Flavius Valentinianus (321 - 375) MP

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Valentinian I, Roman Emperor's Geni Profile

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Nicknames: "The last great Western Empeor"
Birthplace: Cibalae - now Vinkovci, Pannonia, Roman Empire - now Croatia
Death: Died in Brigetio - now Szőny-Komárom, (There is: Lapidarium Brigetionense), Pannonia, Roman Empire - now Hungary
Occupation: Roman Emperor 364-375
Managed by: Jocelynn Elaine Oakes
Last Updated:

About Flavius Valentinianus

Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was Roman Emperor from 364 until his death. Valentinian is often referred to as the "last great western emperor".[1] Both he and his brother Emperor Valens were born at Cibalae (modern days Vinkovci, Croatia), in Pannonia, the sons of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

Reign 26 February - 28 March 364 (alone); 26 March 364 - 17 November 375 (emperor of the west, with his brother emperor in the east) Full name Flavius Valentinianus (from birth to accession); Flavius Valentinianus Augustus (as emperor) Born 321 Birthplace Cibalae, Pannonia Died 17 November 375 Place of death Brigetio on the Danube (near today Komárno, Slovakia**) ** Note from FARKAS Mihály László: Brigetio now is in Hungary, Szőny-Komárom, (not Komarno =Révkomárom=North Komarom)

Predecessor Jovian Successor Valens, Gratian and Valentinian II

Consort to 1) Marina Severa

Wives 2) Justina

  • Offspring
  1. Gratian
  2. Valentinian II
  3. Galla
  4. Grata
  5. Justa

Dynasty Valentinian Father Gratian the Elder

Sources:

1. Ammian, Books 26‑30 English summaries. Main text in Latin.

2. De Imperatoribus Romanis English text.

3. Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1776.

4. M. Grant, The Roman Emperors, 1985.

   * This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

5. Schmidt-Hofner, Sebastian. Reagieren und Gestalten: der Regierungsstil des spaetroemischen Kaisers am Beispiel der Gesetzgebung Valentinians I. Muenchen: Beck, 2008. 398 p. (Vestigia, Bd. 58).

6. E. Stein, Histoire du Bas-Empire, vol. i, chap. 4 (1959).

-------------------- Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. 1 There was a power vacuum after the death of Julian , last ruler of the Neo-Flavian line. His immediate successor Jovian did not really survive long enough to leave his stamp on late Roman society. In general terms, Valentinian’s challenge was to hold together an empire that had experienced sixty years of internal unrest, something which was of major import. His provincial origins and Nicene Christianity put him at odds with the senatorial nobility in the west. Furthermore, he had to deal with the increasing regionalism of the empire, especially in Gaul, Britain, and Africa.

Early Life Valentinian, whose full name was Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. 2 His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae , and finally comes Britanniae . He was suspected of graft while comes Africae , but nothing was ever proven. After he retired, Constantius II (337-60) confiscated his estates because he was suspected of having been a supporter of Magnentius .3 Gratian’s alleged affiliation with Magnentius apparently did not keep Valentinian or his younger brother Valens from being able to enter the military, but it may have contributed to some early trouble for Valentinian. Valentinian embarked upon a military career, and, like his father, became a victim of imperial politics. In 357 he was tribune of cavalry under Julian ,Constantius II's Caesar in the west. In the intrigues surrounding Julian and Constantius , Valentinian and a colleague were accused of undermining operations, and Constantius dismissed them from the service. 4 Valentinian was married twice. His first wife, Severa, died some time after giving birth to Valentinian’s first son Gratian in 359, and Valentinian married Justina, by whom he had Valentinian II , and two daughters, Galla and Justa. 5

When Julian died, Valentinian was recalled to military service by Jovian . Upon his accession, Jovian sent Procopius, a notarius , and Memoridus to Gaul and Illyricum to install his father-in-law Lucillianus, in retirement at Sirmium, as magister equitum et peditum . Lucillianus in turn was to journey to Milan and secure Jovian’s power in Italy and Gaul. Jovian supposedly gave Lucillianus secret instructions to handpick a select cadre of supporters. 6 Two of these men were Valentinian and Seniauchus. 7 One of this group’s missions was to displace Jovinus, Julian’s magister armorum per Gallias , with Malarichus, a retired soldier and supporter of Jovian living in Italy. In addition they were to visit as many governors and military commanders as possible and announce the successful end of the Persian campaign and Jovian's succession. 8 Malarichus, however, refused his commission, and Lucillianus traveled on to Rheims where he began examining the accounts of one of Julian’s officials. The official (not named in extant sources) fled to the army in Gaul and spread rumors that Julian was still alive and that Lucillianus was a rebel. In the riot that broke out, Seniauchus and Lucillianus were killed, and Valentinian barely escaped through the help of his friend Primitivus. By this time, Jovian had sent some additional soldiers who secured peace in Gaul. As a result Valentinian was promoted to command of the second Scutarii division. 9

Valentinian's Accession Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. 10 The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The names of Aequitius, a tribune of the first Scutarii, and Januarius, a relative of Jovian’s in charge of military supplies in Illyricum, were bandied about. Both were rejected, Aequitius as too brutal, Januarius because he was too far away. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian, and sent messengers to inform him, as he had been left behind at Ancyra with his unit. While awaiting the arrival of Valentinian, Aequitius and Leo, another Pannonian in charge of distributing supplies to the soldiers of Dagalaifus, magister equitum , managed to keep the “fickle” ( mobilitas ) soldiers from choosing another emperor. 11

Valentinian arrived in Nicaea on 24 February 364, the bisextile day. This day was used every four years by the Romans to balance the calendar much as we use the modern leap year day: the sixth day (counting inclusively) before the first of March was counted twice. According to Ammianus, this day was considered an ill-omened day to begin any new proceedings, so Valentinian put off his official acceptance until the day after the bisextile. 12 Furthermore, the prefect Salutius declared that no official business could be conducted on the repeated day. The holiday would have prevented any attempt to name another emperor before Valentinian. 13

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. 14 His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests.

After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. 15 Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother. 16 The remainder of 364 was spent dividing up administrative duties and military commands. Valentinian retained the services of Jovinus and Dagalaifus, and promoted Aequitius to comes Illyricum . In addition, he promoted Serenianus, a retired soldier and fellow Pannonian, to command of the domesticorum scholae .17 Several sources mention the division of administrative spheres between the two brothers, but Ammianus is the most specific. 18 According to Ammianus, Valens was given the Prefecture of the Orient, governed by Salutius, while Valentinian gained control of the Prefecture of the Gauls and the Prefecture of Italy, Africa, and Illyricum. These latter three areas were put together as one administrative unit under control of the prefect Mamertinus. Valens resided in Constantinople, while Valentinian’s court was at Milan. 19

Valentinian and the Army One of the first problems that faced Valentinian was an outbreak of hostilities in Gaul with the Alamanni, a loose confederation of Germanic-speaking peoples living beyond the Rhine. According to Ammianus, the Alamanni were upset because Valentinian would not supply them with the level of tribute that previous emperors had paid them. In response to this insult and the ill treatment their envoys received at the hands of the magister officiorum Ursatius, the Alamanni invaded Gaul in 365. 20 At the same time Procopius began his revolt against Valens in the east. Valentinian received news of both the Alamannic trouble and Procopius' revolt on 1 November while on his way to Paris. 21 He had a choice to make--go east to help his brother or stay in Gaul and fight the Alamanni. He initially sent Dagalaifus to fight the Alamanni, while he himself made preparations to journey east and help Valens . After receiving counsel from his court and deputations from the leading Gallic cities begging him to stay and protect Gaul, however, he decided to remain in Gaul and fight the Alamanni. 22

This move shows two things. First, that Valentinan subordinated the eastern portion of the empire to the west. In addition it shows that Valentinian was still unsure of his support in Gaul, a very important part of the west. There was no better way to win the support of the Gallic nobility than by performing the traditional imperial duty of preserving peace by defeating barbarians. This ideology is amply illustrated by the coinage issued from Gaul during this period. Valentinian issued such series as RESTITUTOR REIPUBLICAE ,GLORIA ROMANORUM , and TRIUMFATOR GENT BARB from the mints at Trier, Lyon, and Arles. 23

Valentinian advanced to Rheims and sent two generals, Charietto and Severianus, against the invaders. The armies of Charietto and Severianus were promptly defeated and the generals killed. Dagalaifus was then sent against the enemy in 366, but the Alamanni were so scattered about Gaul that he was ineffective. Jovinus replaced Dagalaifus late in the campaigning season, and, after several battles, he pushed the Alamanni out of Gaul. He was awarded the consulate of 367 for his efforts. 24

Valentinian was distracted from launching a punitive expedition against the Alamanni at this time by problems in Britain and northern Gaul. The Alamanni, however, were not deterred by their earlier defeat at the hands of Jovinus and they returned to Gaul. The city of Mainz was attacked and plundered by an Alamannic raiding party in late 367 or early 368. Valentinian did succeed in getting Roman agents to arrange the assassination of Vithicabius, an important Alamannic leader, by his personal bodyguard, but more serious measures were called for. Valentinian was determined to bring the Alamanni under Roman power once and for all, and spent the winter of 367/8 gathering a huge army for a spring offensive. He summoned the comes Sebastianus, who was in charge of the Italian and Illyrian legions, to join Jovinus and Severus, magister peditum . Valentinian and his army, accompanied by Gratian , crossed the Main river in the spring of 368. They did not encounter any resistance until they reached Solicinium (Schwetzingen), burning any dwellings or food stores they found along the way. A tremendous battle was fought at Schwetzingen, with the Romans coming out on top, although Valentinian was nearly killed. A temporary peace was apparently reached, and Valentinian and Gratian returned to Trier for the winter. 25

During 369, Valentinian ordered new defensive works to be constructed and old structures refurbished along the length of the Rhine’s left bank. In an even bolder move, he ordered the construction of a fortress across the Rhine, in the mountains near Heidelberg. The Alamanni sent envoys to protest, but they were dismissed out of hand. As a result, the Alamanni attacked while the fortress was still under construction, destroyed it, and killed all the soldiers guarding it. 26

