Gautier Giffard I, Seigneur de Longueville

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Gauthier I “l'Ancien” Giffard, Seigneur de Longueville

Also Known As: "Walter Giffard", "Walter de Bolbec", "The Elder", "Walter /Giffard/", "Sir Walter "1st Earl of Buckingham"", "Lord of Longueville"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Longueville-sur-Scie, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Death: Died in Longueville-sur-Scie, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Osbern de Bolbec and Avelina (Aveline) de Crépon, wife of Osbern de Bolbec
Husband of Ermengarde Agnes Flaitel
Father of Rohese Giffard de Longueville; William Giffard, Bishop of Winchester; Gautier II (Walter) Giffard, Seigneur de Longueville, 1st Earl of Buckingham; Lora Giffard; Amfrida Giffard and 1 other
Brother of N.N. de Bolebec, married Tesselin Vicomte de Vascoueil; Josceline de Bolbec; Geoffroi (Godfrey) de Bolbec, Vicomte d'Arques; Osberne Gyffard d'Arques, Seigneur de Brimesfelde; Hugues de Bolbec, of Whitchurch and 1 other

Occupation: Earl of Buckingham and Earl of Langueville, in Normandy., LORD OF LONGUEVILLE, EARL OF BUCKINGHAM, 'THE ELDER', 1015-1084ALTB-D, 1st Earl of Buckingham, Comte, Sieur, de Longueville, Lord of Longueville, Earl of Buckingham
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Gautier Giffard I, Seigneur de Longueville

Gautier-Giffard 1er (Walter Giffard I), Seigneur de Longueville

Companion Of William The Conqueror At The Battle Of Hastings; contributed 60 ships towards the invasion of England in 1066. He received grants of 107 lordships (48 in Buckinghamshire) as his reward, and was given the county of Buckingham.

Married: Ermengarde de Flaitel

Children (Note: every source provides a slightly different listing of his children. This is a compilation of the ones from the most reliable and well-documented sources. It may be incorrect or incomplete):

  • Walter II Giffard, Earl of Buckingham m. Agnes de Ribemont
  • William Giffard, Bishop of Winchester
  • Rohese Giffard m. Richard FitzGilbert de Brionne and Eudes de Rie
  • Amfrida (possibly)
  • Lora Giffard, married Sir Robert de Hampden
  • Raoul Giffard, bienfaiteur de l'abbaye de Montivilliers
  • Osbern Giffard

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMAN NOBILITY.htm (MEDIEVAL LANDS)

son of Osbern de Bolbec and Avelina de Crepon:

GAUTHIER Giffard (-before 1085). Guillaume de Jumièges records that "Gunnor" had “excepta Sainfria...duas sorores Wewam et Avelinam”, adding that “tertia...sororum Gunnoris comitissæ” [Aveline, from the context] married “Osberno de Bolebec”, by whom she had “Galterium Giffardum primum et Godefridum patrem Willelmi de Archis”[648].

“...Walterius Gyfardus...” subscribed the charter under which Guillaume Duke of Normandy donated the church of Arques to Saint-Wandrille, dated to [1035/55][649]. Seigneur de Longueville, Normandy. "…Walterius Giffardus…" witnessed the charter dated 29 Aug 1060 under which "milite…Richardo…fratribus Willelmo…atque Balduino" donated "Gausberti Villa" to Chartres Saint-Père[650]. The Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris records that "Waltero Giffardo" contributed 60 ships towards the invasion of England in 1066[651]. Orderic Vitalis names “...Galterius Giphardus et Radulphus Toenites...” among those who took part in the battle of Hastings[652]. He received grants of 107 lordships (48 in Buckinghamshire) as his reward[653]. Orderic Vitalis records that King William installed “Guillermum Osberni filium” at his new fortress at Winchester (“intra mœnia Guentæ”) and appointed him “vice sua toti regno versus Aquilonem”, while he granted “Doveram...totamque Cantiam” to “Odoni fratri suo”, and thus he entrusted “his duobus præfecturam Angliæ”, seconded by “Hugonem de Grentemaisnilio et Hugonem de Monteforti, Guillelmumque de Garenna”, dated to 1067[654]. Orderic Vitalis states that the king "gave [Walter Giffard] the county of Buckinghamshire", in the chronicler's description of post-conquest grants made by King William, without specifying that he was created earl[655].

m ERMENGARDE, daughter of GERARD Flaitel & his wife ---. Guillaume de Jumièges records that "Galterium Giffardum primum” married “unam filiarum Girardi Flatelli”[656]. [The necrology of Longueville records the death 13 May of “domina Hermengauda comitissa condam hujus loci” and her confirmation of the donation made by “illos de Saukervilla” of “molendino de Longa Villa”[657]. It is not certain whether this entry refers to the wife of Gauthier Giffard or to the wife of his grandson Walter Giffard.]

