Thutmose I, Pharaoh of Egypt (-1554 - -1512) MP

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Nicknames: "Thutmosis", "Thutmose", "Tutmose", "Thut-mose", "Tut-mose"
Birthplace: Thebes, Egypt
Death: Died in Thebes, Egypt
Occupation: (Tutmosis); 3rd King of the 18th Dynasty
Managed by: Bianca May Evelyn Brennan
Last Updated:

About Thutmose I, Pharaoh of Egypt

http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per00726.htm -------------------- •ID: I62328

•Name: Thutmose I of Egypt

•Prefix: Pharaoh

•Given Name: Thutmose I

•Surname: of Egypt

•Sex: M

•_UID: 351C1D32E00889428A51B70C587DA7AF1C79

•Change Date: 26 Nov 2005

•Death: Y

Father: Amenhotep I of Egypt

Mother: Ahhotep II of Egypt

Marriage 1 Mutnefert

•Married:

Children

1. Tuthmose II of Egypt

Marriage 2 Amhose of Egypt

•Married:

Children

1. Hatsheput I of Egypt

Forrás / Source:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I62328

See / Lásd:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family_tree_of_the_Eighteenth_dynasty_of_Egypt

Tuthmosis I, 3rd King of Egypt's 18th Dynasty

by Jimmy Dunn


The third king of the 18th Dynasty was a commoner by birth and a military man by training. We do not know his fathers name, but his mother was Semiseneb, a rather common name during the Second Intermediate Period and the early 18th Dynasty. He had married Ahmose, who may have been a sister of Amenhotep I and daughter of Ahmose I and Queen Ahmose Nefertary (who still held the title, "God's Wife of Amun during her grandson's rule) and thus legitimized his rule. However, others have suggested that Ahmose was in fact Tuthmosis I's own sister. He may have also served as a co-regent under Amenhotep I, and was most certainly an important military commander under his predecessor.

His birth name we are told was Tuthmosis, meaning "Born of the god Thoth", though this is a Greek version. His actual Egyptian name was Djehutymes I, but he is also sometimes referred to as Thutmose I, or Thutmosis I. His thrown name was A-Kheper-ka-re (Aakheperkara). He gained the thrown at a fairly late age, and may have ruled for about six years. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt gives his reign lasting from 1504-1492 BC, while Peter Clayton indicates 1524-1518 and Monarchs of the Nile as 1503-1491.

Left: Tuthmosis I's mother, Semiseneb

Nevertheless, he staged a series of brilliant military campaigns that were to establish Egypt's 18th Dynasty. So effective were these efforts that we believe he must have started preparations the the military operations during the last years of Amenhotep I's rule. Ahmose son of Ebana, an admiral during Tuthmosis I's reign, tells us that a campaign into Nubia where he penetrated beyond the Third Cataract was highly successful. Tuthmosis may have defeated the Nubian chief in hand to hand combat and returned to Thebes with the body of the fallen chief hanging on the prow of his ship.

His greatest campaigns were in the Delta and his battles against the Syrians as he finally reached the Euphrates River. This expedition opened new horizons that led later to Egypt's important role in he trade and diplomacy of the Late Bronze Age Near East. Tuthmosis I brought Egypt a sense of stability and his military campaigns healed the wounds of Thebians.

Tuthmosis I's Abydos Stele

We learn from his Abydos stele of his building works at Thebes. His architect, Ineni, built an extension to the temple of Amun at Karnak, adding pylons (the fourth and fifth), courts, statues and one of Egypt's largest standing Obelisks. To commemorate his victory he built a hypostyle hall made entirely of cedar wood columns. He also expanded "the Treasury" begun by his predecessor at the northeast corner of the complex. The Abydos stele also tells us that Tuthmosis I he made contributions to the temple of Osiris, including cult objects and statues. Further, he apparently did some substantial work at Giza.

Right: His Obelisk at Karnak, with that of Hatshepsut behind

In fact, he was responsible for a number of building projects within Egypt proper, where he left indications of structures at Elephantine, Armant, Ombos (near the late 17th to early 18th Dynasty palace center at Deir el-Ballas), el-Hiba, Memphis and probably at Edfu. However, there are also a number of monuments in Upper and Lower Nubia left by Tuthmosis I and his viceroy, Turi. We believe that there are several structures that may date from his reign near Kenisa at the fourth cataract and at Napata. Traces of ruins also exist at Semna, Buhen, Aniba, Quban and Qasr Ibrim, though most of these were probably small, or additions to earlier buildings. We also find a few votive objects dedicated in his name in the Sinai at the temple of Serabit el-Khadim.

