Thrasamund, rey de los Vándalos (c.456 - 523) MP

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Birthplace: Carthago, Zeugitana (Present Tunisia), Africae, Kingdom of the Vandals
Death: Died in Carthago, Zeugitana (Present Tunisia), Africae, Kingdom of the Vandals
Occupation: Fourth King of the Vandals and Alans in Africa, Roi des Vandales, Roi des Vandales (8e, 496-523)
Managed by: Edward Malcolm King
Last Updated:

About Thrasamund, rey de los Vándalos

Ben M. Angel notes: Hasdingi was not a family name. It was the name of one of two tribal groups that consisted of the Vandals. The Silingi were the other. Both took part in the invasion westward and into Africa. Thrasamund's ancestors were from the Hasdingi tribe, but again, Hasdingi was not the name of a dynasty. Also, Thrasamund was clearly born in Africa, and not Gaul, given that the Vandals left Gaul in 409, 51 years before his estimated birth.

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From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Italy Kings (covering the family unit involving Thrasamund):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/VANDALS,%20SUEVI,%20VISIGOTHS.htm#ThrasamundVandal

GENTO [Geiso] (after 420-before 484).

The Victoris Vitensis Historia names "Gentunis" as brother of Huneric[47].

m ---. The name of Gento's wife is not known.

Gento & his wife had four children:

a) GODAGIS .

The Victoris Vitensis Historia names "Gentunis maiorem filium nomine Godagis" when recording that he was cruelly exiled by his paternal uncle Huneric "cum uxore absque solacio servuli aut ancillæ"[48].

b) GUNDAMUND (before 460-496).

Laterculus regum Vandalorum et Alanorum names "Guntamundus Gentunis eiusdem Huneric regis fratris filius" when recording his accession and reign of 11 years[49]. He succeeded his uncle in 484 as GUNDAMUND King of the Vandals in Africa. Iordanes names "Gunthamundus" as third Vandal king in Africa but does not specify his relationship to Huneric, his predecessor[50].

After Theodoric the Ostrogoth forced Odovacar King of Italy to flee in 490, the Vandals considered themselves free from the treaty obligation relating to Sicily and attempted to conquer the island. Theodoric defeated the Vandals in Sicily in 491[51].

The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records the death in 497 of "Gunthamundo Wandalorum rege Carthagine"[52].

c) THRASAMUND (before 460-523).

Laterculus regum Vandalorum et Alanorum names "Trasamundus Gentunis filius" and "Trasamundus frater Guntamundi regis" when recording his accession and reign of 26 years[53]. Iordanes names "Thrasamundus" as fourth Vandal king in Africa but does not specify his relationship to Gundamund, his predecessor[54].

He succeeded [his presumed brother] in 496 as THRASAMUND King of the Vandals in Africa. The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that "Trasamundus" succeeded "Gunthamundo Wandalorum rege Carthagine" in 497 and reigned 27 years and 4 months[55].

He agreed an alliance with Theodoric King of Italy, confirmed by his marriage with the latter's sister, but failed to provide effective aid to the Ostrogoth king when he was attacked by the imperial navy in 507.

He also supported Gesalic, pretender to the Visigothic throne, against King Amalric the grandson of King Theodoric.

Gregory of Tours records the persecution of Christians by Thrasamund King of the Vandals and his imposition of Arianism on Spain[56], but his account is anachronistic as he places Thrasamund before Huneric and assumes that the former reigned before the Vandals emigrated from Spain to Africa.

The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records the death in 523 of "Trasamundus Wandalorum rex Carthagine"[57].

m ([500]) as her second husband, AMALAFRIDA, widow of ---, daughter of THEODEMIR King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia (-murdered [523/25]).

Iordanes names "Amalfridam germanam suam [Theoderici]" as the mother of "Theodehadi" and wife of "Africa regi Vandalorum…Thrasamundo"[58]. This marriage was arranged by her half-brother, Theodoric King of Italy, as part of his efforts to foster the support of the Vandals. Amalafrida's dowry was Lilybæum in western Sicily[59].

