Urraca I de Castilla y León, reina de Castilla y León (1080 - 1126) MP

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Nicknames: "Queen of /Castille/", "Urraca /Alfonsez/", "of Castile- Urraca de León", "Castilla y Zamora", "Rainha de Castilla y León"
Death: Died in Saldaña, Palencia, Castille and Leon, Spain
Occupation: Reina de Galicia y León 1109 - 1126., Drottning i Kastilien och Leon, Queen of Galicia, León and Castile from 1109 to her death, Reina de Castilla, Rey de Leon, Reina de Castilla y León (1109–1126)., Reina de León y de Castilla (1109–1126)., Queen
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Urraca I de Castilla y León, reina de Castilla y León

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•ID: I38620673 •Name: Urraca DE CASTILLA •Given Name: Urraca •Surname: de Castilla •Sex: F •Birth: 1077 •Death: 08 Mar 1126 in Saladana, Castilla •Change Date: 24 Mar 1999 •Event: Biografia Unknown •Event: Biografia Unknown •Note: REFN: 216

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:846338&id=I38620673 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Urraca de LEON, CASTILLA y ZAMORA Compact Disc #135 Pin #3766644 Pedigree

Sex:  F  

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Event(s)

Birth:   1081 

 ,,CASTILLA,Spain  

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Parents

Father:  Alfonso VI de LEON y I de CASTILLA     Disc #135     Pin #3769335   

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Marriage(s)

Spouse:  Pedro Raymundo DE BURGUNDIA     Disc #135     Pin #3766643  
Marriage:  1087  
 ,,CASTILLA,Spain  

Spouse:  Alfonso I DE ARAGON     Disc #135     Pin #3766781  
Marriage:    
   

Reina de Castilla (1109-1126)

Urraca

(?, hacia 1079 - Saldaña, Palencia, 1126) Reina de Castilla y León (1109-1126). Es una de las personalidades más polémicas de la Edad Media hispana, pues su reinado coincidió con una de las épocas más tormentosas del incipiente reino de Castilla. Vilipendiada por unos y elevada a los altares por otros, los diferentes juicios de valor efectuados sobre su figura, así como la escasez de fuentes, hacen que el acercamiento objetivo a su biografía sea complejo y delicado, como también lo resulta el calibrar su verdadera aportación a la Edad Media hispana.

Urraca fue la hija primogénita de Alfonso VI, y de la segunda esposa de éste, la reina Constanza de Borgoña. Debió de nacer hacia el año 1079 y, en principio, se desconocen más datos sobre su infancia; es lógico suponer que no tuviera residencia fija, sino que acompañase a la corte itinerante de su padre, el rey Alfonso, y que estuviese presente en la toma de Toledo (1085), verdadero hito de la época por su significado en la reconquista peninsular.

Doña Urraca, Reina de Castilla y León

Hacia el año 1090, cuando la infanta alcanzó edad núbil, Alfonso VI, en virtud de las alianzas existentes entre Castilla y el condado de Borgoña, aceptó casarla con el titular del condado galo, Raimundo de Tolosa. Los esponsales debieron de celebrarse ese mismo año, pues Alfonso VI obsequió a los recientes cónyuges con los condados de Portugal y Galicia; para poder llevar a cabo esta donación, Alfonso VI debió esperar al fallecimiento de su hermano García I, ocurrido aproximadamente en la misma fecha.

En ese momento comenzó la estrecha relación entre doña Urraca y Galicia, primero por la vinculación titulada al territorio y, en segundo lugar y mucho más importante, por la entrada en escena de un personaje clave en el reino castellano de la época: Diego Gelmírez, pariente del obispo de Santiago de Compostela, Diego Peláez. La admiración de Gelmírez por la orden de Cluny le acercó al conde Raimundo, que nombró a Gelmírez, entonces vicario de la diócesis compostelana, su secretario y notario personal y de su casa. Por lo que respecta a la infanta Urraca, esta primer fase de su vida, aproximadamente hasta el año 1106, se caracterizó por cierto anonimato (no es demasiado mencionada en crónicas y documentos de la época), y por su supuesta dedicación al cuidado de sus dos hijos: doña Sancha y don Alfonso, el que iba a ser futuro heredero del trono castellano con el nombre de Alfonso VII.

La sucesión de Alfonso VI

La situación cambió repentinamente a partir de 1107, fecha en la que falleció el conde Raimundo. Urraca pasó a convertirse en firme candidata a hacerse con el trono en tanto su hijo Alfonso alcanzaba la mayoría de edad, toda vez que los cinco matrimonios legales de Alfonso VI no habían deparado un heredero varón. Eso sí, hasta el último momento, Alfonso VI estuvo tentado de nombrar heredero al infante Sancho, más conocido como Sanchico, hijo de una de sus concubinas, la princesa Isabel, que no es otra sino la nimia pulchra Zaida, protagonista de los romances, hija de Abul-Qasin Muhammad II, reyezuelo taifa de Sevilla. Pero este infante falleció siendo un niño, el 30 de mayo de 1108, a manos de los musulmanes victoriosos en la batalla de Uclés. El dolor de esta muerte aceleró la propia de Alfonso VI, acontecida al año siguiente.

Antes de morir, quedaba por finiquitar una cuestión: ¿convenía a doña Urraca contraer nuevo matrimonio? La nobleza castellano-leonesa comenzó a mover los hilos para que el candidato fuese Gómez González, conde de Candespina, uno de los más poderosos señores feudales de Castilla. Alfonso VI convocó a todos los prelados del reino a un consejo y decidió casarla con el monarca aragonés, Alfonso el Batallador, ceremonia que se celebró en el castillo de Muñón poco antes del fallecimiento de Alfonso VI, en 1109. Parece que la desconfianza de su nobleza cegó al monarca castellano, ya que, por no someter al reino a las luchas aristocráticas, acabó por involucrar en los asuntos castellanos al que era entonces el mayor dominador territorial de la península: Alfonso, monarca de Aragón, de Navarra y ahora rey consorte de Castilla.

