Władysław IV Waza, król Polski (1595 - 1648) MP

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Nicknames: "Владислав IV Ваза", "Vladislav IV Vasa av Polen"
Birthplace: Łobzów, Kraków, Małopolskie, Poland
Death: Died in Merkinė, Alytaus apskritis, Lithuania
Managed by: Kenneth FORTIE
Last Updated:

About Władysław IV Waza, król Polski

Władysław IV Waza - król Polski (1632–1648), tytularny król Szwecji (1632–1648), tytularny car Rosji (do 1634). Wikipedia PL

Владисла́в IV - Король польский и великий князь литовский с 6 февраля 1633 (провозглашение избрания 8 ноября 1632), старший сын Сигизмунда III. 27 августа (6 сентября) 1610 года, как русский царь, принял присягу московского правительства и людей. Wikipedia RU

Vladislav IV Vasa - var svensk prins och kung av Polen från 1632, rysk tsar 1610 - 1613 under Stora oredan, son till kung Sigismund III och drottning Anna. Han var gift med Marie Louise av Mantova och halvbror till Johan II Kasimir Vasa av Polen. Wikipedia SV

In 1610 Władysław, aged 15, was elected Tsar by Russia's aristocracy council of Seven boyars, who overthrew tsar Vasily Shuysky during that country's Time of Troubles. His election was part of an unsuccessful plan by Zygmunt to conquer all of Russia and convert its population to Catholicism. Władysław was never able to reign in Russia, however, as his support there was temporary and depended on shifting internal politics among the boyars. He held on to the title, without any real power, until 1634.

Predecessor as Tsar of Russia: http://www.geni.com/people/False-Dmitriy-II-of-Russia/6000000010503650858#/tab/overview

Successor: as Tsar of Russia: http://www.geni.com/people/Czar-Michael-I-of-Russia-Reign-1613-1645/6000000001499208096#/tab/overview

Before he was elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, he fought in many campaigns, including ones against Russians in 1617-1618 (the end of Dymitriads), Ottomans in 1621 (Battle of Chocim at the end of Moldavian Magnate Wars) and Swedes in 1626-1629. During that time, as well as during his voyage in Europe (1624-1625) with Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł and others, he learned the art of war, and this was later to be reflected when he became king: military matters were always important to him. While not a military genius, and surpassed by famous Commonwealth contemporary hetmans like Stanisław Koniecpolski, Wladislaw was known as a fairly skilful commander on his own.

At first Wladislaw did not want to have deeper relationships with Habsburgs. In 1633 promised equal treating of Protestants and orthodox and forced Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł (Catholic) to countersign decree threatened him with giving key posts in Commonwealth to Protestants. In 1633/35 nominated Krzysztof Radziwiłł (Calvinist) on the highest posts in country (wojewoda wileński (of Vilnius – capital of Lithuania), grand Lithuanian hetman). However after Protestant nobles blocked his attempt to wage a war against Protestant Sweden, in 1635 at the Armistice of Stuhmsdorf (Treaty of Sztumska Wieś), he renew his father's alliance with Habsburgs.

Wladislaw IV owed allegiance to the Imperial Habsburgs as a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

[edit] Marriages

Wladislaw was married twice. At the very beginning of 1634, or even at the end of 1633 Wladislaw asked pope Urban VIII for permission (or better to say promise of permission, since no name was included) to marry a Protestant princess. The pope refused, and speed of this refusal Wladislaw treated as insult. At the beginning of 1634 Wladislaw sent Aleksander Przypkowski with a secret mission to king of England Charles I. Envoy had to discuss king's marriage plans and English help for reconstruction of Polish fleet. King's marriage plans were discussed on Senate meeting on 19th of March 1635, but only four bishops were present and only one supported plan. There exist also other documents concerning planned marriage of Wladislaw and Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Palatine (daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine (also known as the "Winter King"). However when he was "cheated" during peace talks with Sweden in 1635 - by Polish magnates and nobles, many of the Protestant, by Protestant Swedes and by Protestant representatives of other foreign monarch who all did not want new war between Commonwealth and Sweden, for various reasons, the war Władysław pushed for - then Władysław changed his mind about marrying a Protestant and decided to seek support from the Catholic factions, especially the Habsburgs.