After the death of her husband, she unsuccessfully protested his successor's withdrawal of support from her brother, but she was outmanœuvred and killed[60].

The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that "uxor Amalfrida" fled after the death of her husband but was captured at Capsa and killed[61].

d) GAILAR [Gelaris] (before 460-before 523). Procopius names “Gelimer, Gelaridis filius, Genzonis nepos, pronepos Gizerici”[62].

m ---. The name of Gailar's wife is not known.

Gailar & his wife had four children:

i) GAILAMIR [Gelimar] (-533).

Procopius names “Gelimer, Gelaridis filius, Genzonis nepos, pronepos Gizerici”[63].

He succeeded in 530 as GAILAMIR King of the Vandals in Africa, after deposing his cousin Hilderic. A Byzantine army, led by Belisarius, conquered the Vandal Kingdom of Africa in 533, vanquishing Gailimar at Decimum and Tricamarum[64].

Gregory of Tours records that Gailamir "was broken in battle by the forces of the Roman Empire and ended his life and his reign at the same moment"[65].

ii) TZAZO . Procopius names “Tzazo…Gelimeris frater” when recording that he landed in Sardinia[66].

iii) [son .] m ---. One child, Gibamund.

iv) daughter . m ---. One son.

References:

[47] Victoris Vitensis Historia, Liber II, V, MGH Auct. ant., p. 15.

[48] Victoris Vitensis Historia, Liber II, V, MGH Auct. ant., p. 16.

[49] Laterculus regum Vandalorum et Alanorum, MGH Auct. ant. XIII, p. 458.

[50] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 102.

[51] Wolfram, p. 308.

[52] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 497, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 193.

[53] Laterculus regum Vandalorum et Alanorum, MGH Auct. ant. XIII, p. 459.

[54] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 102.

[55] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 497, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 193.

[56] Gregory of Tours II.2, p. 107.

[57] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 523, MGH Auct. ant. XI, pp. 196-7.

[58] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132.

[59] Wolfram, p. 308.

[60] Wolfram, p. 308.

[61] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 523, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 196.

[62] Procopius De Bello Vandalico I.9, p. 350.

[63] Procopius De Bello Vandalico I.9, p. 350.

[64] Ostrogorsky, p. 100.

[65] Gregory of Tours II.3, p. 113.

[66] Procopius De Bello Vandalico I.24, p. 403.

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From the English Wikipedia page on Thrasamund:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrasamund

Thrasamund (450–523), King of the Vandals and Alans (496–523), was the fourth king of the north African Kingdom of the Vandals, and reigned longer than any other Vandal king in Africa other than his grandfather, Geiseric.

Thrasamund was the third son born to Geiseric's fourth son, Gento, and became king in 496 after all of Geiseric's sons and his own brother, King Gunthamund, had died. Upon Gunthamund's death, he was one of only two living grandsons of Geiseric, and inherited the throne in accordance with a law enacted by his grandfather, which bestowed the kingship on the eldest male member of a deceased king's family.

He has usually been portrayed as an ineffectual ruler. Under his leadership, the Vandal kingdom appears to have continued a decline which began with Geiseric's death, and lost control of nearly all of modern Algeria to the Berbers. In the final year of his reign, the important port city of Leptis Magna was sacked by the Berbers, giving further evidence of the Vandals' weakness.

On the other hand, he seems to have maintained a firm grip on the heartland of the Vandal kingdom, which consisted of modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria. He also ended many years of persecution of the Catholics, which had begun under his uncle Huneric, a move which improved the Vandals' relations with the Byzantine Empire.

Thrasamund died in 523 and was succeeded by his cousin Hilderic, the firstborn son of Huneric.