Ahmose bore him two sons named Wadjmose and Amenmose (though their parentage is a bit uncertain), but they apparently preceded their father to the grave. So it was by Mutnofret (Mutnefert), a minor queen who was the sister of his principle wife, Ahmose, that his heir, Tuthmosis II was born. However, his more famous offspring was Queen Hatshepsut, a daughter by Ahmose who would rule after her husband and brother's death. After the death of Ahmose, he probably even took Hatshepsut as his own wife until his death. Ahmose may have also provided him with another daughter by the name of Nefrubity who is depicted with Tuthmosis I and Ahmose in the temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri.

Left: His mummy discovered in the Deir el Bahri Cache

We think that Tuthmosis I buried in two different tombs in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes). It appears that he may have first been buried in KV 20, which may have been intended as a tomb for both him and his daughter, Hatshepsut. It contained two yellow quartzite sarcophagi, one inscribed for him and the other for his daughter, as well as a canopic chest for her. However, when KV 38 was investigated by Victor Loret in 1899, he found a sarcophagus for the king in that tomb as well. It is possible that his grandson, Tuthmosis III had his grandfather's body removed from the tomb of his despised stepmother's burial and relocated it to KV 38. However, his remains were found in the cache, with others, at Deir el Bahri.

Tuthmosis I from his Sarcophagus

Forrás / Source:

http://touregypt.net/featurestories/tuthmosis1.htm

Thutmose I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pharaoh of Egypt

Reign

1506–1493 BC (disputed), 18th Dynasty

Predecessor Amenhotep I

Successor Thutmose II

Consort(s) Queen Ahmose, Mutnofret

Children Thutmose II, Hatshepsut, Amenmose, Wadjmose, Nefrubity

Father Unknown

Mother Senseneb Died 1493 BC

Burial KV38, later KV20 Monuments Pylons IV and V, two obelisks, and a hypostyle hall at Karnak

Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I) was the third Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He was given the throne after the death of the previous king Amenhotep I. During his reign, he campaigned deep into the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt further than ever before. He also built many temples in Egypt and built a tomb for himself in the Valley of the Kings; he is the first king confirmed to have done this (though Amenhotep I may have preceded him). He was succeeded by his son Thutmose II, who in turn was succeeded by Thutmose II's sister, Hatshepsut. His reign is generally dated from 1506 to 1493 BCE.

Contents

[hide]

• 1 Family

• 2 Dates and length of reign

• 3 Military achievements

• 4 Building projects

• 5 Death & Burial

• 6 See also

• 7 Notes and references

• 8 Bibliography [edit] Family

Thutmose's father was a military man whose name is unknown, while his mother, Senseneb, was believed to have been a commoner.[2] Queen Ahmose, his great wife, was probably the daughter of Ahmose I and the sister of Amenhotep I;[2] however, she was never called "king's daughter," so there is some doubt about this, and some historians believe that she was Thutmose's own sister.[3] Assuming she was related to Amenhotep, it could be thought that she was married to him in order to guarantee succession. However, this is known not to be the case for two reasons.Firstly, Amenhotep's alabaster bark built at Karnak associates Amenhotep's name with Thutmose's name well before Amenhotep's death.[4] Secondly, Thutmose's first born son with Ahmose, Amenmose, was apparently born long before Thutmose's coronation. He can be seen on a stela from Thutmose's fourth regnal year hunting near Memphis, and he became the "great army-commander of his father" sometime before his death, which was no later than Thutmose's own death in his 12th regnal year.[5] Thutmose had another son, Wadjmose, and two daughters, Hatshepsut and Nefrubity, by Ahmose. Wadjmose died before his father, and Nefrubity died as an infant.[6] Thutmose had one son by another wife, Mutnofret. This son succeeded him as Thutmose II, whom Thutmose I married to his daughter, Hatshepsut.[6] It was later recorded by Hatshepsut that Thutmose willed the kingship to both Thutmose II and Hatshepsut. However, this is considered to be propaganda by Hatshepsut's supporters to legitimise her claim to the throne when she later assumed power.[7]