Another marriage briefly considered in 1636 was to Anna Wiśniowiecka, daughter of Michał Wiśniowiecki and sister of Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, of the powerful Polish magnate family of Wiśniowiecki. Although Władysław was quite supportive of the marriage, it was blocked by the Sejm. Anna eventually married Zbigniew Firlej between 1636 and 1638.

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor's proposal of marriage between Wladislaw and Archduchess Cecilia Renata of Austria (sister of future Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor) arrived in Warsaw somewhere during spring 1636. King's trusted, father Walerian (of Franciscan religious order) and voivode Kasper Doenhoff arrived in Regensburg (Polish: Ratyzbona) on 26th of October 1636 with consent and performed negotiations. Archduchess dowry was agreed for 100000 złoty (currency unit), the Emperor promised to pay dowries of Siegmund III both wives: Anna and Konstance. Additionally the son of Wladislaw and Cecilia Renata was to obtain duchy of Opole and Raciborz in Silesia (księstwo opolsko-raciborskie). However before everything was confirmed and signed Ferdinand II died and Ferdinand III backed from giving the Silesian duchy to the son of Wladislaw. Instead a dowry was written/protected by Bohemian estates of Třeboň(Trebon). The marriage took place in 1637.

After Cecilia's death in 1643, he married the French princess Ludwika Maria Gonzaga de Nevers, daughter of Karol I Gonzaga, prince de Nevers in 1646. He had no heirs. He was succeeded by his half brother and cousin Jan II Kazimierz.

--------------------

Władysław IV Vasa

Władysław IV

King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia and Livonia; hereditary King of Sweden, the Goths and the Vandals, elected Grand Duke of Moscow

Painting by Peter Paul Rubens

Reign 8 November 1632 – 20 May 1648 (Poland),

1610 – 24 July 1635 (Russia)

Coronation 6 February 1633, Wawel Cathedral,

Kraków, Poland.

Born 9 June 1595

Birthplace Łobzów, near Kraków, Poland

Died 20 May 1648 (aged 52)

Place of death Merkinė, Lithuania

Buried Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland

Predecessor Sigismund III Vasa (Poland),

Vasili IV (Russia)

Successor Jan II Kazimierz Vasa (Poland),

Michael I (Russia)

Consort Cecilia Renata of Austria (1637 – 1643),

Ludwika Maria Gonzaga (1646 – 1648)

Offspring Władysław Konstanty,

unknown princess,

Zygmunt Kazimierz,

Maria Anna Izabela

Royal House Vasa

Father Sigismund III Vasa

Mother Anna of Austria

   This article is about the 17th century king of Poland. For another person sometimes mentioned as Wladislaw IV of Poland in works of reference, see the 14th century Władysław I the Elbow-high

Władysław IV (June 9, 1595 – May 20, 1648) was the son of Sigismund III Vasa and his wife, Anna of Austria (also known as Anna Habsburg). Władysław IV reigned as King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from November 8, 1632, to his death in 1648.

In 1610 the teenaged Władysław was elected Tsar of Russia by Seven Boyars, but did not assume the Muscovite throne due to his father's opposition (Encyklopedia Polski, p. 750) and popular uprising in Russia; he used the title of Grand Duke of Muscovy until 1634. The throne during this time was instead held by Michael Romanov.

Władysław managed to prevent the Commonwealth becoming embroiled in the bloody Thirty Years' War that ravaged western Europe during his reign, and was fairly successful in defending the Commonwealth from invasion. He supported religious tolerance and carried out military reforms. He failed, however, to realize his dreams of fame and conquest, or to reform and strengthen the Commonwealth.