Regnal titles: King of the Vandals 496–523

Preceded by Gunthamund

Succeeded by Hilderic

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Italian Wikipedia page on Trasamondo:

http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trasamondo

Trasamondo (450 circa – 6 maggio 523) fu Re dei Vandali e Alani, dal 496 al 523, è stato il quarto sovrano del Regno Vandalo del Nordafrica e, dopo suo nonno Genserico, fu colui che regnò più a lungo tra i sovrani Vandali d'Africa..

Trasamondo fu il terzogenito del quarto figlio di Genserico, Gento, e salì al trono nel 496 solo perché tutti i figli di questo e il suo stesso fratello, Re Gutemondo, erano morti in età relativamente giovane. Dopo la morte del suo predecessore fu uno degli unici due nipoti di Genserico ancora in vita e come tale salì al trono grazie alla legge sucessoria emessa da quest'ultimo che prevedeva l'incoronazione del più vecchio membro della dinastia degli Hastingi ancora in vita.

Viene solitamente considerato un sovrano inadatto al suo ruolo. Sotto la sua guida il Regno dei Vandali subì continui attacchi dalle popolazioni vicine che ne minarono significativamente l'integrità territoriale. Gli attacchi delle popolazioni berbere portarono infatti alla perdita di quasi tutto il territorio che oggi fa parte dell'Algeria. Negli ultimi anni del suo regno inoltre l'importante città portuale di Leptis Magna, sulla costa mediterranea, fu saccheggiata e distrutta dai Berberi mettendo in risalto l'estrema debolezza in cui si trovava il Regno dei Vandali.

Riuscì tuttavia a mantenere e consolidare una forte presa su quello che è considerato il "cuore" del Regno, oggi corrispondente al territorio tunisino e alla parte più orientale dell'Algeria. Continuò la politica del fratello che aveva messo fine alle persecuzioni contro i cattolici, iniziate dallo zio Unerico, pur riprendendo una politica anticattolica, evitando però i metodi violenti, ripresero gli esili tra il clero cattolico, tra cui il vescovo di Cartagine, usandogli però i dovuti riguardi; questa politica gli permise di far progredire significativamente le relazioni con l'Impero Bizantino.

Fece un’alleanza con gli Ostrogoti, ed in seconde nozze, nel 500, sposò la sorella del loro re Teodorico, Amalafrida, che giunse a Cartagine scortata da 1000 notabili e 5000 schiavi abili alle armi, portando in dote la città siciliana di Lilibeo ed il suo circondario (l’estremità occidentale dell’isola). L’alleanza scricchiolò, tra il 510 ed il 511, quando Trasamondo aiutò il re dei Visigoti, Gesalico, figlio illegittimo di Alarico II che Teodorico considerava un usurpatore del trono a scapito del figlio legittimo, Amalarico, che per parte di madre era nipote di Teodorico; abbandonato Gesalico al suo destino, l’alleanza tornò solida.

Dovette contrastare ancora le ribellioni dei Mauri; le tribù di Tripoli si resero indipendenti e negli ultimi anni di regno subì una dura sconfitta.

Trasamondo morì il 6 maggio del 523 e gli successe il cugino Ilderico, primogenito di Unerico.

Re dei Vandali e degli Alani 496–523

Successore: Ilderico

Predecessore: Gutemondo

Bibliografia

Ludwig Schmidt, "I suebi, gli alani, e i vandali in Spagna. La dominazione vandalica in Africa 429-533", Storia del mondo medievale, vol. I, 1999, pp. 301-319

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From the Hungarian page on Thrasamund:

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrasamund_vand%C3%A1l_kir%C3%A1ly

Thrasamund (?, 450 körül - ?; 523. május 6.[1]) a vandálok királya 496 és 523 között, Gunthamund király öccse.