A pesar de esta decisión, Alfonso VI no pudo evitar totalmente las luchas aristocráticas. Es bastante probable (sobre todo visto el devenir posterior del enlace) que fuese verdadera la negativa de la propia Urraca a casar con el monarca aragonés, y, por la misma senda de la sospecha, que su pasión hacia el conde de Candespina, Gómez González, fuera asimismo cierta. Alrededor del conde de Candespina, que contaba con el apoyo del arzobispo de Toledo, don Bernardo (arma importantísima de la Iglesia, dada la consaguinidad de los cónyuges), se conformó el primer grupo de poder en la corte castellana. El segundo fue encabezado por los enemigos de Gómez González, sobre todo el antiguo ayo de la reina Urraca, Pedro Ansúrez, a quien las sospechas señalan como el factótum de que saliese a relucir el nombre de Alfonso el Batallador como esposo de la reina viuda. Un tercer personaje de importancia, que desempeñó un papel fundamental, fue Pedro Froilaz, conde de Traba, ayo del príncipe Alfonso, quien se criaba en tierras gallegas (en Castrelo de Miño), ajeno en principio a todas estas luchas.

Una vez celebrado el enlace, en octubre de 1109, Urraca acompañó a Alfonso hacia tierras aragonesas, donde iba a ser recibida con los honores que merecía. Pero rápidamente, ante la noticia del fallecimiento de Alfonso VI, ambos regresaron de nuevo a Castilla para hacerse cargo de la monarquía. Aunque existían temores de cómo recibirían los castellanos a Alfonso, todos los grandes señores respetaron el luto por el finado monarca y la última decisión de éste, por lo que Alfonso y Urraca pudieron hacerse cargo de todos los enclaves importantes, así como iniciar una política de repoblación en diversos lugares, en especial Belorado, Almazán y Soria.

A pesar de ello, pronto surgieron las primeras desavenencias en el matrimonio, provocadas por los temores de Alfonso el Batallador a que la existencia de un parentesco demasiado estrecho entre él y su esposa (eran primos segundos) hiciese nulo el matrimonio. Para evitar cualquier acción contraria a sus intereses, Alfonso, ante el malestar de Urraca y de buena parte de la aristocracia, no dudó en entregar las fortalezas castellanas más importantes a aragoneses de su séquito, leales a su causa.

Esta decisión fue la que encendió la mecha de la secesión gallega. El conde de Traba, al tener noticia de lo sucedido, se apresuró a proclamar al pequeño Alfonso VII como rey independiente de Galicia. Alfonso el Batallador montó en cólera y se apresuró a dirigir las milicias aragonesas hacia el territorio rebelde. Ante esta noticia, los señores feudales de Galicia comenzaron a reclutar tropas señoriales, en especial Pedro Arias, señor de Deza, su hijo Arias Pérez, y el propio arcediano de Compostela, Gelmírez, que comenzó aquí su intrigante carrera política.

En este punto, las fuentes se contradicen: para la Historia Compostelana, Alfonso el Batallador supo ganarse al concejo de Lugo y al castillo de Monterroso (contrarios al despótico gobierno señorial de Gelmírez y el conde de Traba), desde donde dirigió ataques a los rebeldes que les hicieron desistir de este intento; para el Anónimo de Sahagún, las tropas gallegas lograron que Alfonso claudicase y entablara negociaciones con los nobles gallegos. En cualquier caso, hacia el año 1110, Pedro Froilaz, conde de Traba, ya era muy consciente de que la proclamación de Galicia como reino independiente debería esperar una mejor ocasión. Y, por idéntico motivo, Alfonso el Batallador supo que, mientras el infante Alfonso siguiese en manos del conde de Traba, Galicia sería un grave problema para sus intereses hegemónicos en la política peninsular.

Las desavenencias matrimoniales

A partir de este momento fue cuando verdaderamente tomó relevancia el papel de la reina Urraca tanto en su vertiente política, como en la vertiente íntima de sus problemas con Alfonso el Batallador. De nuevo existen sospechas razonables de que fuese la propia reina, siempre apoyada por el conde de Candespina y por el arzobispo de Toledo, quien forzase el envío al papa Pascual II de las pistas necesarias para declarar nulo el matrimonio por incestuoso. A principios de 1110 la reina y el rey discutieron tan gravemente que doña Urraca optó por abandonar León y refugiarse en el monasterio de Sahagún, en espera de que las bulas pontificias llegasen. Y, entre que llegaban y no, Urraca mantuvo relaciones con el conde de Candespina, Gómez González, con quien tuvo un hijo.

Tal vez ello explique la reacción de Alfonso el Batallador: en septiembre de 1110, después de una breve reconciliación con la reina, sus oficiales la prendieron en Sahagún y la encerraron en la fortaleza aragonesa de El Castellar (Teruel). El siguiente paso fue formar un impresionante ejército (formado por aragoneses en su mayor parte, pero también mercenarios navarros, normandos, franceses e incluso musulmanes), con el objetivo de arrasar Castilla y demostrar quién era el rey. Alfonso, haciendo honor a su apelativo, tomó todas las plazas fuertes del reino, incluyendo Toledo (donde depuso al arzobispo don Bernardo), Sahagún (donde hizo lo propio con el abad), Burgos, Palencia, Osma y Orense.

Ante esta situación, el conde de Candespina encabezó la resistencia castellana y envió al castillo turolense donde se hallaba encerrada Urraca a sus dos hombres de confianza, Pedro de Lara y Gómez Salvadores, para tratar de liberarla, cosa que lograron. Pero, antes de que Urraca pudiese tomar las riendas de Castilla en contra de su esposo, recibió una noticia peor: los nobles gallegos enemigos del conde de Traba, en connivencia con Gelmírez, habían sitiado Castrelo de Miño y secuestrado a su hijo, el príncipe Alfonso.

