Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray

Is your surname Randolph?

Research the Randolph family

Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray's Geni Profile

Records for Thomas Randolph

690,458 Records

Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love

  • Build your family tree online
  • Share photos and videos
  • Smart Matching™ technology
  • Free!

Share

Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray

Also Known As: "Sir Thomas Randolph", "Regent of Scotland"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Stranith (Nithsdale), Dumfriesshire, Scotland
Death: Died in Musselburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
Cause of death: sudden illness
Immediate Family:

Son of Thomas Randolph and Isabel de Bruce
Husband of Isabel Stewart of Bonkyl
Father of Sir Thomas Randolph, 2nd Earl of Moray; John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray; "Black Agnes" Randolph, Countess of Dunbar and March; Isabella Randolph and Isabella Randolph
Brother of Isabella Randolph

Occupation: Earl of Moray
Managed by: Shannon Lowell Dick
Last Updated:

About Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray

The district of Moray remained for a long time separate from both the area of Scotland occupied by the Northern Picts and that of the Southern Picts, but its rulers were not strictly speaking Earls. It was finally conquered by the Scots proper in 1130 and thereafter held by the Kings of Scotland as a royal possession till 1312. In that year Thomas Randolph, whose mother was sister of Robert I the Bruce, was created Earl of Moray. He led the left wing of the Scottish army at the victory over the English of Bannockburn in 1314, having a few months before retaken Edinburgh Castle from its temporary English captors. The year after Bannockburn he was declared Guardian of the Realm in the event of the crown descending to a minor. He accordingly became Regent on Robert I's death in 1329. [Burke's Peerage]

EARLDOM OF MORAY [SCT] (I)

THOMAS RANDOLPH, only son and heir of Thomas RANDOLPH of Strathdon, sometime Chamberlain of Scotland, by (-----), sister of ROBERT I [SCT], and daughter of Robert (BRUCE or BRUS), afterwards EARL OF CARRICK, was present, as Thomas Randal le fyz, with his father at Baliol's homage to Edward I at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 26 December 1292. He rebelled with Bruce, perhaps even attending him on his secret journey to Scotland in 1306, and was taken prisoner by the English at Methven, 19 June. As Lord of Nithsdale he participated in the letter of the Scottish magnates to Philip IV of France, March 1308/9. He was created EARL OF MORAY [SCT] between 12 April and 29 October 1312. The extensive grants he received are evidence of the esteem in which he was held by, and of the services he rendered to, Robert Bruce. In March 1313/4 be made a sensational capture of Edinburgh Castle from the English, and he was in command of the left wing at the battle of Bannockburn, 24 June 1314. He attended the Parliament [SCT] at Ayr, 26 April 1315, at which, under the Act of Succession, he was named Guardian of the King or his brother should die during the minority of the heir to the throne. In Edward Bruce's invasion of Ireland, 1315-17, he took a notable part both in the actual fighting and in the raising of men; and in 1318 participated in the capture of Berwick by surprise. The following year Moray and Douglas raided the north of Yorkshire, and defeated a force raised by the Archbishop, in what was jocularly called the Chapter of Mitton. Moray's name stands second in the list of Scottish magnates who addressed the Pope in defence of Scottish independence, 6 April 1320. At the time of the ineffectual negotiations between the Scots and the disaffected Earl of Lancaster, 1321-22, Moray was acting as Lieutenant of the King of Scotland, and was at Corbridge, in Northumberland, in January 1321/2; later in the year he carried havoc into Durham and Yorks, and in the autumn fought with the King in the attack on the English near Byland, when Edward II was forced to flee, and was nearly captured in York. In May 1323 Moray was in England with an embassy which concluded a truce at York on 30 May for 13 years. Later in the year at Avignon he obtained from the Pope his long withheld concession to address Bruce as King of Scotland. In April 1325 he was appointed chief of an embassy to France, which, at Corbeil, in April 1326, concluded an alliance against England. In 1327 the short-lived truce was broken; Moray and Douglas harried Northumberland and balked the English forces under the young King Edward III. They were appointed jointly to make the arrangements for the marriage of the infant Prince David of Scotland with Joan, sister of Edward III, which was celebrated 12 July 1328 at Berwick. On the death of Bruce, 7 June 1329, under whom the Earl had been Justiciar of Scotland north of the Forth, Moray became Regent of Scotland, and so continued till his death, 20 July 1332, at Musselburgh, on his way to meet the invasion of the disinherited lords under Edward Baliol.