His death marked the end of the Golden Age of the Commonwealth, as conflicts and tensions that Władysław had failed to resolve led in 1648 to the greatest of the Cossack uprisings—the Khmelnytsky Uprising—and to Swedish invasion ("The Deluge").

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Royal titles
   * 2 Biography
         o 2.1 Prince
         o 2.2 King
               + 2.2.1 Politics
               + 2.2.2 Marriages
   * 3 Assessment
         o 3.1 Successes
         o 3.2 Patronage
         o 3.3 Failures
   * 4 Ancestors
   * 5 Other
   * 6 See also
   * 7 External links
   * 8 References

[edit] Royal titles

   * Royal titles in Latin: Vladislaus Quartus Dei gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, Russiae, Prussiae, Masoviae, Samogitiae, Livoniaeque, necnon Suecorum, Gothorum Vandalorumque haereditarius rex, electus magnus dux Moschoviae.
   * English translation: Vladislaus IV by God's grace king of Poland, grand duke of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Prussia, Masovia, Samogitia, Livonia, and also hereditary king of the Swedes, Goths and Vandals, elected Grand Duke of Moscow.

As Władysław Zygmunt Waza-Jagiellon, in 1632 he was elected King of Poland. By paternal inheritance, he legally succeeded as King of Sweden. He was also heir to one of the several Christian claims to the title of King of Jerusalem, but the Kingdom of Jerusalem had been defunct for several centuries.

[edit] Biography

Władysław in young age

Władysław in young age

His father Sigismund III Vasa, grandson of Gustav I of Sweden, had succeeded his father to the Swedish throne in 1592, only to be deposed in 1599 by his uncle, subsequently Charles IX. This led to a long-standing feud where the Polish kings of the house of Vasa claimed the Swedish throne. The effects of this were the Swedish War (1600-1629) and later, The Deluge of 1655. Sigismund, a devout Catholic, pursued other military conflicts abroad, barely avoiding involving the Commonwealth in the Thirty Year War and supported counter-reformation, both policies which lead to increasing tensions inside the Commonwealth.

[edit] Prince

Skarga's Sermon, by Jan Matejko, 1862, oil on canvas, 224 x 397 cm, Royal Castle, Warsaw. Piotr Skarga (standing at right) preaches. King Sigismund III Vasa is seated in the first row, left of center. Just above and to left of King Zygmunt is his son, the future King Władysław IV Vasa.

Skarga's Sermon, by Jan Matejko, 1862, oil on canvas, 224 x 397 cm, Royal Castle, Warsaw. Piotr Skarga (standing at right) preaches. King Sigismund III Vasa is seated in the first row, left of center. Just above and to left of King Zygmunt is his son, the future King Władysław IV Vasa.

In 1610 Władysław, aged 15, was elected Tsar by Russia's aristocracy council of Seven boyars, who overthrew tsar Vasily Shuysky during that country's Time of Troubles. His election was part of an unsuccessful plan by Zygmunt to conquer all of Russia and convert its population to Catholicism. Władysław was never able to reign in Russia, however, as his support there was temporary and depended on shifting internal politics among the boyars. He held on to the title, without any real power, until 1634.

Before he was elected king of the Commonwealth, he fought in many campaigns, including ones against Russians in 1617-1618 (the end of Dymitriads), Ottomans in 1621 (Battle of Chocim at the end of Moldavian Magnate Wars) and Swedes in 1626-1629. During that time, as well as during his voyage in Europe (1624-1625) with Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł and others, he learned the art of war, and this was later to be reflected when he became king: military matters were always important to him. While not a military genius, and surpassed by famous Commonwealth contemporary hetmans like Stanisław Koniecpolski, Wladislaw was known as a fairly skilful commander on his own.

[edit] King

Władysław IV. Drawing by Jan Matejko.

Władysław IV. Drawing by Jan Matejko.

