mágach) of Connacht, Foirbre of Munster and Eochaid Ainchenn of Leinster, and that it was Elim who took the High Kingship. During his rule Ireland suffered famine as God punished this rejection of legitimate kingship. Túathal, aided by the brothers Fiacha Cassán and Findmall and their 600 men, marched on Tara and defeated Elim in battle at the hill of Achall. He then won battles against the Ligmuini, the Gailióin, the Fir Bolg, the Fir Domnann, the Ulaid, the Muma, the Fir Ól nÉcmacht and the Érainn, and assembled the Irish nobility at Tara to make them swear allegiance to him and his descendants.[2][3]

Later versions of the story suppress the involvement of the provincial nobility in the revolt, making the "subject peoples" the peasants of Ireland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn[4] adds the detail of Túathal's exile. His mother, Eithne Imgel, daughter of the king of Alba (originally meaning Britain, later Scotland), was pregnant when Fíachu was overthrown, and fled to her homeland where she gave birth to Túathal. Twenty years later Túathal and his mother returned to Ireland, joined up with Fiacha Cassán and Findmall, and marched on Tara to take the kingship.

The Annals of the Four Masters[5] features a similar revolt a few generations earlier, led by Cairbre Cinnchait, against the High King Crimthann Nia Náir. On this occasion Crimthann's son Feradach Finnfechtnach is the future king who escaped in his mother's womb, although the Annals claim he returned to reclaim his throne only five years later. The story repeats itself a few generations later with Elim's revolt against Fíachu, and the exile and return of Túathal. Geoffrey Keating[6] harmonises the two revolts into one. He has Crimthann hand the throne directly to his son, Feradach, and makes Cairbre Cinnchait, whose ancestry he traces to the Fir Bolg, the leader of the revolt that overthrew Fíachu, killing him at a feast. The pregnant Eithne flees as in the other sources. Cairbre rules for five years, dies of plague and is succeeded by Elim. After Elim had ruled for twenty years, the twenty or twenty-five year old Túathal was prevailed upon to return. He landed with his forces at Inber Domnainn (Malahide Bay). Joining up with Fiacha Cassán and Findmall and their marauders, he marched on Tara where he was declared king. Elim gave battle at the hill of Achall near Tara, but was defeated and killed.

Túathal fought 25 battles against Ulster, 25 against Leinster, 25 against Connacht and 35 against Munster. The whole country subdued, he convened a conference at Tara, where he established laws and annexed territory from each of the four provinces to create the central province of Míde (Meath) around Tara as the High King's territory. He built four fortresses in Meath: Tlachtga, where the druids sacrificed on the eve of Samhain, on land taken from Munster; Uisneach, where the festival of Beltaine was celebrated, on land from Connacht; Tailtiu, where Lughnasadh was celebrated, on land from Ulster; and Tara, on land from Leinster.

He went on to make war on Leinster, burning the stronghold of Aillen (Knockaulin) and imposing the bórama, a heavy tribute of cattle, on the province. One story says this was because the king of Leinster, Eochaid Ainchenn, had married Túathal's daughter Dairine, but told Túathal she had died and so was given his other daughter, Fithir. When Fithir discovered Dairine was still alive she died of shame, and when Dairine saw Fithir dead she died of grief.

Túathal, or his wife Baine, is reputed to have built Ráth Mór, an Iron Age hillfort in the earthwork complex at Clogher, County Tyrone. He died in battle against Mal mac Rochride, king of Ulster, at Mag Line (Moylinny near Larne, County Antrim). His son, Fedlimid Rechtmar, later avenged him.

Historical context
Dates

The Annals of the Four Masters gives the date of Túathal's exile as AD 56, his return as 76 and his death as 106. Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Érinn broadly agrees, dating his exile to 55, his return to 80 and his death to 100. The Lebor Gabála Érenn places him a little later, synchronising his exile with the reign of the Roman emperor Domitian (81-96), his return early in the reign of Hadrian (122-138) and his death in the reign of Antoninus Pius (138-161).

The first of the Goidels?