He married Isabel, daughter of John STEWART of Bonkyll, by Margaret, daughter and heir of Sir Alexander DE BONKYLL. She was living 16 July 1351. [Complete Peerage IX:167-9, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

· Change Date: 7 MAY 2004

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Randolph,_1st_Earl_of_Moray -------------------- Regent of Scotland, an important figure in the Scottish Wars of Independence, and one of the signers of the Declaration of Arbroath.

Thomas, the future Earl of Moray, supported Bruce in his initial coup when he proclaimed himself king and was crowned at Scone, but abandoned him after the English victory at the Battle of Methven. Later, fighting for the English, he was captured and brought before the king, who he taunted for his alleged cowardice by engaging in guerrilla warfare instead of standing and fighting in pitched battle.

However, he was persuaded to change sides again, and went on to become one of the king's most important lieutenants. The fact that he was allowed to resume his allegiance to Bruce suggests that they did have family ties. His most famous achievement took place in 14 March 1314 when he carried out a daring attack on Edinburgh Castle. This was one of a handful of castles in Scotland still in English hands, and stood on top of an apparently impregnable rock. The son of a former Governor knew about a path up the rock, which he had used to visit the town at night against his father's wishes, and tipped off the Scots. Randolph led his men up this path one night to capture the castle.

--------------------

Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray was the son of Thomas Randolph.2 He married Isabella Stewart, daughter of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl and Margaret de Bonkyl.2 He died on 20 July 1332.

    He gained the title of 1st Earl of Moray. He fought in the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. He fought in the Battle of Byland in 1322. He held the office of Regent of Scotland between 1329 and 1332.

Thomas Randolph was the son of one of Robert the Bruce's sisters. Randolph first appeared on the Scottish scene when he joined his uncle's fight for the Scottish throne in 1306. Unfortunately, he was almost immediately captured at the Battle of Methven. The battle was a disaster for Bruce and rather than allowing the captured to be ransomed (as was normally the case in medieval warfare), Edward I had the captives hanged, drawn and quartered or beheaded without trial. Thomas Randolph was saved because of his friendship with the Earl of Pembroke. He was granted a pardon on condition he fight for the English.

True to his word, Randolph fought for the English until he was captured by Douglas near Peebles during the summer of 1308. When Douglas took Randolph to his uncle, who reproached him for fighting for the English, Randolph reportedly retorted that the Bruce, "made war like a brigand instead of fighting a pitched battle as a gentleman should."(1) Despite the criticism the Bruce put Randolph under Douglas' close supervision.

Randolph became one of Bruce's greatest captains. Perhaps his best known martial accomplishment is the capture of Edinburgh Castle in March 1314. With a small band of men Randolph scaled the north face of the rock while the main body of his troop attacked the south gate. Randolph and his men were able to enter the castle and open the gate to his main force, which then took the castle. Around this time (1312 or 1314), Robert I made Randolph Earl of Moray.

Randolph further distinguished himself at Bannockburn. With Douglas he took Berwick-on-Tweed in 1318 and defeated the English at Byland, Yorkshire (1322).

He was a skilled diplomat as well as warrior. His efforts helped persuade Pope John XXII to recognize Robert's right to the Scottish throne (1323). In 1326 Randolph headed the delegation which negotiated the Treaty of Corbeil, forming a defensive alliance with France. In 1328 he helped negotiate the treaty by which the English recognized Robert King of Scots.

When Robert I died in 1329 Randolph was made regent for David II. The last survivor of Bruce's great captains, he died three years into the regency.