[edit] Dates and length of reign

A heliacal rising of Sothis was recorded in the reign of Thutmose's predecessor, Amenhotep I, which has been dated to 1517 BC, assuming the observation was made at either Heliopolis or Memphis.[8] The year of Amenhotep's death and Thutmose's subsequent coronation can be accordingly derived, and is dated to 1506 BC by most modern scholars. However, if the observation were made at Thebes, as a minority of scholars promote, Thutmose would have been crowned in 1526 BC.[9] Manetho records that Thutmose I's reign lasted 12 Years and 9 Months (or 13 Years) as a certain Mephres in his Epitome.[10] This data is supported by 2 dated inscriptions from Years 8 and 9 of his reign bearing his cartouche found inscribed on a stone block in Karnak.[11] Accordingly, Thutmose is usually given a reign from 1506 BC to 1493 BC in the low chronology, but a minority of scholars would date him from 1526 BC to 1513 BC[8]

[edit] Military achievements

Upon Thutmose's coronation, Nubia rebelled against Egyptian rule. According to the tomb autobiography of Ahmose, son of Ebana, Thutmose travelled down the Nile and fought in the battle, personally killing the Nubian king.[12] Upon victory, he had the Nubian king's body hung from the prow of his ship, before he returned to Thebes.[12] After that campaign, he led a second expedition against Nubia in his third year in the course of which he ordered the canal at the first cataract--which had been built under Sesostris III of the 12th Dynasty--to be dredged in order to facilitate easier travel upstream from Egypt to Nubia. This helped integrate Nubia into the Egyptian empire.[6] This expedition is mentioned in two separate inscriptions by the king's son Thure:[13]

“ Year 3, first month of the third season, day 22, under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Aakheperre who is given life. His Majesty commanded to dig this canal after he found it stopped up with stones [so that] no [ship sailed upon it];

Year 3, first month of the third season, day 22. His Majesty sailed this canal in victory and in the power of his return from overthrowing the wretched Kush.[14]

In the second year of Thutmose's reign, the king cut a stele at Tombos, which records that he built a fortress at Tombos, near the third cataract, thus permanently extending the Egyptian military presence, which had previously stopped at Buhen, at the second cataract.[15] This indicates that he already fought a campaign in Syria; hence, his Syrian campaign may be placed at the beginning of his second regnal year.[16] This second campaign was the farthest north any Egyptian ruler had ever campaigned. Although it has not been found in modern times, he apparently set up a stele when he crossed the Euphrates River.[17] During this campaign, the Syrian princes declared allegiance to Thutmose. However, after he returned, they discontinued tribute and began fortifying against future incursions.[6] Thutmose celebrated his victories with an elephant hunt in the area of Niy, near Apamea in Syria,[5] and returned to Egypt with strange tales of the Euphrates, "that inverted water which flows upstream when it ought to be flowing downstream."[6] The Euphrates was the first major river which the Egyptians had ever encountered which flowed from the north, which was downstream on the Nile, to the south, which was upstream on the Nile. Thus the river became known in Egypt as simply, "inverted water."[6]

Thutmose had to face one more military threat, another rebellion by Nubia in his fourth year.[16] His influence accordingly expanded even farther south, as an inscription dated to his reign has been found as far south as Kurgus, which was south of the fourth cataract.[17] During his reign, he initiated a number of projects which effectively ended Nubian independence for the next 500 years. He enlarged a temple to Sesostris III and Khnum, opposite the Nile from Semna.[18] There are also records of specific religious rites which the viceroy of El-Kab was to have performed in the temples in Nubia in proxy for the king.[19] He also appointed a man called Turi to the position of viceroy of Cush, also known as the "King's Son of Cush."[20] With a civilian representative of the king permanently established in Nubia itself, Nubia did not dare to revolt as often as it had and was easily controlled by future Egyptian kings.[16]