[edit] Politics

 Swedish Royalty
 House of Vasa

Gustav I

Parents

  Erik Johansson, Cecilia Månsdotter

Children

  Eric XIV, John III, Catherine, Cecilia, Magnus, Anna Maria, Sophia, Elizabeth, Charles IX

Eric XIV

Children

  Sigrid, Gustav

John III

Children

  Sigismund, Anna, John

Sigismund

Children

  Władysław IV, John II Casimir, John Albert, Charles Ferdinand, Alexander Charles, Anna Catherine Constance

Charles IX

Children

  Catherine, Gustav II Adolf, Maria Elizabeth, Christina, Charles Philip

Grandson

  Charles X Gustav

Gustav II Adolf

Children

  Christina

Christina

At first Wladislaw did not want to have deeper relationships with Habsburgs. In 1633 promised equal treating of Protestants and orthodox and forced Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł (Catholic) to countersign decree threatened him with giving key posts in Commonwealth to Protestants. In 1633/35 nominated Krzysztof Radziwiłł (Calvinist) on the highest posts in country (wojewoda wileński (of Vilnius – capital of Lithuania), grand Lithuanian hetman). However after Protestant nobles blocked his attempt to wage a war against Protestant Sweden, in 1635 at the Armistice of Stuhmsdorf (Treaty of Sztumska Wieś), he renew his father's alliance with Habsburgs.

Wladislaw IV owed allegiance to the Imperial Habsburgs as a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

[edit] Marriages

Wladislaw was married twice. At the very beginning of 1634, or even at the end of 1633 Wladislaw asked pope Urban VIII for permission (or better to say promise of permission, since no name was included) to marry a Protestant princess. The pope refused, and speed of this refusal Wladislaw treated as insult. At the beginning of 1634 Wladislaw sent Aleksander Przypkowski with a secret mission to king of England Charles I. Envoy had to discuss king's marriage plans and English help for reconstruction of Polish fleet. King's marriage plans were discussed on Senate meeting on 19th of March 1635, but only four bishops were present and only one supported plan. There exist also other documents concerning planned marriage of Wladislaw and Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia, Princess Palatine (daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine (also known as the "Winter King"). However when he was "cheated" during peace talks with Sweden in 1635 - by Polish magnates and nobles, many of the Protestant, by Protestant Swedes and by Protestant representatives of other foreign monarch who all did not want new war between Commonwealth and Sweden, for various reasons, the war Władysław pushed for - then Władysław changed his mind about marrying a Protestant and decided to seek support from the Catholic factions, especially the Habsburgs.

Another marriage briefly considered in 1636 was to Anna Wiśniowiecka, daughter of Michał Wiśniowiecki and sister of Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, of the powerful Polish magnate family of Wiśniowiecki. Although Władysław was quite supportive of the marriage, it was blocked by the Sejm. Anna eventually married Zbigniew Firlej between 1636 and 1638.

Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor's proposal of marriage between Wladislaw and Archduchess Cecilia Renata of Austria (sister of future Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor) arrived in Warsaw somewhere during spring 1636. King's trusted, father Walerian (of Franciscan religious order) and voivode Kasper Doenhoff arrived in Regensburg (Polish: Ratyzbona) on 26th of October 1636 with consent and performed negotiations. Archduchess dowry was agreed for 100000 złoty (currency unit), the Emperor promised to pay dowries of Siegmund III both wives: Anna and Konstance. Additionally the son of Wladislaw and Cecilia Renata was to obtain duchy of Opole and Raciborz in Silesia (księstwo opolsko-raciborskie). However before everything was confirmed and signed Ferdinand II died and Ferdinand III backed from giving the Silesian duchy to the son of Wladislaw. Instead a dowry was written/protected by Bohemian estates of Třeboň(Trebon). The marriage took place in 1637.