Por si no hubiera ya demasiados intereses en el conflicto castellano, a ellos se unió la ambición de Enrique de Borgoña, rey de Portugal y cuñado de doña Urraca, pues estaba casado con Teresa, hija también de Alfonso VI. En primer lugar, Enrique de Borgoña se alió con Alfonso el Batallador, que le prometió negociar las conquistas territoriales que se produjesen. De esta forma, aragoneses y lusos formaron un ejército conjunto que se enfrentó al castellano en la batalla del Campo de Espino (cerca de Sepúlveda), el 12 de abril de 1111, contra las tropas dirigidas por Gómez González, conde de Candespina, y su amantísima reina doña Urraca. La victoria sonrió al Batallador y a su aliado portugués, y no sólo la victoria, sino que su principal enemigo, el conde de Candespina, halló la muerte en el campo marcial, para desconsuelo de la reina. Pero la situación daría un vuelco sorprendente días más tarde.

El monarca aragonés entró triunfalmente en Toledo el 18 de abril siguiente, lo que despertó las iras de Enrique de Borgoña, ya que éste se había propuesto como objetivo la cesión de la ciudad imperial. Por otra parte, algunos magnates castellanos, entre los que destacaba el nuevo liderazgo de Pedro de Lara, sitiaron a los aragoneses en Peñafiel. Entonces Enrique tuvo una entrevista secreta con doña Urraca para pasarse a su lado y combatir juntos a Alfonso el Batallador, para lo cual el portugués contó con la presencia de su esposa Teresa, hermana de Urraca, factor que, siguiendo a la leyenda popular, fue un craso error.

Al parecer, y según el vulgo, era tal la enemistad entre ambas hermanas que Urraca tomó una decisión impensable para todos: reconciliarse con su esposo. Reunidos ambos en Carrión de los Condes y hecha pública la reconciliación por todo el reino, los monarcas portugueses reaccionaron con furia, pues procedieron a sitiar la villa palentina. Pero los nobles castellanos y leoneses acudieron en su ayuda, poniendo en fuga a los portugueses y asistiendo a lo que parecía un feliz reencuentro entre rey y reina.

Aún quedaba por dilucidar la espinosa cuestión del infante Alfonso; la reina Urraca accedió a entrevistarse con los principales nobles gallegos, entre ellos Gelmírez, Arias Pérez (el nuevo custodio del futuro Alfonso VII), el conde de Traba y un misterioso Fernando García, de quien se sospecha que pudiera ser hijo del fallecido rey de Galicia, García I. Los rebeldes fueron claros: perdón para todos por los delitos cometidos y proclamación de Alfonso como rey de una Galicia independiente. La respuesta de la madre fue, evidentemente, afirmativa, lo que conllevó el que Alfonso fuera coronado en Santiago de Compostela el 17 de septiembre de 1111, bajo la promesa de que, inmediatamente después de la coronación, el púber Alfonso fuese llevado a León, a brazos de su madre.

Es de suponer que, otra vez, la reacción del monarca aragonés fuese colérica contra su mujer, pues reunió a su ejército y atacó, a mediados de octubre, a la comitiva gallega que transportaba a Alfonso hacia León en el paso de Viadangos (cerca de Astorga). Fernando García falleció en la escaramuza, el conde de Traba fue hecho prisionero y Gelmírez, a duras penas, pudo escapar hacia Galicia llevándose consigo a su rey, ante las lamentaciones de Alfonso y Urraca... pero por motivos distintos, naturalmente.

La coronación de Alfonso como monarca galaico produjo una nueva separación de Urraca y el Batallador, lo que encendió de nuevo la mecha de la guerra civil. Para entonces, el conde don Pedro de Lara se había convertido en influyente amante de Urraca. Hacia la primavera de 1112, Urraca pudo reunirse al fin con su hijo en Galicia, donde también recibió apoyos, subsidios y tropas para enfrentarse a su esposo, que, cegado por la ira, cometió toda clase de tropelías en Castilla. Con los nuevos refuerzos y la dirección de Pedro de Lara, las tropas de doña Urraca resistieron el cerco de Astorga y empujaron al ejército del Batallador hacia Carrión de los Condes.

En aquel momento, los consejeros de ambos monarcas acordaron una nueva tregua basada... en una nueva reconciliación de los beligerantes cónyuges, que se llevó a efecto en el invierno de 1112. La reina Urraca, acompañada de su esposo, viajó hacia Zaragoza para compartir los tesoros de la recientemente conquistada ciudad del Ebro, pero apenas permaneció unos meses: las desavenencias entre ella y su esposo eran insufribles, a pesar de que la llegada de un legado pontificio, el abad de Chiusi, intentó poner un poco de orden en una de las más insólitas parejas de la Historia europea.

En Castilla, entretanto, la guerra continuaba y con buenas noticias para la reina: las tropas que permanecían leales a su causa (dirigidas, obviamente, por Pedro de Lara), se habían hecho con el control de Sahagún, Carrión y Burgos, pero Urraca era plenamente consciente de que dichas conquistas sólo obedecían a que su todavía marido se hallaba más preocupado de la situación en Aragón. Por ello, decidió recurrir a una carta que no había jugado todavía: la del poderoso Diego Gelmírez.

La entrevista se realizó en mayo de 1113, y en ella el taimado Gelmírez pidió lo que más deseaba: que la diócesis compostelana se convirtiese en arzobispado y, naturalmente, que él ocupase el puesto de arzobispo. La reina Urraca le prometió ambas cosas a cambio de ayuda militar, lo que significó la espoleta para un nuevo enfrentamiento entre ella y Alfonso de Aragón. En una acción conjunta, la guarnición aragonesa de Burgos fue sitiada por las tropas de Gelmírez, mientras que Pedro de Lara y el ya veterano Pedro Froilaz, conde de Traba, detuvieron al ejército de refuerzo, dirigido por el propio monarca aragonés, en Villafranca de Montes de Oca. La situación tensa se resolvió de la peor manera posible: a instancias de Gelmírez, Urraca y Alfonso firmaron una nueva reconciliación, que duró tan escaso tiempo como la anterior.