[edit] Building projects

Thutmose I organized great building projects during his reign, including many temples and tombs, but his greatest projects were at the Temple of Karnak under the supervision of the architect Ineni.[21]. Previous to Thutmose, Karnak probably consisted only of a long road to a central platform, with a number of shrines for the solar bark along the side of the road.[22] Thutmose was the first king to drastically enlarge the temple. Thutmose had the fifth pylon built along the temple's main road, along with a wall to run around the inner sanctuary and two flagpoles to flank the gateway.[22] Outside of this, he built a fourth pylon and another enclosure wall.[22] Between pylons four and five, he had a hypostyle hall constructed, with columns made of cedar wood. This type of structure was common in ancient Egyptian temples, and supposedly represents a papyrus marsh, an Egyptian symbol of creation.[23] Along the edge of this room he built colossal statues, each one alternating wearing the crown of Upper Egypt and the crown of Lower Egypt.[22] Finally, outside of the fourth pylon, he erected four more flagpoles[22] and two obelisks, although one of them, which now has fallen, was not inscribed until Thutmose III inscribed it about 50 years later.[21] The cedar columns in Thutmose I's hypostyle hall were replaced with stone columns by Thutmose III, however at least the northernmost two were replaced by Thutmose I himself.[21] Hatshepsut also erected two of her own obelisks inside of Thutmose I's hypostyle hall.[22]

In addition to Karnak, Thutmose I also built statues of the Ennead at Abydos, buildings at Armant, Ombos, el-Hiba, Memphis, and Edfu, as well as minor expansions to buildings in Nubia, at Semna, Buhen, Aniba, and Quban.[24]

Thutmose I was the first king who definitely was buried in the Valley of the Kings.[17] Ineni was commissioned to dig this tomb, and presumably to build his mortuary temple.[5] His mortuary temple has not been found, quite possibly because it was incorporated into or demolished by the construction of Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri.[25] His tomb, however, has been identified as KV32. In it was found a yellow quartzite sarcophagus bearing the name of Thutmose I.[2] His body, however, may have been moved by Thutmose III into the tomb of Hatshepsut, KV20, which also contains a sarcophagus with the name of Thutmose I on it.[17]

[edit] Death & Burial

Thutmose I was originally buried and then reburied in KV20 in a double burial with his daughter Hatshepsut rather than KV38 which could only have been built for Thutmose I during the reign of his grandson Tuthmose III based on "a recent re-examination of the architecture and contents of KV38."[26] The location of KV20, if not its original owner, had long been known since the Napoleonic expedition of 1799 and, in 1844, the Prussian scholar Karl Richard Lepsius had partially explored its upper passage.[27] However, all its passageways "had become blocked by a solidified mass of rubble, small stones and rubbish which had been carried into the tomb by floodwaters" and it was not until the 1903-1904 excavation season that Howard Carter, after 2 previous seasons of strenuous work, was able to clear its corridors and enter its double burial chamber.[28] Here, among the debris of broken pottery and shattered stone vessels from the burial chamber and lower passages were the remnants of two vases made for Queen Ahmose Nefertari which formed part of the original funerary equipment of Thutmose I; one of the vases contained a secondary inscription which states that Thutmose II "[made it] as his monument to his father."[29] Other vessels which bore the names and titles of Thutmose I had also been inscribed by his son and successor, Thutmose II, as well as fragments of stone vessels made for Hatshepsut before she herself became king as well as other vessels which bore her royal name of 'Maatkare' which would have been made only after she took the throne in her own right.[30]

Hatshepsut donated this quartzite sarcophagus which was made in her reign for the reburial of her father, Thutmose I, in KV20 (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston)

Carter, however, also discovered 2 separate coffins in the burial chamber. The beautifully carved sarcophagus of Hatshepsut "was discovered open with no sign of a body, and with the lid lying discarded on the floor;" it is now housed in the Cairo Museum along with a matching yellow quartzite canopic chest.[31] A second sarcophagus, was found lying on its side with its almost undamaged lid propped against the wall nearby; it was eventually presented to Theodore M. Davis, the excavation's financial sponsor as a gesture of appreciation for his generous financial support.[32] Davis would, in turn, present it to the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. The second quartzite sarcophagus had originally been engraved with the name of "the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare Hatchepsut."[33] However, when the sarcophagus was complete, Hatshepsut decided to commission an entirely new sarcophagus for herself while she donated the existing finished sarcophagus to her father, Thutmose I.[34] The stonemasons then attempted to erase the original carvings by restoring the surface of the quartzite so that it could be re-carved with the name and titles of Tuthmose I instead. This quartzite sarcophagus measures 7 feet long by 3 feet wide with walls 5 inches thick and bears a dedication text which records Hatshepsut's generosity towards her father:

“ ...long live the Female Horus...The king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare, the son of Re, Hatchepsut-Khnemet-Amun! May she live forever! She made it as her monument to her father whom she loved, the Good God, Lord of the Two Lands, Aakheperkare, the son of Re, Thutmosis the justified.[35]