After Cecilia's death in 1643, he married the French princess Ludwika Maria Gonzaga de Nevers, daughter of Karol I Gonzaga, prince de Nevers in 1646. He had no heirs. He was succeeded by his half brother and cousin Jan II Kazimierz.

[edit] Assessment

Coronation robe of Władysław IV (detail) with Polish and Swedish Coats of arms.

Coronation robe of Władysław IV (detail) with Polish and Swedish Coats of arms.

[edit] Successes

Wladislaw was elected to the Polish throne few months after his father's death in, on 8 November 1632 and crowned on 5 February on the following year. In an attempt to take advantage of confusion expected after the death of the Polish king, Tsar Michael Romanov ordered an attack on the Commonwealth. A Muscovite army (of approximately 34,500) crossed the Commonwealth eastern frontier in October 1632 and laid siege to Smolensk (which was ceded to Poland by Russia in 1618, at the end of the Dymitriad wars). In the war against Russia in 1632-1634 (the Smolensk War), Wladyslaw succeeded in breaking the siege in September 1633 and then in turn surrounded the Russian army, which was then forced to surrender on March 1, 1634. The resulting Peace of Polyanov (Treaty of Polanów), favourable to Poland, confirmed the pre-war territorial status quo. Muscovy also agreed to pay 20,000 rubles in exchange for Wladyslaw's renunciation of all claims to the tsardom and return of the royal insignia, which were in the Commonwealth possession since the Dymitriads. It was during that campaign that Wladislaw started the modernisation program of the Commonwealth army, emphasising the usage of modern infantry and artillery. He also attempted to create a Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy to secure part of the Baltic Sea, although this plan never succeeded.

Following the Smolensk campaign, the Commonwealth was threatened by another attack by the Ottoman Empire. During the wars against Ottomans in 1633-1634 Wladyslaw moved the Commonwealth army south of the Muscovy border and forced the Turks to come to terms with him. In the resulting treaty, both countries agreed again to curb the border raids by Cossacks and the Tatars, to a shared joint suzerainty (a condominium) over Moldavia and Wallachia (Wołoszczyzna).

After the southern campaign, Commonwealth was threatened from the north. Sweden, weakened by involvement in the Thirty Years' War, agreed to sign the Armistice of Stuhmsdorf (also known as Treaty of Sztumska Wieś) in 1635, favourable to the Commonwealth in terms of territorial concessions. Wladyslaw failed, however, to find any method for regaining the Swedish crown, which had been held and then lost by his father.

The March of the Silenus, Peter Paul Rubens, 1620s. The painting was purchased in the Spanish Netherlands by Władysław Vasa in 1624.

The March of the Silenus, Peter Paul Rubens, 1620s. The painting was purchased in the Spanish Netherlands by Władysław Vasa in 1624.

The king, while Catholic, was very tolerant and didn't support more aggressive policies of the Counter-Reformation. While it can be argued he often played one religious movement against other as a means of conserving his own powers, it is a fact he was in effect one of the most tolerant monarchs of his time. He did fail, however, to resolve the conflict stemming from the Union of Brest split.

Wladislaus was also a connoisseur of the arts and music. He sponsored many musicians and created the first amphitheater in the Warsaw castle, where during his reign dozens of operas and ballets were performed. He also collected paintings and invested in decorative architecture; among his most famous sponsored projects is the monument to his father, the Column of Sigismund which became one of the symbols of Warsaw and two palaces in the capital of Poland - Kazanowski Palace and Villa Regia. Wladislaw assembled an important collection of Italian and Flemish Baroque paintings, much of which were lost in the wars after his death.

[edit] Patronage

Władysław IV on Horseback, Rubens workshop (Peter Claesz. de Soutman?)

The Rape of Europa, Guido Reni, 1630s. It was made for King Władysław IV[1].