Tampoco puede concretarse, dado el historial anterior, que esta reconciliación fuese más deseada que otras, pero el caso es que la entrada en escena otra vez de su hermana Teresa (ya viuda de Enrique de Borgoña), desencadenó los acontecimientos. Teresa, en busca de una alianza con el rey de Aragón, le informó de que su hermana Urraca planeaba envenenarlo y hacerse con todos sus estados. Esta vez Alfonso el Batallador, sin buscar excesivas pruebas de que fuese cierto el rumor, no montó en cólera, sino que directamente repudió a la reina Urraca, la expulsó de sus reinos y prohibió, bajo pena de muerte, que alguien le diese cobijo.

Urraca, una reina abandonada

La ruptura definitiva con Alfonso el Batallador en 1114 provocó un punto de inflexión, no ya en el devenir de la reina Urraca, sino en todo el reino de Castilla, hastiado de las luchas militares. Hay que destacar que el conflicto latente que subyacía era el existente entre la alta aristocracia castellana, señores feudales, laicos o eclesiásticos, que dominaban sus territorios a todo lance, y entre los incipientes concejos urbanos, siempre dispuestos a recortar el poder señorial de la manera que fuese. Es evidente que mientras los primeros, con mayor o menor gana, cerraron filas hacia la reina, el embrión de la burguesía de los concejos castellanos apoyó siempre a Alfonso el Batallador, que era quien les garantizaba un proyecto político de paz y prosperidad en el ámbito peninsular.

Por esta razón, a partir de 1114 se abrió una etapa negra en el devenir de la reina Urraca: sin apoyo exterior, enemistada con Portugal, Navarra, Aragón y Francia y con la amenaza de los musulmanes en la frontera del Tajo cada vez más latente. Por si fuera poco, parte de su reino (sobre todo el grupo burgués antes mencionado) se mostraba abiertamente partidario de Alfonso, a quienes se unieron ciertos magnates castellanos, hartos de que Pedro de Lara, rey de facto, se pasease por el territorio con ínfulas de rey. Pero aún había otro problema mayor: Gelmírez.

Estatua de Doña Urraca

El verdadero dominador de la situación era el ya obispo de Santiago, quien, con la ayuda del conde de Traba, impulsaba cada vez más la autonomía del reino de Galicia, esgrimiendo a Alfonso como baluarte, pues sabía que la reina jamás iría en contra de su hijo. Claro que, desde la perspectiva de la reina, eran dos cosas distintas. En una de sus muchas demostraciones de carácter, y cuando peor parecían marcharle las cosas, por dos veces Urraca entró en Santiago de Compostela para prender al obispo y por dos veces éste se escapó, pero no se pudo evitar que la discordia civil se encendiese de nuevo.

Ante los recurrentes desmanes cometidos por el ejército comandado por Pedro de Lara, Gelmírez recurrió a la ayuda de Teresa de Portugal, que le envió tropas para que sitiasen a Urraca en el castillo de Sobroso, fronterizo con Portugal. A su vez, Urraca logró que se uniesen a su causa los habitantes de Santiago de Compostela, hartos del gobierno despótico de Gelmírez. El caso es que las guerras asolaban otra vez Galicia y en el horizonte no se veía una solución inminente, a pesar de que Urraca y Gelmírez firmaron una especie de tregua en Tierra de Campos a principios de 1117.

El golpe de gracia lo dio tal vez el personaje más férreo y clarividente de una época en que tales valores no parecían demasiado abundantes: Pedro Froilaz, el conde de Traba. Éste se hallaba junto al ya adolescente Alfonso en Toledo, donde el futuro rey velaba sus primeras armas contra los musulmanes. Enterado de las noticias que venían del norte, el conde resolvió llevar a Alfonso a Galicia, donde el joven príncipe expuso sus derechos a la corona de Galicia y a la de Castilla, instando a su madre a la concordia. Así, en mayo de 1117, Gelmírez y Urraca firmaron el llamado pacto del Tambre, que puso fin a los conflictos bélicos y que, de manera más que evidente, consolidó el futuro de Alfonso en el trono castellano.

Resulta complejo el determinar, aun con el paso de los tiempos, cuáles fueron las motivaciones que impulsaron a doña Urraca en sus últimos años para continuar en la brecha bélica, sobre todo con la cuestión de Santiago de Compostela. Uno de los hitos de su vida tuvo lugar el mismo año de 1117, durante nuevas conversaciones entre reina y obispo en la capital jacobea que derivaron en motín. Urraca y Gelmírez tuvieron que refugiarse en la torre del palacio episcopal, pues los insurrectos habían prendido fuego a la catedral en busca de venganza.

Cuando por fin el populacho halló el escondite de reina y obispo, las reacciones de ambos bastan para situar a cada uno en el lugar que le corresponde: Gelmírez arrancó la capa a un pobre vagabundo y escapó embozado, trepando por los tejados de la ciudad hasta refugiarse en la iglesia de Santa María. La reina Urraca fue violentamente atacada y despojada de sus ropas; pero aun así, en paños menores, plantó cara a los amotinados y les conminó a que expusiesen sus quejas, ayudando con ello a calmar la violenta situación. Finalmente, accedió a relevar a Gelmírez como señor jurisdiccional de la ciudad y a reponer la justicia. Incluso en tales circunstancias vergonzantes, una reina debía comportarse como una reina.

Tal vez otra muestra más de carácter sea el que no cumplió nada de lo prometido, sino que, con la ayuda del conde de Traba, llevó a cabo una violenta represión contra quienes habían protagonizado el motín. Eso sí: jamás perdonó a Gelmírez y, de hecho, sus últimos años se caracterizaron por el respeto a la figura de su hijo, a todas luces el personaje dominante tras una época confusa (Pedro de Lara también había fallecido ya), pero también por continuar con la implacable persecución contra el obispo compostelano, al que llegó a hacer prisionero en 1121. Pero para entonces las cosas habían cambiado y Gelmírez se había ganado la simpatía de los compostelanos por haber organizado la exitosa defensa de las costas gallegas del año anterior, en la que repelió un ataque de piratas almorávides.

Para frenar las ansias de su madre contra el arzobispo (historia truculenta donde las haya), Alfonso, a la sazón un joven ya de veinte años, se armó caballero en la catedral de Santiago en 1124, ceremonia que significó la retirada de la escena política de Urraca, para alivio de Gelmírez. La indómita reina castellana falleció en Saldaña, el 8 de marzo de 1126, y su hijo heredó sin mayor problema el reino de Castilla y León.