The scholar T. F. O'Rahilly suggested that, as in many such "returned exile" stories, Túathal represented an entirely foreign invasion which established a dynasty in Ireland, whose dynastic propagandists fabricated an Irish origin for him to give him some spurious legitimacy. In fact, he proposed that Túathal's story, pushed back to the 1st or 2nd century BC, represented the invasion of the Goidels, who established themselves over the earlier populations and introduced the Q-Celtic language that would become Irish, and that their genealogists incorporated all Irish dynasties, Goidelic or otherwise, and their ancestor deities into a pedigree stretching back over a thousand years to the fictitious Míl Espáine.[7]

Romans in Ireland?

Taking the native dating as broadly accurate, another theory has emerged. The Roman historian Tacitus mentions that Agricola, while governor of Roman Britain (AD 78 - 84), entertained an exiled Irish prince, thinking to use him as a pretext for a possible conquest of Ireland.[8] Neither Agricola nor his successors ever conquered Ireland, but in recent years archaeology has challenged the belief that the Romans never set foot on the island. Roman and Romano-British artefacts have been found primarily in Leinster, notably a fortified site on the promontory of Drumanagh, fifteen miles north of Dublin, and burials on the nearby island of Lambay, both close to where Túathal is supposed to have landed, and other sites associated with Túathal such as Tara and Clogher. However, whether this is evidence of trade, diplomacy or military activity is a matter of controversy. It is possible that the Romans may have given support to Túathal, or someone like him, to regain his throne in the interests of having a friendly neighbour who could restrain Irish raiding.[3][9] The 2nd century Roman poet Juvenal, who may have served in Britain under Agricola, wrote that "arms had been taken beyond the shores of Ireland",[10] and the coincidence of dates is striking.

Tuathal Teachtmhar (the Legitimate), King of Ireland, b. ca. 057, d. ca. 106 in Moin An Chatha, Dal Ariadhe, Ireland, he became king of Ireland, ca. 076 in Tara, Ireland, cause of death was slaying by Mal.

There was famine in Ireland from the death of Fiacha Finnfolaidh until the reign of Tuathal Teachtmar. He defeated the other kings to become High King and reigned for thirty years. He fought one hundred thirty three battles in those thirty years, and may have had help from the Romans. He annexed territory around Tara to make Meath the Royal Province, and imposed Bórama (Boromean or cattle tribute) on Leinster.

-------------------------------

106

Tuathal Teachtmhar
77 A.D.
Son of Fiacha Finnfolaidh (104). When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gave him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battles in Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms, he thought fit to take, as he accordingly did with their consent, fron each of the four divisions or provinces Munster, Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster, a considerable tract of ground which was the next adjoining to Uisneach (where Tuathal had a palace): one east, another west, a third south, and a fourth on the north of it; and appointed all four (tracts of ground so taken from the four provinces) under the name of Midhe or "Meath" to belong for ever after to the Monarch's own peculiar demesne for the maintenance of his table; on each of which several portions he built a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors; for every of which portions the Monarch ordained a certain chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial Kings from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It was this Monarch that imposed the great and insupportable fine (or "Eric") of 6,000 cows or beeves, as many fat muttons, (as many) hogs, 6,000 mantles, 6,000 ounces (or "Uinge") of silver, and 12,000 (others have it 6,000) cauldrons or pots of brass, to be paid every second year by the province of Leinster to the Monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the death of his only two daughters Fithir and Darina. (See Paper "Ancient Leinster Tributes," in the Appendix). This tribute was punctually taken and exacted, sometimes by fire and sword, during the reigns of forty Monarchs of Ireland upwards of six hundred years, until at last remitted by Finachta Fleadhach, the 153rd Monarch of Ireland, and the 26th Christian Monarch, at the request and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. At the end of thirty years' reign, the Monarch Tuathal was slain by his successor Mal, A.D. 106. This Monarch erected Royal Palace at Tailtean; around the grave of Queen Tailte he caused the Fairs to be resumed on La Lughnasa (Lewy's Day), to which were brought all of the youth of both sexes of a suitable age to be married, at which Fair the marriage articles were agreed upon, and the ceremony performed. Tuathal married Baine, the dau. of Sgaile Balbh, King of England. It is worthy of remark that Tacitus, in his "Life of Agricola," states that one of the Irish princes, who was an exile from his own country, waited on Agricola, who was then the Roman general in Britain, to solicit his support in the recovery of the kingdom of Ireland; for that, with one of the Roman legions and a few auxiliaries, Ireland could be subdued. This Irish prince was probably Tuathal Teachtmar, who was about that time in Alba or (Caledonia). Tuathal afterwards became Monarch of Ireland, and the Four Masters place the first year of his reign at A.D. 76; and as Agricola with the Roman legions carried on the war against the Caledonians about A.D. 75 to 78, the period coincides chronologically with the time Tuathal Teachtmar was in exile in North Britain; and he might naturally be expected to apply to the Romans for aid to recover his sovereignty as heir to the Irish Monarchy.