Links

--------------------

  Lord of Man and Annandale
Thomas Randolph 1st Earl of Moray Thomas Randolph 1st Earl of Moray

Scaling the cliffs to re-capture Edinburgh Castle from the English Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray

 

Notes ◦1 - In 1296 Edward I of England invaded Scotland. He besieged Edinburgh Castle. It surrendered after eight days and remained in English hands for seventeen years.

On the night of 14 March 1314, Sir Thomas Randolph, the nephew of King Robert the Bruce, and his men climbed the precipitous north face of the rock, took the English garrison by surprise and won the castle back. Robert the Bruce immediately ordered that Edinburgh castle be dismantled "lest the English ever afterwards might lord it over the land by holding the castles". Three months later, on 24 June 1344 near Stirling, the Scottish army crushed the English at the Battle of Bannockburn.
2 - In 1313 Bruce entrusted the re-capture of Edinburgh Castle to his nephew, the Earl of Moray. Moray was fortunate enough to have amoung his soldiers one William Frank, who in the days before the English occupation, when he was stationed in the Castle, had discovered a secret way by which he could leave it, visit a girl friend in the city, and return. Under Frank's guidance Moray, with only thirty men, scaled the rock and the walls at midnight, overpowered the garrison and took the fortress. By Bruces command all the buildings were distroyed except St. Margarets chapel, and the Castle remained a ruin for twenty-three years.
3 - Signitory to the Declaration of Arbroath 1320
From his seal of 1296, when he swore fealty to Edward I, he bore three lozenges or cushion lozenge-wise. His father, also Thomas, had been married a half sister of the Bruce and at some stage after the the coronation of 1306 he added the double tressure around the cushions

 

Sources 1.[S265] Colquoun_Cunningham.ged, Jamie Vans

2.[S284] Oxford University Press, (Oxford University Press)

3.[S260] Burke's Landed Gentry of Great Britain 2001, Peter Beauclerk Dewar,, (2001.)



-------------------- Chancellor of Scotland

◦1 - In 1296 Edward I of England invaded Scotland. He besieged Edinburgh Castle. It surrendered after eight days and remained in English hands for seventeen years.

On the night of 14 March 1314, Sir Thomas Randolph, the nephew of King Robert the Bruce, and his men climbed the precipitous north face of the rock, took the English garrison by surprise and won the castle back. Robert the Bruce immediately ordered that Edinburgh castle be dismantled "lest the English ever afterwards might lord it over the land by holding the castles". Three months later, on 24 June 1344 near Stirling, the Scottish army crushed the English at the Battle of Bannockburn.
2 - In 1313 Bruce entrusted the re-capture of Edinburgh Castle to his nephew, the Earl of Moray. Moray was fortunate enough to have amoung his soldiers one William Frank, who in the days before the English occupation, when he was stationed in the Castle, had discovered a secret way by which he could leave it, visit a girl friend in the city, and return. Under Frank's guidance Moray, with only thirty men, scaled the rock and the walls at midnight, overpowered the garrison and took the fortress. By Bruces command all the buildings were distroyed except St. Margarets chapel, and the Castle remained a ruin for twenty-three years.
3 - Signitory to the Declaration of Arbroath 1320
From his seal of 1296, when he swore fealty to Edward I, he bore three lozenges or cushion lozenge-wise. His father, also Thomas, had been married a half sister of the Bruce and at some stage after the the coronation of 1306 he added the double tressure around the cushions
view all

Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray's Timeline

1288
1288
Stranith (Nithsdale), Dumfriesshire, Scotland
1305
1305
Age 17
Stranith, Dumfriesshire, Scotland
1306
1306
Age 18
Stranith, Dumfriesshire, Scotland
1310
1310
Age 22
1310
Age 22
Stranith, East Lothian, , Scotland
1320
1320
Age 32
Scotland
1332
July 20, 1332
Age 44
Musselburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
????
????
Chamberlain of Scotland
????