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http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urraca_de_Le%C3%B3n_y_Castilla

Fue encerrada por su marido, Alfonso I de Aragon en 1111 en la Fortaleza de Castellar.

El matrimonio fue declarado nulo en 1113.

Murio en 1126. Luchó largo tiempo contra su segundo marido, Alfonso I "El Batallador", Rey de Aragón, y contra su hijo Alfonso IV, habido en primeras nupcias con Raimundo de Borgoña, a quien los castellanos habían reconocido por Rey.

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Urraca of León and Castile

Urraca of León (1078 – March 8, 1126) was Queen of León and Castile from 1109 to her death. She was the first woman ever to reign in a western European monarchy. Urraca was the daughter of Alfonso VI of León by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy. She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Uclés (1108).

In childhood, she was betrothed to and later married Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). The widow Urraca was now ruler of Galicia, and as She her father's only surviving legitimate child, she could claim to be heiress of the reign of Castile. King Alfonso VI of León selected the king of Navarre and Aragon, Alfonso I of Aragon as her husband. They had hoped for an alliance that would safeguard the kingdom, since Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. However, the marriage proved barren and turned exceedingly bitter. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

Urraca and Alfonso of Aragon were also second cousins, and Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo, objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguineous. Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón. Their inability to produce a child created a rift, and Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. The royal couple were soon separated. By October of 1110 or 1111, her supporters fought a battle against Alfonso's forces at Candespina, in which her premier nobleman and former aspirant to her hand, count Gómez González, was killed. A further defeat was inflicted at Viadangos, at which Pedro Froilaz de Traba was captured. Their marriage was annulled in 1114. Urraca never remarried, though she took as lover another powerful nobleman, count Pedro González de Lara.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry, the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon. He alternatively allied with Alfonso I of Aragon, then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.

According to the Chronicon Compostellanum, Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The supposed father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. However the author of the chronicles was openly hostile to the adulterous queen, and the historian Reilly notes that a pregnancy was unlikely at the queen's age of 48. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII.

Illegitimate children

Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover, Pedro González de Lara. She recognized their son, Fernando Perez Furtado, in 1123.

External links

   * Reilly, Bernard F. "The Kingdom of León-Castilla under Queen Urraca, 1109-1126"
   * Reilly, Bernard F. The Medieval Spains, 1993.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urraca_of_Le%C3%B3n_and_Castile

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Urraca of León and Castile

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Urraca of León

Urraca of León (1078 – March 8, 1126) was Queen of León and Castile from 1109 to her death. She was the first woman ever to reign in a western European monarchy. Urraca was the daughter of Alfonso VI of León by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy. She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Ucles in 1108.

She was married, as a child, to Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). Now a widow, Urraca was ruler of Galicia. She was also her father's only surviving legitimate child, and now the heiress to Castile. King Alfonso VI of León selected a new husband for her. His choice fell on Alfonso I of Aragon who he hoped would safeguard the kingdom. Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

Urraca and Alfonso of Aragon were related within forbidden degrees, being second cousins. Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo, objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguineous. Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón. Their inability to produce a child created a rift between them and Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. The royal couple were separated and in October of 1110 or 1111 her supporters fought a battle against Alfonso's forces at Candespina, in which her premier nobleman and former aspirant to her hand, count Gómez González, was killed. Another defeat was inflicted at Viadangos, at which Pedro Froilaz de Traba was captured. Their marriage was annulled in 1114. Urraca never remarried though she took as lover another powerful nobleman, count Pedro González de Lara.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry, the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon. He alternatively allied with Alfonso I of Aragon, then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.

According to the Chronicon Compostellanum, Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII.Reilly counsels that the alleged cause of death is unlikely given her age and the author's hostility towards an adulterous queen

[edit] Illegitimate children

Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover, Pedro González de Lara. She recognized their son, Fernando Perez Furtado, in 1123.

[edit] External links

   * Reilly, Bernard F. "The Kingdom of León-Castilla under Queen Urraca, 1109-1126"
   * Reilly, Bernard F. The Medieval Spains, 1993.

Preceded by:

Alfonso VI Queen of Castile

1109–1126 Succeeded by:

Alfonso VII

Queen of León

1109–1126

Preceded by

Bertha of Italy Queen consort of Navarre

1109–1114 Succeeded by

Marguerite de l'Aigle

Preceded by

Bertha of Aragon Queen consort of Aragon

1104–1126 Succeeded by

Agnes of Aquitaine

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urraca_of_Le%C3%B3n_and_Castile"

Categories: 1078 births | 1126 deaths | House of Jiménez | Queens of León | Queens regnant | Navarrese royal consorts | Women in Medieval warfare | Women of medieval Spain | 12th-century Spanish people

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Urraca of Castile (1082 – March 8, 1126) was Queen of Castile and León from 1109 to her death. She was the daughter of Alfonso VI of Castile by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy. She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Ucles in 1108.

She was married, as a child, to Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). Now a widow, Urraca was ruler of Galicia. She was also her father's only surviving legitimate child, and now the heiress to Castile. King Alfonso VI selected a new husband for her. His choice fell on Alfonso I of Aragon who he hoped would safeguard the kingdom. Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".


Urraca and Alfonso of Aragon were related within forbidden degrees. Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo, objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguinous. Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón. Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. Their inability to produce a child created a further rift between them. The royal couple were separated by 1111 and their marriage was annulled in 1114. Urraca never remarried though she took several lovers, including Count Gómez González.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry, the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon. He alternatively allied with Alfonso I of Aragon, then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.

According to the Chronicon Compostellanum, Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII.

Illegitimate children:

Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover, Pedro González de Lara. She recognized their son, Fernando Perez Furtado, in 1123.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urraca_of_Castile

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fue reina de León y de Castilla (1109 - 1126).

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Urraca of Castile (1082 – March 8, 1126) was Queen of Castile and León from 1109 to her death. She was the daughter of Alfonso VI of Castile by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy. She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Ucles in 1108.