Vallás

Thrasamund felhagyott a katolikusok üldözésével. Visszahívta száműzetéséből Fulgentiust, Ruspe püspökét, de csak azért, hogy vitapartnere legyen, és levélben kért tőle felvilágosítás teológiai kérdésekben. A katolicizmushoz való közeledése miatt sokan reménykedni kezdtek hogy ariánus hitéről megtér katolikus hitre. Thrasamund azért volt olyan engedékeny a katolikusokkal szemben, mert az arianizmus akkoriban elég szilárdan tartotta magát.

Házassága

Felesége Amalafrida hercegnő lett, aki Theoderich keleti gót király nővére volt. A király ezer gót harcos kíséretében küldte Amalafridát Karthágóba, hozománya pedig Szicília egy része, Marsala körzete volt, amivel nem csak gyarapodott Thrasamund birodalma,, de fontos stratégiai támaszponthoz is hozzájutott. Marsalából a vandálok még jobban tudták ellenőrizni a Földközi-tenger forgalmát, és így a vandálok tengeri uralma stabilizálódott.

Mór veszély

A belső területeken eközben egyre súlyosbodott a mór veszély, és ez állandó védekezésre késztette a vandálokat. A mórok különleges, védekező harcmódja megnehezítette a vandálok dolgát. A mór tábornak körkörös rendje volt, amiben a nőket és a gyerekeket a tábor közepén helyzeték el, és őket vették körül a harcosok. A tábort utak szelték át, amik a teveháton harcolók gyors mozgását tették lehetővé. A mór vezetők megfigyelőket küldtek minden irányba, hogy kikémleljék a vandálok szándékait. Amikor Thrasamund ellenük vonult, a mórok a tábor körüli meghatározott pontokon foglaltak állást, hogy kivédjék a támadásokat. A vandálok nem szívesen támadtak, mert nehezen tudtak alkalmazkodni a mórok harcmodorához. Nem voltak nyilazóik, nem voltak dárdavetőik és nem volt gyakorlatuk gyalogos harcban sem. A lovaik megijedtek a tevéktől, így menekülésre kényszerültek, és sokakat megöltek közülük.

Római kultúra

Thrasamund az egyetlen szimpatikusnak beállított vandál uralkodó. A kortárs görög és római szerzők egyaránt dicsérik. Hangsúlyozzák, hogy mértékletes volt a beszédben, cselekedeteiben pedig megfontolt volt. Thrasamund közeledett a római kultúrához és annak képviselőihez. Fulgentiussal való kapcsolatán kívül valószínűleg nagy hatással volt rá felesége, Amalafrida is, aki Bizáncban Ariane császárnő mellett nevelkedett. Neki tulajdonítják, hogy a karthágói udvar megnyílt a művelt rómaiak előtt.

Thrasamund utánozta sógora, Theoderich király mecénási tevékenységét is. Karthágó mellett thermát, azaz fürdőt építtetett, és szerepe volt abban is, hogy a karthágói iskolák újjáéledtek. Ismert néhány karthágói magiszter neve: Felicianus Grammaticus, aki "visszahozta Afrikába az elmenekült irodalmat", Faustus mester a fórumon tartott iskolát, és tanítványa vaolt Luxorius, a költő. Florentinus dicsőítő verset írt Karthágóról. Művelt versíró volt a király referendáriusa, Petrus is.

A költők a vandál arisztokrácia körében is népszerűek voltak. Fennmaradt néhány, vandál előkelőkhöz írt vers. Prokopiosz szerint a vandálok rajongtak a színházért, a lóversenyért és szerették a táncot, a színészeket és a mímeseket. Dracontius, akit még Gunthamund azért záratott börtönbe, mert idegen fejedelmet dicsőített, azt írta, hogy Felicianus Grammaticus tanítványai között nem vandálok is voltak. Azonban Karthagón és az arisztokrácián kívül a vandálok többsége nem fogadta el a Rómát dicsőítő kultúrát. Erejét és hatalmát úgy kívánta megőrizni, hogy megtartja eredetét és szokásait.