Zygmunt's Column constructed in 1644 on the order of King Władysław IV

Władysław's Tower at the Royal Castle in Warsaw (1637)

[edit] Failures

Wladislaw used the title of the King of Sweden, although he had no control over Sweden whatsoever and never set foot in that country. He would continue his attempts to regain the Swedish throne, with similar lack of results as his father.

Władysław Vasa, painted by Frans Luyckx in about 1639.

Władysław Vasa, painted by Frans Luyckx in about 1639.

In internal politics he attempted to strengthen the power of the monarchy, but this was mostly thwarted by the szlachta, who valued their independence and democratic powers. Wladyslaw suffered continuing difficulties caused by the efforts of the Polish Sejm (parliament) to check the King's power and limit his dynastic ambitions. The Szlachta viewed Vladislaus' military dreams as an attempt to strengthen his position during war and thus the Sejm strongly opposed the majority of his plans for war (for example, with Sweden in 1635 or Turks in 1646), and usually thwarted them by denying the funds for military campaigns and withholding its cosignature on the declaration of war. Similarly, Wladislaw's foreign ambitions came to little, as his attempts to mediate in the Thirty Year's War between the warring German and Scandinavian powers came to nothing, and his support for the Habsburgs brought him almost nothing in return.

In 1638 Władysław proposed that still not paid dowries of his mother and second wife of Zygmunt III would be protected by one of Silesian duchies (preferably opolsko-raciborskie). In 1642 proposed to give Habsburgs his rights to Swedish throne in exchange for giving him Silesia in deposit. Ludovico Fantoni, sent to Vienna in summer 1644 proposed to exchange Wladysław's incomes from Bohemian estates in Treben for duches opolsko-raciborskie and cieszyńskie (of Cieszyn). At the beginning of 1645, tired by constant stalling of Vienna's court, Władysław said to Emperor's envoy sent to Warszawa, Maximilian Dietrichstein, that Poland will cooperate with Sweden – it was an open threat (that he could take Silesia with Swedes help and against Emperor) pronounced by fact that on 6th of March 1645 Swedish general Lennart Torstensson defeated Emperor's, Bavarian and Saxon forces in battle of Jankov and started march against Vienna. Now Emperor was again ready for discussion and sent Johannes Putz von Adlertum to Warsaw in April 1645 giving him wide prerogatives in transferring rights of duchy opolsko-raciborskie to son of Władysław and Cecylia Renata, Zygmunt Kazimierz as a hereditary fief. Negotiations eventually ended with Habsburgs success and Polish failure. Duchy was given not as a hereditary fief but 50 years long deposit and owner was required to swear allegiance to king of Bohemia (thus it could not be Polish king), but as an exempt Władysław would rule duchy until his son was an adult. Additionally Władysław promised to lend Emperor 1100000 złoty (minus still not paid three dowries).

Many historians argue that Wladislaus was very ambitious and dreamed of achieving great fame through conquests, and in the latter years he planned to use the Cossacks to provoke the Turks into attacking Poland so that his military leadership would be indispensable. On various times he set his sights on regaining the Swedish crown, capturing the Russian throne and even conquering the entire Ottoman Empire. He was often able to convince the restless Cossacks to join his side, but with little support from the szlachta and foreign allies (like the Habsburgs), he constantly failed in those attempts, often resulting in unnecessary border wars and diluting the strength of the Commonwealth, which later proved fatal when the country was finally invaded by its neighbours.

Marble decorations in the St. Casimir's Chapel in Vilnius

Marble decorations in the St. Casimir's Chapel in Vilnius

Some Polish historians claim that Wladislaus had short temper and when angered, could act to take revenge without considering all consequences. E.g. when Protestant szlachta blocked his plans for war with Sweden in 1635, he turned back to pro-Habsburg politics, sent them military help and married archduchess Cecylia Renata. Had many plans (dynastic, personal, about wars, territorial gains: regaining Silesia, Inflanty (Livonia), incorporation of Ducal Prussia, creation of his hereditary dukedom etc.), some of them with real chances of success, but because of bad luck or objective obstacles almost nothing went as he planned.

