Václav I "Jednooký" (Vratislav) King of Bohemia (av Moravia) (1205 - 1253) MP

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Nicknames: "Vencel", "Jednooký"
Birthplace: Bohemia (present Czech Republic)
Death: Died in Bohemia (present Czech Republic)
Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Václav I "Jednooký" (Vratislav) King of Bohemia (av Moravia)

http://finnholbek.dk/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I27108&tree=2

Wikipedia: Wenzel war der Sohn von König Ottokar I. Přemysl von Böhmen und Konstanze, Tochter von Béla III., König von Ungarn.

Sein Vater ließ den Sohn bereits 1228 zum König krönen. Nach Schilderungen des Historikers Palacký (s.u.) war er ein begeisterter Jäger, begabt und energisch, auf der anderen Seite aber auch dem luxuriösen Leben zugetan. Auf einer Jagd verlor er ein Auge. Dies brachte ihm den Spitznamen der Einäugige ein.

Nach seiner Einsetzung als König führte er die Politik der Premysliden fort. Er förderte die Ansiedlung von Deutschen, um die Landwirtschaft zu modernisieren und dem Bergbau Impulse zu geben. Darüber hinaus begann unter seiner Herrschaft eine Welle von Stadt- und Klostergründungen, vor allem des Zisterzienserordens. Er gründete unter anderem die Städte Trautenau, Schlan und Mies. Gefördert durch seinen wachsenden Reichtum veranstaltete er Ritterturniere, die sein deutscher Ritter Holger von Friedberg organisierte. Am königlichen Hof hielten sich zahlreiche Minnesänger auf, angeblich soll dort auch Walther von der Vogelweide aufgetreten sein.

Als eine seiner ersten staatsmännischen Aufgaben beendete er den Streit mit dem letzten österreichischen Babenberger, dem Herzog Friedrich. Dieser verstieß seine Ehefrau Sophie, Tochter des ungarischen Königs, wegen Kinderlosigkeit. Wenzels Mutter, die ebenfalls aus Ungarn stammte, empfand dies als Kränkung, und Wenzel nahm dies zum Anlass, um 1230 in Österreich einzufallen. Friedrich wiederum nutzte den Zwist zwischen Wenzel und seinem jüngeren Bruder Přemysl von Mähren und fiel in Mähren ein. Er besetzte dabei die damals als uneinnehmbar geltende Burg Bítov. Wenzel, der sich mit seiner Armee in der Nähe befand, griff dabei nicht ein. Als Friedrich erkrankte und sich nach Österreich zurückzog, nutzte Wenzel die Gunst der Stunde und eroberte Brünn. Der sich verschärfende Zwist führte schließlich dazu, dass Kaiser Friedrich II. über den Österreicher den kaiserlichen Bann verhängte und Wenzel beauftragte, ihn zum Gehorsam zu bewegen. Wenzel eroberte Niederösterreich und Wien, Friedrich zog sich nach Wiener Neustadt zurück. Die Sorge der Reichsfürsten, dass die wachsende Macht des Kaisers die ihrige schwächen könnte, führte zu politischen Begegnungen, die schließlich in einem Frieden zwischen Wenzel und dem österreichischen Herzog mündete. Friedrich verlobte seine Nichte Gertrud mit Wenzels Sohn Vladislav. Als Mitgift erhielt der Böhme die Verwaltung Österreichs nördlich der Donau.

1241 fielen die Mongolen unter Batu Khan nach der Schlacht bei Wahlstatt in Mähren ein. Wenzel konnte sie zwar vertreiben, dennoch waren die Schäden durch den Einfall groß. 1242 wurde Wenzel zusammen mit Heinrich Raspe von Friedrich II. zum Reichsgubernator für seinen minderjährigen Sohn Konrad IV. bestellt. So sollte ein drohender Krieg unter den rivalisierenden deutschen Fürsten verhindert werden. Seit Ende 1247 opponierte sein Sohn Ottokar II.; unterstützt von mährischen Adeligen, erhob er sich endgültig 1248 gegen seinen Vater, der zu dieser Zeit kaum noch regierte, sondern sich mehr Festen widmete. Die Kriege zwischen Sohn und Vater, der Anhänger in Deutschland und Österreich suchte, dauerten das ganze Jahr – mit wechselnden Erfolgen. Der Vater musste Prag verlassen und begab sich in das Herrschaftsgebiet seines Anhängers Boresch IV. von Riesenburg. Nach dem Sieg Wenzels bei Brüx ließ er seinen Sohn inhaftieren und dieser musste sich ihm unterwerfen. Nachkommen [Bearbeiten]