Jegyzetek

1. ↑ Dr. Klaus-Jürgen Matz: Ki mikor uralkodott? kormányzott? (Wer regierte wann?, 1992, München); magyar kiadás: Springer Hungarica, Budapest, 1994, fordította: Hulley Orsolya és Pálinkás Mihály, ISBN 963 7775 43 9, 50. oldal

Forrás

Sz. Jónás Ilona: Barbár királyok, Thrasamund. Kossuth Könyvkiadó, 1994. ISBN 963 09 3695 X

Vandál király 496 – 523

Előző uralkodó: Gunthamund

Következő uralkodó: Hilderich

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From the Polish Wikipedia page on Trasamund:

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trasamund

Trasamund (również Thrasamund; ur. 450, zm. 523) – król Wandalów i Alanów w latach (496-523). Był czwartym władcą afrykańskiego państwa Wandalów i poza jego dziadem Genzerykiem rządził dłużej niż którykolwiek z jego poprzedników.

Był trzecim synem Gento, czwartego syna Genzeryka i doszedł do władzy tylko dlatego, że wszyscy synowie Genzeryka i jego własny brat, król Guntamund, zmarli około 40 roku życia.

Za jego panowania królestwo utraciło część terytorium (obszar dzisiejszej Algierii) na rzecz Berberów. Sam będąc arianinem, wsławił się zakończeniem prześladowań katolików, co w pewnym stopniu poprawiło stosunki Państwa Wandalów z Cesarstwem Bizantyjskim. Znany był z zainteresowań intelektualnych, także teologii. Odwołał z wygnania biskupa Fulgencjusza z Ruspe, z którym prowadził dysputy teologiczne. Starał się nawrócić katolików na wiarę ariańską, nagradzając tych, którzy zdecydują się na zmianę. Przyniosło to znacznie lepsze efekty niż prześladowania za Huneryka.

Trasamund około 500 roku zawarł sojusz z Teodorykiem Wielkim, królem Ostrogotów. Na jego potwierdzenie Goci przekazali Wandalom Lilibeum, zaś owdowiały Trasamund wyszedł za również owdowiałą Amalafredę, siostrę Teodoryka. Sojusz został wystawiony na ciężką próbę w 508 roku, kiedy Wandalowie nie przybyli na pomoc Ostrogotom przeciw Bizantyjczykom oraz gdy dali pomoc pieniężną Gesalekowi, królowi Wizygotów, którego pokonał Ibba, wódz Teodoryka, aby na tronie wizygockim osadzić Alaryka II, wnuka monarchy. Potem Trasamund był zmuszony wysłać delegację z przeprosinami oraz dary na dwór do Rawenny i przyjąć ostrą reprymendę od szwagra. Teodoryk przyjął przeprosiny, dary odrzucił i przestrzegł Trasamunda na przyszłość. W 519 Wandalowie wysłali dzikie zwierzęta Teodorykowi, które były potrzebne do przedstawień cyrkowych, odprawianych by uczcić objęcie urzędu konsula, przez krewnego króla, Eutaryka. Trasamund zmarł w 523 roku. Na tronie zastąpił go wówczas jego kuzyn, Hilderyk, pierwszy syn Humeryka.

król Wandalów i Alanów 496-523

Poprzednik: Guntamund

Następca Hilderyk

Bibliografia

Jerzy Strzelczyk, Wandalowie i ich afrykańskie państwo, wyd. 2, PIW 2005

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From the English Wikipedia page on the Vandals:

Their history from the arrival in Gaul to Thrasamund's time:

In Gaul (Note: 406-409)

In 406 the Vandals advanced from Pannonia travelling west along the Danube without much difficulty, but when they reached the Rhine, they met resistance from the Franks, who populated and controlled Romanized regions in northern Gaul. Twenty thousand Vandals, including Godigisel himself, died in the resulting battle, but then with the help of the Alans they managed to defeat the Franks, and on December 31, 406 the Vandals crossed the Rhine to invade Gaul, which they devastated terribly. Under Godigisel's son Gunderic, the Vandals plundered their way westward and southward through Aquitaine.