Wladislaw died in 1648. His heart and viscera were interred in the Chapel of St. Casimir of Vilnius Cathedral. A year after the death of his son, on the eve of the Khmelnytsky Uprising and The Deluge. He failed to realize his dreams of conquest and he did not reform the Commonwealth. Wladislaw managed to avoid involving the Commonwealth in the bloody Thirty Year's War but his legacy would end the Golden Era of the Commonwealth. The Cossacks, angered because Wladislaw's promises to them failed to materialize, were beginning their greatest revolt against Polish rule, which would be exploited by Swedish invasion.

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http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/W%C5%82adys%C5%82aw_IV._Wasa

Władysław IV. Wasa

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König Władysław Wasa (Gemälde von Peter Paul Rubens, 1630)

Władysław IV. Wasa (polnisch Władysław IV Waza, litauisch Vladislovas II Vaza; * 9. Juni 1595 in Krakau, Polen; † 20. Mai 1648 in Merkinė, Litauen) war ab 1632, als gewählter König von Polen und Großfürst von Litauen, der Regent des Staates Polen-Litauen sowie Titularkönig von Schweden. Er war ab 1610 erwählter Zar von Russland und ab 1613, durch die Thronbesteigung von Michael Romanow zum Zaren von Russland, bis 1634 Titularzar von Russland.

Władysław entstammte im Mannesstamm der Dynastie der Wasa und war auch Mitglied des Ordens vom Goldenen Vlies.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

[Anzeigen]

   * 1 Königliche Titulatur
   * 2 Leben
         o 2.1 Anspruch auf die Zarenkrone
         o 2.2 Anspruch auf die schwedische Krone
         o 2.3 Kosakenaufstand und Tod
         o 2.4 Ehe und Familie
   * 3 Siehe auch
   * 4 Weblinks

Königliche Titulatur [Bearbeiten]

   * Titulatur auf Latein: „Vladislaus Quartus Dei gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, Russiae, Prussiae, Masoviae, Samogitiae, Livoniaeque, Smolenscie, Severiae, Czernichoviaeque necnon Suecorum, Gothorum Vandalorumque haereditarius rex, electus magnus dux Moschoviae.“
   * Deutsche Übersetzung: „Władysław IV., durch Gnaden Gottes König von Polen, Großfürst von Litauen, Rus, Preußen, Masowien, Samogitien, Livland, Smolensk, Sewerien, Czernihów, ebenso Erbkönig der Schweden, Goten und Vandalen, erwählter Großfürst von Moskau“

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Władysław war der Sohn von König Sigismund III. Wasa und der Erzherzogin Anna von Österreich-Steiermark. Er war ein Befürworter kriegerischer Auseinandersetzungen, wobei er sich von dem pazifistisch eingestellten Adel entfernte. Er erhob Anspruch auf die schwedische und russische Krone und versuchte diesen mit Waffengewalt durchzusetzen.

Anspruch auf die Zarenkrone [Bearbeiten]

König Władysław Wasa zu Pferd

Władysław stieß im Herbst 1617, während des Polnisch–Russischen Krieges 1609–1618, auf die russische Hauptstadt Moskau vor, wobei er von Verbänden der Saporoger Kosaken unterstützt wurde. Da Russland eine erneute Belagerung von Moskau vermeiden wollte, wurde nach harten Verhandlungen 1618 der Vertrag von Deulino geschlossen, der für 14 ½ Jahre Frieden und die de facto Anerkennung der Regentschaft von Michael I. Romanow brachte.