In 370, the Saxons renewed their attacks on northern Gaul. Nannienus, the comes in charge of the troops in northern Gaul, had to ask Severus to come to his aid. After several battles, a truce was called and the Saxons gave the Romans many young men fit for duty in the Roman military in exchange for free passage back to their homeland. The Romans, however, treacherously ambushed the Saxons, killing them all. 27 At this same time, Valentinian was contemplating another attack against the Alamanni. His target was Macrianus, another powerful Alamannic chieftain. Rather than directly attack Macrianus, he tried to persuade the Burgundians to attack: they were another Germanic-speaking people, and bitter enemies of the Alamanni. If the Alamanni tried to flee, Valentinian would be waiting for them with his army. Negotiations, however, with the Burgundians broke down when Valentinian, in his usual high-handed manner, refused to meet with the Burgundian envoys and personally assure them of Roman support in the suggested attack. Nevertheless, the proposed alliance with the Burgundians did have the effect of scattering the Alamanni through fear of an imminent attack from their enemies. This event allowed Theodosius, magister equitum , to attack via Raetia and take many Alamannic prisoners. These captured Alamanni were settled in the Po river valley, where they still flourished at the time Ammianus wrote his history. 28

Valentinian campaigned unsuccessfully for four more years to defeat Macrianus. In 372 Macrianus barely escaped capture by Theodosius. In the meantime, Valentinian continued to recruit heavily from those Alamanni friendly to the Roman cause. He sent the Alamannic king Fraomarius, along with Alamannic troops commanded by Bitheridius and Hortarius, to Britain in order to replenish troops there. 29 Valentinian’s Alamannic campaigns, however, were hampered by troubles first in Africa, and later on the Danube. In 374 Valentinian was forced to make peace with Macrianus because the emperor's presence was needed to counter an invasion of Illyricum by the Quadi and Sarmatians. 30

Military Problems in Britain, Gaul, and on the Danube In 367, Valentinian received reports that a combined force of Picts, Attacotti and Scots had killed Nectaridus ( comes maritimi tractus ) and overcome the dux Fullofaudes in Britain. As a consequence, Britain was in a state of anarchy. At the same time, Frankish and Saxon forces were harrying the coastal areas of northern Gaul. Valentinian, alarmed by these reports, set out for Britain, sending Severus ( comes domesticorum ) ahead of him to investigate. Severus was not able to correct the situation and returned to the continent, meeting Valentinian at Amiens. Valentinian then sent Jovinus to Britain and promoted Severus to magister peditum . It was at this time that Valentinian fell ill and a battle for succession broke out between Severus, a representative of the army, and Rusticus Julianus, magister memoriae and a representative of the Gallic nobility. Valentinian, however, recovered and appointed his son Gratian as co-Augustus to forestall any such conflicts in the future. Ammianus remarks that such an action was unprecedented. 31

Jovinus quickly returned, saying that he needed more men to take care of the situation. Beginning in 368 Valentinian, however, was intent on pressing his successes against the Alamanni with a campaign into their territory. Therefore, he assigned the comes Theodosius the task of recovering Britain while Severus and Jovinus were to accompany the emperor on his campaign. 32 Theodosius arrived in 368 with the Batavi, Heruli, Jovii and Victores legions, landing at Richborough, and proceeded to London. His initial expeditions restored order to southern Britain. Later he rallied the remaining troops which had originally been stationed in Britain. It was apparent that the units had lost their cohesiveness when Nectaridius and Fullofaudes had been defeated. At this time, Theodosius sent for Civilis to be installed as the new vicarius of the diocese, and Dulcitius, an additional general. 33

In 369, Theodosius, relying on the tactics of stealth and ambush, set about reconquering the areas north of London. During this period, he put down the revolt of Valentinus, the brother-in-law of Maximinus, at that time a vicarius . Valentinus had been exiled to Britain for crimes that Ammianus does not specify and was apparently fomenting a rebellion against the imperial government. Theodosius learned of these plans through spies and quashed the revolt before it got off the ground. After this, Theodosius restored destroyed fortifications and even recovered a lost province which was renamed Valentia. 34 After his return in 369, Valentinian promoted Theodosius to magister equitum in place of Jovinus. 35

Revolt of Firmus In 372, the rebellion of Firmus broke out in the African provinces. This rebellion was driven by the corruption of the comes Romanus. When he took sides in the murderous disputes among the legitimate and illegitimate children of Nubel, a Moorish prince and leading Roman client in Africa, resentment of Romanus' peculations and failure to defend the territory caused some of the provincials to revolt. Valentinian was forced to send in Theodosius to restore imperial control. Over the next two years Theodosius uncovered Romanus' crimes, arrested him and his cronies, and defeated Firmus .36

In 373 trouble erupted with the Quadi, a group of Germanic-speaking people living on the Danube. Like the Alamanni, the Quadi were outraged that Valentinian was building fortifications in their territory. They complained and sent deputations that were ignored by the magister armorum per Illyricum Aequitius. It seems, however, that by 373 the construction of these forts was behind schedule. Maximinus, now praetorian prefect of Gaul, arranged with Aequitius to promote his son Marcellianus to the rank of dux per Valeriam and put him in charge of finishing the project. The protests of Quadic leaders continued to delay the project, and in a fit of frustration, Marcellianus murdered the Quadic king Gabinius at a banquet ostensibly arranged for peaceful negotiations. This roused the Quadi to war, along with their allies the Sarmatians. During the fall harvest, they broke across the Danube and began ravaging the province of Valeria. The marauders could not penetrate the fortified cities, but they heavily damaged the unprotected countryside. Two legions, the Pannonica and Moesiaca, were sent in, but they failed to coordinate their efforts and were routed by the Sarmatians. At the same time, another group of Sarmatians invaded Moesia, but they were driven back by the dux Moesiae Theodosius the younger , future emperor and son of the magister equitum .37

Valentinian did not receive news of these disasters until mid-to-late 374. In the spring of 375 he set out from Trier and came to Carnuntum, which was deserted. There he was met by Sarmatian envoys who begged forgiveness for their actions. Valentinian replied that he would investigate what had happened and act accordingly. Valentinian ignored Marcellianus’ treacherous actions and decided to punish the Quadi. He, accompanied by Sebastianus and Merobaudes, spent the summer months preparing for the campaign and finally crossed into Quadic territory at Aquincum (Budapest). After generally pillaging the Quadic lands and carrying out acts of terrorism, he retired to Savaria (Szombathely) to winter quarters. For unknown reasons, he decided to continue campaigning and moved from Savaria to Brigetio (Komarom-Szony). 38 It was here that he received a deputation from the Quadi on November 17. In return for supplying fresh recruits to the Roman army, the Quadi were to be allowed to leave in peace. Before the envoys left, however, they were granted an audience with Valentinian. The envoys insisted that the conflict was caused by the building of Roman forts in their lands, and that furthermore individual bands of Quadi were not necessarily bound to the rule of the chiefs who had made treaties with the Romans, and thus might attack at any time. The attitude of the envoys so enraged Valentinian that he suffered a stroke that ended his life. 39

Roman Society under Valentinian Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. 40 He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” 41 Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century. Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. At the same time, the empire was becoming more and more of a bureaucracy, with the emperor delegating authority to a chain of officials. These officials did not always perform their job well and, as a result, the provincial populations became increasingly alienated from the imperial government. They were crushed under the increasing burden of taxation, and often the emperor, through his delegates, failed to provide the security for which the provincials' tribute was paying. 42

Valentinian, Christianity, and Legislation Unlike his brother Valens , Valentinian refused to become embroiled in the religious controversies of the time. Ammianus praised Valentinian for his religious neutrality. 43 Valentinian refused to get involved in the Arian controversy of the east, dismissing a deputation of eastern Nicene bishops who appealed to him to control Valens .44 Valentinian did, however, take a harsh stand against two of the heretical movements that had grown during the past century in the west. In 372 he forbade gatherings of Manichees in the city of Rome. Such assemblies were to result in the death of the leaders, the exile of the others, and confiscation of the property of all involved. 45 In addition he officially condemned Donatist bishops in Africa in 373. 46

The ecclesiastical sources for this period generally have a favorable opinion of Valentinian. Jerome speaks in glowing terms, saying “Valentinian was an excellent emperor in most cases and similar in character to Aurelian, save only that certain people interpreted his excessive strictness and parsimony as cruelty and greed.” 47 Socrates and Orosius took the story of his dismissal from the military by Constantius II and turned him into a martyr of sorts. According to Sozomen, Valentinian was dismissed from the military by Julian , instead of Constantius II , for refusing to perform a pagan ritual at a pagan shrine. 48 Less accurately, Theoderet, Sozomen, and Socrates praised Valentinian for installing Ambrose as bishop of Milan. Ambrose’s predecessor, Auxentius, had been an Arian. 49

Valentinian, however, was not uniformly friendly towards Christianity. For example, he ordered Symmachus, praefectus urbi of Rome in 365, to put to death and confiscate the property of any Christians who became custodians of temples. 50 It seems, however, that much of his legislation concerning Christians was driven by fiscal motives, rather than any real concern with religious doctrine. Any Manichees caught under the law contributed their property to the fisc, and the condemnation of the Donatists could really be seen as a condemnation of those who inhibited the collection of taxes from the African provinces. In other examples, Valentinian addressed a law to Damasus, Pope of Rome in 370, which forbade ecclesiastics to marry widows or female wards of the state. The purpose of this law was to stop churchmen from obtaining the wealth of such women through inheritance. 51 On the other hand, Valentinian appears to have given Christians special privileges. For example, in 370 he upheld a law of Constantius II that exempted professed Nicene Christians in the African provinces from obligatory municipal duties. 52 Similarly, a law was passed in 371 that those in the city of Rome who could prove that they were ecclesiastics before the accession of Valentinian were exempt from municipal services. 53

Revenues lost by these measures had to be made up from other sources, and Valentinian sought them from the senatorial order. In a law promulgated on 18 October 365 in Paris and reaching Carthage on 18 January 366, Valentinian ordered Dracontius, vicarius Africae , to send out men to collect taxes from those African estates which were owned by Roman senators. 54 This law was in keeping with Valentinian’s general hostility to the senatorial order.