-------------------- There was famine in Ireland from the death of Fiacha Finnfolaidh until the reign of Tuathal Teachtmar. He defeated the other kings to become High King and reigned for thirty years. He fought one hundred thirty three battles in those thirty years, and may have had help from the Romans. He annexed territory around Tara to make Meath the Royal Province, and imposed Bórama (Boromean or cattle tribute) on Leinster.

http://www.geocities.com/missourimule_2000/ancientkingsofireland.html#Family:%20Tuathal%20Teachtmhar%20(the%20Legitimate),%20King%20of%20Ireland

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cnoelldunc/Ancient/Heremon/D1.htm

   With the help of his Grandfather, the King of Alba, and his friends, he went into Ireland and after scores of battles, restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms. He imposed a tremendous fine or "eric" upon the province of Leinster for the death of his only two daughters, Fithir and Darina, to be paid forever to the Monarchs of Ireland. This fine was collected each year through the reigns of forty Monarchs, sometimes by sword and fire, until at last remitted at the pleading of St. Moling. Tuathal married Baine, daughter of Sgaile Balbh, King of England.
       • Slain by his successor, Mal 106. 
   Tuathal married Baine, daughter of Sgaile Balbh King of England. Baine was born in England. 
   Their children were: 
   Fedhlimidh Rachtmar, 108th of Monarch Ireland died in 119 in Tara, Ireland. 
       Fedhlimidh married Ughna Ollchrothach of Denmark. 

-------------------- Title: King of Ireland -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuathal_Techtmar -------------------- When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gae him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battlesin Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms, he thought fit to take, as he accordingly did with their consent, from each of the four divisions or provinces of Munster, Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster, a considerable tract of ground whichi was the next adjoining to Uisneach (where Tuathal had a palace): one east, another west, a third south, and a fourth on the north of it; and appointed all four (tracts of ground so taken from the four provinces) under the name of Midhe or "Meath" to belong for ever after to the Monarch's own peculiar demesne for the maintenance of his table; on each of which several portions he built a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors; for every of which portions the Monarch ordained a certain chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial Kings from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It was this Monarch that imposed the great and insupportable fine (or "Eric") of 6,000 cows or beeves, as many fat muttons, (as many) bogs, 6,000 mantles, 6,000 ounces (or "Uinge") of silver, and 12,000 (others have it 6,000) cauldrons or pots of brass, to be paid every second year by the province of Leinster to the Monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the death of his only two daughters Fithir and Darina. (See Paper "Ancient Leinster Tributes," in the Appendix). This tribute was punctually taken and exacted, sometimes by fire and sword, during the reigns of forty Monarchs of Ireland upwards of six hundred years, until at last remitted by Finachta Fleadhach, the 153rd Monarch of Ireland, and the 26th Christian Monarch, at the request and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. At the end of thirty years' reign, the Monarch Tuathal was slain by his successor Mal, A.D. 106,

This Monarch erected Royal Palace at Tailtean ; around the grave of Queen Tailte he caused the Fairs to be resumed on La Lughnasa (Lewy's Day), towbich were brought all of the youth of both sexes of a suitable age to be married, at which Fair the marriage articles were agreed upon, and the ceremony performed. Tuathal married Baine, the dau. of Sgaile Balbh, King of England.

Tuathal Teachmar (or Tuathal the Legitimate): It is worthy of remark that Tacitus, in his "Life of Agricola," states that one of the Irish princes, who was an exile from his own country, waited on Agricolqa, who was then the Roman general in Britain, to soLicit his support in the recovery of the kingdom of Ireland; for that, with one of the Roman legions and a few auxiliaries, Ireland could be subdued. This Irish prince was probably Tuathal Teachtmar, who was about that time in Alba or (Caledonia). Tuathal afterwards became Monarch of Ireland, and the Four Masters place the first year of his reign at A.D. 75 to 78, the period coincides chronologically with the time Tuathal Teachtmar was in exile in North Britain; and he might naturally be expected to apply to the Romans for aid to recover his sovereignty as heir to the Irish Monarchy. —CONNELLAN.

