Teobaldo I el Cantautor, rey de Navarra

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Thibaut I 'le Chansonnier' de Champagne, roi de Navarre

Nicknames: "the Troubadour", "the Chansonnier", "and the Posthumous", "The Great", "King Thibaud I of /Navarre/", "Theobald IV of /Champagne/", "le Chansonnier", ""the Troubadour"", ""the Chansonnier"", ""The Great"", ""King Thibaud I of /Navarre/"", "called the Trou"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Pamplona, Navarre, Navarre, Spain
Death: Died in Pamplona, Navarre, Navarre, Spain
Place of Burial: Pamplona, Navarre, Navarre, Spain
Immediate Family:

Son of Thibault III de Blois, comte de Champagne and Blanche de Navarre, comtesse consort de Champagne
Husband of N.N.; Agnès de Beaujeu and Marguerite de Bourbon, reina de Navarra
Ex-husband of Gertrude von Dagsburg
Father of Inés de Navarra; Elida de Navarra; Abd. Guillermo de Navarra; Berenguela de Navarra, priora de Sant Pere de Ribes; Blanca de Champaña, infanta de Navarra and 6 others
Brother of Blanca Champagne

Occupation: Rey de Navarra (1234 - 1253) - Comte de Champagne et de Brie (1201 - 1253), Count of Champagne & King of Navarre, Kung i Navarra 1234-53m greve i Champagne och Brie, King of Navarre, Rey de Navarra, Conde de Champagne, Brie & Bar-sur-Seine
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About Thibaut I 'le Chansonnier' de Champagne, roi de Navarre

Teobaldo I de Navarra De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teobaldo_I_de_Navarra

Teobaldo I, "el Trovador" (n. Troyes, 1201 - † Pamplona, 8 de julio de 1253), rey de Navarra (1234-1253) y conde de Champaña y Brie como Teobaldo IV (1201-1253).

Sobrino de Sancho VII el Fuerte e hijo de su hermana Blanca de Navarra y del conde Teobaldo III de Champaña.

Muerto Sancho VII, los navarros olvidaron la voluntad del rey, en la que hacía heredero suyo a Jaime I de Aragón y llamaron a Teobaldo, quien al mes de la muerte de su tío se presentó en Pamplona, donde juró los Fueros del reino, nutriendo a la corona de Navarra con una reconocida dinastía de adinerados vasallos del rey de Francia afincados en el norte del reino e instaurando la llamada "Casa de Champaña".

Selló pactos con Castilla, Aragón e Inglaterra, que le permitieron consolidarse en la corona. Gobernó ayudado por nobles de Champaña, quienes recibieron importantes cargos. Redujo la importancia de las tenencias como división territorial e implantó cuatro grandes distritos encomendados a merinos, a quienes atribuyó funciones fiscales y de orden público. Estableció sus leyes por escrito, elaborando un Cartulario Magno con todas ellas, e inició la compilación de las tradiciones jurídicas de la monarquía navarra conocida como "Fuero General".

Para lograr el apoyo de Castilla, pactó el matrimonio de su hija Blanca con Alfonso, el futuro Alfonso X el Sabio. En este pacto, Fernando III el Santo ofrecía a Teobaldo las tierras de Guipúzcoa mientras el navarro viviera, pero no las de Álava, como también pretendía Teobaldo; así el reino de Navarra tendría salida natural al mar Cantábrico. Este tratado, que no llegó a cumplirse, hubiera significado la incorporación de Navarra a Castilla. Parece ser que al año siguiente prometió a su hija Blanca con el conde de Bretaña.

En 1238 dirigió un ejército cruzado a Tierra Santa. A pesar de ser derrotado, las rencillas entre musulmanes le permitieron firmar la paz y obtener para los cristianos Jerusalén, Belén y Ascalón. Regresó de la cruzada a finales de 1240, pasando gran parte de su reinado viajando continuamente de Navarra a Champaña.

Mantuvo grandes diferencias con el obispo de Pamplona, Pedro Jiménez de Gazólaz, y se negó a responder ante los tribunales papales. Un concilio provincial celebrado en 1250 llegó a excomulgarle, pero el Papa le concedió un privilegio especial por el cual, sin el mandato de la Santa Sede, nadie podía excomulgar al rey.

Teobaldo es conocido con el sobrenombre de "el Trovador" por su fama de poeta, que ya tuvo en su época y que la historia ha confirmado.

Murió en Pamplona al regreso de uno de sus viajes a Champaña, siendo enterrado en la Catedral de Pamplona.

Teobaldo es conocido como el trovador aparte de porque le gustaba escribir, sus composiciones poeticas eran excepcionales, y aun antes de finalizar la cruzada de 1238-1240 ya estaba escribiendo. fue el primero que escribio los derechos y libertades del reino en el llamado fuero antiguo,las tradicionales y las nuevas las recopilo todas durante su reinado.

-------------------- Theobald I (Thibaut IV) (30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), called the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234. He was the first Frenchman to rule Navarre.

Theobald married three times. He married Gertrude of Dagsburg in 1220, and divorced her two years later when he came of age. They had no children.

Secondly, in 1222, he married Agnes of Beaujeu, she was a daughter of Guichard IV, sire of Beaujeu and his wife, Sybille of Flanders.

The marriage produced at least one daughter:

   * Blanche of Navarre (1226-1283), married to John I, Duke of Brittany and was mother of John II, Duke of Brittany.

Agnes died in 1231. Theobald married thirdly to Margaret of Bourbon. Theobald and Margaret had six children:

   * Eleanor of Navarre (1233 -?), Died young
   * Peter of Navarre (died young)
   * Margaret of Navarre in 1255 married to Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1238-1303)
   * Theobald II of Navarre (1238-1270) married in 1255 to Isabelle of France
   * Beatrix of Navarre (1242-1295), married in 1258 to Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy (1212-1272)
   * Henry I of Navarre married Blanche of Artois in 1269

Sources: Setton, Kenneth M. (general editor) A History of the Crusades: Volume II — The Later Crusades, 1189 – 1311. Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard, editors. University of Wisconsin Press: Milwaukee, 1969. -------------------- http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~cousin/html/p396.htm#i5791

Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra also went by the name of Teobaldo "El Póstumo" Spanish.1 Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra also went by the name of Teobaldo "El Travador" Spanish.1 Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra also went by the name of Teobaldo "el Trovador" Spanish. He was defeated by an English force under Nicholas de Moels.3 Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra also went by the name of Theobald "the Posthumous". Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra also went by the name of Theobald "the Troubadour". Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra also went by the name of Thibaud "le Posthume" French.1 Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra also went by the name of Thibaud "Le Chansonnier" French.1 He was the successor of Sancho VII Sánchez "el Fuerte", rey de Navarra; King of Navarre.4 Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra was the successor of Thibaut III, comte de Champagne; Count of Champagne. Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra was born on 30 May 1201 at Troyes, France.1 Count of Champagne at France between 30 May 1201 and 1253. He was the son of Thibaut III, comte de Champagne and Blanca Sánchez de Navarra. Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra married Agnès de Beaujeu, daughter of Guichard III, sire de Beaujeu and Sibylle de Hainaut, in 1222; His 2nd.5,6 Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra married Marguerite de Bourbon, daughter of Archambaud VIII "le Grand" de Dampierre, sire de Bourbon and Guigone de Forez, on 12 September 1232; His 3rd.7 Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra succeeded his brother-in-law, Sancho VII, the Strong, to the throne of Navarre, and became the first King of Navarre from Champagne in 1234. King of Navarre at Spain between 1234 and 1253.8 He was part of the 7th Crusade in 1239. He was a witness where Nicholas de Moels, Seneschal of Gascony obtained a signal victory over the Theobald I, the Troubadour, King of Navarre in 1243/44 at 28 Henry III.3 Thibaud I "le Chansonnier", rey de Navarra died on 7 July 1253 at Pamplona, Navarre, Spain, at age 52 years, 1 month and 7 days.9,1

-------------------- Theobald I (French: Thibaud or Thibault, Spanish: Teobaldo) (30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), called the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234.

Born in Troyes, he was the son of Theobald III of Champagne and Blanca of Navarre, the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre. His father died before he was born, and Blanca (Blanche in French) ruled the county as regent until Theobald turned 21 in 1222. He was a notable trouvère, and many of his songs have survived, including some with music.

The first half of Theobald's life was plagued by a number of difficulties. His uncle, Count Henry II, had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Theobald's father died. Further, Theobald's right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, Count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful nobles of Champagne.

The conflict with Erard and Philippa broke into open warfare in 1215, and was not resolved until after Theobald came of age in 1222. At that time he bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Some years later, in 1234, he had to spend still more to buy off Philippa's elder sister Alice, Queen of Cyprus. The 1222 settlement did not end Theobald's problems, for in the following years he antagonized Louis VIII.

At the death of Louis VIII, his political situation was difficult: he had abandoned the king in his campaigns, there were rumors that he had poisoned him, and he was barred from the coronation of Louis IX. At the beginning of the regency of Blanche of Castile, he abandoned a conspiracy against the French king, which also included Hugues de Lusignan and Pierre Mauclerc, and cemented a strong relation with the regent. Many have hinted at a possible love for Blanche, and he wrote a poetical homage to her. He became so influential at court, that other barons resented him and started a rebellion in 1229.

The first chronicler to report the rumors about a love affair between Theobald and Queen Blanche was Roger of Wendover. Wendover claims that Theobald, "tormented by passion" for the queen, tried to poison King Louis VIII at the siege of Avignon. Matthew Paris adds a story that the French nobles goaded the young King Louis IX to challenge Theobald to a duel to avenge his father's death, but that Blanche put a stop to the duel.

In the following years, however, he antagonized the young king of France Louis IX, which lead to an invasion of Champagne by a group of French barons. They were driven off at the cost of further expense and hardship in Champagne. Thus in order to settle with Alice, Theobald had to sell his overlordship over the counties of Blois, Sancerre, and Chateaudun to the king.

He experienced a reversal of his fortunes in 1234, when he succeeded his uncle Sancho VII of Navarre as King of Navarre. While Sancho's will named James I of Aragon as his heir, the Navarrese ignored this and elected Theobald, son of Sancho's sister. Theobald was in Pamplona at the time of Sancho's death and he immediately affirmed the fueros of the realm. This greatly increased his resources (not to mention his prestige), and the remaining years of his rule were far more peaceful and prosperous.

As king, Theobald sealed pacts with the Crown of Castile and that of Aragon, and the Kingdom of England. He entrusted most of the government to nobles of Champagne and divided Navarre into four new districts based on fiscal functions and maintenance of public order. He began the codificaton of the law in the Cartulario Magno and wrote down the Navarrese traditions known as the Fuero General.

In order to gain the support of Castile, he married his daughter Blanca to the infante Alfonso, later Alfonso X. By the marriage pact, Ferdinand III of León offered the lands of Guipúzcoa as long as Theobald lived, but not those of Álava to which the Navarrese monarchs had long laid claim. But with Guipúzcoa he would have attained direct access to the Cantabrian Sea. This alliance was never effected, however, as it would have meant the incorporation of Navarre as a feudum of Castile. The next year, Theobald engaged his daughter to John I, Duke of Brittany, the son of his close crusading ally Peter of Dreux.

It was in 1238 that Theobald directed a crusading host to the Holy Land. Militarily, his crusade was not glorious. He spent much time dallying at pleasant Acre (where he wrote poem to his wife) before moving on Ascalon, where he began the construction of a castle. He fought two minor battles, one a slight victory and the other a disaster. He negotiated with the Ayyubids of Damascus and Egypt and finalised a treaty with the former against the latter whereby the Kingdom of Jerusalem regained Jerusalem itself, plus Bethlehem, Nazareth, and most of the region of Galilee with many Templar castles, like Belfort. Some contemporary sources even imply that the whole of the land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean was put back in crusader hands. It is debatable how much of the ultimate success of the crusade (the most successful since the First in territorial terms) was attributable to Theobald's intentions and how much was just fortuitous. He returned from Palestine late in 1240, before Richard of Cornwall arrived, because he did not wish to be present during any more debating over the leadership and direction of the enterprise.

Theobald passed most of the remainder of his reign travelling back and forth between Navarre and Champagne. He was at odds with the bishop of Pamplona, Pedro Jiménez de Gazólaz, who held a provincial synod in 1250 to excommunicate him. He refused to respond to papal tribunals, but Pope Innocent IV conceded him the privilege of kings: nobody could excommunicate him save the Holy See.

Theobald married three times. He married Gertrude of Dagsburg in 1220, and divorced her two years later when he came of age. Later, in 1222, he married Agnes of Beaujeu. After she died in 1231, he married Margaret of Bourbon (1232).

Theobald died at Pamplona, on a return from one of his many visits to Champagne. He was buried in the Cathedral of Pamplona. He was succeeded first by his elder son Theobald II and then by his younger son Henry I, both children of his third marriage. -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: also called Theobald The Troubadour, or The Posthumous, French Thibaud Le Chansonnier, or Le Posthume, Spanish Teobaldo El Trovador, or El Póstumo b. May 30?, 1201, Troyes, France d. July 7?, 1253, Pamplona, Navarre [now in Spain] count of Troyes and of Champagne (from 1201), as Theobald IV, and king of Navarre (from 1234), the most famous of the aristocratic trouvères. He was the son of Theobald III of Champagne, who died before his son was born, and Blanche of Navarre. He lived for four years at the court of King Philip II of France, to whom he did feudal homage in 1214. After Philip's death (1223), he supported Philip's son Louis VIII but deserted him in 1226 at the siege of Avignon, conducted by the king as part of his campaign against the Albigenses, a religious sect deemed heretical. On the death of Louis a few months later, Theobald joined a dissident league of barons who opposed Louis's widow and regent of France, Blanche of Castile. He soon abandoned the league and became reconciled with Blanche. It was rumoured that he was her lover and had poisoned her husband, and many of his poems are thought to be addressed to her. He led the crusade of 1239-40 and, after his return, spent the rest of his life in Champagne and Navarre. Theobald left about 60 lyrics, mainly love songs and debates in verse, with two pastourelles (love songs between knight and shepherdess) and nine religious poems. Perhaps he found his true level in the jeu-parti (courtly love debate) in which he discusses with a crony from the crusades whether it is better to embrace one's love in the dark or to see her without embracing her, with wry allusions to the crony's crutch and his own potbelly. Theobald's lyrics, with their music, have survived in six manuscripts. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theobald_I_of_Navarre -------------------- Theobald I of Navarre From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Theobald I (French: Thibaud or Thibault, Spanish: Teobaldo) (30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), called the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234.