Initially, it seemed that Valentinian actively sought to pacify the pagan aristocracy at Rome by retaining the title pontifex maximus and by passing legislation confirming toleration of the pagan practice of divination. 55 In 371, however, he sanctioned a purge of the nobility by the praefectus annonae Maximinus, whom he temporarily elevated to the office of urban prefect for this purpose. Members of the aristocracy were brought before Maximinus and Valentinian’s old friend Leo on charges such as using magic, using poison, and adultery. 56 Punishments ranged from exile to death. Ammianus cites many such cases, including those of the senators Cethegus, killed for adultery, and Paphius and Cornelius, prosecuted and executed for using poison. 57 The scale of Maximinus’ prosecutions was such that even children were tried. One Alypius, whom Ammianus describes as nobilis adulescens , was exiled for an offense Ammianus does not specify (and thus implies was trumped up), while Lollianus, son of the ex-prefect Lampadius, was sentenced to exile for writing a book concerning the destructive use of magic ( noxiarum artium ). Lampadius appealed to Valentinian, who turned the case over to Phalangius, governor of Baetica, who sentenced Lollianus to death. 57

Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. It was at the request of Maximinus that Valentinian abrogated the right of persons of senatorial rank to appeal cases to the emperor, a right that had already been strictly curtailed during the reign of Ampelius, Maximinus’ predecessor as urban prefect. He did this by treating as treasonous such acts as adultery, use of magic, and poisoning. He also empowered Maximinus to use torture to extract confessions from the accused. 59 As with Lollianus, the appeals that were heard often resulted in a harsher punishment than the original sentence.

Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige. In a law of 364, Valentinian decreed that the equites now ranked in prestige only behind the senatorial order. In addition, these equites were exempt from the more onerous forms of compulsory service and senatorial taxes. 60 Furthermore, a second law issued in 367 gave members of the imperial court the same privileges as senators. This law also established that discharged comites and tribunes could become senators. 61

In July of 372, Valentinian sent several pieces of legislation to Ampelius, praefectus urbi of Rome, putting members of the imperial court and the military on equal footing with those who occupied places in the civil administration. First, magistri peditum and magistri equitum were to be of equal social prestige to praetorian prefects. In addition, quaestors, magistri officiorum , the comes sacrarum largitionum , the comes rerum privatarum ,comites rei militaris , and magistri equitum outranked proconsular governors. Finally, any member of the imperial court outranked vicarii .62

Ammianus also observes that Valentinian’s main goal was to raise the prestige of the military. Zosimus confirms this by stating that Valentinian promoted many officers, and modified the system of tax collection so that the army got its supplies more quickly. Valentinian issued several laws expressly intended to make the collection of taxes easier. In 367, Valentinian instructed Probus that tax payments in kind could now be made in three installments per annum or all at once. 63 In addition, Valentinian raised the standard exactions. This increase in taxation alienated the provincials.

The African provinces illustrate this effect of Valentinian’s tax policies. When Romanus, as the military representative of the imperial government, came to power in 363, he began exploiting the provincials in the African diocese. When they refused to meet his exorbitant demands, he left them to the vagaries of such peoples as the Austoriani. In addition, when Valentinian sent Palladius, a tribune and notarius , to investigate, Romanus split the stolen tax revenue with him to prevent Palladius from reporting his misconduct to Valentinian. 64 As a result of Romanus’ actions, the provincials balked at paying any taxes. The fact that Valentinian had to resend the law directly to Dracontius, the vicarius of Africa in 367, confirms that the government was having a hard time in collecting its tribute. 65 Valentinian was very distressed by the situation, dispatching the notarius Neoterius, the protector domesticus Masaucio, and Gaudentius, a tribune of the Scutarii, to Africa in 365. 66 Theodosius took steps to ameliorate the situation upon his arrival, declaring that the provincials did not have to supply his army. He would take any supplies he needed from the supporters of Firmus .67

In addition, when Valentinian came to Pannonia in 375, the provincials took the opportunity to complain bitterly about the oppression they had suffered under Probus, praetorian prefect for the region. According to Ammianus, the taxation was so onerous in Pannonia that many of the leading nobles fled, were imprisoned for debt, or killed themselves. 68 There may have been similar unrest in Gaul, for Ammianus reported that there was an outbreak of civil unrest among the provincials there in 369, although he gives no details. 69 Scholars such as Raymond Van Dam see such provincial outbreaks as signs that the imperial system was devolving to the local level. 70

Assessment of Valentinian's Reign Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe. -------------------- VALENTIAN I Flavius Emperor of the West Born : 321 Cibalae Died : 375 Ruled 364-375 Age : 54 Father Gratian of Ciba in Pannonia of Rome Mother Marriage - Justina Empress of the West Children - - Galla Princess of the West  371 - VALENTIAN II Flavius Valentianus Emperor of the West Marriage - Marina Severa Empress of the West Children 359 - GRATIAN Flavian Augustus Emperor of the West Forrás / Source: http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per02521.htm#0

-------------------- ID: I21414 Name: Flavius Valentinianus I of Rome Prefix: Emperor Given Name: Flavius Valentinianus I Surname: of Rome Nickname: Valentian Sex: M _UID: 11224F2809B0DC498E128C7EED1262F88BDF Change Date: 10 Aug 2004 Birth: 321 Death: 17 NOV 375

Father: Gratian of Rome b: ABT 300

Marriage 1 Justina Augusta of Rome b: ABT 339 Children

Galla Valentiniana of Rome b: ABT 350
Aelia Flacila of Spanish Roman Empire b: 355 in Spain

Forrás / Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I21414

-------------------- ID: I21148 Name: Flavius Theodosius of Rome Prefix: Count Given Name: Flavius Theodosius Surname: of Rome Nickname: The Elder Sex: M _UID: F2D7FF26AD49D811BE490080C8C142CCEB03 Change Date: 14 Aug 2004 Birth: 325 Birth: ABT 325 in Caus Castle, Salop Death: of executed 375 in Carthage, Africa Death: 375

Father: Flavius Julius Constantius II of Rome b: 3 OCT 317 Mother: Fausta b: ABT 327

Marriage 1 Thermantia b: ABT 325 Married: Children

Theodosius I of Rome b: 11 JAN 346/47 in Cauca, Gallaccia, Spain

Forrás / Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I21148

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Count_Theodosius -------------------- http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentiniano_I

Flavius Valentinianus (321 - 17 de noviembre de 375) fue emperador del Imperio Romano de Occidente desde 364 hasta 375. Nació en Cibalis, en Panonia, hijo de Graciano el Viejo.

Empezó siendo oficial de la guardia de Juliano y Joviano y fue ascendiendo hasta los más altos cargos del servicio imperial. De rasgos robustos y apariencia distinguida, destacaba por su valor y gran capacidad militar. Fue elegido emperador cuando tenía 44 años por los oficiales del regimiento de Nicaea, en Bitinia, el 28 de febrero de 364, y poco después nombró a su hermano Valente colega, con él, como emperador.

Los dos hermanos acordaron en Naissus (Nissa) la partición del Imperio. Como emperador de Occidente, Valentiniano se quedó con Italia, Iliria, Hispania, Galia, Britania y África, dejando a Valente la mitad oriental de la Península Balcánica, Grecia, Egipto, Siria y Asia Menor hasta Persia. Su reinado fue sacudido por la revuelta de Procopio, un pariente de Juliano. Valente logró derrotarle en Thyatria (Lidia) en 366, y Procopio fue ejecutado poco después.

Durante el corto reinado de Valentiniano I hubo guerras en África, Germania y Britania, y Roma empezó a tener conflictos con pueblos bárbaros de los que se oía hablar por primera vez: burgundios, sajones, alamanes...

La principal tarea del emperador consistía en vigilar las fronteras y dirigir las operaciones militares. Instaló su primer cuartel general en Milán, para apaciguar el norte de Italia. Al año siguiente (365) se instaló en París, y después en Reims, para dirigir las operaciones de sus generales contra los alamanes.

Este pueblo, derrotado en Scarpona (Charpeigne) y Catelauni (Chalons-en-Champagne) por Jovino fueron expulsados a la orilla derecha del Rhin, y estaban bien vigilados por una cadena de fuertes y destacamentos militares. Al final de 367 cruzaron por sorpresa el Rhin, atacando y saqueando Moguntiacum (Maguncia). Valentiniano contraatacó en Solicinium y los derrotó pírricamente, pues las bajas en el ejército romanos fueron tan numerosas que tuvo que abandonar la idea de continuar su campaña contra los alamanes.

En 374 se firmó la paz con Macriano, rey de los alamanes, que desde entonces se convirtió en un fiel aliado de Roma. El siguiente año lo pasó Valentiniano organizando las defensas de la frontera del Rhin, y supervisando personalmente la construcción de numerosos fuertes.

Durante su reinado las costas de la Galia fueron saqueadas por los piratas Sajones, que junto con los pictos y los escotos asolaron Britania desde el muro de Adriano hasta las misma costa de Kent. En 368 Teodosio el viejo fue enviado para rechazar a los invasores. Al conseguirlo estableció una nueva provincia británica, llamada Valentia en honor del emperador.

En África se alzó en rebeldía el príncipe Firmo, al que se le unieron muchos de los habitantes de la provincia, desesperados por la crueldad y las extorsiones a los que les sometía el gobernador militar Romano. Se requirió una vez más de los servicios de Teodosio, que desembarcó en África con un pequeño grupo de veteranos. Firmo se suicídó para no ser cogido prisionero.

En 374 los quados, una tribu germánica que habitaba en las actuales Moravia y Eslovaquia, incitados por la construcción de fuertes en lo que ellos consideraban su territorio y por el asesinato a traición de su rey Gabino, cruzaron el río y se instalaron en la provincia de Panonia. En abril del año siguiente el emperador entró en Iliria al frente de un numeroso ejército, pero durante una violenta audiencia con los embajadores quados en Brigetio, le lanzaron una vasija a la cabeza que le provocó una herida por la que murió el 17 de noviembre de ese año.