Wenzel I. war verheiratet mit Kunigunde von Schwaben. Folgende Nachkommen aus dieser Ehe sind bekannt:

   * Vladislav († 3. Januar 1247), Markgraf von Mähren, 1246/47 Anwärter auf die Herzogtümer Österreich und Steiermark
   ∞ 1246 Gertrud von Österreich.
   * Ottokar II. (1232–1278), König von Böhmen
   * Beatrix (Božena) († 25. Mai 1286) ∞ 1243 Markgraf Otto III., der Fromme von Brandenburg
   * Agnes († 1268) ∞ 1244 Markgraf Heinrich III., der Erlauchte von Meissen
   * (Tochter)

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

   * Josef Žemlička: Století posledních Přemyslovců Prag, 1986
   * František Palacký: Geschichte von Böhmen
   * Wilhelm Wegener: Die Přemysliden
   * Georg Juritsch: Beiträge zur böhmischen Geschichte in der Zeit der Přemysliden
   * Adolf Zycha: Über den Ursprung der Städte in Böhmen und die Städtepolitik der Prěmysliden

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

   * genealogie-mittelalter.de
   * Kurzvita auf der offiziellen Seite von Brünn

Einzelnachweise [Bearbeiten]

  1. ↑ František Teplý: Dějiny města Jindřichova Hradce. Dílu I. svazek 1., Jindřichův Hradec 1927, S. 56

-------------------- Wenceslaus I of Bohemia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wenceslaus I Premyslid (Czech Václav I.) (c. 1205 – September 23, 1253) was King of Bohemia from 1230 to 1253.

Family

Wenceslaus was a son of Ottokar I of Bohemia and his second wife Constance of Hungary. He was a younger, paternal half-brother to Margarethe of Bohemia and Božislava of Bohemia. His half-sisters were respectively the first Queen consort of Valdemar II of Denmark and the first wife of Henry I, Count of Ortenburg. His sister Judith of Bohemia was married to Bernhard von Spanheim, Duke of Carinthia.His sister Anna of Bohemia was married to Henry II the Pious, Duke of Wrocław. His sister Agnes of Bohemia was Mother Superior of the Franciscan Poor Clares nuns of Prague. In 1989, Agnes was canonized as a saint by Pope John Paul II. [1] His maternal grandparents were Béla III of Hungary and his second wife Agnes of Antioch (Agnes de Châtillon). [2] Agnes was a daughter of Raynald of Chatillon and Constance of Antioch (joint princes of Antioch). [3] [edit]Marriage and children

In 1224, Wenceslaus married Kunigunde of Hohenstaufen, second daughter of Philip of Swabia, King of Germany and his wife, Irene Angelina. [4] Her paternal grandparents were Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor and Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy. [5] Her maternal grandparents were Isaac II Angelos, Byzantine Emperor and his first wife Herina. [6]Wenceslaus encouraged large numbers of Germans to settle in the villages and towns in Bohemia and Moravia. Stone buildings began to replace wooden ones in Prague as a result of the influence of the new settlers. Wenceslaus and Kunigunde had five known children[7]: Vladislaus, Margrave of Moravia (c. 1228 - 3 January 1247). Ottokar II of Bohemia (c. 1230 - 26 August 1278). Beatrix of Bohemia (c. 1231 - 27 May 1290). Married Otto III, Margrave of Brandenburg. Agnes of Bohemia (d. 10 August 1268). Married Henry III, Margrave of Meissen. An unnamed daughter. Died young. [edit]Early reign

On 6 February 1228, Wenceslaus was crowned as co-ruler of the Kingdom of Bohemia with his father. On 15 December 1230, Ottokar died and Wenceslaus succeeded him as the senior King of Bohemia. [8] His early reign was preoccupied by the threat to Bohemia posed by Frederick II, Duke of Austria. The expansionism of Frederick caused the concern and protestation of several other rulers. In 1236, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor was involved in a war against the Lombard League. The Emperor demanded Wenceslaus and other rulers of the Holy Roman Empire to lend him part of their own troops for his war effort. Wenceslaus led a group of princes who expressed their reluctance to divert any troops from the defense of their own territories, citing fear of invasion from the Duchy of Austria. They requested imperial intervention in the situation. [9] [10] In June, 1236, the Emperor imposed an imperial ban on the Duke of Austria. Troops dispatched against the Duke, forced him to flee Vienna for Wiener Neustadt. He would continue to rule a rump state for the following year. The Emperor declared direct imperial rule in both Austria and the Duchy of Styria, also held by the fleeing Duke. Ekbert von Andechs-Meranien, former Bishop of Bamberg was installed as governor in the two Duchies. [11] Ekbert would govern from February to his death on 5 June 1237. [12] Wenceslaus was hardly pleased with this apparent expansion of direct imperial authority close to his borders. Wenceslaus and Duke Frederick formed an alliance against the Emperor. Frederick the Emperor chose to lift the ban in 1237 rather than maintain another open front. Wenceslaus managed to negotiate the expansion of Bohemia north of the Danube, annexing territories offered by Duke Frederick in order of forming and maintaining their alliance. [13] [14] Wenceslaus and Frederick also found another ally in the person of Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria. In June, 1239, Wenceslaus and Otto left the Reichstag at Eger, abandoning the service of excommunicated Emperor Frederick II. Despite their intent to elect an antiking[15] [16] no such election would take place until 1246. In 1246, Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia was elected King of Germany in opposition to Emperor Frederick II and Conrad IV of Germany. [17] [edit]Mongol invasion