Gauthier & his wife had [five or more] children:

i) WALTER Giffard (-in England 15 Jul 1102, bur Longueville, Normandy[658]). Guillaume de Jumièges names "Galterium Giffardum primum” as father of “secundum Galterium Giffardum...”[659]. He succeeded his father in his lands. Orderic Vitalis records that King William I granted "comitatum Buchingeham" to "Gualterio...cognomento Gifardo"[660]. Domesday Book records land held by “Walter Giffard” in West Hanney in Wantage Hundred in Berkshire[661]. Orderic Vitalis records that “Rodbertus Aucensium comes et Gauterius Gifardus et Radulfus de Mortuomari” and nearly all the seigneurs who lived “trans Sequanam usque ad mare” joined King William II against his brother Robert Duke of Normandy and received considerable sums to fortify their castles, dated to [1089/90][662]. He was created Earl of Buckingham [after 1093] by King William II, although known contemporarily as Earl Giffard[663]. see EARLS of BUCKINGHAM.

ii) WILLIAM Giffard . Bishop of Winchester. The History of the foundation of St John´s abbey, Colchester names “Rohaisam…soror Willielmi Giffardi episcopi Wintoniæ” as wife of “Ricardi…filius Gilberti comitis”[664]. "…Willelmi Giffardi episcopi…" subscribed a charter dated 14 Sep 1101 under which Henry I King of England donated property to Bath St Peter[665].

iii) ROHESE Giffard (-after 1113, bur [Colchester]). Guillaume de Jumièges names "Galterium Giffardum primum” as father of “secundum Galterium Giffardum et filias plures” of whom “una...Rohais” married “Richardo filio comitis Gisleberti”[666]. Orderic Vitalis records that “Gisleberti comitis [filium] Ricardum” married “Roaldem Gualterii Gifardi filiam”[667]. Domesday Book records “Rohais wife of Richard son of Gilbert” holding Standon in Braughing Hundred in Hertfordshire[668]. According to the Genealogia Fundatoris of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire, ”Rohesia” married secondly “Eudoni dapifero Regis Normanniæ” after the death of “Ricardo filio comitis Gisleberti” and that they were both buried “tempore Henrici primi” in “castrum Clecestriæ…cœnobio in honore sancti Johannis” which Eudo constructed[669]. According to the Complete Peerage, this genealogy is “probably erroneous” but it does not explain the basis for the doubts[670]. From a chronological point of view, the connection would be tight, assuming that the death date of Richard FitzGilbert is correctly estimated to [1090] and the birth of Rohese´s granddaughter by her alleged second marriage, Beatrix, is correctly assessed at [1105]. This supposed second parentage is disproved by sources quoted in the section dealing with Eudes de Rie. m [firstly] RICHARD FitzGilbert de Brionne, son of GILBERT de Brionne "Crespin" Comte d'Eu & his wife --- (before 1035-[1090], bur St Neots, Huntingdonshire). [Incorrect supposed second marriage: m secondly EUDES de Rie dapifer, son of HUBERT [I] de Rie & his wife ---(-1 Mar 1120, bur Colchester).]

iv) daughters . Guillaume de Jumièges names "Galterium Giffardum primum” as father of “secundum Galterium Giffardum et filias plures” of whom “una...Rohais” married “Richardo filio comitis Gisleberti”[671].

v) [AMFRIDA (-2 Jan [1099/1100]). The Chronicon Beccensis Abbatiæ records that "tempore S. Anselmi abbatis Becci tres matronæ nobiles…Basilia uxor Hugonis de Gornaco, et Amfrida neptis ipsius Basiliæ, et Eva uxor Guillelmi Crispini" entered Bec and lived at the abbey, adding that they died on three consecutive Sundays "Amfrida Basiliæ neptis...minor...ætate, virgo…IV Non Jan, qua sepulta…Basilia domina eius…XVII Kal Feb…tertia Eva…X Kal Feb...post mortem...viri sui Guillermi Crispini...Beccique usque ad finem vitæ...perseuerauit"[672]. Gurney dates the passage to [1099/1100][673]. The parentage of Amfrida is uncertain. However, Ermengarde is the only sibling of Basilie Flaitel who is known to have had children, so it is possible that she was the daughter of Gauthier Giffard.]