En términos generales su administración parece haber sido honesta y eficaz. Era duro y meticuloso en materia de impuestos, que invertía en la defensa y mejora de sus dominios, sin demasiados lujos ni despilfarros. Pasó de ser un soldado analfabeto a fundar escuelas en Roma, e incluso proporcionó atención médica a los pobres de la ciudad, designando un médico por cada uno de los catorce distritos en los que se dividía la ciudad.

En materia religiosa se consideraba cristiano ortodoxo, pero permitió la libertad total en materia religiosa entre sus súbditos. Hizo frente a los abusos (tanto civiles como eclesiásticos) cometidos por el clero, cada vez más rico e influente. Su temperamento era el mayor defecto que tenía, pues era temeroso y se mostró excesivamente duro en el castigo de personas acusadas de brujería, adivinación o de practicar magia.

De su primera esposa, Marina Severa, tuvo a Flavio Graciano el Joven, que llegaría a ser emperador, y de su segunda mujer, Justina (la viuda de Magnencio) tuvo, entre otros a Flavio Valentiniano, que reinaría con el nombre de Valentiniano II y a Gala, que desposó en 387 con Teodosio. -------------------- Föddes 321 i Cibalis , Pannonien , romerska riket , och dog 375 i Brigetio , Pannonia - Inferior , Jugoslavien -------------------- Flavius Valentinianus Augustus, Emperor of Roman Empire, 364-375

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentinian_I

-------------------- He held high military rank under Julian and Jovian. After the death of Jovian, Valentinian was proclaimed emperor; he appointed his brother Valens coregent in the East. Valentinian defeated the Alemanni several times, and his general Theodosius successfully defended the empire in Britain and in Africa. To protect the frontiers of his empire, Valentinian ordered the construction of fortresses on the Rhine and the Danube rivers. He reduced taxation and promoted education. Although he was an orthodox Christian, he allowed religious freedom to Arians and to pagans. He was succeeded by his sons Valentinian II and Gratian .

-------------------- http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pmcbride/james/f005.htm#I326X1

Constantius III, Emperor in 421, married in 417 as her second husband and against her will, Galla Placida, daughter of Theodosius I., Theodosius the Great, Emperor (379-395) and his wife, Galla. Galla, the mother, was the daughter of Valentinian I., Emperor (364-375), and his wife, Justina. Galla Placida married in 414 (1) Ataulph, Visigothic King (410-415). Theodosius I. was the son of Theodosius and his wife, Thermanis. They were the first of the House of Theodosius. He died early in 395, the last ruler of a united Roman Empire, as great in extent as that left by Augustus. He died in 421. She died about 450, after being exiled after the death of Constantius III. They had a son and daughter. See John Fines, "Who's Who in the Middle Ages", (1970), pp. 175-177, for details of Galla Placida. She was a half-sister of Honorius, the Emperor under whom Britain was finally lost to Rome.

-------------------- Valentinian I (364-375 A.D)

Walter E. Roberts

Emory University

Introduction

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. 1 There was a power vacuum after the death of Julian , last ruler of the Neo-Flavian line. His immediate successor Jovian did not really survive long enough to leave his stamp on late Roman society. In general terms, Valentinian’s challenge was to hold together an empire that had experienced sixty years of internal unrest, something which was of major import. His provincial origins and Nicene Christianity put him at odds with the senatorial nobility in the west. Furthermore, he had to deal with the increasing regionalism of the empire, especially in Gaul, Britain, and Africa.

Early Life

Valentinian, whose full name was Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. 2 His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae , and finally comes Britanniae . He was suspected of graft while comes Africae , but nothing was ever proven. After he retired, Constantius II (337-60) confiscated his estates because he was suspected of having been a supporter of Magnentius .3 Gratian’s alleged affiliation with Magnentius apparently did not keep Valentinian or his younger brother Valens from being able to enter the military, but it may have contributed to some early trouble for Valentinian. Valentinian embarked upon a military career, and, like his father, became a victim of imperial politics. In 357 he was tribune of cavalry under Julian ,Constantius II's Caesar in the west. In the intrigues surrounding Julian and Constantius , Valentinian and a colleague were accused of undermining operations, and Constantius dismissed them from the service. 4 Valentinian was married twice. His first wife, Severa, died some time after giving birth to Valentinian’s first son Gratian in 359, and Valentinian married Justina, by whom he had Valentinian II , and two daughters, Galla and Justa. 5

When Julian died, Valentinian was recalled to military service by Jovian . Upon his accession, Jovian sent Procopius, a notarius , and Memoridus to Gaul and Illyricum to install his father-in-law Lucillianus, in retirement at Sirmium, as magister equitum et peditum . Lucillianus in turn was to journey to Milan and secure Jovian’s power in Italy and Gaul. Jovian supposedly gave Lucillianus secret instructions to handpick a select cadre of supporters. 6 Two of these men were Valentinian and Seniauchus. 7 One of this group’s missions was to displace Jovinus, Julian’s magister armorum per Gallias , with Malarichus, a retired soldier and supporter of Jovian living in Italy. In addition they were to visit as many governors and military commanders as possible and announce the successful end of the Persian campaign and Jovian's succession. 8 Malarichus, however, refused his commission, and Lucillianus traveled on to Rheims where he began examining the accounts of one of Julian’s officials. The official (not named in extant sources) fled to the army in Gaul and spread rumors that Julian was still alive and that Lucillianus was a rebel. In the riot that broke out, Seniauchus and Lucillianus were killed, and Valentinian barely escaped through the help of his friend Primitivus. By this time, Jovian had sent some additional soldiers who secured peace in Gaul. As a result Valentinian was promoted to command of the second Scutarii division. 9

Valentinian's Accession

Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. 10 The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The names of Aequitius, a tribune of the first Scutarii, and Januarius, a relative of Jovian’s in charge of military supplies in Illyricum, were bandied about. Both were rejected, Aequitius as too brutal, Januarius because he was too far away. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian, and sent messengers to inform him, as he had been left behind at Ancyra with his unit. While awaiting the arrival of Valentinian, Aequitius and Leo, another Pannonian in charge of distributing supplies to the soldiers of Dagalaifus, magister equitum , managed to keep the “fickle” ( mobilitas ) soldiers from choosing another emperor. 11

Valentinian arrived in Nicaea on 24 February 364, the bisextile day. This day was used every four years by the Romans to balance the calendar much as we use the modern leap year day: the sixth day (counting inclusively) before the first of March was counted twice. According to Ammianus, this day was considered an ill-omened day to begin any new proceedings, so Valentinian put off his official acceptance until the day after the bisextile. 12 Furthermore, the prefect Salutius declared that no official business could be conducted on the repeated day. The holiday would have prevented any attempt to name another emperor before Valentinian. 13

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. 14 His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests.

After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. 15 Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother. 16 The remainder of 364 was spent dividing up administrative duties and military commands. Valentinian retained the services of Jovinus and Dagalaifus, and promoted Aequitius to comes Illyricum . In addition, he promoted Serenianus, a retired soldier and fellow Pannonian, to command of the domesticorum scholae .17 Several sources mention the division of administrative spheres between the two brothers, but Ammianus is the most specific. 18 According to Ammianus, Valens was given the Prefecture of the Orient, governed by Salutius, while Valentinian gained control of the Prefecture of the Gauls and the Prefecture of Italy, Africa, and Illyricum. These latter three areas were put together as one administrative unit under control of the prefect Mamertinus. Valens resided in Constantinople, while Valentinian’s court was at Milan. 19

Valentinian and the Army

One of the first problems that faced Valentinian was an outbreak of hostilities in Gaul with the Alamanni, a loose confederation of Germanic-speaking peoples living beyond the Rhine. According to Ammianus, the Alamanni were upset because Valentinian would not supply them with the level of tribute that previous emperors had paid them. In response to this insult and the ill treatment their envoys received at the hands of the magister officiorum Ursatius, the Alamanni invaded Gaul in 365. 20 At the same time Procopius began his revolt against Valens in the east. Valentinian received news of both the Alamannic trouble and Procopius' revolt on 1 November while on his way to Paris. 21 He had a choice to make--go east to help his brother or stay in Gaul and fight the Alamanni. He initially sent Dagalaifus to fight the Alamanni, while he himself made preparations to journey east and help Valens . After receiving counsel from his court and deputations from the leading Gallic cities begging him to stay and protect Gaul, however, he decided to remain in Gaul and fight the Alamanni. 22

This move shows two things. First, that Valentinan subordinated the eastern portion of the empire to the west. In addition it shows that Valentinian was still unsure of his support in Gaul, a very important part of the west. There was no better way to win the support of the Gallic nobility than by performing the traditional imperial duty of preserving peace by defeating barbarians. This ideology is amply illustrated by the coinage issued from Gaul during this period. Valentinian issued such series as RESTITUTOR REIPUBLICAE ,GLORIA ROMANORUM , and TRIUMFATOR GENT BARB from the mints at Trier, Lyon, and Arles. 23

Valentinian advanced to Rheims and sent two generals, Charietto and Severianus, against the invaders. The armies of Charietto and Severianus were promptly defeated and the generals killed. Dagalaifus was then sent against the enemy in 366, but the Alamanni were so scattered about Gaul that he was ineffective. Jovinus replaced Dagalaifus late in the campaigning season, and, after several battles, he pushed the Alamanni out of Gaul. He was awarded the consulate of 367 for his efforts. 24

Valentinian was distracted from launching a punitive expedition against the Alamanni at this time by problems in Britain and northern Gaul. The Alamanni, however, were not deterred by their earlier defeat at the hands of Jovinus and they returned to Gaul. The city of Mainz was attacked and plundered by an Alamannic raiding party in late 367 or early 368. Valentinian did succeed in getting Roman agents to arrange the assassination of Vithicabius, an important Alamannic leader, by his personal bodyguard, but more serious measures were called for. Valentinian was determined to bring the Alamanni under Roman power once and for all, and spent the winter of 367/8 gathering a huge army for a spring offensive. He summoned the comes Sebastianus, who was in charge of the Italian and Illyrian legions, to join Jovinus and Severus, magister peditum . Valentinian and his army, accompanied by Gratian , crossed the Main river in the spring of 368. They did not encounter any resistance until they reached Solicinium (Schwetzingen), burning any dwellings or food stores they found along the way. A tremendous battle was fought at Schwetzingen, with the Romans coming out on top, although Valentinian was nearly killed. A temporary peace was apparently reached, and Valentinian and Gratian returned to Trier for the winter. 25