In Hispania (Note: 409-429)

On October 13, 409 they crossed the Pyrenees into the Iberian peninsula. There, the Hasdingi received land from the Romans, as foederati, in Gallaecia (Northwest) and the Silingi in Hispania Baetica (South), while the Alans got lands in Lusitania (West) and the region around Carthago Nova. The Suebi also controlled part of Gallaecia. The Visigoths, who invaded Iberia before receiving lands in Septimania (Southern France), crushed the Alans in 416, killing the western Alan king Attaces. The remainder of his people subsequently appealed to the Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown. Later Vandal kings in North Africa styled themselves Rex Wandalorum et Alanorum ("King of the Vandals and Alans").

The Arabic term for Muslim Iberia Al Andalus, and its derivative Andalusia, may be derived from the Berber pronunciation of Vandal: "Wandal". However, the theory has been disputed, and alternative etymologies for Andalusia have been proposed.[9][10]

The Vandal Kingdom in North Africa

Establishment (Note - 429 onward)

The Vandals under their new king Genseric (also known as Geiseric) crossed to Africa in 429.[11] Although numbers are unknown and some historians debate the validity of estimates, based on Procopius' assertion that the Vandals and Alans numbered 80,000 when they moved to North Africa,[12] Heather estimates that they could have fielded an army of around 15,000–20,000.[13] According to Procopius, the Vandals came to Africa at the request of Boniface, the military ruler of the region.[14] However, it has been suggested that the Vandals migrated to Africa in search of safety; they had been attacked by a Roman army in 422 and had failed to seal a treaty with them. Advancing eastwards along the coast, the Vandals lay siege to Hippo Regius in 430.[11] Inside Saint Augustine and his priests prayed for relief from the invaders, knowing full well that the fall of the city would spell conversion or death for many Roman Christians. On 28 August 430, three months into the siege, St. Augustine (who was 75 years old) died,[15] perhaps from starvation or stress, as the wheat fields outside the city lay dormant and unharvested. After 14 months, hunger and the inevitable diseases were ravaging both the city inhabitants and the Vandals outside the city walls.

Peace was made between the Romans and the Vandals in 435 through a treaty giving the Vandals control of coastal Numidia. Geiseric chose to break the treaty in 439 when he invaded the province of Africa Proconsularis and laid siege to Carthage.[16] The city was captured without a fight; the Vandals entered the city while most of the inhabitants were attending the races at the hippodrome. Genseric made it his capital, and styled himself the King of the Vandals and Alans, to denote the inclusion of the Alans of northern Africa into his alliance.[citation needed] Conquering Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands, he built his kingdom into a powerful state. Historian Camerson suggests that the new Vandal rule may not have been unwelcomed by the population of North Africa as the previous landowners were generally unpopular.[17]

The impression given by ancient sources such as Victor of Vita, Quodvultdeus, and Fulgentius of Ruspe was that the Vandal take-over of Carthage and North Africa led to widespread destruction. However, recent archaeological investigations have challenged this assertion. Although Carthage's Odeon was destroyed, the street pattern remained the same and some public buildings were renovated. The political centre of Carthage was the Byrsa Hill. New industrial centres emerged within towns during this period.[18] Historian Andy Merrills uses the large amounts of African Red Slip ware discovered across the Mediterranean dating from the Vandal period of North Africa to challenge the assumption that the Vandal rule of North Africa was a time of economic instability.[19] The Vandals raided Sicily in 440, however the Western Roman Empire was too preoccupied with war with Gaul to react. Theodosius II, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, dispatched an expedition to deal with the Vandals in 441, however it only progressed as far as Sicily. The Western Empire under Valentinian III secured peace with the Vandals in 442.[20] Under the treaty the Vandals gained Byzacena, Tripolitania, part of Numidia, and confirmed their control of Proconsular Africa.[21]

Sack of Rome (455)

During the next 35 years, with a large fleet, Genseric looted the coasts of the Eastern and Western Empires. After Attila the Hun's death, however, the Romans could afford to turn their attention back to the Vandals, who were in control of some of the richest lands of their former empire.