Rule of Champagne

Regency of Champagne

Born in Troyes, he was the son of Theobald III of Champagne and Blanca of Navarre, the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre. His father died before he was born, and Blanca (Blanche in French) ruled the county as regent until Theobald turned twenty-one in 1222. He was a notable trouvère, and many of his songs have survived, including some with music. The first half of Theobald's life was plagued by a number of difficulties. His uncle, Count Henry II, had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Theobald's father died. Further, Theobald's right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, Count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful nobles of Champagne. The conflict with Erard and Philippa broke into open warfare in 1215, and was not resolved until after Theobald came of age in 1222. At that time he bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Some years later, in 1234, he had to spend still more to buy off Philippa's elder sister Alice, Queen of Cyprus. The settlement of 1222 did not end Theobald's problems, for in the following years he antagonized Louis VIII.

Conflict with the crown

At the death of Louis VIII, Theobald's political situation was difficult: he had abandoned the king in his campaigns, there were rumors that he had poisoned him, and he was barred from the coronation of Louis IX. At the beginning of the regency of Blanche of Castile, he abandoned a conspiracy against the French king, which also included Hugues de Lusignan and Pierre Mauclerc, and cemented a strong relation with the regent. Many have hinted at a possible love for Blanche, and he wrote a poetical homage to her. He became so influential at court, that other barons resented him and started a rebellion in 1229. The first chronicler to report the rumors about a love affair between Theobald and Queen Blanche was Roger of Wendover. Wendover claims that Theobald, "tormented by passion" for the queen, tried to poison King Louis VIII at the siege of Avignon. Matthew Paris adds a story that the French nobles goaded the young King Louis IX to challenge Theobald to a duel to avenge his father's death, but that Blanche put a stop to the duel. In the following years, however, he antagonized the young king of France Louis IX, which lead to an invasion of Champagne by a group of French barons. They were driven off at the cost of further expense and hardship in Champagne. Thus in order to settle with Alice, Theobald had to sell his overlordship over the counties of Blois, Sancerre, and Chateaudun to the king.

Rule of Navarre

Theobald experienced a reversal of his fortunes in 1234, when he succeeded his uncle Sancho VII of Navarre as King of Navarre. While Sancho's will named James I of Aragon as his heir, the Navarrese ignored this and elected Theobald, son of Sancho's sister. Theobald was in Pamplona at the time of Sancho's death and he immediately affirmed the fueros of the realm. This greatly increased his resources (not to mention his prestige), and the remaining years of his rule were far more peaceful and prosperous. [edit]Domestic and foreign policy As king, Theobald sealed pacts with the Crown of Castile and that of Aragon, and the Kingdom of England. He entrusted most of the government to nobles of Champagne and divided Navarre into four new districts based on fiscal functions and maintenance of public order. He began the codificaton of the law in the Cartulario Magno and wrote down the Navarrese traditions known as the Fuero General. In order to gain the support of Castile, he married his daughter Blanca to the infante Alfonso, later Alfonso X. By the marriage pact, Ferdinand III of León offered the lands of Guipúzcoa as long as Theobald lived, but not those of Álava to which the Navarrese monarchs had long laid claim. But with Guipúzcoa he would have attained direct access to the Cantabrian Sea. This alliance was never effected, however, as it would have meant the incorporation of Navarre as a feudum of Castile. The next year, Theobald engaged his daughter to John I, Duke of Brittany, the son of his close crusading ally Peter of Dreux. [edit]Crusade of 1238 It was in 1238 that Theobald directed a crusading host to the Holy Land. Militarily, his crusade was not glorious. He spent much time dallying at pleasant Acre (where he wrote a poem to his wife) before moving on Ascalon, where he began the construction of a castle. He fought two minor battles, one was a slight victory. The second battle, near Gaza was a decisive defeat.[1] He negotiated with the Ayyubids of Damascus and Egypt and finalised a treaty with the former against the latter whereby the Kingdom of Jerusalem regained Jerusalem itself, plus Bethlehem, Nazareth, and most of the region of Galilee with many Templar castles, like Belfort. Some contemporary sources even imply that the whole of the land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean was put back in crusader hands. It is debatable how much of the ultimate success of the crusade (the most successful since the First in territorial terms) was attributable to Theobald's intentions and how much was just fortuitous. He returned from Palestine late in 1240, before Richard of Cornwall arrived, because he did not wish to be present during any more debating over the leadership and direction of the enterprise.

Conflict with church and final years

Theobald passed most of the remainder of his reign travelling back and forth between Navarre and Champagne. He was at odds with the bishop of Pamplona, Pedro Jiménez de Gazólaz, who held a provincial synod in 1250 to excommunicate him. He refused to respond to papal tribunals, but Pope Innocent IV conceded him the privilege of kings: nobody could excommunicate him save the Holy See. Theobald married three times. He married Gertrude of Dagsburg in 1220, and divorced her two years later when he came of age. Later, in 1222, he married Agnes of Beaujeu. After she died in 1231, he married Margaret of Bourbon (1232). Theobald died at Pamplona, on a return from one of his many visits to Champagne. He was buried in the Cathedral of Pamplona. He was succeeded first by his elder son Theobald II and then by his younger son Henry I, both children of his third marriage.

Notes

^ "Thibaut de Champagne". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. [edit]Sources

Setton, Kenneth M. (general editor) A History of the Crusades: Volume II — The Later Crusades, 1189 – 1311. Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard, editors. University of Wisconsin Press: Milwaukee, 1969.

Marriages and Issue

Theobald married three times. He married Gertrude of Dagsburg in 1220, and divorced her two years later when he came of age. They had no children. Secondly, in 1222, he married Agnes of Beaujeu, she was a daughter of Guichard IV, sire of Beaujeu and his wife, Sybille of Flanders. The marriage produced at least one daughter: Blanche of Navarre (1226-1283), married to John I, Duke of Brittany and was mother of John II, Duke of Brittany. Agnes died in 1231. Theobald married thirdly to Margaret of Bourbon. Theobald and Margaret had six children: Eleanor of Navarre (1233 -?), Died young Peter of Navarre (died young) Margaret of Navarre in 1255 married to Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1238-1303) Theobald II of Navarre (1238-1270) married in 1255 to Isabelle of France Beatrix of Navarre (1242-1295), married in 1258 to Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy (1212-1272) Henry I of Navarre married Blanche of Artois in 1269

-------------------- Born in Troyes, he was the son of Theobald III of Champagne and Blanca of Navarre, the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre. His father died before he was born, and Blanca (Blanche in French) ruled the county as regent until Theobald turned twenty-one in 1222. He was a notable trouvère, and many of his songs have survived, including some with music.