She was married, as a child, to Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). Now a widow, Urraca was ruler of Galicia. She was also her father's only surviving legitimate child, and now the heiress to Castile. King Alfonso VI selected a new husband for her. His choice fell on Alfonso I of Aragon who he hoped would safeguard the kingdom. Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

Urraca and Alfonso of Aragon were related within forbidden degrees. Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo, objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguinous. Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón. Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. Their inability to produce a child created a further rift between them. The royal couple were separated by 1111 and their marriage was annulled in 1114. Urraca never remarried though she took several lovers, including Count Gómez González.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry, the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon. He alternatively allied with Alfonso I of Aragon, then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.

According to the Chronicon Compostellanum, Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII.

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Urraca of Castile

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Urraca of Castile (1082 – March 8, 1126) was Queen of Castile and León from 1109 to her death. She was the daughter of Alfonso VI of Castile by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy. She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Ucles in 1108.

She was married, as a child, to Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). Now a widow, Urraca was ruler of Galicia. She was also her father's only surviving legitimate child, and now the heiress to Castile. King Alfonso VI selected a new husband for her. His choice fell on Alfonso I of Aragon who he hoped would safeguard the kingdom. Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

Urraca and Alfonso of Aragon were related within forbidden degrees. Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo, objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguinous. Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón. Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. Their inability to produce a child created a further rift between them. The royal couple were separated by 1111 and their marriage was annulled in 1114. Urraca never remarried though she took several lovers, including Count Gómez González.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry, the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon. He alternatively allied with Alfonso I of Aragon, then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.

According to the Chronicon Compostellanum, Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII.

[edit]Illegitimate children

Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover, Pedro González de Lara. She recognized their son, Fernando Perez Furtado, in 1123.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urraca_of_Le%C3%B3n

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Urraca of León and Castile (b. April 1079 – March 8, 1126) was Queen regnant of León, Castile, and Galicia, and claimed the imperial title as suo jure Empress of All the Spains[1] from 1109 until her death in childbirth. Urraca was the eldest surviving child of Alfonso VI of León with his second wife Constance of Burgundy, and was heiress presumptive from her birth until 1107, when her father recognized his illegitimate son Sancho as his heir. Urraca became heiress presumptive again after Sancho’s death the following year in 1108 when he was killed at the Battle of Uclés (1108).

Urraca’s placement in the line of succession made her the focus of dynastic politics, and Urraca was made a child bride at age eight to Raymond of Burgundy, a mercenary adventurer and grand-nephew of Urraca’s mother.[2][3][4] Urraca's marriage to the Burgundian was part of Alfonso VI's diplomatic strategy to attract cross-Pyrenees alliances. However, after Raymond died in 1107, Urraca’s father contracted with Alfonso I of Aragon, known as the Batallador, for a dynastic marriage between him and Urraca, opening the opportunity for uniting León-Castile with Aragón. Marriage negotiations where still underway when Alfonso VI died and Urraca became queen.[5] Urraca protested against the marriage though honored her late father’s wishes (and the Royal Council's earnest advice) and continued with the marriage negotiations, though she and her father’s closest advisers were growing weary of Aragón’s demands.[6]

Urraca married Alfonso I of Aragon but almost immediately their marriage sparked oppositional rebellions in Galicia, scheming by her illegitimate half-sister Theresa and her husband Henry, Count of Portugal, and rumblings elsewhere.[7] As their relationship soured, Urraca accused Alfonso of physical abuse and by May 1110 Urraca separated from Alfonso.[8] Estrangement between husband and wife escalated from discrete and simmering hostilities into open armed warfare between the Leonese-Castilians and Aragonese, however by the fall of 1112 a truce was brokered between Urraca and Alfonso I of Aragon with their marriage annulled. Though Urraca recovered Asturias, Leon, and Galicia, Alfonso VI occupied a significant portion of Castile (where Urraca enjoyed large support), while her half-sister Theresa and her husband Count Henry of Portugal occupied Zamora and Extremadura. Recovering these regions and expanding into Muslim lands would occupy much of Urraca's foreign policy.

According to author Bernard F. Reilly, the measure of success for Urraca’s rule was her ability to restore and protect the integrity of her inheritance, that is the kingdom of her father, and transmit that inheritance in full to her own heir. Policies and events pursued by Alfonso VI contributed in large part to the challenges Urraca faced upon her succession, namely legitimizing her brother and thereby providing an opportunity for her illegitimate half sister to claim a portion of the patrimony, and also the forced marriage with Alfonso I of Aragon. Additionally, the circumstance of Urraca’s gender added a distinctive role-reversal dimension to diplomacy and politics which Urraca used to her advantage.

Urraca is characterized in the Historia Compostelana as prudent, modest, and with good sense. According to Reilly, the Historia Compostelana also attributes her "failings" to her gender, "the weakness and changeability of women, feminine perversity, and calls her a Jezebel" for her liaisons with her leading magnates, with at least one relationship producing an illegitimate son. These observations were hardly neutral or dispassionate, according to Reilly, who wrote "[T]here is no question that the queen is in control, perhaps all too much in control, of events". Urraca's use of sex in politics should be viewed more as a strategy that provided the queen with allies but without any masters.

As queen, Urraca rose to the challenges presented to her and her solutions were pragmatic ones, according to Reilly, and laid the foundation for the brilliant reign of her son Alfonso VIII who succeeded to the throne of a kingdom whole and at peace at Urraca’s death in 1126. Urraca would be the last of the House of Jiménez to reign, her son being of the House of Burgundy (Casa de Borgoña).