In an effort to bring the Vandals into the fold of the Empire, Valentinian III offered his daughter's hand in marriage to Genseric's son. Before this "treaty" could be carried out, however, politics again played a crucial part in the blunders of Rome. Petronius Maximus, the usurper, killed Valentinian III in an effort to control the Empire. Diplomacy between the two factions broke down, and in 455 with a letter from the Empress Licinia Eudoxia, begging Genseric's son to rescue her, the Vandals took Rome, along with the Empress Licinia Eudoxia and her daughters Eudocia and Placidia.

The chronicler Prosper of Aquitaine[22] offers the only fifth-century report that on 2 June 455, Pope Leo the Great received Genseric and implored him to abstain from murder and destruction by fire, and to be satisfied with pillage. Whether the pope's influence saved Rome is, however, questioned. The Vandals departed with countless valuables, including the spoils of the Temple in Jerusalem booty brought to Rome by Titus.[citation needed] Eudoxia and her daughter Eudocia were taken to North Africa.[21]

Consolidation

As a result of the Vandal sack of Rome and piracy in the Mediterranean, it became important to the Roman Empire to destroy the Vandal kingdom. the first retaliation was in 460, when both Western and Eastern empires sent fleets against the Vandals. The Vandals captured the Western fleet, and destroyed the Eastern through the use of fire ships.[20] Following up the attack, the Vandals tried to invade the Peloponnese but were driven back by the Maniots at Kenipolis with heavy losses.[23] In retaliation, the Vandals took 500 hostages at Zakynthos, hacked them to pieces and threw the pieces overboard on the way to Carthage.[23] In the 470s, the Romans abandoned their policy of war against the Vandals. The Western general Ricimer reached a treaty with the Vandals,[20] and in 476 Genseric was able to conclude a "perpetual peace" with Constantinople. Relations between the two states assumed a veneer of normality.[24] From 477 onwards, the Vandals produced their own coinage. It was restricted to bronze and silver low-denomination coins. Although the low-denomination imperial money was replaced, the high-denomination was not, demonstrating in the words of Merrills "reluctance to usurp the imperial prerogative".[25]

Although the Vandals had fended off attacks from the Romans and established hegemony over the islands of the western Mediterranean, they were less successful in their conflict with the Berbers. Situated south of the Vandal kingdom, the Berbers inflicted two major defeats on the Vandals in the period 496–530[20]

Domestic religious tensions

Differences between the Arian Vandals and their Trinitarian subjects (including both Catholics and Donatists) were a constant source of tension in their African state. Catholic bishops were exiled or killed by Genseric and laymen were excluded from office and frequently suffered confiscation of their property.[26] He protected his Catholic subjects when his relations with Rome and Constantinople were friendly, as during the years 454–57, when the Catholic community at Carthage, being without a head, elected Deogratias bishop. The same was also the case during the years 476–477 when Bishop Victor of Cartenna sent him, during a period of peace, a sharp refutation of Arianism and suffered no punishment.[citation needed] Huneric, Genseric's successor, issued edicts against Catholics in 483 and 484 in an effort to marginalise them and make Arianism the primary religion in North Africa.[27] Generally most Vandal kings, except Hilderic, persecuted Trinitarian Christians to a greater or lesser extent, banning conversion for Vandals, exiling bishops and generally making life difficult for Trinitarians.[citation needed]

Decline

According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia: "Genseric, one of the most powerful personalities of the "era of the Migrations", died on 25 January 477, at the great age of around 88 years. According to the law of succession which he had promulgated, the oldest male member of the royal house was to succeed. Thus he was succeeded by his son Huneric (477–484), who at first tolerated Catholics, owing to his fear of Constantinople, but after 482 began to persecute Manichaeans and Catholics."[28]

Gunthamund (484 – 496), his cousin and successor, sought internal peace with the Catholics and ceased persecution once more. Externally, the Vandal power had been declining since Genseric's death, and Gunthamund lost large parts of Sicily to the Ostrogoths and had to withstand increasing pressure from the autochthonous Moors.