Sources:

  • [648] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXVII, p. 312.
  • [649] Saint-Wandrille, 17, p. 59.
  • [650] Chartres Saint-Père, Tome I, XXVII, p. 152.
  • [651] Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris, p. 22.
  • [652] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, XIV, p. 148.
  • [653] CP II 387.
  • [654] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, I, p. 167.
  • [655] Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. II, Book IV, p. 265.
  • [656] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXVII, p. 312.
  • [657] RHGF, Tome XXIII, p. 434.
  • [658] Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 37.
  • [659] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXVII, p. 312.
  • [660] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, VII, p. 221.
  • [661] Domesday Translation, Berkshire, XXXIX, p. 154.
  • [662] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, IX, p. 319.
  • [663] CP II 387.
  • [664] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Colchester St John Abbey, Essex, I, Historia Fundationis, pp. 607 and 608.
  • [665] Hunt, W. (ed.) (1893) Two Chartularies of the Priory of St Peter at Bath (London) ("Bath St Peter") 42, p. 46.
  • [666] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXVII, p. 312.
  • [667] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XIII, p. 344.
  • [668] Domesday Translation, Hertfordshire, XLII, p. 393.
  • [669] Dugdale Monasticon V, Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire III, p. 269.
  • [670] CP V 113-4.
  • [671] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXVII, p. 312.
  • [672] Chronicon Beccensis Abbatiæ (1648), p. 5.

-----------------------------------

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Giffard,_Lord_of_Longueville

Walter Giffard, Lord of Longueville

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Walter Giffard, Lord of Longueville, Normandy (a.k.a. 'Giffard of Barbastre'), was a Norman baron, a Tenant-in-chief in England, a Christian knight who fought against the Saracens in Spain during the Reconquista and was one of the 15 or so known Companions of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.

Life

Walter[a] was the son of Osborne de Bolbec, Lord of Longueville and Avelina,[b][1] sister of Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy.[2][3] As such he was a cousin of William the Conqueror.[2]

From the mid 1040s Walter's name appears among the loyal supporters of William the Conqueror.[4] Walter was at the Battle of Mortemer and was among the Norman barons who surprised and defeated Counts Odo and Renaud leading the French contingent attacking Normandy from the east.[5] In particular, he and another great vassal Robert of Eu encountered Odo's army encamped in the village of Mortemer with no sentries and the soldiers were drunk.[6] The Normans attacked the French while they slept, most being either killed or taken prisoner.[6] While Odo himself escaped, when King Henry I learned of the fate of his brother Odo's army he promptly withdrew his remaining forces and left Normandy.[6] In 1054 Walter was in charge of maintaining the siege of Arques castle, against William of Talou, who had rebelled against the Conqueror.[7]

Like many other Norman and French knights during the eleventh and early twelfth centuries, Walter served as a Christian knight in Spain (c. 1064-65) against the Saracens.[8] His epithet le Barbastre[c] was earned when he took part in the Siege of Barbastro, an undertaking sanctioned by Pope Alexander II against the Moors in 1064, one of the more famous exploits of that time.[8] By the time of the Conquest, Walter had returned to Normandy bearing a gift of the King of Spain for Duke William, a magnificent war-horse. The same Spanish war-horse duke William called for on the morning of the Battle of Hastings.[8] The Spanish king in question was in all probability Sancho Ramírez of Aragon (1063–94) who was known for making friends and recruiting knights and soldiers from Northern France.[9] Walter was also one of the first, if not the first in England to go on pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, which he did after the siege of Barbastro and before returning to Normandy.[9]

In early January of 1066, after Duke William received news of the crowning of Harold Godwinson as king of England, he called together a meeting that included six of his key magnates, Walter Giffard being one of them.[10] After telling them of his plan to invade England and take the crown they all advised him they supported him fully but suggested he call a meeting of all his vassals, which William did.[10] In the preparation stage for the Battle of Hastings, Walter was one of the Norman magnates who provided ships for William's invasion fleet. In his case, he provided thirty.[11] Walter was one of two who, having been offered the privilege of carrying William's standard in the battle, respectfully refused.