In 1241 Wenceslaus successfully repelled a raid on Bohemia by forces serving under Batu Khan and Subutai of the Mongol Empire as part of the Mongol invasion of Europe. The Mongols did not sent their main army to the Kingdom of Poland, Bohemia and Silesia and only Moravia suffered devastation at their hands. The raids into these four areas were led by Baidar, Kadan and Orda Khan with a force of around 20,000 Mongols. Following the Mongol victory at the Battle of Legnica, Wenceslaus fell back to gather reinforcements from Thuringia and Saxony, but was overtaken by the Mongol vanguard at Kłodzko. However, the Bohemian cavalry easily fended off the Mongol detachment. As Baidar and Kadan's orders had been to serve as a diversion, they turned away from Bohemia and Poland and went southward to join Batu and Subutai, who had crushed the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohi. When Subutai heard in 1242 that Grand Khan Ögedei had died the previous year, the Mongol army retreated eastward, because Subutai had three princes of the blood in his command and Genghis Khan had made clear that all descendants of the Khagan (Grand Khan) should return to the Mongol capital of Karakorum for the kurultai which would elect the next Khagan. The Polish people, unaware of the reason why the Mongols left so suddenly, simply assumed that they had been defeated in battle. [edit]Duchy of Austria for Přemyslids

On 15 June 1246, Frederick II of Austria was killed in a battle against Béla IV of Hungary. The battle took place by the river Leitha. He was childless and had never designated a heir. [18] The matter of his succession would result in years of disputes among various heirs. Wenceslaus' foreign policy became focused on acquiring Austria for the Přemyslid dynasty. Meanwhile Emperor Frederick II managed to once again place Austria under direct imperial rule. However imperial governor Otto von Eberstein had to content with an Austrian rebellion, preventing immediate benefits from the annexation of the Duchy. [19] The Privilegium Minus, the document which had elevated Austria to a Duchy on 17 September 1156, allowed for the female line of the House of Babenberg to succeed to the throne. Gertrude, Duchess of Austria, niece of the late Frederick II, thus was able to claim the Duchy in her own right. Wenceslaus arranged for her marriage to his eldest son, Vladislaus, Margrave of Moravia. Vladislaus was declared a jure uxoris Duke of Austria and managed to secure the support of part of the Austrian nobility. On 3 January 1247, Vladislaus died suddenly and the initial plan of Wenceslaus was negated. Gertrude continued her claim and proceeded to marry Herman VI, Margrave of Baden. [20] [21] [edit]The rebellion

In 1248, Wenceslaus had to deal with a rebellion of the Bohemian nobility, led by his own son Ottokar II. Ottokar had been enticed by discontented nobles to lead the rebellion, during which he received the nickname "the younger King" (mladší král). Wenceslaus managed to defeat the rebels and imprisoned his son. [22]Ottokar II held the title of King of Bohemia from 31 July 1248 to November, 1249. [23] By the end of 1250, both the Emperor and Herman VI were deceased. The latter having never been accepted by the Austrian nobles. Gertrude and their only son Frederick I, Margrave of Baden continued their claim. Wenceslaus led a successful invasion of Austria, completed by 1251. [24] Wenceslaus released Ottokar II and named him margrave of Moravia. Wenceslaus had Ottokar proclaimed Duke of Austria and acclaimed by the nobility. In order to secure dynastic rights to Austria, Wenceslaus had another female Babenberg proclaimed Duchess and betrothed to his son. Margaret, Duchess of Austria was a sister of Duke Frederick II and an aunt of Gertrude. She was also the widow of Henry (VII) of Germany who had died in 1242. However, Margaret was much older than Ottokar. Their marriage took place on 11 February 1252. [25] [26] Wenceslaus did not enjoy his victory for long. He died on 23 September 1253 and Ottokar II succeeded him. [27] [28]

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wenceslaus_I_of_Bohemia

Wenceslaus I Premyslid (Czech Václav I.) (c. 1205 – September 23, 1253) was King of Bohemia from 1230 to 1253.