During 369, Valentinian ordered new defensive works to be constructed and old structures refurbished along the length of the Rhine’s left bank. In an even bolder move, he ordered the construction of a fortress across the Rhine, in the mountains near Heidelberg. The Alamanni sent envoys to protest, but they were dismissed out of hand. As a result, the Alamanni attacked while the fortress was still under construction, destroyed it, and killed all the soldiers guarding it. 26

In 370, the Saxons renewed their attacks on northern Gaul. Nannienus, the comes in charge of the troops in northern Gaul, had to ask Severus to come to his aid. After several battles, a truce was called and the Saxons gave the Romans many young men fit for duty in the Roman military in exchange for free passage back to their homeland. The Romans, however, treacherously ambushed the Saxons, killing them all. 27 At this same time, Valentinian was contemplating another attack against the Alamanni. His target was Macrianus, another powerful Alamannic chieftain. Rather than directly attack Macrianus, he tried to persuade the Burgundians to attack: they were another Germanic-speaking people, and bitter enemies of the Alamanni. If the Alamanni tried to flee, Valentinian would be waiting for them with his army. Negotiations, however, with the Burgundians broke down when Valentinian, in his usual high-handed manner, refused to meet with the Burgundian envoys and personally assure them of Roman support in the suggested attack. Nevertheless, the proposed alliance with the Burgundians did have the effect of scattering the Alamanni through fear of an imminent attack from their enemies. This event allowed Theodosius, magister equitum , to attack via Raetia and take many Alamannic prisoners. These captured Alamanni were settled in the Po river valley, where they still flourished at the time Ammianus wrote his history. 28

Valentinian campaigned unsuccessfully for four more years to defeat Macrianus. In 372 Macrianus barely escaped capture by Theodosius. In the meantime, Valentinian continued to recruit heavily from those Alamanni friendly to the Roman cause. He sent the Alamannic king Fraomarius, along with Alamannic troops commanded by Bitheridius and Hortarius, to Britain in order to replenish troops there. 29 Valentinian’s Alamannic campaigns, however, were hampered by troubles first in Africa, and later on the Danube. In 374 Valentinian was forced to make peace with Macrianus because the emperor's presence was needed to counter an invasion of Illyricum by the Quadi and Sarmatians. 30

Military Problems in Britain, Gaul, and on the Danube

In 367, Valentinian received reports that a combined force of Picts, Attacotti and Scots had killed Nectaridus ( comes maritimi tractus ) and overcome the dux Fullofaudes in Britain. As a consequence, Britain was in a state of anarchy. At the same time, Frankish and Saxon forces were harrying the coastal areas of northern Gaul. Valentinian, alarmed by these reports, set out for Britain, sending Severus ( comes domesticorum ) ahead of him to investigate. Severus was not able to correct the situation and returned to the continent, meeting Valentinian at Amiens. Valentinian then sent Jovinus to Britain and promoted Severus to magister peditum . It was at this time that Valentinian fell ill and a battle for succession broke out between Severus, a representative of the army, and Rusticus Julianus, magister memoriae and a representative of the Gallic nobility. Valentinian, however, recovered and appointed his son Gratian as co-Augustus to forestall any such conflicts in the future. Ammianus remarks that such an action was unprecedented. 31

Jovinus quickly returned, saying that he needed more men to take care of the situation. Beginning in 368 Valentinian, however, was intent on pressing his successes against the Alamanni with a campaign into their territory. Therefore, he assigned the comes Theodosius the task of recovering Britain while Severus and Jovinus were to accompany the emperor on his campaign. 32 Theodosius arrived in 368 with the Batavi, Heruli, Jovii and Victores legions, landing at Richborough, and proceeded to London. His initial expeditions restored order to southern Britain. Later he rallied the remaining troops which had originally been stationed in Britain. It was apparent that the units had lost their cohesiveness when Nectaridius and Fullofaudes had been defeated. At this time, Theodosius sent for Civilis to be installed as the new vicarius of the diocese, and Dulcitius, an additional general. 33

In 369, Theodosius, relying on the tactics of stealth and ambush, set about reconquering the areas north of London. During this period, he put down the revolt of Valentinus, the brother-in-law of Maximinus, at that time a vicarius . Valentinus had been exiled to Britain for crimes that Ammianus does not specify and was apparently fomenting a rebellion against the imperial government. Theodosius learned of these plans through spies and quashed the revolt before it got off the ground. After this, Theodosius restored destroyed fortifications and even recovered a lost province which was renamed Valentia. 34 After his return in 369, Valentinian promoted Theodosius to magister equitum in place of Jovinus. 35

Revolt of Firmus

In 372, the rebellion of Firmus broke out in the African provinces. This rebellion was driven by the corruption of the comes Romanus. When he took sides in the murderous disputes among the legitimate and illegitimate children of Nubel, a Moorish prince and leading Roman client in Africa, resentment of Romanus' peculations and failure to defend the territory caused some of the provincials to revolt. Valentinian was forced to send in Theodosius to restore imperial control. Over the next two years Theodosius uncovered Romanus' crimes, arrested him and his cronies, and defeated Firmus .36

In 373 trouble erupted with the Quadi, a group of Germanic-speaking people living on the Danube. Like the Alamanni, the Quadi were outraged that Valentinian was building fortifications in their territory. They complained and sent deputations that were ignored by the magister armorum per Illyricum Aequitius. It seems, however, that by 373 the construction of these forts was behind schedule. Maximinus, now praetorian prefect of Gaul, arranged with Aequitius to promote his son Marcellianus to the rank of dux per Valeriam and put him in charge of finishing the project. The protests of Quadic leaders continued to delay the project, and in a fit of frustration, Marcellianus murdered the Quadic king Gabinius at a banquet ostensibly arranged for peaceful negotiations. This roused the Quadi to war, along with their allies the Sarmatians. During the fall harvest, they broke across the Danube and began ravaging the province of Valeria. The marauders could not penetrate the fortified cities, but they heavily damaged the unprotected countryside. Two legions, the Pannonica and Moesiaca, were sent in, but they failed to coordinate their efforts and were routed by the Sarmatians. At the same time, another group of Sarmatians invaded Moesia, but they were driven back by the dux Moesiae Theodosius the younger , future emperor and son of the magister equitum .37

Valentinian did not receive news of these disasters until mid-to-late 374. In the spring of 375 he set out from Trier and came to Carnuntum, which was deserted. There he was met by Sarmatian envoys who begged forgiveness for their actions. Valentinian replied that he would investigate what had happened and act accordingly. Valentinian ignored Marcellianus’ treacherous actions and decided to punish the Quadi. He, accompanied by Sebastianus and Merobaudes, spent the summer months preparing for the campaign and finally crossed into Quadic territory at Aquincum (Budapest). After generally pillaging the Quadic lands and carrying out acts of terrorism, he retired to Savaria (Szombathely) to winter quarters. For unknown reasons, he decided to continue campaigning and moved from Savaria to Brigetio (Komarom-Szony). 38 It was here that he received a deputation from the Quadi on November 17. In return for supplying fresh recruits to the Roman army, the Quadi were to be allowed to leave in peace. Before the envoys left, however, they were granted an audience with Valentinian. The envoys insisted that the conflict was caused by the building of Roman forts in their lands, and that furthermore individual bands of Quadi were not necessarily bound to the rule of the chiefs who had made treaties with the Romans, and thus might attack at any time. The attitude of the envoys so enraged Valentinian that he suffered a stroke that ended his life. 39

Roman Society under Valentinian

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. 40 He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” 41 Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century. Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. At the same time, the empire was becoming more and more of a bureaucracy, with the emperor delegating authority to a chain of officials. These officials did not always perform their job well and, as a result, the provincial populations became increasingly alienated from the imperial government. They were crushed under the increasing burden of taxation, and often the emperor, through his delegates, failed to provide the security for which the provincials' tribute was paying. 42

Valentinian, Christianity, and Legislation

Unlike his brother Valens , Valentinian refused to become embroiled in the religious controversies of the time. Ammianus praised Valentinian for his religious neutrality. 43 Valentinian refused to get involved in the Arian controversy of the east, dismissing a deputation of eastern Nicene bishops who appealed to him to control Valens .44 Valentinian did, however, take a harsh stand against two of the heretical movements that had grown during the past century in the west. In 372 he forbade gatherings of Manichees in the city of Rome. Such assemblies were to result in the death of the leaders, the exile of the others, and confiscation of the property of all involved. 45 In addition he officially condemned Donatist bishops in Africa in 373. 46

The ecclesiastical sources for this period generally have a favorable opinion of Valentinian. Jerome speaks in glowing terms, saying “Valentinian was an excellent emperor in most cases and similar in character to Aurelian, save only that certain people interpreted his excessive strictness and parsimony as cruelty and greed.” 47 Socrates and Orosius took the story of his dismissal from the military by Constantius II and turned him into a martyr of sorts. According to Sozomen, Valentinian was dismissed from the military by Julian , instead of Constantius II , for refusing to perform a pagan ritual at a pagan shrine. 48 Less accurately, Theoderet, Sozomen, and Socrates praised Valentinian for installing Ambrose as bishop of Milan. Ambrose’s predecessor, Auxentius, had been an Arian. 49

Valentinian, however, was not uniformly friendly towards Christianity. For example, he ordered Symmachus, praefectus urbi of Rome in 365, to put to death and confiscate the property of any Christians who became custodians of temples. 50 It seems, however, that much of his legislation concerning Christians was driven by fiscal motives, rather than any real concern with religious doctrine. Any Manichees caught under the law contributed their property to the fisc, and the condemnation of the Donatists could really be seen as a condemnation of those who inhibited the collection of taxes from the African provinces. In other examples, Valentinian addressed a law to Damasus, Pope of Rome in 370, which forbade ecclesiastics to marry widows or female wards of the state. The purpose of this law was to stop churchmen from obtaining the wealth of such women through inheritance. 51 On the other hand, Valentinian appears to have given Christians special privileges. For example, in 370 he upheld a law of Constantius II that exempted professed Nicene Christians in the African provinces from obligatory municipal duties. 52 Similarly, a law was passed in 371 that those in the city of Rome who could prove that they were ecclesiastics before the accession of Valentinian were exempt from municipal services. 53

Revenues lost by these measures had to be made up from other sources, and Valentinian sought them from the senatorial order. In a law promulgated on 18 October 365 in Paris and reaching Carthage on 18 January 366, Valentinian ordered Dracontius, vicarius Africae , to send out men to collect taxes from those African estates which were owned by Roman senators. 54 This law was in keeping with Valentinian’s general hostility to the senatorial order.