Tuthmose I was, however, not destined to lie alongside his daughter after Hatshepsut's death. Thutmose III, Hatshepsut's successor, decided to reinter his grandfather in an even more magnificient tomb, KV38, which featured another yellow sarcophagus dedicated to Thutmose I and inscribed with texts which proclaimed this pharaoh's love for his deceased grandfather.[36] Unfortunately, however, Thutmose I's remains would be disturbed late during the 20th dynasty when KV38 was plundered; the sarcophagus' lid was broken and all this king's valuable precious jewellry and grave goods were stolen.[37]

Thutmose I's mummy was ultimately discovered in the Deir el-Bahri Cache above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, revealed in 1881. He had been interred along with those of other 18th and 19th dynasty leaders Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses IX, as well as the 21st dynasty pharaohs Pinedjem I, Pinedjem II, and Siamun.

The original coffin of Thutmose I was taken over and re-used by a later pharaoh of the 21st dynasty. The mummy of Thutmose I was thought to be lost, but Egyptologist Gaston Maspero, largely on the strength of familial resemblance to the mummies of Thutmose II and Thutmose III, believed he had found his mummy in the otherwise unlabelled mummy #5283.[38] This identification has been supported by subsequent examinations, revealing that the embalming techniques used came from the appropriate period of time, almost certainly after that of Ahmose I and made during the course of the Eighteenth dynasty. [39]

Gaston Maspero described the mummy in the following manner:

The king was already advanced in age at the time of his death, being over fifty years old, to judge by the incisor teeth, which are worn and corroded by the impurities of which the Egyptian bread was full. The body, though small and emaciated, shows evidence of unusual muscular strength; the head is bald, the features are refined, and the mouth still bears an expression characteristic of shrewdness and cunning.[38]

What has been thought to be his mummy can be viewed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. However, in 2007, Dr. Zahi Hawass announced that the mummy which was previously thought to be Thutmose I [is] that of a thirty year old man who had died as a result of an arrow wound to the chest. Because of the young age of the mummy and the cause of death, it was determined that the mummy was probably not that of King Thutmose I himself.[40]

[edit] See also

• History of Ancient Egypt

• Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree

Forrás / Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_I

I. Thotmesz [szerkesztés]

Megtekintett lap (+/-)

A Wikipédiából, a szabad enciklopédiából.

Egyiptomi fáraó

XVIII. dinasztia

Elődje:

I. Amenhot

Utódja:

II. Thotmesz

I. Thotmesz

Thutmózisz

Uralkodása i. e. 1504–1492

Prenomen

Aaheperkaré

Ré lelke hatalmas

Nomen

Thotmesz

Thot gyermeke

Apja ismeretlen

Anyja Szenszoneb

Főfelesége Ahmesz

Mellékfeleségek Mutnofret

Gyermekei Hatsepszut, II. Thotmesz, Noferubiti, Amenmosze, Uadzsmesz, Ramosze (?)

Sírja KV20 (?)

Fontosabb

építkezései A karnaki templom 4. és 5. pülónja, egy oszlopcsarnok és két obeliszk

I. Thotmesz az ókori egyiptomi XVIII. dinasztia harmadik fáraója. A gyermektelenül meghalt I. Amenhotepet követte a trónon. Származása nem ismert, feltételezhető, hogy vagy vér szerinti rokona az uralkodó dinasztiának, vagy házasság útján került a családba. Ő az első fáraó, aki bizonyítottan a Királyok völgyét választotta temetkezési helyül.

Fia, II. Thotmesz követte a trónon, de az igazi hatalom leánya, Hatsepszut kezében lehetett, aki később trónra lépett, és feliratai szerint apja kijelölt örököse volt.

Tartalomjegyzék [elrejtés]

1 Családi háttere

2 Uralkodása

2.1 Hadjáratai

2.2 Építkezései

3 Sírja és múmiája

4 Név, titulatúra

5 Hivatkozások


Családi háttere [szerkesztés]

Származása a homályba vész – szülei közül csak anyja, Szenszoneb neve ismert, akinek egyetlen címe: „a király anyja”, tehát nem lehetett az uralkodócsalád tagja.[1] Lehetséges, hogy apja herceg volt; feltételezték, hogy talán Szekenenré Ta-aa fiatalon elhunyt fia, Jahmesz-Szipair volt az, akit szokatlanul sok helyen ábrázoltak és még nemzedékekkel később is tiszteletben tartottak annak ellenére, hogy nem lépett trónra.[2] Ennek ellentmond, hogy Jahmesz-Szipair gyermekként halt meg.[3] Ettől függetlenül elképzelhető, hogy a királyi család valamelyik tagja volt az apja.