Part III, Chapter IV of Irish Pedigrees, by John O'Hart, published 1892, pages 351-9, 664-8 and 708-9.

Spouses

Baine Balbh

-------------------- From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps11/ps11_014.htm

When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gae him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battlesin Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms, he thought fit to take, as he accordingly did with their consent, from each of the four divisions or provinces of Munster, Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster, a considerable tract of ground whichi was the next adjoining to Uisneach (where Tuathal had a palace): one east, another west, a third south, and a fourth on the north of it; and appointed all four (tracts of ground so taken from the four provinces) under the name of Midhe or "Meath" to belong for ever after to the Monarch's own peculiar demesne for the maintenance of his table; on each of which several portions he built a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors; for every of which portions the Monarch ordained a certain chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial Kings from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It was this Monarch that imposed the great and insupportable fine (or "Eric") of 6,000 cows or beeves, as many fat muttons, (as many) bogs, 6,000 mantles, 6,000 ounces (or "Uinge") of silver, and 12,000 (others have it 6,000) cauldrons or pots of brass, to be paid every second year by the province of Leinster to the Monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the death of his only two daughters Fithir and Darina. (See Paper "Ancient Leinster Tributes," in the Appendix). This tribute was punctually taken and exacted, sometimes by fire and sword, during the reigns of forty Monarchs of Ireland upwards of six hundred years, until at last remitted by Finachta Fleadhach, the 153rd Monarch of Ireland, and the 26th Christian Monarch, at the request and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. At the end of thirty years' reign, the Monarch Tuathal was slain by his successor Mal, A.D. 106,

This Monarch erected Royal Palace at Tailtean ; around the grave of Queen Tailte he caused the Fairs to be resumed on La Lughnasa (Lewy's Day), towbich were brought all of the youth of both sexes of a suitable age to be married, at which Fair the marriage articles were agreed upon, and the ceremony performed. Tuathal married Baine, the dau. of Sgaile Balbh, King of England.

Tuathal Teachmar (or Tuathal the Legitimate): It is worthy of remark that Tacitus, in his "Life of Agricola," states that one of the Irish princes, who was an exile from his own country, waited on Agricolqa, who was then the Roman general in Britain, to soLicit his support in the recovery of the kingdom of Ireland; for that, with one of the Roman legions and a few auxiliaries, Ireland could be subdued. This Irish prince was probably Tuathal Teachtmar, who was about that time in Alba or (Caledonia). Tuathal afterwards became Monarch of Ireland, and the Four Masters place the first year of his reign at A.D. 75 to 78, the period coincides chronologically with the time Tuathal Teachtmar was in exile in North Britain; and he might naturally be expected to apply to the Romans for aid to recover his sovereignty as heir to the Irish Monarchy. —CONNELLAN.

Part III, Chapter IV of Irish Pedigrees, by John O'Hart, published 1892, pages 351-9, 664-8 and 708-9. -------------------- Túathal Techtmar ("the legitimate"),[1] son of Fíachu Finnolach, was a High King of Ireland, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition. He is said to be the ancestor of the Uí Néill and Connachta dynasties through his grandson Conn of the Hundred Battles. The name may also have originally referred to an eponymous deity.[2]

Contents [hide]

1 Legend

2 Historical context

2.1 Dates

2.2 The first of the Goidels?

2.3 Romans in Ireland?

3 Family tree

4 References

5 See also

6 External links

[edit]Legend

Túathal was the son of a former High King deposed by an uprising of "subject peoples" who returned at the head of an army to reclaim his father's throne. The oldest source for Túathal's story, a 9th century poem by Mael Mura of Othain, says that his father, Fíacha Finnolach, was overthrown by the four provincial kings, Elim mac Conrach of Ulster, Sanb (son of Cet mac Mágach) of Connacht, Foirbre of Munster and Eochaid Ainchenn of Leinster, and that it was Elim who took the High Kingship. During his rule Ireland suffered famine as God punished this rejection of legitimate kingship. Túathal, aided by the brothers Fiacha Cassán and Findmall and their 600 men, marched on Tara and defeated Elim in battle at the hill of Achall. He then won battles against the Ligmuini, the Gailióin, the Fir Bolg, the Fir Domnann, the Ulaid, the Muma, the Fir Ól nÉcmacht and the Érainn, and assembled the Irish nobility at Tara to make them swear allegiance to him and his descendants.[3][4]