The first half of Theobald's life was plagued by a number of difficulties. His uncle, Count Henry II, had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Theobald's father died. Further, Theobald's right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, Count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful nobles of Champagne.

The conflict with Erard and Philippa broke into open warfare in 1215 as the Champagne War of Succession, and was not resolved until after Theobald came of age in 1222. At that time he bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Some years later, in 1234, he had to spend still more to buy off Philippa's elder sister Alice, Queen of Cyprus. The settlement of 1222 did not end Theobald's problems, for in the following years he antagonized Louis VIII. -------------------- Theobald I (Thibaut IV) (30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), called the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234. He was the first Frenchman to rule Navarre.

Contents [hide] 1 Rule of Champagne 1.1 Regency of Champagne 1.2 Conflict with the crown 2 Rule of Navarre 2.1 Domestic and foreign policy 2.2 Crusade of 1239 2.3 Conflict with church and final years 3 Marriages and Issue 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links


[edit] Rule of Champagne [edit] Regency of Champagne Born in Troyes, he was the son of Theobald III of Champagne and Blanca of Navarre, the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre. His father died before he was born, and Blanca (Blanche in French) ruled the county as regent until Theobald turned twenty-one in 1222. He was a notable trouvère, and many of his songs have survived, including some with music.

The first half of Theobald's life was plagued by a number of difficulties. His uncle, Count Henry II, had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Theobald's father died. Further, Theobald's right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, Count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful nobles of Champagne.

The conflict with Erard and Philippa broke into open warfare in 1215 as the Champagne War of Succession, and was not resolved until after Theobald came of age in 1222. At that time he bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Some years later, in 1234, he had to spend still more to buy off Philippa's elder sister Alice, Queen of Cyprus. The settlement of 1222 did not end Theobald's problems, for in the following years he antagonized Louis VIII.

[edit] Conflict with the crown At the death of Louis VIII, Theobald's political situation was difficult: he had abandoned the king in his campaigns, there were rumors that he had poisoned him, and he was barred from the coronation of Louis IX. At the beginning of the regency of Blanche of Castile, he abandoned a conspiracy against the French king, which also included Hugues de Lusignan and Pierre Mauclerc, and cemented a strong relation with the regent. Many have hinted at a possible love for Blanche, and he wrote a poetical homage to her. He became so influential at court, that other barons resented him and started a rebellion in 1229.

The first chronicler to report the rumors about a love affair between Theobald and Queen Blanche was Roger of Wendover. Wendover claims that Theobald, "tormented by passion" for the queen, tried to poison King Louis VIII at the siege of Avignon. Matthew Paris adds a story that the French nobles goaded the young King Louis IX to challenge Theobald to a duel to avenge his father's death, but that Blanche put a stop to the duel.

In the following years, however, he antagonized the young king of France Louis IX, which led to an invasion of Champagne by a group of French barons. They were driven off at the cost of further expense and hardship in Champagne. Thus in order to settle with Alice, Theobald had to sell his overlordship over the counties of Blois, Sancerre, and Chateaudun to the king.

[edit] Rule of Navarre Theobald experienced a reversal of his fortunes in 1234, when he succeeded his uncle Sancho VII of Navarre as King of Navarre. While Sancho's will named James I of Aragon as his heir, the Navarrese ignored this and elected Theobald, son of Sancho's sister. Theobald was in Pamplona at the time of Sancho's death and he immediately affirmed the fueros of the realm. This greatly increased his resources (not to mention his prestige), and the remaining years of his rule were far more peaceful and prosperous.

[edit] Domestic and foreign policy As king, Theobald sealed pacts with the Crown of Castile and that of Aragon, and the Kingdom of England. He entrusted most of the government to nobles of Champagne and divided Navarre into four new districts based on fiscal functions and maintenance of public order. He began the codificaton of the law in the Cartulario Magno and wrote down the Navarrese traditions known as the Fuero General.

In order to gain the support of Castile, he married his daughter Blanca to the infante Alfonso, later Alfonso X. By the marriage pact, Ferdinand III of León offered the lands of Guipúzcoa as long as Theobald lived, but not those of Álava to which the Navarrese monarchs had long laid claim. But with Guipúzcoa he would have attained direct access to the Cantabrian Sea. This alliance was never effected, however, as it would have meant the incorporation of Navarre as a feudum of Castile. The next year, Theobald engaged his daughter to John I, Duke of Brittany, the son of his close crusading ally Peter of Dreux.

[edit] Crusade of 1239 It was in 1239 that Theobald directed a crusading host to the Holy Land. Militarily, his crusade was not glorious. He spent much time dallying at pleasant Acre (where he wrote a poem to his wife) before moving on Ascalon, where he began the construction of a castle. He fought two minor battles, one was a slight victory. The second battle, near Gaza was a decisive defeat.[1] He negotiated with the Ayyubids of Damascus and Egypt and finalised a treaty with the former against the latter whereby the Kingdom of Jerusalem regained Jerusalem itself, plus Bethlehem, Nazareth, and most of the region of Galilee with many Templar castles, like Belfort. Some contemporary sources even imply that the whole of the land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean was put back in crusader hands. It is debatable how much of the ultimate success of the crusade (the most successful since the First in territorial terms) was attributable to Theobald's intentions and how much was just fortuitous. He returned from Palestine late in 1240, before Richard of Cornwall arrived, because he did not wish to be present during any more debating over the leadership and direction of the enterprise.

[edit] Conflict with church and final years Theobald passed most of the remainder of his reign travelling back and forth between Navarre and Champagne. He was at odds with the bishop of Pamplona, Pedro Jiménez de Gazólaz, who held a provincial synod in 1250 to excommunicate him. He refused to respond to papal tribunals, but Pope Innocent IV conceded him the privilege of kings: nobody could excommunicate him save the Holy See. Theobald died at Pamplona, on a return from one of his many visits to Champagne. He was buried in the Cathedral of Pamplona. He was succeeded first by his elder son Theobald II and then by his younger son Henry I.

[edit] Marriages and Issue Theobald married three times. He married Gertrude of Dagsburg in 1220, and divorced her two years later when he came of age. They had no children.

Secondly, in 1222, he married Agnes of Beaujeu, she was a daughter of Guichard IV, sire of Beaujeu and his wife, Sybille of Flanders.