Két feleségéről tudunk. Ahmesz volt a nagy királyi hitves, annak ellenére, hogy címei Mutnofret tűnik előkelőbb származásúnak. Ahmesznek „a király testvére” címéről nem tudni, melyik fáraóra utal, lehetséges, hogy Amenhotepre, ebben az esetben viszont kérdéses, hogy akkor miért nem viseli sehol „a király leánya” címet, amit Mutnofret viselt. Lehetséges, hogy valójában Thotmesz testvére volt, és a fáraó trónra lépése után házasodtak össze, követve a hagyományt, mely Ozirisz és Ízisz házasságát tartotta példának, hogy a fáraó a testvérét veszi feleségül.[4] Mutnofret valószínűleg I. Amenhotep testvére volt.[5]

Gyermekei közül a két lánynak, Hatsepszutnak és Noferubitinek Ahmesz volt az anyja, Thotmesznek pedig Mutnofret. Thotmeszen kívül még legalább két fia ismert: az elsőszülött Amenmosze, valamint Uadzsmesz, akik még apjuk életében meghaltak. Egy esetleges további gyermek még Ramosze herceg. Ezekről a hercegekről nem tudni pontosan, ki volt az anyjuk, de valószínűbb, hogy Mutnofret alakja látszik mellettük a fáraó halotti templomában. Amennyiben igaz a feltételezés, hogy Ahmesz Thotmesz testvére volt és csak Thotmesz trónra lépésekor házasodtak össze, Amenmosze és Uadzsmesz nem lehettek Ahmesz gyermekei, mivel még apjuk uralkodása előtt kellett születniük.[6]

Uralkodása [szerkesztés]

Lehetséges, és a körülmények közt célszerűnek is tűnik, hogy I. Amenhotep még életében kinevezte Thotmeszt társuralkodónak, de erre az egyetlen bizonyíték Amenhotep karnaki kápolnája, melyben Thotmeszt uralkodóként ábrázolják, és nem lehet megállapítani, a kép még Amenhotep életében készült-e.[7]

Hadjáratai [szerkesztés]

Thotmesz núbiai hadjárata valószínűleg a 2.-3. uralkodási évben zajlott le. Sírja feliratain beszámol róla Jahmesz, Abana fia és Jahmesz Pennehbet, valamint Turi, a núbiai alkirály, illetve fennmaradt egy leírás egy királyfeliraton is a 3. katarakta közelében.[8] Mikor hazafelé tartott, hajója orráról fejjel lefelé lógatta a núbiai főnök testét. A sikeres hadjárat véget vetett a Kerma központú kusita állam hatalmának, mely így nem fenyegette tovább Egyiptomot.[9][10]

Ezt követte a rövid szíriai hadjárat, melynek leírása szintén fennmaradt Jahmesz, Abana fia és Jahmesz Pennehbet sírjában, valamint Hatsepszut is utal rá Deir el-Bahari-i templomában. Ekkor került Egyiptom először összeütközésbe az erősödő Mitanni vazallusaival. Az egyiptomi seregek egészen az Eufráteszig eljutottak, de nagyobb csatákra még nem került sor, lehetséges, hogy a fáraó úgy ítélte meg, az ellenfél túlerőben van.[11][12]

Építkezései [szerkesztés]

Valószínűleg I. Thotmeszt ábrázoló kora XVIII. dinasztia korabeli szobor KarnakbólNúbia legyőzésével Egyiptomra a legnagyobb veszély már nem délről, hanem keletről leselkedett, ahol Kádes, Mitanni és a hettiták egyesíteni kezdték erőiket. Thotmesz hatalmas kaszárnyát épített Memphiszben, ami jókatonai támaszpontként tudott funkcionálni a térségben.[10]

A karnaki templomban Thotmesz folytatta az I. Amenhotep által megkezdett oszlopos körfolyosót, és két új pülónt emelt új bejáratnak, a mai negyedik és ötödik pülónt.[13] Befejezte elődje alabástromkápolnájának díszítését is.[8] A főbejárat elé két vörösgránit-obeliszket emeltetett aranyozott csúccsal; magasságuk 19,5 méteres volt.[14] Ezek egyike ma is áll a karnaki Ámon-templomban; a 12. legmagasabb ma is álló ókori egyiptomi obeliszk a világon.[15] Montu szentélykörzetétől keletre kis templomot emeltetett.[16]