Initially, it seemed that Valentinian actively sought to pacify the pagan aristocracy at Rome by retaining the title pontifex maximus and by passing legislation confirming toleration of the pagan practice of divination. 55 In 371, however, he sanctioned a purge of the nobility by the praefectus annonae Maximinus, whom he temporarily elevated to the office of urban prefect for this purpose. Members of the aristocracy were brought before Maximinus and Valentinian’s old friend Leo on charges such as using magic, using poison, and adultery. 56 Punishments ranged from exile to death. Ammianus cites many such cases, including those of the senators Cethegus, killed for adultery, and Paphius and Cornelius, prosecuted and executed for using poison. 57 The scale of Maximinus’ prosecutions was such that even children were tried. One Alypius, whom Ammianus describes as nobilis adulescens , was exiled for an offense Ammianus does not specify (and thus implies was trumped up), while Lollianus, son of the ex-prefect Lampadius, was sentenced to exile for writing a book concerning the destructive use of magic ( noxiarum artium ). Lampadius appealed to Valentinian, who turned the case over to Phalangius, governor of Baetica, who sentenced Lollianus to death. 57

Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. It was at the request of Maximinus that Valentinian abrogated the right of persons of senatorial rank to appeal cases to the emperor, a right that had already been strictly curtailed during the reign of Ampelius, Maximinus’ predecessor as urban prefect. He did this by treating as treasonous such acts as adultery, use of magic, and poisoning. He also empowered Maximinus to use torture to extract confessions from the accused. 59 As with Lollianus, the appeals that were heard often resulted in a harsher punishment than the original sentence.

Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige. In a law of 364, Valentinian decreed that the equites now ranked in prestige only behind the senatorial order. In addition, these equites were exempt from the more onerous forms of compulsory service and senatorial taxes. 60 Furthermore, a second law issued in 367 gave members of the imperial court the same privileges as senators. This law also established that discharged comites and tribunes could become senators. 61

In July of 372, Valentinian sent several pieces of legislation to Ampelius, praefectus urbi of Rome, putting members of the imperial court and the military on equal footing with those who occupied places in the civil administration. First, magistri peditum and magistri equitum were to be of equal social prestige to praetorian prefects. In addition, quaestors, magistri officiorum , the comes sacrarum largitionum , the comes rerum privatarum ,comites rei militaris , and magistri equitum outranked proconsular governors. Finally, any member of the imperial court outranked vicarii .62

Ammianus also observes that Valentinian’s main goal was to raise the prestige of the military. Zosimus confirms this by stating that Valentinian promoted many officers, and modified the system of tax collection so that the army got its supplies more quickly. Valentinian issued several laws expressly intended to make the collection of taxes easier. In 367, Valentinian instructed Probus that tax payments in kind could now be made in three installments per annum or all at once. 63 In addition, Valentinian raised the standard exactions. This increase in taxation alienated the provincials.

The African provinces illustrate this effect of Valentinian’s tax policies. When Romanus, as the military representative of the imperial government, came to power in 363, he began exploiting the provincials in the African diocese. When they refused to meet his exorbitant demands, he left them to the vagaries of such peoples as the Austoriani. In addition, when Valentinian sent Palladius, a tribune and notarius , to investigate, Romanus split the stolen tax revenue with him to prevent Palladius from reporting his misconduct to Valentinian. 64 As a result of Romanus’ actions, the provincials balked at paying any taxes. The fact that Valentinian had to resend the law directly to Dracontius, the vicarius of Africa in 367, confirms that the government was having a hard time in collecting its tribute. 65 Valentinian was very distressed by the situation, dispatching the notarius Neoterius, the protector domesticus Masaucio, and Gaudentius, a tribune of the Scutarii, to Africa in 365. 66 Theodosius took steps to ameliorate the situation upon his arrival, declaring that the provincials did not have to supply his army. He would take any supplies he needed from the supporters of Firmus .67

In addition, when Valentinian came to Pannonia in 375, the provincials took the opportunity to complain bitterly about the oppression they had suffered under Probus, praetorian prefect for the region. According to Ammianus, the taxation was so onerous in Pannonia that many of the leading nobles fled, were imprisoned for debt, or killed themselves. 68 There may have been similar unrest in Gaul, for Ammianus reported that there was an outbreak of civil unrest among the provincials there in 369, although he gives no details. 69 Scholars such as Raymond Van Dam see such provincial outbreaks as signs that the imperial system was devolving to the local level. 70

Assessment of Valentinian's Reign

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

Selected Bibliography

I. Primary Sources

Ammianus Marcellinus. Rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt . W. Seyfarth, ed. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1978.

Consularia Constantinopolitana . T. Mommsen ed., Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctores Antiquissimi. Volume 9. Berlin, 1892.

Codex Theodosianus. T. Mommsen, P.M. Meyer, and P. Krüger, eds. Theodosiani libri XVI cum constitutionibus Sirmondianis et leges novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes (2 vols.). Berlin, 1905.

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Vol. 6. T. Mommsen, ed. Berlin, 1875.

Epitome de Caesaribus . F.R. Pichlmayr, ed. Leipzig, 1961.

Jerome. Chronicon. R. Helm, ed., in Malcolm Drew Donalson, A Translation of Jerome’s Chronicon with Historical Commentary. Lewiston, NY, 1996.

Orosius. Adversus paganos historiarum libri septem . Z. Zangemeister, ed. Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum 5. Vienna, 1882.

Socrates. Historia Ecclesiastica . J.P. Migne ed., Patrologia Graeca 67. Paris, 1864.

Sozomen. Historia Ecclesiastica. J.P. Migne ed., Patrologia Graeca 67. Paris, 1864.

Theoderet. Historia Ecclesiastica . J.P. Migne ed., Patrologia Graeca 82. Paris, 1864.

Zosimus. Historia nova . François Paschoud, ed. and trans., Zosime: Histoire Nouvelle (3 vols.). Paris, 1971-89.

II. Secondary Sources

Alföldi, Andreas. A Conflict of Ideas in the Late Roman Empire: The Clash between the Senate and Valentinian I . Translated by Harold Mattingly. Oxford, 1952.

Blockley, R.C. “The Date of the ‘Barbarian Conspiracy.’” Britannia 11 (1980): 223-5.

Burns, Thomas S. Barbarians within the Gates of Rome: A Study of Roman Military Policy and the Barbarians, ca. 375-425 A.D. Bloomington, 1994.

Hind, J.G.F. “The British ‘Provinces’ of Valentia and Orcades.” Historia 24 (1975): 101-11.

Jones, A.H.M. The Later Roman Empire 284-602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey. 3 Volumes. Oxford, 1964.

________. “The Social Background of the Struggle Between Paganism and Christianity.” In The Conflict Between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century , ed. Arnaldo Momigliano, 17-37. Oxford, 1963.

________., J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris, eds. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Volume I A.D. 260-395 . Cambridge, 1971.

Matthews, John F. The Roman Empire of Ammianus . London, 1989.

________. "Symmachus and the magister militum Theodosius." Historia 20 (1971): 122-8.

________. "Mauretania in Ammianus and the Notitia." In Aspects of the "Notitia Dignitatum ", eds. R. Goodburn and P. Bartholomew, 157-86. Oxford, 1976.

________. Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court, A.D. 364-425 . Oxford, 1975.

Momigliano, Arnaldo, ed. The Conflict Between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century . Oxford, 1963.

Nagl, A. "Valentinianus I." RE 14: 2158ff.

Napoli, Joëlle. “Ultimes fortifications du limes.” In L’armée romaine et les barbares du IIIe au VIIe siècle , eds. Françoise Vallet and Michel Kazanski, 67-76. Paris, 1993.

Oldenstein, Jürgen. “La fortification d’Alzey et la defense de la frontière romaine le long du Rhine au IVe et au Ve siècles.” In L’armée romaine et les barbares du IIIe au VIIe siècle , eds. Françoise Vallet and Michel Kazanski, 125-33. Paris, 1993.

Pearce, J.W.E. The Roman Imperial Coinage: Vol. 9 Valentinian I to Theodosius I . Harold Mattingly, C.H.V. Sutherland, and R.A.G. Carson eds. London, 1972.

Stein, Ernest. Histoire du bas-empire. Translated by Jean-Remy Palanque. Amsterdam, 1968.

Thompson, E.A. “Ammianus Marcellinus and Britain.” Nottingham Medieval Studies 34 (1990): 1-15.

Tomlin, Roger. “The Date of the ‘Barbarian Conspiracy.’” Britannia 5 (1974): 303-9.

Van Dam, Raymond. Leadership and Community in Late Antique Gaul . Berkeley, 1985.

Warmington, B.H. “The Career of Romanus, Comes Africae.” Byzantinische Zeitschrift 49 (1956): 55-64.

Notes

1For a survey of the primary source for Valentinian I, see A.H.M. Jones, J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris, The Prospography of the Later Roman Empire, Volume 1 A.D. 260-395 (Cambridge, 1971), s.v . “Flavius Valentinianus 7 [hereafter cited as PLRE 1]; and Karl Mittelhaus and Konrat Ziegler, eds. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 2nd ed. Volume 14 (Munich, 1948), s.v. “Valentinianus 1,” by Assunta Nagl.