The marriage produced at least one daughter:

Blanche of Navarre (1226-1283), married to John I, Duke of Brittany and was mother of John II, Duke of Brittany. Agnes died in 1231. Theobald married thirdly to Margaret of Bourbon. Theobald and Margaret had six children:

Eleanor of Navarre (1233 -?), Died young Peter of Navarre (died young) Margaret of Navarre in 1255 married to Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1238-1303) Theobald II of Navarre (1238-1270) married in 1255 to Isabelle of France Beatrix of Navarre (1242-1295), married in 1258 to Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy (1212-1272) Henry I of Navarre married Blanche of Artois in 1269 [edit] Notes 1.^ "Thibaut de Champagne". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Thibaut_de_Champagne. [edit] References Setton, Kenneth M. (general editor) A History of the Crusades: Volume II — The Later Crusades, 1189 – 1311. Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard, editors. University of Wisconsin Press: Milwaukee, 1969. [edit] External links

"Thibaut IV". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Preceded by Theobald III Count of Champagne 1201 – 1253 Succeeded by Theobald V/II Preceded by Sancho VII King of Navarre 1234 – 1253 Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theobald_I_of_Navarre" Categories: 1201 births | 1253 deaths | Navarrese monarchs | Counts of Champagne | Trouvères | Christians of the Crusades | People excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church -------------------- Bouchard IV (1182 – 1244) was the lord of Avesnes and Etroengt. He was the son of James of Avesnes and Adela of Guise and brother of Walter, Count of Blois by marriage.

Bouchard began his career as a cantor and subdeacon in the church of Laon. In 1212, he was named bailiff of Hainaut. In this capacity, he served as tutor and guardian of the young Margaret, sister of Joanna, Countess of Flanders and Hainault. Soon he married Margaret, though she was only ten years old and the marriage could not be consummated. Neither did Joanna or Count Ferdinand give their consent.

Bouchard lived a war-like life. He invaded the territory of his brother Walter, who had received most of their patrimony. He then invaded Flanders and forced Joanna and Ferdinand to recognise his marriage to Margaret. He then fought at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, under the (losing) Flemish banner. Philip Augustus, the king of France and victor of Bouvines, then councilled the pope, Innocent III, to declared the marriage of Bouchard and Margaret illegal. Innocent eventually excommunicated the couple on 19 January 1216. They took refuge in Luxembourg. Bouchard was captured in combat and imprisoned in Ghent for two years. To obtain his liberation, Margaret accepted the dissolution of the marriage and Bouchard left for Italy to fight for the Holy See. Upon his return, he was decapitated at Rupelmonde on the orders of Joanna.

Bouchard and Margaret had three children, who played an important part in the War of the Succession of Flanders and Hainault:

Baldwin (d.c.1219), took refuge with his parents in Luxembourg John I (c.1218 – 1257), later Count of Hainault Baldwin (c.1219 – 1295), Lord of Beaumont

-------------------- Theobald I (Thibaut IV) (30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), called the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234. He was the first Frenchman to rule Navarre.

Contents [hide] 1 Rule of Champagne 1.1 Regency of Champagne 1.2 Conflict with the crown 2 Rule of Navarre 2.1 Domestic and foreign policy 2.2 Crusade of 1239 2.3 Conflict with church and final years 3 Marriages and Issue 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links


[edit] Rule of Champagne [edit] Regency of Champagne Born in Troyes, he was the son of Theobald III of Champagne and Blanca of Navarre, the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre. His father died before he was born, and Blanca (Blanche in French) ruled the county as regent until Theobald turned twenty-one in 1222. He was a notable trouvère, and many of his songs have survived, including some with music.

The first half of Theobald's life was plagued by a number of difficulties. His uncle, Count Henry II, had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Theobald's father died. Further, Theobald's right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, Count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful nobles of Champagne.

The conflict with Erard and Philippa broke into open warfare in 1215 as the Champagne War of Succession, and was not resolved until after Theobald came of age in 1222. At that time he bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Some years later, in 1234, he had to spend still more to buy off Philippa's elder sister Alice, Queen of Cyprus. The settlement of 1222 did not end Theobald's problems, for in the following years he antagonized Louis VIII.

[edit] Conflict with the crown At the death of Louis VIII, Theobald's political situation was difficult: he had abandoned the king in his campaigns, there were rumors that he had poisoned him, and he was barred from the coronation of Louis IX. At the beginning of the regency of Blanche of Castile, he abandoned a conspiracy against the French king, which also included Hugues de Lusignan and Pierre Mauclerc, and cemented a strong relation with the regent. Many have hinted at a possible love for Blanche, and he wrote a poetical homage to her. He became so influential at court, that other barons resented him and started a rebellion in 1229.

The first chronicler to report the rumors about a love affair between Theobald and Queen Blanche was Roger of Wendover. Wendover claims that Theobald, "tormented by passion" for the queen, tried to poison King Louis VIII at the siege of Avignon. Matthew Paris adds a story that the French nobles goaded the young King Louis IX to challenge Theobald to a duel to avenge his father's death, but that Blanche put a stop to the duel.

In the following years, however, he antagonized the young king of France Louis IX, which led to an invasion of Champagne by a group of French barons. They were driven off at the cost of further expense and hardship in Champagne. Thus in order to settle with Alice, Theobald had to sell his overlordship over the counties of Blois, Sancerre, and Chateaudun to the king.

[edit] Rule of Navarre Theobald experienced a reversal of his fortunes in 1234, when he succeeded his uncle Sancho VII of Navarre as King of Navarre. While Sancho's will named James I of Aragon as his heir, the Navarrese ignored this and elected Theobald, son of Sancho's sister. Theobald was in Pamplona at the time of Sancho's death and he immediately affirmed the fueros of the realm. This greatly increased his resources (not to mention his prestige), and the remaining years of his rule were far more peaceful and prosperous.

[edit] Domestic and foreign policy As king, Theobald sealed pacts with the Crown of Castile and that of Aragon, and the Kingdom of England. He entrusted most of the government to nobles of Champagne and divided Navarre into four new districts based on fiscal functions and maintenance of public order. He began the codificaton of the law in the Cartulario Magno and wrote down the Navarrese traditions known as the Fuero General.

In order to gain the support of Castile, he married his daughter Blanca to the infante Alfonso, later Alfonso X. By the marriage pact, Ferdinand III of León offered the lands of Guipúzcoa as long as Theobald lived, but not those of Álava to which the Navarrese monarchs had long laid claim. But with Guipúzcoa he would have attained direct access to the Cantabrian Sea. This alliance was never effected, however, as it would have meant the incorporation of Navarre as a feudum of Castile. The next year, Theobald engaged his daughter to John I, Duke of Brittany, the son of his close crusading ally Peter of Dreux.

[edit] Crusade of 1239 It was in 1239 that Theobald directed a crusading host to the Holy Land. Militarily, his crusade was not glorious. He spent much time dallying at pleasant Acre (where he wrote a poem to his wife) before moving on Ascalon, where he began the construction of a castle. He fought two minor battles, one was a slight victory. The second battle, near Gaza was a decisive defeat.[1] He negotiated with the Ayyubids of Damascus and Egypt and finalised a treaty with the former against the latter whereby the Kingdom of Jerusalem regained Jerusalem itself, plus Bethlehem, Nazareth, and most of the region of Galilee with many Templar castles, like Belfort. Some contemporary sources even imply that the whole of the land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean was put back in crusader hands. It is debatable how much of the ultimate success of the crusade (the most successful since the First in territorial terms) was attributable to Theobald's intentions and how much was just fortuitous. He returned from Palestine late in 1240, before Richard of Cornwall arrived, because he did not wish to be present during any more debating over the leadership and direction of the enterprise.