Fennmaradt a neve olyan fontos kultuszhelyeken is, mint Gíza és Abüdosz. Thotmesz valószínűleg hatalma legitimitását igyekezett hangsúlyozni azzal, hogy építkezett a királyok isteni kultuszának központjaiban. Abüdoszban, Ozirisz kultuszhelyén egy sztélé Ozirisz leszármazottjának nyilvánítja Thotmeszt; itt kezd kibontakozni a királynak az istentől való származását hangsúlyozó ideológia, mely Hatsepszut és III. Amenhotep uralkodása alatt még jelentősebbé válik.[17]

Thotmesz főépítésze Ineni volt, aki már I. Amenhotep alatt is betöltötte ezt a posztot. Sírjában talált önéletrajza tanúsítja, hogy ő felügyelte a fáraó sírjának kialakítását is a Királyok völgyében.[14]

Sírja és múmiája [szerkesztés]

Thotmesz kb. 12 évnyi uralkodás után hunyt el, nagyjából ötvenéves korában.[18] Mint a család uralmának megalapozóját, utódai nagy tiszteletben tartották, különösen lánya, Hatsepszut, és unokája, III. Thotmesz, aki megvalósította Egyiptom ázsiai terjeszkedéséről szőtt terveit.[19]

Még nem tudni pontosan, melyik sírt építtette magának Thotmesz és hol helyezték végső nyugalomra. Korábban a KV38-as sírt tartották annak a sírnak, amelyet Ineni felügyeletével építtetett, és ahová eltemették, későbbi vizsgálatok azonban a sírt III. Thotmesz idejére datálják.[20] Lehetséges, hogy a Hatsepszut sírjaként is szolgáló KV20 volt az eredeti sírja, később pedig III. Thotmesz újratemettette a nagyobb és szebb kialakítású KV38-ban, ahol sárga kvarcitszarkofágot helyezett el számára.[21]

Eredeti koporsóját később, a XXI. dinasztia idején egy másik fáraó, I. Pinodzsem temetéséhez használták fel, Thotmesz testét pedig sok más királyi múmiával együtt a DB320-as sírba szállították, ahol 1881-ben fedezték fel. A múmiát Gaston Maspero azonosította a II. Thotmeszhez és III. Thotmeszhez való hasonlatossága alapján.[22] Thotmesz kb. 155 cm magas volt (az egyiptomi férfiak átlagmagassága 166 cm volt). Röntgenvizsgálatok alapján kételyek merültek ugyan fel a múmia személyazonosságát illetően (túl fiatalnak tűnik ahhoz, hogy Thotmesz lehessen), de a röntgenvizsgálatok nem mindig nyújtanak megbízható eredményt.[23]

Forrás / Source:

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/I._Thotmesz

Thutmose I (Thoth is born)

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Person:153223

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Descendants (Inventory)Lineage 18th Dynasty

Sex Male

Full name (at birth) Thutmose I (Thoth is born)

Other given names Thutmosis, Telepinus

Parents

♀ Senseneb [?]


Wiki-page wikipedia:Thutmose_I

Events

child birth, ♂ w Thutmose II (Thoth is born) [18th Dynasty]

child birth, ♀ Neferubity [?]

child birth, ♀ # Hatsheb-Iset ? (Hagar) [18th Dynasty]

marriage, ♀ Aahmes ? (Queen Ahmose) [18th Dynasty]

child birth, ♂ Wadjmose [?]

-1508 child birth, ♀ Hatshepsut Foremost of Noble Ladies [18th Dynasty] b. -1508 d. -1458

-1506 ? -1493 title, Pharaoh of Egypt

Forrás / Source:

http://en.rodovid.org/wk/Person:153223 -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_I

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Thutmose I, Pharaoh of Egypt's Timeline

-1554
-1554
Thebes, Egypt
-1539
-1539
Age 14
Thebes, Egypt
-1537
-1537
Age 16
Egypt
-1535
-1535
Age 18
Thebes, Egypt
-1512
-1512
Age 41
Thebes, Egypt
-1510
-1510
Age 42
Thebes
-1508
-1508
Age 42
Thebes, Alexander
????
????
Egypt