2For the date see Ammianus Marcellinus, Rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt , 30.6.6, ed. W. Seyfarth, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1978); Socrates, Historia Ecclesiastica , 4.31, in Patrologia Graeca 67, ed. J.P. Migne (Paris 1864); and Sozomen, Historia Ecclesiastica , 6.31, in Patrologia Graeca 67, ed. J.P. Migne (Paris 1864). For the place see Ammianus 30.7.2; Zosimus, 3.36.2; Socrates 4.1; Jerome, Chronicon, Olympiad 285.4, ed. R. Helm in Malcolm Drew Donalson, A Translation of Jerome’s Chronicon with Historical Commentary (Lewiston, NY, 1996), 112; and Epitome de caesaribus, 45.2, ed. F.R. Pichlmayr (Leipzig, 1961).

3Ammianus 30.7.1-3.

4 Ibid. , 16.11.6-7.

5 PLRE 1 s.v. “Marina Severa 2;” “Justina;” “Justa 1;” and “Galla 2.”

6Ammianus 25.8.8-10.

7 Ibid. , 25.10.6.

8 Ibid. , 25.8.11-12.

9 Ibid., 25.10.6-9. Zosimus 3.35.1-2 relates basically the same story, but says that Valentinian’s party was sent to Pannonia in order to inform the army there of Julian’s death. The Batavi legion in Pannonia regarded Jovian as a usurper and attacked the envoys. Valentinian only escaped death by running away.

10Ammianus 25.10.13; Consularia Constantinopolitana , 364.2, T. Mommsen ed., in Monumenta Germaniae Historica Auctores Antiquissimi , Volume 9 (Berlin, 1892); and PLRE I, s.v . “Fl. Jovianus 3.”

11Ammianus 26.1.3-6.

12 Ibid., 26.1.7-14.

13 Ibid ., 26.2.1.

14 Ibid., 26.2.2-11.

15 Ibid., 26.4.1-2.

16 Ibid., 24.6.3; 26.5.1.

17 Ibid., 26.5.2-3.

18 Ibid., 26.5.5; Zosimus 4.3.1; and Theoderet, Historia Ecclesiastica , 5.5, in Patrologia Graeca 82, ed. J.P. Migne (Paris 1864).

19Ammianus 26.5.4-5.

20 Ibid., 26.5.7.

21 Ibid., 26.5.8. Three laws actually put Valentinian in Paris between Oct. 18 and Dec. 12. Codex Theodosianus, 8.1.11; 10.19.3; 11.1.13, T. Mommsen, P.M. Meyer, and P. Krüger, eds. Theodosiani libri XVI cum constitutionibus sirmondianis et leges novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes , 2 vols., (Berlin, 1905).

22Ammianus 26.8-13.

23J.W.E. Pearce, Roman Imperial Coinage: Vol. 9 Valentinian I to Theodosius I , eds. Harold Mattingly, C.H.V. Sutherland, and R.A.G. Carson (London, 1972), 13-21; 34-47; 54-67.

24Ammianus 27.7.1-5; 27.2.1-11.

25 Ibid. , 27.10.1-16.

26 Ibid., 28.2.1-9. For a discussion of the archaeological evidence which supports the literary accounts of Valentinian’s program see Joëlle Napoli, “Ultimes fortifications du limes,” in L’armée romaine et les barbares du IIIe au VIIe siècle , eds. Françoise Vallet and Michel Kazanski (Paris, 1993), 67-76; and Jürgen Oldenstein, “La fortification d’Alzey et la défense de la frontière romaine le long du Rhine au IVe et au Ve siècles,” in ibid. , 125-33.

27Ammianus 28.5.1-7.

28 Ibid., 28.5.8-14.

29 Ibid., 29.4.1-7.

30 Ibid ., 30.3.1-6.

31 Ibid., 27.8.1-5; 27.6.1-16. For the problems of chronology with these events see Roger Tomlin, “The Date of the ‘Barbarian Conspiracy’,” Britannia 5 (1974): 304-5; and R.C. Blockley, “The Date of the ‘Barbarian Conspiracy’,” Britannia 11 (1980): 223-4.

32Ammianus, 27.8.3; 27.10.6.

33 Ibid., 27.8.6-10.

34 Ibid., 28.3.1-9; see J.G.F. Hind, “The British ‘Provinces’ of Valentia and Orcades,” Historia 24 (1975): 101-11; and E.A. Thompson, “Ammianus Marcellinus and Britain,” Nottingham Medieval Studies 34 (1990): 1-15.

35Ammianus 28.3.9.

36 Ibid., 29.5.1-55; for details of the campaign see John F. Matthews, "Mauretania in Ammianus and the Notitia," in Aspects of the "Notitia Dignitatum" , eds. R. Goodburn and P. Bartholomew (Oxford, 1976), 157-86.

37Ammianus 29.6.1-16.

38 Ibid., 30.5.1-15.

39 Ibid. , 30.6.1-6.

40 Ibid. , 29.4.1; Zosimus 4.3.4-5; Thomas S. Burns, Barbarians within the Gates of Rome: A Study of Roman Military Policy and the Barbarians, ca. 375-425 A.D . (Bloomington, 1994): 1-42; Ernest Stein, Histoire du bas-empire , trans. Jean-Remy Palanque (Amsterdam, 1968), 181-3.

41Burns, Barbarians within the Gates, 294, n.4.

42John F. Matthews, Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court A.D. 364-425 (Oxford, 1975), 30-55; idem ,The Roman Empire of Ammianus (London, 1989), 284-6; A.H.M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire 284-602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey, Volume 1 (Norman, 1964), 138-54; and A.H.M. Jones, “The Social Background of the Struggle between Paganism and Christianity,” in The Conflict Between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century , ed. Arnaldo Momigliano (Oxford, 1963), 17-37. For a contrary view see Andreas Alföldi, A Conflict of Ideas in the Late Roman Empire: The Clash Between the Senate and Valentinian I , trans. Harold Mattingly (Oxford, 1952).

43Ammianus 30.9.5.

44Sozomen 6.7.

45 CTh 16.5.3.

46 Ibid. 16.6.1.

47Jerome, Chronicon ,Olympiad 286.1, ed. R. Helm, in Malcolm Drew Donalson, A Translation of Jerome’s Chronicon with Historical Commentary (Lewiston, NY, 1996), 113.

48Sozomen 6.6; Orosius, 7.32, states that Valentinian voluntarily went into exile.

49Socrates 4.30; Sozomen 6.24; and Theoderet 5.6.

50 CTh 16.1.1.

51 Ibid. , 16.2.20.

52 Ibid. , 16.2.18.

53 Ibid. , 16.2.21.

54 Ibid ., 11.1.13.

55 CIL , 6.1175; CTh 9.16.5.

56Ammianus 28.1.10-12.

57 Ibid. , 28.1.16; 28.1.29.

58 Ibid. , 28.1.16; 28.1.26.

59 Ibid. , 28.1.11; CTh 9.16.10.

60 Ibid ., 6.37.1.

61 Ibid. , 6.35.7.

62 Ibid. , 6.7.1; 6.9.1; 6.11.1; 6.14.1; and 6.22.4.

63 Ibid ., 11.1.15.

64Ammianus 28.6.1-18.

65 CTh 11.1.16.

66Ammianus 26.5.13.

67 Ibid ., 29.5.10. For the social implications of Firmus’ revolt see B.H. Warmington, “The Career of Romanus, Comes Africae ,” Byzantinische Zeitschrift 49 (1956): 55-64; and John F. Matthews, “Symmachus and the magister militum Theodosius,” Historia 20 (1971): 122-8.

68Ammianus 30.5.5-10.

69 Ibid ., 28.2.10.

70Raymond Van Dam, Leadership and Community in Late Antique Gaul (Berkeley, 1985), 7-24.

Copyright (C) 1998, Walter E. Roberts. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. -------------------- Reference: http://familytrees.genopro.com/318186/jarleslekt/default.htm?page=toc_families.htm -------------------- •ID: I15917

•Name: Flavius I Valentinianus Roman Emperor

•Surname: Valentinianus

•Given Name: Flavius I

•Suffix: Roman Emperor

•Sex: M

•Birth: 0321 in Cibalis, Italy

•Death: 17 Nov 0375 in Bregitio, Spain

•_UID: 626458D5B7D2A64799A26FEA5F81FF5430E5

•Note: Valentinian I From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Valentinian I (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman emperor of the Western Roman Empire (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder. He had been an officer of the guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. He was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 28, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire. The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italy, Illyricum, Spain, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards. During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never heard before. Specifically the Burgundians, the Saxons and the Alamanni. Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy.The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. This people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success. Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts. During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia, in honour of the emperor. In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Count Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide. In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375. His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city. Valentinian was an Orthodox Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

•Change Date: 26 Nov 2007 at 19:20:36

Marriage 1 Justina Valentinia b: ABT 0325 in Cauca, Spain

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  Emperor Flavius Valentinianus of Rome I   

Flavius was born in 0321.1 Flavius' father was Tribune Gratian of Rome and his mother was <Unknown>. He was an only child. He died at the age of 54 on November 17th, 0375.1

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Valentinian I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search

Valentinian I

Emperor of the Roman Empire


Bust of Valentinian I

Reign 26 February – 28 March 364 (alone);

26 March 364 – 17 November 375 (emperor of the west, with his brother emperor in the east)

Full name Flavius Valentinianus (from birth to accession);

Flavius Valentinianus Augustus (as emperor)

Born 321

Birthplace Cibalae, Pannonia

Died 17 November 375 (aged 54)

Place of death Brigetio on the Danube (near today Komárom, Hungary)

Predecessor Jovian

Successor Valens, Gratian and Valentinian II

Consort to 1) Marina Severa

Wives

2) Justina

Offspring Gratian

Valentinian II

Galla

Grata

Justa

Dynasty Valentinian

Father Gratian the Elder

Flavius Valentinianus (321 – 17 November 375), commonly known as Valentinian I or Valentinian the Great[1], was Roman Emperor from 364 to 375. He was the last emperor to have de facto control of the entire empire. Upon becoming emperor he made his brother Valens his co-emperor, giving him rule of the eastern provinces while Valentinian retained the west. During his reign, Valentinian fought successfully against the Alamanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians. Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 367 at the Battle of Solicinium. His brilliant general Count Theodosius defeated a revolt in Africa and the Great Conspiracy, a coordinated assault on Britain by Picts, Scots, and Saxons. Valentinian was also the last emperor to conduct campaigns across the Rhine and Danube rivers. He rebuilt and improved the fortifications along the frontiers – even building fortresses in enemy territory. Due to the successful nature of his reign and almost immediate decline of the empire after his death, he is often considered the "last great western emperor". He founded the Valentinian Dynasty, with his sons Gratian and Valentinian II succeeding him in the western half of the empire.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

1.1 Service under Constantius and Julian

2 Emperor

2.1 Campaigns in Gaul and Germania

2.2 The Great Conspiracy

2.3 Revolt in Africa and crises on the Danube

2.4 Marriage

2.5 Reputation

3 Notes

4 References

4.1 Primary sources

4.2 Secondary accounts

4.3 References

4.4 External links


[edit] Early life

Valentinian was born in 321 at Cibalae in southern Pannonia. He and his younger brother Valens were the sons of Gratianus Major, a prominent general during the reign of Constans – the youngest son of Constantine the Great. He and his brother grew up on the family estate where they received a proper education. Valentinian entered the military in his youth and in 340 accompanied his father – the newly appointed Comes Africae – to Africa. Subsequently, he went to Britain when his father was promoted to Comes Britanniarum. After holding this post, Gratianus retired to the family estate in Cibalae, while Valentinian was probably reassigned somewhere along the Rhine or Danube frontier.