[edit] Notes

1.^ The actual title in the text is Queen of Spain (Ispanie regina), a title analogous to that of Imperator totius Hispaniae, according to Bernard F. Reilly

2.^ Klapisch-Zuber, Christine; A History of Women: Book II Silences of the Middle Ages, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. 1992, 2000 (5th printing). Chapter 6, "Women in the Fifth to the Tenth Century" by Suzanne Fonay Wemple, pg 74. Spainish law allowed women to inherit land and title. According to Wemple, Visigothic women of Spain and the Aquitaine could inherit land and title and manage it independently of their husbands, and dispose of it as they saw fit if they had no heirs, and represent themselves in court, appear as witnesses (over the age of 14), and arrange their own marriages over the age of twenty

3.^ Author Bernard F. Reilly suggest that rather then a betrothal, Raymond of Burgundy was fully wedded to the eight year old Urraca as Raymond almost immediately appears in protocol documents as Alfonso VI's son-in-law, a distinction that would not have been made without the marriage

4.^ Reilly doubts that the marriage was consummated until Urraca was 13, as Urraca was placed under the protective guardianship of a trusted magnate. However, Urraca's pregnancy and stillbirth at age 14 suggests the marriage was consummated when she was 13 or 14 years old.

5.^ Many of Alfonso VI’s advisers and leading magnets in the kingdom formed a “quiet opposition” to the Urraca Alfonso I of Aragon match, in part, according to Bernard F. Reilly, for fear of what influence he may attempt to wield over the Urraca.

6.^ Alfonso VI's closest advisers were initially "quietly opposed" to the match, however, the prospect of Count Henry of Portugal filling any power vacuum moved them towards going through with the marriage. As the events would unfold, these advisers under estimated Urraca's political prowess and later advised her into separating from the marriage. Urraca's permission had to be sought, as according to Spanish law women may contract their own marriages over the age of 20

7.^ With the legitimizing of their half-brother Sancho, Theresa felt she should have been given equal consideration to be queen of the three kingdoms as Urraca was, or felt she was at least entitled to half of Urraca's inheritance.

8.^ In addition to her objections to Alfonso's handling of rebels, Urraca and Alfonso I had a falling-out over his execution of one of the rebels who had surrendered to the queen, to whom the queen was inclined to be merciful. Additionally, as Urraca was married to someone many in the kingdom objected to, Urraca’s son Alfonso Raimundez became a rallying point for opponents to the marriage.

[edit] References

Reilly, Bernard F. (1982). The Kingdom of Leon-Castilla under Queen Urraca. New York: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-69-105-3448-b.

[edit] External links

Reilly, Bernard F. "The Kingdom of León-Castilla under Queen Urraca, 1109-1126"

Reilly, Bernard F. The Medieval Spains, 1993.

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Alfonso VI Empress of Spain

suo jure

1109–1126 Succeeded by

Alfonso VII

Queen of León

1109–1126

Queen of Castile

1109–1126

Queen of Galicia

1109–1111

Royal titles

Preceded by

Bertha of Italy Queen consort of Navarre

1109–1114 Succeeded by

Marguerite de l'Aigle

Queen consort of Aragon

1109–1114 Succeeded by

Agnes of Aquitaine

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urraca_of_Le%C3%B3n_and_Castile"

Categories: Hispanic empresses and queens | 1078 births | 1126 deaths | House of Jiménez | Queens of León | Queens regnant | Navarrese royal consorts | Women in Medieval warfare | Women of medieval Spain | 12th-century Spanish people | 12th-century female rulers

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Urraca of Castile (1082 – March 8, 1126) was Queen of Castile and León from 1109 to her death. She was the daughter of Alfonso VI of Castile by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy. She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Ucles in 1108.

She was married, as a child, to Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). Now a widow, Urraca was ruler of Galicia. She was also her father's only surviving legitimate child, and now the heiress to Castile. King Alfonso VI selected a new husband for her. His choice fell on Alfonso I of Aragon who he hoped would safeguard the kingdom. Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urraca_of_León

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Urraca of León (1078 – March 8, 1126) was Queen of Galicia, León and Castile from 1109 to her death. She was the first woman ever to reign in a western European monarchy. Urraca was the daughter of Alfonso VI of León by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy. She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Uclés (1108).

According to the Chronicon Compostellanum, Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The supposed father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. However the author of the chronicles was openly hostile to the adulterous queen, and the historian Reilly notes that a pregnancy was unlikely at the queen's age of 48. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII.

Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover, Pedro González de Lara. She recognized their son, Fernando Pérez Furtado, in 1123.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urraca_of_Castile

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BIOGRAPHY: b. , 1079

d. March 8, 1126, Saldana, Castile [Spain]

queen of Leon and Castile from 1109 to 1126, daughter of Alfonso VI.

Urraca became her father's heiress when her brother, Sancho, was killed at Uclés (1108). She was the widow of Count Raymond of Burgundy, by whom she had had one son, Alfonso Ramírez (born 1104), the future Alfonso VII. To counterbalance--it was hoped--the dangers of a female succession during the Almoravid crisis, Urraca's marriage to her second cousin, Alfonso I of Aragon, was arranged (1109). This marriage, instead of producing political stability in Urraca's kingdom, led to years of anarchy. Urraca and her husband, according to the marriage settlement, became corulers in each other's lands, and Alfonso thereupon put Aragonese garrisons into many Leonese and Castilian cities. The notion of an Aragonese-Castilian political union was, however, premature, and although Urraca's municipalities tended to accept the Aragonese king, the magnates were hostile. Civil war broke out and continued for years, many supporting the claims of the child Alfonso Ramírez to the throne. Matters were further complicated by the temperamental incompatibility of Urraca and her husband, who soon quarreled. Pope Paschal II, moreover, declared their marriage canonically invalid. They finally separated in 1114, though the Aragonese king continued for some years thereafter to keep his garrisons in Castile and to use the royal title.

Struggles also continued between nobles and municipalities, between rival bands of magnates, between the archbishops of Santiago and Toledo, and between the former, the bishop Diego Gelmírez, and Urraca herself. Alfonso Ramírez was crowned by Gelmírez in 1111, and his reign in Galicia began effectively--despite Urraca's intermittent but active opposition--in 1116. Urraca's death in 1126 ended a disastrous episode in the medieval political history of Christian Spain.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

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Urraca of Castile (1082 – March 8, 1126) was Queen of Castile and León from 1109 to her death. She was the daughter of Alfonso VI of Castile by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy. She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Ucles in 1108.