Family Wenceslaus was a son of Ottokar I of Bohemia and his second wife Constance of Hungary. He was a younger, paternal half-brother to Margarethe of Bohemia and Božislava of Bohemia. His half-sisters were respectively the first Queen consort of Valdemar II of Denmark and the first wife of Henry I, Count of Ortenburg. His sister Judith of Bohemia was married to Bernhard von Spanheim, Duke of Carinthia.His sister Anna of Bohemia was married to Henry II the Pious, Duke of Wrocław. His sister Agnes of Bohemia was Mother Superior of the Franciscan Poor Clares nuns of Prague. In 1989, Agnes was canonized as a saint by Pope John Paul II.[1]

His maternal grandparents were Béla III of Hungary and his second wife Agnes of Antioch (Agnes de Châtillon).[2] Agnes was a daughter of Raynald of Châtillon and Constance of Antioch (joint princes of Antioch).

Marriage and children In 1224, Wenceslaus married Kunigunde of Hohenstaufen, second daughter of Philip of Swabia, King of Germany and his wife, Irene Angelina.[4] Her paternal grandparents were Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor and Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy.[5] Her maternal grandparents were Isaac II Angelos, Byzantine Emperor and his first wife Herina.[6] Wenceslaus encouraged large numbers of Germans to settle in the villages and towns in Bohemia and Moravia. Stone buildings began to replace wooden ones in Prague as a result of the influence of the new settlers.

Wenceslaus and Kunigunde had five known children[7]:

Vladislaus, Margrave of Moravia (c. 1228 – 3 January 1247). Ottokar II of Bohemia (c. 1230 – 26 August 1278). Beatrix of Bohemia (c. 1231 – 27 May 1290). Married Otto III, Margrave of Brandenburg. Agnes of Bohemia (died 10 August 1268). Married Henry III, Margrave of Meissen. An unnamed daughter. Died young.

Early reign On 6 February 1228, Wenceslaus was crowned as co-ruler of the Kingdom of Bohemia with his father. On 15 December 1230, Ottokar died and Wenceslaus succeeded him as the senior King of Bohemia.[7]

His early reign was preoccupied by the threat to Bohemia posed by Frederick II, Duke of Austria. The expansionism of Frederick caused the concern and protestation of several other rulers. In 1236, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor was involved in a war against the Lombard League. The Emperor demanded Wenceslaus and other rulers of the Holy Roman Empire to lend him part of their own troops for his war effort. Wenceslaus led a group of princes who expressed their reluctance to divert any troops from the defense of their own territories, citing fear of invasion from the Duchy of Austria. They requested imperial intervention in the situation.

In June, 1236, the Emperor imposed an imperial ban on the Duke of Austria. Troops dispatched against the Duke, forced him to flee Vienna for Wiener Neustadt. He would continue to rule a rump state for the following year. The Emperor declared direct imperial rule in both Austria and the Duchy of Styria, also held by the fleeing Duke. Ekbert von Andechs-Meranien, former Bishop of Bamberg was installed as governor in the two Duchies.[8] Ekbert would govern from February to his death on 5 June 1237.[9] Wenceslaus was hardly pleased with this apparent expansion of direct imperial authority close to his borders. Wenceslaus and Duke Frederick formed an alliance against the Emperor. Frederick the Emperor chose to lift the ban in 1237 rather than maintain another open front. Wenceslaus managed to negotiate the expansion of Bohemia north of the Danube, annexing territories offered by Duke Frederick in order of forming and maintaining their alliance.[7][8]

Wenceslaus and Frederick also found another ally in the person of Otto II Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria. In June, 1239, Wenceslaus and Otto left the Reichstag at Eger, abandoning the service of excommunicated Emperor Frederick II. Despite their intent to elect an antiking[7][10] no such election would take place until 1246. In 1246, Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia was elected King of Germany in opposition to Emperor Frederick II and Conrad IV of Germany.[11]

Mongol invasion In 1241 Wenceslaus successfully repelled a raid on Bohemia by forces serving under Batu Khan and Subutai of the Mongol Empire as part of the Mongol invasion of Europe. The Mongols did not send their main army to the Kingdom of Poland, Bohemia and Silesia and only Moravia suffered devastation at their hands. The raids into these four areas were led by Baidar, Kadan and Orda Khan with a force of around 20,000 Mongols. Following the Mongol victory at the Battle of Legnica, Wenceslaus fell back to gather reinforcements from Thuringia and Saxony, but was overtaken by the Mongol vanguard at Kłodzko. However, the Bohemian cavalry easily fended off the Mongol detachment. As Baidar and Kadan's orders had been to serve as a diversion, they turned away from Bohemia and Poland and went southward to join Batu and Subutai, who had crushed the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohi.