[edit] Conflict with church and final years Theobald passed most of the remainder of his reign travelling back and forth between Navarre and Champagne. He was at odds with the bishop of Pamplona, Pedro Jiménez de Gazólaz, who held a provincial synod in 1250 to excommunicate him. He refused to respond to papal tribunals, but Pope Innocent IV conceded him the privilege of kings: nobody could excommunicate him save the Holy See. Theobald died at Pamplona, on a return from one of his many visits to Champagne. He was buried in the Cathedral of Pamplona. He was succeeded first by his elder son Theobald II and then by his younger son Henry I.

[edit] Marriages and Issue Theobald married three times. He married Gertrude of Dagsburg in 1220, and divorced her two years later when he came of age. They had no children.

Secondly, in 1222, he married Agnes of Beaujeu, she was a daughter of Guichard IV, sire of Beaujeu and his wife, Sybille of Flanders.

The marriage produced at least one daughter:

Blanche of Navarre (1226-1283), married to John I, Duke of Brittany and was mother of John II, Duke of Brittany. Agnes died in 1231. Theobald married thirdly to Margaret of Bourbon. Theobald and Margaret had six children:

Eleanor of Navarre (1233 -?), Died young Peter of Navarre (died young) Margaret of Navarre in 1255 married to Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1238-1303) Theobald II of Navarre (1238-1270) married in 1255 to Isabelle of France Beatrix of Navarre (1242-1295), married in 1258 to Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy (1212-1272) Henry I of Navarre married Blanche of Artois in 1269 [edit] Notes 1.^ "Thibaut de Champagne". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Thibaut_de_Champagne. [edit] References Setton, Kenneth M. (general editor) A History of the Crusades: Volume II — The Later Crusades, 1189 – 1311. Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard, editors. University of Wisconsin Press: Milwaukee, 1969. [edit] External links

"Thibaut IV". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Preceded by Theobald III Count of Champagne 1201 – 1253 Succeeded by Theobald V/II Preceded by Sancho VII King of Navarre 1234 – 1253 Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theobald_I_of_Navarre" Categories: 1201 births | 1253 deaths | Navarrese monarchs | Counts of Champagne | Trouvères | Christians of the Crusades | People excommunicated by the Roman Catholic ChurchViews ArticleDiscussionEdit this pageHistoryPersonal tools Try BetaLog in / create accountNavigation Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Search

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About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Donate to Wikipedia Help Toolbox What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link Cite this page Languages Aragonés Català Česky Deutsch Ελληνικά Español Euskara Français Italiano Magyar Nederlands 日本語 Polski Português Русский Suomi Svenska -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theobald_I_of_Navarre Theobald I of Navarre From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Copy of a seal of Theobald I

Theobald I (Thibaut IV) (30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), called the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234. He was the first Frenchman to rule Navarre. Contents [show]

   * 1 Rule of Champagne
         o 1.1 Regency of Champagne
         o 1.2 Conflict with the crown
   * 2 Rule of Navarre
         o 2.1 Domestic and foreign policy
         o 2.2 Crusade of 1239
         o 2.3 Conflict with church and final years
   * 3 Marriages and Issue
   * 4 Notes
   * 5 References
   * 6 External links

[edit] Rule of Champagne [edit] Regency of Champagne

Born in Troyes, he was the son of Theobald III of Champagne and Blanca of Navarre, the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre. His father died before he was born, and Blanca (Blanche in French) ruled the county as regent until Theobald turned twenty-one in 1222. He was a notable trouvère, and many of his songs have survived, including some with music.

The first half of Theobald's life was plagued by a number of difficulties. His uncle, Count Henry II, had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Theobald's father died. Further, Theobald's right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, Count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful nobles of Champagne.

The conflict with Erard and Philippa broke into open warfare in 1215 as the Champagne War of Succession, and was not resolved until after Theobald came of age in 1222. At that time he bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Some years later, in 1234, he had to spend still more to buy off Philippa's elder sister Alice, Queen of Cyprus. The settlement of 1222 did not end Theobald's problems, for in the following years he antagonized Louis VIII. [edit] Conflict with the crown

At the death of Louis VIII, Theobald's political situation was difficult: he had abandoned the king in his campaigns, there were rumors that he had poisoned him, and he was barred from the coronation of Louis IX. At the beginning of the regency of Blanche of Castile, he abandoned a conspiracy against the French king, which also included Hugues de Lusignan and Pierre Mauclerc, and cemented a strong relation with the regent. Many have hinted at a possible love for Blanche, and he wrote a poetical homage to her. He became so influential at court, that other barons resented him and started a rebellion in 1229.

The first chronicler to report the rumors about a love affair between Theobald and Queen Blanche was Roger of Wendover. Wendover claims that Theobald, "tormented by passion" for the queen, tried to poison King Louis VIII at the siege of Avignon. Matthew Paris adds a story that the French nobles goaded the young King Louis IX to challenge Theobald to a duel to avenge his father's death, but that Blanche put a stop to the duel.

In the following years, however, he antagonized the young king of France Louis IX, which led to an invasion of Champagne by a group of French barons. They were driven off at the cost of further expense and hardship in Champagne. Thus in order to settle with Alice, Theobald had to sell his overlordship over the counties of Blois, Sancerre, and Chateaudun to the king. [edit] Rule of Navarre

Theobald experienced a reversal of his fortunes in 1234, when he succeeded his uncle Sancho VII of Navarre as King of Navarre. While Sancho's will named James I of Aragon as his heir, the Navarrese ignored this and elected Theobald, son of Sancho's sister. Theobald was in Pamplona at the time of Sancho's death and he immediately affirmed the fueros of the realm. This greatly increased his resources (not to mention his prestige), and the remaining years of his rule were far more peaceful and prosperous. [edit] Domestic and foreign policy

As king, Theobald sealed pacts with the Crown of Castile and that of Aragon, and the Kingdom of England. He entrusted most of the government to nobles of Champagne and divided Navarre into four new districts based on fiscal functions and maintenance of public order. He began the codificaton of the law in the Cartulario Magno and wrote down the Navarrese traditions known as the Fuero General.