Unmittelbar nach Ablauf dieser Frist, sein Vater starb 1632, wurde Władysław zum König gewählt und kämpfte sich in innerhalb von zwei Jahren, während des Russisch-Polnischen Krieges 1632–1634 um Smolensk, in eine überlegene Position, aus der es ihm 1634 gelang, den Ewigen Frieden von Polanów mit Moskau zu unterzeichnen und Smolensk überlassen zu bekommen. Am Abend vor der Unterzeichnung, wurde von russischen Gesandten ein Geheimartikel unterschrieben, der Moskau angeblich zur Zahlung von 20.000 Rubel an Polen für die Abtretung der Stadt Serpejsk verpflichtete. In Wirklichkeit ging es hierbei aber um den Verzicht des Zarentitels durch Władysław.

Anspruch auf die schwedische Krone [Bearbeiten]

Die Ansprüche Władysławs, der ja Erbkönig (arvkonung) von Schweden war, auf den schwedischen Thron waren oft Gründe für Streitigkeiten und Kriege zwischen Polen und Schweden, was Polen enorme wirtschaftliche Verluste einbrachte, vor allem als die Schweden, während des Schwedisch-Polnischen Krieges 1600–1629, zwischenzeitlich ein paar Küstenstädte übernahmen. Um die Macht am Baltikum zu festigen, baute er eine Flotte. Als Teilnehmer am Osmanisch-Polnischen Krieg 1620–1621 hatte der König auch einen großen Krieg gegen das Osmanische Reich geplant, was allerdings auf entschiedenen Widerstand des Adels traf.

Kosakenaufstand und Tod [Bearbeiten]

Während der Herrschaft von Władysław verschlechterte sich die Lage in der Ukraine. Die Magnaten häuften dort ihr Vermögen und unterdrückten das Kosakenvolk. Ab und zu kam es zu Aufständen der Kosaken, die sehr hart bekämpft wurden. Die wachsende Unzufriedenheit führte im Jahre 1648 zum großen Kosaken- und Bauernaufstand unter der Führung von Bohdan Chmielnicki an der Spitze im Bündnis mit dem Khanat der Krim, der der polnischen Ritterschaft viele Verluste zufügte. Ein paar Tage nach dem Aufstand starb König Władysław .

Ehe und Familie [Bearbeiten]

In der ersten Ehe war er mit seiner Cousine (2. Grades) Erzherzogin Cäcilia Renata, Tochter von Kaiser Ferdinand II verheiratet. Es war eine sehr unglückliche Ehe: Zwei Kinder starben im Kindesalter. Unmittelbar nach der dritten Geburt, einer Totgeburt, starb auch Cäcilia.

Im politischen Leben Königs Władysław spielte seine zweite Frau eine große Rolle, die Königin Marie Luise von Nevers-Gonzaga, die für das gute Verhältnis mit Frankreich sorgte und sich für die Wahl Vivente Rege (die Wahl des Nachfolgers zu Lebzeiten des Herrschers) einsetzte. Sie heiratete nach seinem Tod seinen Bruder Johann II. Kasimir.

Siehe auch [Bearbeiten]

   * Geschichte Polens
   * Geschichte Litauens

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

   * Druckschriften von und über Władysław IV. Wasa im VD 17

Vorgänger Amt Nachfolger

Wassili IV. Designierter Russischer Zar

1610–1613 Michael I.

Sigismund III. König von Polen

1632–1648 Johann II.

Großfürst von Litauen

1632–1648

Normdaten: PND: 118834657 – weitere Informationen

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Lengyelország királya és címzetes svéd király 1632-1648 között, 1610-ben Oroszország cárjának választják, címzetes orosz cár 1634-ig

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Władysław IV Waza, król Polski's Timeline

1595
June 9, 1595
Kraków, Małopolskie, Poland
1635
1635
Age 39
1637
September 13, 1637
Age 42
1640
April 1, 1640
Age 44
1642
January 8, 1642
Age 46
Warszawa, Mazowieckie, Poland
1644
June 23, 1644
Age 49
Vilnius, Vilniaus apskritis, Lithuania
1646
March 10, 1646
Age 50
1648
May 20, 1648
Age 52
Merkinė, Alytaus apskritis, Lithuania
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