When Subutai heard in 1242 that Grand Khan Ögedei had died the previous year, the Mongol army retreated eastward, because Subutai had three princes of the blood in his command and Genghis Khan had made clear that all descendants of the Khagan (Grand Khan) should return to the Mongol capital of Karakorum for the kurultai which would elect the next Khagan. The Polish people, unaware of the reason why the Mongols left so suddenly, simply assumed that they had been defeated in battle.

Duchy of Austria for Přemyslids On 15 June 1246, Frederick II of Austria was killed in a battle against Béla IV of Hungary. The battle took place by the river Leitha. He was childless and had never designated an heir.[8] The matter of his succession would result in years of disputes among various heirs. Wenceslaus' foreign policy became focused on acquiring Austria for the Přemyslid dynasty. Meanwhile Emperor Frederick II managed to once again place Austria under direct imperial rule. However imperial governor Otto von Eberstein had to content with an Austrian rebellion, preventing immediate benefits from the annexation of the Duchy.

The Privilegium Minus, the document which had elevated Austria to a Duchy on 17 September 1156, allowed for the female line of the House of Babenberg to succeed to the throne. Gertrude, Duchess of Austria, niece of the late Frederick II, thus was able to claim the Duchy in her own right. Wenceslaus arranged for her marriage to his eldest son, Vladislaus, Margrave of Moravia. Vladislaus was declared a jure uxoris Duke of Austria and managed to secure the support of part of the Austrian nobility. On 3 January 1247, Vladislaus died suddenly and the initial plan of Wenceslaus was negated. Gertrude continued her claim and proceeded to marry Herman VI, Margrave of Baden.[12][13]

The rebellion In 1248, Wenceslaus had to deal with a rebellion of the Bohemian nobility, led by his own son Ottokar II. Ottokar had been enticed by discontented nobles to lead the rebellion, during which he received the nickname "the younger King" (mladší král). Wenceslaus managed to defeat the rebels and imprisoned his son.[14] Ottokar II held the title of King of Bohemia from 31 July 1248 to November, 1249.[15]

By the end of 1250, both the Emperor and Herman VI were deceased. The latter having never been accepted by the Austrian nobles. Gertrude and their only son Frederick I, Margrave of Baden continued their claim. Wenceslaus led a successful invasion of Austria, completed by 1251.[7] Wenceslaus released Ottokar II and named him margrave of Moravia. Wenceslaus had Ottokar proclaimed Duke of Austria and acclaimed by the nobility. In order to secure dynastic rights to Austria, Wenceslaus had another female Babenberg proclaimed Duchess and betrothed to his son. Margaret, Duchess of Austria was a sister of Duke Frederick II and an aunt of Gertrude. She was also the widow of Henry (VII) of Germany who had died in 1242. However, Margaret was much older than Ottokar. Their marriage took place on 11 February 1252.[15][16]

Wenceslaus did not enjoy his victory for long. He died on 23 September 1253 and Ottokar II succeeded him.[7][15]

Ratings reign of Wenceslas I Under the reign of Wenceslas I of Bohemia comes to gothic lifestyle, culture and jousting, tournaments, spread popularity of courtly poetry and songs. His government is associated with the attachment of Czech statehood, Czech increasing influence in Europe, the rise of Czech nobility, construction and urban development, trade and crafts. Václav, like his father and son, supported the arrival of ethnic Germans into the country. He was also the first to provide privileges to the Jews who paid for it, however, considerable amounts. During his reign, the Czech state becomes more expansive and solid, coherent with the government of King Wenceslas I became a feared Central Powers. Thanks therefore ranks among the top five kings of Czech history.

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Václav I "Jednooký" (Vratislav) King of Bohemia's Timeline

1205
1205
Bohemia (present Czech Republic)
1219
September 11, 1219
Age 14
Of, Praha, Praha, Czechoslovaki
1225
1225
Age 20
(Bohemia), Czech Republic
1226
1226
Age 21
Praha, Praha, Czechoslovakia
1233
1233
Age 28
Bohemia
1253
September 23, 1253
Age 48
Bohemia (present Czech Republic)
????
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