In order to gain the support of Castile, he married his daughter Blanca to the infante Alfonso, later Alfonso X. By the marriage pact, Ferdinand III of León offered the lands of Guipúzcoa as long as Theobald lived, but not those of Álava to which the Navarrese monarchs had long laid claim. But with Guipúzcoa he would have attained direct access to the Cantabrian Sea. This alliance was never effected, however, as it would have meant the incorporation of Navarre as a feudum of Castile. The next year, Theobald engaged his daughter to John I, Duke of Brittany, the son of his close crusading ally Peter of Dreux. [edit] Crusade of 1239

It was in 1239 that Theobald directed a crusading host to the Holy Land. Militarily, his crusade was not glorious. He spent much time dallying at pleasant Acre (where he wrote a poem to his wife) before moving on Ascalon, where he began the construction of a castle. He fought two minor battles, one was a slight victory. The second battle, near Gaza was a decisive defeat.[1] He negotiated with the Ayyubids of Damascus and Egypt and finalised a treaty with the former against the latter whereby the Kingdom of Jerusalem regained Jerusalem itself, plus Bethlehem, Nazareth, and most of the region of Galilee with many Templar castles, like Belfort. Some contemporary sources even imply that the whole of the land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean was put back in crusader hands. It is debatable how much of the ultimate success of the crusade (the most successful since the First in territorial terms) was attributable to Theobald's intentions and how much was just fortuitous. He returned from Palestine late in 1240, before Richard of Cornwall arrived, because he did not wish to be present during any more debating over the leadership and direction of the enterprise. [edit] Conflict with church and final years

Theobald passed most of the remainder of his reign travelling back and forth between Navarre and Champagne. He was at odds with the bishop of Pamplona, Pedro Jiménez de Gazólaz, who held a provincial synod in 1250 to excommunicate him. He refused to respond to papal tribunals, but Pope Innocent IV conceded him the privilege of kings: nobody could excommunicate him save the Holy See. Theobald died at Pamplona, on a return from one of his many visits to Champagne. He was buried in the Cathedral of Pamplona. He was succeeded first by his elder son Theobald II and then by his younger son Henry I. [edit] Marriages and Issue

Theobald married three times. He married Gertrude of Dagsburg in 1220, and divorced her two years later when he came of age. They had no children.

Secondly, in 1222, he married Agnes of Beaujeu, she was a daughter of Guichard IV, sire of Beaujeu and his wife, Sybille of Flanders.

The marriage produced at least one daughter:

   * Blanche of Navarre (1226-1283), married to John I, Duke of Brittany and was mother of John II, Duke of Brittany.

Agnes died in 1231. Theobald married thirdly to Margaret of Bourbon. Theobald and Margaret had six children:

   * Eleanor of Navarre (1233 -?), Died young
   * Peter of Navarre (died young)
   * Margaret of Navarre in 1255 married to Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1238-1303)
   * Theobald II of Navarre (1238-1270) married in 1255 to Isabelle of France
   * Beatrix of Navarre (1242-1295), married in 1258 to Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy (1212-1272)
   * Henry I of Navarre married Blanche of Artois in 1269

[edit] Notes

  1. ^  "Thibaut de Champagne". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Thibaut_de_Champagne. 

[edit] References

   * Setton, Kenneth M. (general editor) A History of the Crusades: Volume II — The Later Crusades, 1189 – 1311. Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard, editors. University of Wisconsin Press: Milwaukee, 1969.

[edit] External links

   * Wikisource-logo.svg "Thibaut IV". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Preceded by Theobald III Count of Champagne 1201 – 1253 Succeeded by Theobald V/II Preceded by Sancho VII King of Navarre 1234 – 1253 This page was last modified on 18 June 2010 at 00:15. -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: also called Theobald The Troubadour, or The Posthumous, French Thibaud Le Chansonnier, or Le Posthume, Spanish Teobaldo El Trovador, or El Póstumo b. May 30?, 1201, Troyes, France d. July 7?, 1253, Pamplona, Navarre [now in Spain] count of Troyes and of Champagne (from 1201), as Theobald IV, and king of Navarre (from 1234), the most famous of the aristocratic trouvères. He was the son of Theobald III of Champagne, who died before his son was born, and Blanche of Navarre. He lived for four years at the court of King Philip II of France, to whom he did feudal homage in 1214. After Philip's death (1223), he supported Philip's son Louis VIII but deserted him in 1226 at the siege of Avignon, conducted by the king as part of his campaign against the Albigenses, a religious sect deemed heretical. On the death of Louis a few months later, Theobald joined a dissident league of barons who opposed Louis's widow and regent of France, Blanche of Castile. He soon abandoned the league and became reconciled with Blanche. It was rumoured that he was her lover and had poisoned her husband, and many of his poems are thought to be addressed to her. He led the crusade of 1239-40 and, after his return, spent the rest of his life in Champagne and Navarre. Theobald left about 60 lyrics, mainly love songs and debates in verse, with two pastourelles (love songs between knight and shepherdess) and nine religious poems. Perhaps he found his true level in the jeu-parti (courtly love debate) in which he discusses with a crony from the crusades whether it is better to embrace one's love in the dark or to see her without embracing her, with wry allusions to the crony's crutch and his own potbelly. Theobald's lyrics, with their music, have survived in six manuscripts. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Theobald I (Thibaut IV) (30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), called the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234. He was the first Frenchman to rule Navarre. Theobald married three times. He married Gertrude of Dagsburg in 1220, and divorced her two years later when he came of age. They had no children. Secondly, in 1222, he married Agnes of Beaujeu, she was a daughter of Guichard IV, sire of Beaujeu and his wife, Sybille of Flanders. The marriage produced at least one daughter:

  • Blanche of Navarre (1226-1283), married to John I, Duke of Brittany and was mother of John II, Duke of Brittany.

Agnes died in 1231. Theobald married thirdly to Margaret of Bourbon. Theobald and Margaret had six children:

  • Eleanor of Navarre (1233 -?), Died young
  • Peter of Navarre (died young)
  • Margaret of Navarre in 1255 married to Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1238-1303)
  • Theobald II of Navarre (1238-1270) married in 1255 to Isabelle of France
  • Beatrix of Navarre (1242-1295), married in 1258 to Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy (1212-1272)
  • Henry I of Navarre married Blanche of Artois in 1269

-------------------- Born in Troyes, he was the son of Theobald III of Champagne and Blanca of Navarre, the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre. His father died before he was born, and Blanca (Blanche in French) ruled the county as regent until Theobald turned twenty-one in 1222. He was a notable trouvère, and many of his songs have survived, including some with music.

The first half of Theobald's life was plagued by a number of difficulties. His uncle, Count Henry II, had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Theobald's father died. Further, Theobald's right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, Count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful nobles of Champagne.

The conflict with Erard and Philippa broke into open warfare in 1215 as the Champagne War of Succession, and was not resolved until after Theobald came of age in 1222. At that time he bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Some years later, in 1234, he had to spend still more to buy off Philippa's elder sister Alice, Queen of Cyprus. The settlement of 1222 did not end Theobald's problems, for in the following years he antagonized Louis VIII. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theobald_I_of_Navarre Theobald I of Navarre From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Copy of a seal of Theobald I

Theobald I (Thibaut IV) (30 May 1201 – 8 July 1253), called the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne (as Theobald IV) from birth and King of Navarre from 1234. He was the first Frenchman to rule Navarre. Contents [show]

   * 1 Rule of Champagne
         o 1.1 Regency of Champagne
         o 1.2 Conflict with the crown
   * 2 Rule of Navarre
         o 2.1 Domestic and foreign policy
         o 2.2 Crusade of 1239
         o 2.3 Conflict with church and final years
   * 3 Marriages and Issue
   * 4 Notes
   * 5 References
   * 6 External links

[edit] Rule of Champagne [edit] Regency of Champagne

Born in Troyes, he was the son of Theobald III of Champagne and Blanca of Navarre, the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre. His father died before he was born, and Blanca (Blanche in French) ruled the county as regent until Theobald turned twenty-one in 1222. He was a notable trouvère, and many of his songs have survived, including some with music.