Later versions of the story suppress the involvement of the provincial nobility in the revolt, making the "subject peoples" the peasants of Ireland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn[5] adds the detail of Túathal's exile. His mother, Eithne Imgel, daughter of the king of Alba (originally meaning Britain, later Scotland), was pregnant when Fíachu was overthrown, and fled to her homeland where she gave birth to Túathal. Twenty years later Túathal and his mother returned to Ireland, joined up with Fiacha Cassán and Findmall, and marched on Tara to take the kingship.

The Annals of the Four Masters[6] features a similar revolt a few generations earlier, led by Cairbre Cinnchait, against the High King Crimthann Nia Náir. On this occasion Crimthann's son Feradach Finnfechtnach is the future king who escaped in his mother's womb, although the Annals claim he returned to reclaim his throne only five years later. The story repeats itself a few generations later with Elim's revolt against Fíachu, and the exile and return of Túathal. Geoffrey Keating[7] harmonises the two revolts into one. He has Crimthann hand the throne directly to his son, Feradach, and makes Cairbre Cinnchait, whose ancestry he traces to the Fir Bolg, the leader of the revolt that overthrew Fíachu, killing him at a feast. The pregnant Eithne flees as in the other sources. Cairbre rules for five years, dies of plague and is succeeded by Elim. After Elim had ruled for twenty years, the twenty or twenty-five year old Túathal was prevailed upon to return. He landed with his forces at Inber Domnainn (Malahide Bay). Joining up with Fiacha Cassán and Findmall and their marauders, he marched on Tara where he was declared king. Elim gave battle at the hill of Achall near Tara, but was defeated and killed.

Túathal fought 25 battles against Ulster, 25 against Leinster, 25 against Connacht and 35 against Munster. The whole country subdued, he convened a conference at Tara, where he established laws and annexed territory from each of the four provinces to create the central province of Míde (Meath) around Tara as the High King's territory. He built four fortresses in Meath: Tlachtga, where the druids sacrificed on the eve of Samhain, on land taken from Munster; Uisneach, where the festival of Beltaine was celebrated, on land from Connacht; Tailtiu, where Lughnasadh was celebrated, on land from Ulster; and Tara, on land from Leinster.

He went on to make war on Leinster, burning the stronghold of Aillen (Knockaulin) and imposing the bórama, a heavy tribute of cattle, on the province. One story says this was because the king of Leinster, Eochaid Ainchenn, had married Túathal's daughter Dairine, but told Túathal she had died and so was given his other daughter, Fithir. When Fithir discovered Dairine was still alive she died of shame, and when Dairine saw Fithir dead she died of grief.

Túathal, or his wife Baine, is reputed to have built Ráth Mór, an Iron Age hillfort in the earthwork complex at Clogher, County Tyrone. He died in battle against Mal mac Rochride, king of Ulster, at Mag Line (Moylinny near Larne, County Antrim). His son, Fedlimid Rechtmar, later avenged him.

[edit]Historical context

[edit]Dates

The Annals of the Four Masters gives the date of Túathal's exile as AD 56, his return as 76 and his death as 106. Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Érinn broadly agrees, dating his exile to 55, his return to 80 and his death to 100. The Lebor Gabála Érenn places him a little later, synchronising his exile with the reign of the Roman emperor Domitian (81-96), his return early in the reign of Hadrian (122-138) and his death in the reign of Antoninus Pius (138-161).

[edit]The first of the Goidels?

The scholar T. F. O'Rahilly suggested that, as in many such "returned exile" stories, Túathal represented an entirely foreign invasion which established a dynasty in Ireland, whose dynastic propagandists fabricated an Irish origin for him to give him some spurious legitimacy. In fact, he proposed that Túathal's story, pushed back to the 1st or 2nd century BC, represented the invasion of the Goidels, who established themselves over the earlier populations and introduced the Q-Celtic language that would become Irish, and that their genealogists incorporated all Irish dynasties, Goidelic or otherwise, and their ancestor deities into a pedigree stretching back over a thousand years to the fictitious Míl Espáine.[8]

[edit]Romans in Ireland?