In 350, Constans was assassinated by agents of the usurper Magnentius, a commander in Gaul proclaimed emperor by his soldiers. Constantius II, older brother of Constans and emperor in the east, promptly set forth towards Magnentius with a large army. The following year the two emperors met in Pannonia. The ensuing battle of Mursa Major resulted in a costly victory for Constantius. Two years later he defeated Magnentius again in southern Gaul at the battle of Mons Seleucus. Magnentius, now realizing the futility of continuing his revolt, committed suicide in August that year; making Constantius sole ruler of the empire. It was around this time that Constantius confiscated Gratianus' property, for supposedly showing hospitality to Magnentius when he was in Pannonia. Despite his father's fall from favor, Valentinian does not seem to have been adversely affected at this time, making it unlikely he ever fought for the usurper. It is known that Valentinian was in the region during the conflict, but what involvement he had in the war, if any, is unknown.

[edit] Service under Constantius and Julian

The civil war exacerbated the already troublesome shortage of manpower – over 70,000 Roman soldiers died during the conflict. This denuded the frontier of much needed troops, allowing the Alamanni and Franks to take advantage of the situation and cross the Rhine, taking several important settlements and fortifications. In 354, Constantius campaigned against the Alamanni achieving few successes; imperial authority in Upper Germania and eastern Gaul was rapidly deteriorating. Later the same year, Constantius recalled Gallus amid accusations of abusing his position, and had him promptly executed. In 355, feeling the crises of the empire still too much for one emperor to handle, Constantius raised his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar. Constantius now coordinated military affairs from Mediolanum in Italy, leaving the defense of Gaul primarily to Julian and subordinate generals. Valentinian was assigned to the army of Julian for the next five years, distinguishing himself as a capable soldier and commander.

For the following two years Valentinian fought the Alamanni in Gaul with Julian's army, though his whereabouts, and what engagements he was present for, is uncertain. He did however play an important part in the campaigning, and shortly after Julian's decisive victory against the Alamanni at the Battle of Argentoratum in 357, he was promoted to tribune of cavalry. Valentinian's command now formed an integral part of Julian's campaigning, making his actions and whereabouts easier to conjecture.

By the end of the year, Julian was able to expel the majority of Alamanni back across the Rhine, and soon after crossed the river into their territory. Valentinian undoubtedly took part in this counterattack, gaining valuable experience in the region that would be the focal point of his future campaigns. The army burned many barbarian settlements, and reduced several small Alamannic tribes in the Agri Decumates to tributary status. Julian was then able to conclude a ten month truce with the Alamanni, and returned back across the Rhine to winter quarters.

In 358, Julian conducted a decisive campaign against the Franks, who had been raiding Lower Germania for several years. Crossing the lower Rhine, the army swiftly defeated the Frankish Chamavi and Salii tribes, reducing them to tributary status as well. Later that year he crossed the Rhine again at Moguntiacum into Alamannic territory, forcing two influential kings to surrender. In 359, he traveled through the land of the tributaries, devastating the lands of the Alammanic kings who had escaped him at Argentoratum, receiving their surrender as well. Valentinian proved to be a competent cavalry commander during these trans-Rhenish forays, his robust frame and great courage sitting well with the soldiers. In the same year, his first son Gratian was born at Sirmium in Panonnia, by his first wife Marina Severa, not far from the family's home town. During the winter, Valentinian was called upon by Constantius to serve him in the east, to assist with operations against the Persians.

His involvement in the east is unknown, but he was promoted to the rank of tribune the same year in Constantius' army. Relations between Constantius and Julian had always been tense, the latter was becoming popular with the army – distributing pay ex manubiis (from the spoils of war) after each campaign. Another civil war almost broke out after Julian's famous victory in 357, when his troops hailed him Augustus – equal with Constantius – though Julian refused the acclamation. Nevertheless, their relations still deteriorated, and in 360 when Constantius demanded Julian send him contingents from the army in Gaul, the soldiers essentially forced Julian's hand.

The army declared him Augustus again, demanding he go to war against Constantius – or else they'll do so without him. Julian, now feeling the time right to assert his position, gladly accepted. During a respite in hostilities against the Persians, Constantius set out west with his army; hoping this war to be a repeat of that against Magnentius. Before he left Antioch, he dismissed Valentinian from service – he was an officer loyal to Julian that could easily undermine operations. Before the two armies could meet in Pannonia however, Constantius fell ill and died in late 361. Constantius died childless, but apparently declared Julian, the last scion of the Constantinian dynasty, his rightful successor – averting any further succession crisis.

Unlike Constantine's family Julian rejected Christianity, favouring traditional Roman polytheism. He spent his first years as emperor attempting to restore the old religion's prominence. Valentinian, a Christian, was thus exiled to Thebes in Egypt for two years. Julian recalled him in 363 to serve in his upcoming Persian campaign, though Valentinian's role or contributions are unknown. Julian proceeded from Antioch in March 363 at the head of a large army – perhaps 85,000 strong. The campaign began successfully, the army reaching the Persian capital Ctesiphon virtually unopposed. The ensuing battle of Ctesiphon outside the city was a victory for Julian, driving the enemy soldiers back behind the walls. Ctesiphon itself was heavily fortified, a siege would require time and the necessary equipment – two things the Roman army lacked at this time. Julian's original plan was to defeat the Persian king Shapur II and his main army, then perhaps march upon Ctesiphon, or settle for a favorable peace. This was not the situation Julian and his army now faced. He was already outside the capital deep in enemy territory, his supply lines being continually harassed by enemy raids. Word was spreading that the Persian king was approaching fast with his main army. Now seemingly stranded, Julian decided to withdraw northwest at once. Before the army could make it back to Roman territory however, a sizable Persian force intercepted them. The resulting battle of Samarra was indecisive, but Julian was mortally wounded and died soon after.

At the news of Julian's death, the army hastily declared a commander Jovian emperor. The army still found itself beleaguered by Persian attacks, forcing Jovian to accept humiliating peace terms. The Romans were to forfeit large swathes of the eastern frontier, earning Jovian the hatred of the army. During Jovian's reign Valentinian was promoted to tribune of a Scutarii (elite infantry) regiment, and was dispatched to Ancyra. Jovian's rule would be short – only eight months – and before he could even consolidate his position in Constantinople he died en route between Ancyra and Nicaea. His death was attributed to either poisoning or assassination. Jovian is remembered mostly for restoring Christianity to its previous favored status under Constantine and his sons.

The army marched to Nicaea, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. Two names were proposed: Aequitius, a tribune of the first Scutarii, and Januarius, a relative of Jovian’s in charge of military supplies in Illyricum. Both were rejected; Aequitius as too brutal, Januarius because he was too far away. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian and sent messengers to inform him in Ancyra.

[edit] Emperor

Valentinian accepted the acclamation on 26 February 364. As he prepared to make his accession speech the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. According to Ammianus the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. To further prevent a succession crisis he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests.

Valentinian selected his brother Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364. This was done over the objections of Dagalaifus, the magister equitum. Ammianus makes it clear that Valens was subordinate to his brother. The remainder of 364 was spent delegating administrative duties and military commands. Valentinian retained the services of Dagalaifus and promoted Aequitius to Comes Illyricum. Valens was given the Prefecture of Oriens, governed by prefect Salutius. Valentinian gained control of Italy, Gaul, Africa, and Illyricum. Valens resided in Constantinople, while Valentinian’s court was at Milan.

[edit] Campaigns in Gaul and Germania

In 365 the Alamanni crossed the Rhine and invaded Gaul. Simultaneously, Procopius – the last scion of the Constantinian dynasty – began his revolt against Valens in the east. According to Ammi -------------------- Empereur Romain d'Occident (364-375) -

Romeinse Keizer van het Westen (364-375) -

Roman Empereur of the West (364-375) -------------------- 4. Valentinia I Western Emperor of Rome 4 was born in 321 in Pannonia (Hungary) and died on 15 Nov 375 in Brigetio at age 54.

Valentinia married unknown

His child was: Galla Juntina Valentina of Rome who was born in 395.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentinian_II

http://www.ffish.com/family_tree/Descendants_Valerius_Licinianus/D1.htm

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Valentinian I, Roman Emperor's Timeline

321
321
Cibalae - now Vinkovci, Pannonia, Roman Empire - now Croatia
348
348
Age 27
Italy, Lazio, Rome
359
359
Age 38
Sirmium, Pannonia
364
364
- 375
Age 43
Roman Emperor
370
370
Age 49
370
Age 49
Byzantium
371
371
Age 50
Italy
371
Age 50
Cibalae, Pannonia
373
373
Age 52
Cauca,,,Spain
375
November 17, 375
Age 54
Brigetio - now Szőny-Komárom, (There is: Lapidarium Brigetionense), Pannonia, Roman Empire - now Hungary