She was married, as a child, to Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). Now a widow, Urraca was ruler of Galicia. She was also her father's only surviving legitimate child, and now the heiress to Castile. King Alfonso VI selected a new husband for her. His choice fell on Alfonso I of Aragon who he hoped would safeguard the kingdom. Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

--------------------

Urraca of León and Castile (b. April 1079 – March 8, 1126) was Queen regnant of León, Castile, and Galicia, and claimed the imperial title as suo jure Empress of All the Spains[1] from 1109 until her death in childbirth. Urraca was the eldest surviving child of Alfonso VI of León with his second wife Constance of Burgundy, and was heiress presumptive from her birth until 1107, when her father recognized his illegitimate son Sancho as his heir. Urraca became heiress presumptive again after Sancho’s death the following year in 1108 when he was killed at the Battle of Uclés (1108).

Urraca’s placement in the line of succession made her the focus of dynastic politics, and Urraca was made a child bride at age eight to Raymond of Burgundy, a mercenary adventurer and grand-nephew of Urraca’s mother.[2][3][4] Urraca's marriage to the Burgundian was part of Alfonso VI's diplomatic strategy to attract cross-Pyrenees alliances. However, after Raymond died in 1107, Urraca’s father contracted with Alfonso I of Aragon, known as the Batallador, for a dynastic marriage between him and Urraca, opening the opportunity for uniting León-Castile with Aragón. Marriage negotiations where still underway when Alfonso VI died and Urraca became queen.[5] Urraca protested against the marriage though honored her late father’s wishes (and the Royal Council's earnest advice) and continued with the marriage negotiations, though she and her father’s closest advisers were growing weary of Aragón’s demands.[6]

Urraca married Alfonso I of Aragon but almost immediately their marriage sparked oppositional rebellions in Galicia, scheming by her illegitimate half-sister Theresa and her husband Henry, Count of Portugal, and rumblings elsewhere.[7] As their relationship soured, Urraca accused Alfonso of physical abuse and by May 1110 Urraca separated from Alfonso.[8] Estrangement between husband and wife escalated from discrete and simmering hostilities into open armed warfare between the Leonese-Castilians and Aragonese, however by the fall of 1112 a truce was brokered between Urraca and Alfonso I of Aragon with their marriage annulled. Though Urraca recovered Asturias, Leon, and Galicia, Alfonso VI occupied a significant portion of Castile (where Urraca enjoyed large support), while her half-sister Theresa and her husband Count Henry of Portugal occupied Zamora and Extremadura. Recovering these regions and expanding into Muslim lands would occupy much of Urraca's foreign policy.

According to author Bernard F. Reilly, the measure of success for Urraca’s rule was her ability to restore and protect the integrity of her inheritance, that is the kingdom of her father, and transmit that inheritance in full to her own heir. Policies and events pursued by Alfonso VI contributed in large part to the challenges Urraca faced upon her succession, namely legitimizing her brother and thereby providing an opportunity for her illegitimate half sister to claim a portion of the patrimony, and also the forced marriage with Alfonso I of Aragon. Additionally, the circumstance of Urraca’s gender added a distinctive role-reversal dimension to diplomacy and politics which Urraca used to her advantage.

Urraca is characterized in the Historia Compostelana as prudent, modest, and with good sense. According to Reilly, the Historia Compostelana also attributes her "failings" to her gender, "the weakness and changeability of women, feminine perversity, and calls her a Jezebel" for her liaisons with her leading magnates, with at least one relationship producing an illegitimate son. These observations were hardly neutral or dispassionate, according to Reilly, who wrote "[T]here is no question that the queen is in control, perhaps all too much in control, of events". Urraca's use of sex in politics should be viewed more as a strategy that provided the queen with allies but without any masters.

As queen, Urraca rose to the challenges presented to her and her solutions were pragmatic ones, according to Reilly, and laid the foundation for the brilliant reign of her son Alfonso VIII who succeeded to the throne of a kingdom whole and at peace at Urraca’s death in 1126. Urraca would be the last of the House of Jiménez to reign, her son being of the House of Burgundy (Casa de Borgoña).

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Urraca of León was Queen of León and Castile (Castilla) from 1109 to her death.She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Ucles in 1108.

She was married, as a child, to Raymond of Burgundy, who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (our ancestor, King Alfonso VII of Castile, born 1105) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). Now a widow, Urraca was ruler of Galicia. She was also her father's only surviving legitimate child, and now the heiress to Castile. King Alfonso VI of León selected a new husband for her. His choice fell on Alfonso I of Aragón, who he hoped would safeguard the kingdom. Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior and was known as Alfonso "the Battler." According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir, Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women."

Urraca and Alfonso of Aragón were related within forbidden degrees, being second cousins. Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo, objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguineous. Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón.

Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. Their inability to produce a child created a further rift between them. The royal couple were separated by 1111 and their marriage was annulled in 1114.

Urraca never remarried though she is said to have taken several lovers from powerful noblemen, specifically counts Gómez González and Pedro González de Lara. Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover Pedro; she recognized their son, Fernando Perez Furtado, in 1123.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her ex-husband Alfonso, who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry, the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon. He alternatively allied with ex-husband Alfonso, then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.

According to the Chronicon Compostellanum, Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII. Reilly counsels that the alleged cause of death is unlikely given her age and the author's hostility toward an adulterous Queen.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urraca_of_Castile for more information.

-------------------- Accused her first husband of being physically abusive to her. When she died giving birth a lover was the father of the baby (her husband had died years prior). -------------------- See http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/25067072/person/12806361094

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Urraca I, reina de Castilla y León's Timeline

1080
1080
1087
1087
Age 7
Saldaña, Palencia, Castilla-Leon, Spain
1102
1102
Age 22
Toledo, Toledo, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
1105
March 1, 1105
Age 25
Grajal, Galicia, Spain
1109
June 30, 1109
Age 29
1117
1117
Age 37
Spain
1120
1120
Age 40
1126
March 8, 1126
Age 46
Saldaña, Palencia, Castille and Leon, Spain
1188
October 16, 1188
Age 46
Monastery of San Isidoro, León, Spain
1991
September 28, 1991
Age 46