Taking the native dating as broadly accurate, another theory has emerged. The Roman historian Tacitus mentions that Agricola, while governor of Roman Britain (AD 78 - 84), entertained an exiled Irish prince, thinking to use him as a pretext for a possible conquest of Ireland.[9] Neither Agricola nor his successors ever conquered Ireland, but in recent years archaeology has challenged the belief that the Romans never set foot on the island. Roman and Romano-British artefacts have been found primarily in Leinster, notably a fortified site on the promontory of Drumanagh, fifteen miles north of Dublin, and burials on the nearby island of Lambay, both close to where Túathal is supposed to have landed, and other sites associated with Túathal such as Tara and Clogher. However, whether this is evidence of trade, diplomacy or military activity is a matter of controversy. It is possible that the Romans may have given support to Túathal, or someone like him, to regain his throne in the interests of having a friendly neighbour who could restrain Irish raiding.[4][10] The 2nd century Roman poet Juvenal, who may have served in Britain under Agricola, wrote that "arms had been taken beyond the shores of Ireland",[11] and the coincidence of dates is striking.

[edit] --------------------

   Tuathal Teachtmhar
   From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
   Tuathal Teachtmhar or Techtmar was a legendary High King of Ireland, reputed to have ruled in the 1st or 2nd century. His name derives from Celtic *Teuto-valos ("leader of the tribe, people") and his epithet may mean "great crossing", "great possession", or "legitimate". He was the ancestor, through his grandson Conn of the Hundred Battles, of the Uí Néill and Connachta dynasties.
   Legend
   Tuathal was the son of a former High King deposed by an uprising of "subject peoples" who returned at the head of an army to reclaim his father's throne.
   The oldest source for Tuathal's story, a 9th century poem by Mael Mura of Othain, says that his father, Fiacha Finnfolaidh, was overthrown by the four provincial kings, Éllim of Ulster, Sanb (son of Cet mac Mágach) of Connacht, Foirbre of Munster and Eochaid Ainchenn of Leinster, and that it was Éllim who took the High Kingship. During his rule Ireland suffered famine as God punished this rejection of legitimate kingship. Tuathal, aided by the brothers Fiacha Cassán and Findmall and their 600 men, marched on Tara and defeated Éllim in battle at the hill of Achall. He then won battles against the Ligmuini, the Gailióin, the Fir Bolg, the Fir Domnann, the Ulaid, the Muma, the Fir Ól nÉcmacht and the Érainn, and assembled the Irish nobility at Tara to make them swear allegiance to him and his descendants. Later versions of the story suppress the involvement of the provincial nobility in the revolt, making the "subject peoples" the peasants of Ireland.
   The Book of Invasions adds the detail of Tuathal's exile. His mother, Eithne, daughter of the king of Alba (originally meaning Britain, later Scotland), was pregnant when Fiacha was overthrown, and fled to her homeland where she gave birth to Tuathal. Twenty years later Tuathal and his mother returned to Ireland, joined up with Fiacha Cassán and Findmall, and marched on Tara to take the kingship.
   The Annals of the Four Masters also mentions an similar revolt a few generations earlier, led by Cairbre Cinnchait, in the year of the death of the High King Crimthann Nia Náir, although his death appears to be unrelated to Cairbre's revolt. On this occasion Crimthann's son Feradach Finnfechtnach is the future king who escaped in his mother's womb, although the Annals claim he returned to reclaim his throne only five years later. The Annals regularly attempt to turn legend into history, but here the attempt is clumsy and unconvincing.
   Seathrún Céitinn harmonises the two revolts into one. He has Crimthann hand the throne directly to his son, Feradach, and makes Cairbre Cinnchait, whose ancestry he traces to the Fir Bolg, the leader of the revolt that overthrew Fiacha, killing him at a feast. Cairbre rules for five years, dies of plague and is succeeded by Éllim.
   After Éllim had ruled for twenty years, the twenty or twenty-five year old Tuathal was prevailed upon to return. He landed with his forces at at Inber Domnainn (Malahide Bay). Joining up with Fiacha Cassán and Findmall and their marauders, he marched on Tara where he was declared king. Éllim gave battle at the hill of Achall near Tara, but was defeated and killed.