According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia: "While Thrasamund (496–523), owing to his religious fanaticism, was hostile to Catholics, he contented himself with bloodless persecutions".[28]

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No longer a functioning link:

http://familytrees.genopro.com/318186/jarleslekt/default.htm?page=toc_families.htm -------------------- Thrasamund (450-523), King of the Vandals and Alans (496-523) was the fourth king of the north African Kingdom of the Vandals, and reigned longer than any other Vandal king in Africa other than his grandfather, Geiseric.

Thrasamund was the third son born to Geiseric's fourth son, Gento, and became king in 496 only because all of Geiseric's sons and his own brother, King Gunthamund, all died in their forties. Upon Gunthamund's death, he was one of only two living grandsons of Geiseric, and inherited the throne in accordance with a law enacted by his grandfather bestowing the kingship on the eldest male member of his family.

As king, he has usually been portrayed as an ineffectual ruler. Under his leadership, the Vandal kingdom appears to have continued a decline which began with Geiseric's death, and lost control of nearly all of modern Algeria to the Berber. In the final year of his reign, the important port city of Leptis Magna was sacked by the Berbers, giving further evidence of the Vandals' weakness.

On the other hand, he seems to have maintained a firm grip on the heartland of the Vandal kingdom, which consisted of modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria. He also ended many years of persecution of the Catholics which had begun under his uncle Huneric, a move which improved the Vandals' relations with the Byzantine Empire.

Thrasamund died in 523 and was succeeded by his cousin Hilderic, the firstborn son of Huneric.

-------------------- Thrasamund

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Thrasamund (450 -523 ), King of the Vandals and Alans (496 -523) was the fourth king of the north African Kingdom of the Vandals, and reigned longer than any other Vandal king in Africa other than his grandfather, Geiseric .

Thrasamund was the third son born to Geiseric's fourth son, Gento, and became king in 496 only because all of Geiseric's sons and his own brother, King Gunthamund , all died in their forties. Upon Gunthamund's death, he was one of only two living grandsons of Geiseric, and inherited the throne in accordance with a law enacted by his grandfather bestowing the kingship on the eldest male member of his family.

As king, he has usually been portrayed as an ineffectual ruler. Under his leadership, the Vandal kingdom appears to have continued a decline which began with Geiseric's death, and lost control of nearly all of modern Algeria to the Berbers . In the final year of his reign, the important port city of Leptis Magna was sacked by the Berbers, giving further evidence of the Vandals' weakness.

On the other hand, he seems to have maintained a firm grip on the heartland of the Vandal kingdom, which consisted of modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria. He also ended many years of persecution of the Catholics which had begun under his uncle Huneric , a move which improved the Vandals' relations with the Byzantine Empire .

Thrasamund died in 523 and was succeeded by his cousin Hilderic , the firstborn son of Huneric.

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Thrasamund, King of the Vandals's Timeline

456
456
Carthago, Zeugitana (Present Tunisia), Africae, Kingdom of the Vandals
470
470
Age 14
490
490
Age 34
500
March 2, 500
Age 44
Carthago, Zeugitania (Present Tunisia), Africae, Kingdom of the Vandals
500
Age 44
Probably Carthago, Zeugitana (Present Tunisia), Africae, Kingdom of the Vandals
523
523
Age 67
Carthago, Zeugitana (Present Tunisia), Africae, Kingdom of the Vandals
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