The first half of Theobald's life was plagued by a number of difficulties. His uncle, Count Henry II, had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Theobald's father died. Further, Theobald's right to the succession was challenged by Henry's daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, Count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful nobles of Champagne.

The conflict with Erard and Philippa broke into open warfare in 1215 as the Champagne War of Succession, and was not resolved until after Theobald came of age in 1222. At that time he bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Some years later, in 1234, he had to spend still more to buy off Philippa's elder sister Alice, Queen of Cyprus. The settlement of 1222 did not end Theobald's problems, for in the following years he antagonized Louis VIII. [edit] Conflict with the crown

At the death of Louis VIII, Theobald's political situation was difficult: he had abandoned the king in his campaigns, there were rumors that he had poisoned him, and he was barred from the coronation of Louis IX. At the beginning of the regency of Blanche of Castile, he abandoned a conspiracy against the French king, which also included Hugues de Lusignan and Pierre Mauclerc, and cemented a strong relation with the regent. Many have hinted at a possible love for Blanche, and he wrote a poetical homage to her. He became so influential at court, that other barons resented him and started a rebellion in 1229.

The first chronicler to report the rumors about a love affair between Theobald and Queen Blanche was Roger of Wendover. Wendover claims that Theobald, "tormented by passion" for the queen, tried to poison King Louis VIII at the siege of Avignon. Matthew Paris adds a story that the French nobles goaded the young King Louis IX to challenge Theobald to a duel to avenge his father's death, but that Blanche put a stop to the duel.

In the following years, however, he antagonized the young king of France Louis IX, which led to an invasion of Champagne by a group of French barons. They were driven off at the cost of further expense and hardship in Champagne. Thus in order to settle with Alice, Theobald had to sell his overlordship over the counties of Blois, Sancerre, and Chateaudun to the king. [edit] Rule of Navarre

Theobald experienced a reversal of his fortunes in 1234, when he succeeded his uncle Sancho VII of Navarre as King of Navarre. While Sancho's will named James I of Aragon as his heir, the Navarrese ignored this and elected Theobald, son of Sancho's sister. Theobald was in Pamplona at the time of Sancho's death and he immediately affirmed the fueros of the realm. This greatly increased his resources (not to mention his prestige), and the remaining years of his rule were far more peaceful and prosperous. [edit] Domestic and foreign policy

As king, Theobald sealed pacts with the Crown of Castile and that of Aragon, and the Kingdom of England. He entrusted most of the government to nobles of Champagne and divided Navarre into four new districts based on fiscal functions and maintenance of public order. He began the codificaton of the law in the Cartulario Magno and wrote down the Navarrese traditions known as the Fuero General.

In order to gain the support of Castile, he married his daughter Blanca to the infante Alfonso, later Alfonso X. By the marriage pact, Ferdinand III of León offered the lands of Guipúzcoa as long as Theobald lived, but not those of Álava to which the Navarrese monarchs had long laid claim. But with Guipúzcoa he would have attained direct access to the Cantabrian Sea. This alliance was never effected, however, as it would have meant the incorporation of Navarre as a feudum of Castile. The next year, Theobald engaged his daughter to John I, Duke of Brittany, the son of his close crusading ally Peter of Dreux. [edit] Crusade of 1239

It was in 1239 that Theobald directed a crusading host to the Holy Land. Militarily, his crusade was not glorious. He spent much time dallying at pleasant Acre (where he wrote a poem to his wife) before moving on Ascalon, where he began the construction of a castle. He fought two minor battles, one was a slight victory. The second battle, near Gaza was a decisive defeat.[1] He negotiated with the Ayyubids of Damascus and Egypt and finalised a treaty with the former against the latter whereby the Kingdom of Jerusalem regained Jerusalem itself, plus Bethlehem, Nazareth, and most of the region of Galilee with many Templar castles, like Belfort. Some contemporary sources even imply that the whole of the land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean was put back in crusader hands. It is debatable how much of the ultimate success of the crusade (the most successful since the First in territorial terms) was attributable to Theobald's intentions and how much was just fortuitous. He returned from Palestine late in 1240, before Richard of Cornwall arrived, because he did not wish to be present during any more debating over the leadership and direction of the enterprise. [edit] Conflict with church and final years

Theobald passed most of the remainder of his reign travelling back and forth between Navarre and Champagne. He was at odds with the bishop of Pamplona, Pedro Jiménez de Gazólaz, who held a provincial synod in 1250 to excommunicate him. He refused to respond to papal tribunals, but Pope Innocent IV conceded him the privilege of kings: nobody could excommunicate him save the Holy See. Theobald died at Pamplona, on a return from one of his many visits to Champagne. He was buried in the Cathedral of Pamplona. He was succeeded first by his elder son Theobald II and then by his younger son Henry I. [edit] Marriages and Issue

Theobald married three times. He married Gertrude of Dagsburg in 1220, and divorced her two years later when he came of age. They had no children.

Secondly, in 1222, he married Agnes of Beaujeu, she was a daughter of Guichard IV, sire of Beaujeu and his wife, Sybille of Flanders.

The marriage produced at least one daughter:

   * Blanche of Navarre (1226-1283), married to John I, Duke of Brittany and was mother of John II, Duke of Brittany.

Agnes died in 1231. Theobald married thirdly to Margaret of Bourbon. Theobald and Margaret had six children:

   * Eleanor of Navarre (1233 -?), Died young
   * Peter of Navarre (died young)
   * Margaret of Navarre in 1255 married to Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1238-1303)
   * Theobald II of Navarre (1238-1270) married in 1255 to Isabelle of France
   * Beatrix of Navarre (1242-1295), married in 1258 to Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy (1212-1272)
   * Henry I of Navarre married Blanche of Artois in 1269

[edit] Notes

  1. ^  "Thibaut de Champagne". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Thibaut_de_Champagne. 

[edit] References

   * Setton, Kenneth M. (general editor) A History of the Crusades: Volume II — The Later Crusades, 1189 – 1311. Robert Lee Wolff and Harry W. Hazard, editors. University of Wisconsin Press: Milwaukee, 1969.

[edit] External links

   * Wikisource-logo.svg "Thibaut IV". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Preceded by Theobald III Count of Champagne 1201 – 1253 Succeeded by Theobald V/II Preceded by Sancho VII King of Navarre 1234 – 1253 This page was last modified on 18 June 2010 at 00:15.

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Teobaldo I el Cantautor, rey de Navarra's Timeline