   Tuathal fought 25 battles against Ulster, 25 against Leinster, 25 against Connacht and 35 against Munster. The whole country subdued, he convened a conference at Tara, where he established laws and annexed territory from each of the four provinces to create the central province of Míde (Meath) around Tara as the High King's territory. He built four fortresses in Meath: Tlachtga, where the druids sacrificed on the eve of Samhain, on land taken from Munster; Uisneach, where the festival of Beltaine was celebrated, on land from Connacht; Tailtiu, where Lughnasadh was celebrated, on land from Ulster; and Tara, on land from Leinster.
   He went on to make war on Leinster, burning the stronghold of Aillen (Knockaulin) and imposing the bórama, a heavy tribute of cattle, on the province. One story says this was because the king of Leinster, Eochaid Ainchenn, had married Tuathal's daughter Dairine, but told Tuathal she had died and so was given his other daughter, Fithir. When Fithir discovered Dairine was still alive she died of shame, and when Dairine saw Fithir dead she died of grief.
   Tuathal, or his wife Baine, is reputed to have built Ráth Mór, an Iron Age hillfort in the earthwork complex at Clogher, County Tyrone. He died in battle against Mal, king of Ulster, at Mag Line (Moylinny near Larne, County Antrim). His son, Fedlimid Rechtmar, later avenged him.
   [edit]
   Historical context
   [edit]
   Dates
   The Annals of the Four Masters gives the date of Tuathal's exile as 56 AD, his return as 76 and his death as 106. Seathrún Céitinn's Foras Feasa ar Érinn broadly agrees, dating his exile to 55, his return to 80 and his death to 100. The Book of Invasions places him a little later, synchronising his exile to the reign of the Roman emperor Domitian (81-96), his return early in the reign of Hadrian (122-138) and his death in the reign of Antoninus Pius (138-161).
   [edit]
   The first of the Goidels?
   The scholar T. F. O'Rahilly suggested that, as in many such "returned exile" stories, Tuathal represented an entirely foreign invasion which established a dynasty in Ireland, whose dynastic propagandists fabricated an Irish origin for him to give him some spurious legitimacy. In fact, he proposed that Tuathal's story, pushed back to the 1st or 2nd century BC, represented the invasion of the Goidels, who established themselves over the earlier populations and introduced the Q-Celtic language that would become Irish, and that their genealogists incorporated all Irish dynasties, Goidelic or otherwise, and their ancestor deities into a pedigree stretching back over a thousand years to the fictitious Míl Espáine. This compares to the invention of a Trojan origin for the ancient Britons, giving them an equal nobility to their former rulers, the Romans.
   See also Early history of Ireland
   [edit]
   Romans in Ireland?
   Taking the native dating as broadly accurate, another theory has emerged. The Roman historian Tacitus mentions that Agricola, while governor of Roman Britain (78 - 84 AD), entertained an exiled Irish prince, thinking to use him as a pretext for a possible conquest of Ireland, as Claudius had used the exile of Verica as an excuse for the conquest of Britain.
   Neither Agricola nor his successors ever conquered Ireland, but in recent years archaeology has challenged the belief that the Romans never set foot on the island. Roman and Romano-British artefacts have been found primarily in Leinster, notably a fortified site on the promontory of Drumanagh, fifteen miles north of Dublin, and burials on the nearby island of Lambay, both close to where Tuathal is supposed to have landed, and other sites associated with Tuathal such as Tara and Clogher. However, whether this is evidence of trade, diplomacy or military activity is a matter of controversy. It is possible that the Romans may have given support to Tuathal, or someone like him, to regain his throne in the interests of having a friendly neighbour who could restrain Irish raiding. The 2nd century Roman poet Juvenal, who may have served in Britain under Agricola, wrote that 'arms had been taken beyond the shores of Ireland', and the coincidence of dates is striking.
   It is also speculated that such an invasion may have been the origin of the presence of the Brigantes in Ireland as noted in Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography. The Brigantes were a rebellious British tribe only recently conquered in Agricola's time. The dispossessed nobility may have been ready recruits for Tuathal's invasion force, or the Romans may have have found it a convenient way of getting rid of troublesome subjects, just as Elizabeth I and James VI & I planted rebellious Scots in Ireland in the 16th and 17th century. Other tribal names associated with the south-east, including the Domnainn, related to the British Dumnonii, and the Menapii, also known from Gaul, may also date from such an invasion.