Although by this time an older warrior with white hair, he wanted both hands free to fight.[12] As a reward for his participation, Walter was granted the feudal barony of Long Crendon,[13] comprising 107 manors, 48 of which were in Buckinghamshire,[14] of which the caput was at Long Crendon, Buckinghamshire. The date of his death is not recorded, but his son Walter succeeded him before 1085.[3][14]

Family

Walter was married to Ermengarde, daughter of Gerard Flaitel.[3][14][1] Walter and Ermengarde were the parents of:

  • Walter Giffard, 1st Earl of Buckingham.[3][1]
  • William Giffard, Bishop of Winchester.[15][16]
  • Rohese Giffard (d. aft. 1113), married Richard fitz Gilbert, Lord of Clare.[3][1]
  • Lora Giffard, married Sir Robert de Hampden.[1]

Notes

a. This Walter has been confused with his son, Walter Giffard, 1st Earl of Buckingham. Orderic confused reports of father and son while Freeman, not realizing that the elder Walter had died in the lifetime of the Conqueror, assumed William Rufus had created the first Walter as earl of Buckingham when in fact it was his son Walter who became the first earl. See: Records of Buckinghamshire, Vol 8, Ed. John Parker (Aylesbury: G.T. de Fraine, "Bucks Herald" Office, 1903), pp. 289-293.

b. Robert of Torigni calls her Weva, The Complete Peerage, Vol II, 386 note (a) states she was Avelina, and both were names of sisters of Gunnora, but it remains uncertain which was which. Also Europäische Stammtäfeln II, 695 calls her Weva.

c. As examples of some of the pitfalls found in translations of earlier works, Walter Giffard’s epithet de Barbastre appears in a verse by Geoffrey Gaimar. The first of his English translators guessed that De Barbastre referred to Walter being a barber. Geoffrey's second translator thought de Barbastre was a reference somehow to Walter's cousin, William the Conqueror, being a bastard. In fact, 'Walter de Barbastre' was an honorific gained at the successful siege of Barbastro in Aragon, near Saragossa. See: Archer, 'Giffard of Barbastre', EHR, 18, 70 (1903), pp. 304-05; Lomax, 'The First English Pilgrims ot Santiago de Compostela', Studies in Medieval History: Presented to R.H.C.Davis Ed. Henry Mayr-Harting, Hambldeon (1985), 165-176.

References

  1. Barns-Graham, Peter (15 November 2011). (subscription required) "Giffard01". Families Database. Stirnet. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  2. George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, Vol. II, Ed. Vicary Gibbs (London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., 1912), p. 386 note (a)
  3. Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band III Teilband 4 (Marburg, Germany: Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, 1989, Tafel 695
  4. David Crouch,The Normans (New York: Hambledon Continuum, 2002), p.64
  5. David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (Berlekey and Los Angeles: The University of California Press, 1964), p. 68
  6. François Neveux, A Brief History of the Normans, Trans. Howard Curtis (London: Constable & Robinson, Ltd., 2008), p. 127
  7. David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (Berkeley and Los Angeles: The University of California Press, 1964), p. 388
  8. T. A. Archer, 'Giffard of Barbastre', The English Historical Review, Vol. 18, No. 70 (Apr., 1903), p. 304
  9. D.W. Lomax, 'The First English Pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela', Studies in Medieval History: Presented to R.H.C.Davis, Ed. Henry Mayr-Harting and R.I. Moore (London: The Hambledon Press, 1985), p. 166
  10. Elisabeth M.C. van Houts, 'The Ship List of William the Conqueror', Anglo-Norman Studies X; Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1987, Ed. R. Allen Brown (Woodbridge UK: The Boydell Press, 1988), p. 161
  11. Anglo-Norman Studies X, Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1987, ed. R. Allen Brown, The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK 1988, Appendix 4. “Ships list of William the Conqueror”
  12. Edward A. Freeman, The Norman Conquest of England, Vol. III (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1869),p. 465 Sanders, I.J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent 1086-1327, Oxford, 1960, pp.62-4
  13. George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, Vol. II, Ed. Vicary Gibbs (London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., 1912), p. 387 K.S.B. Keats-Rohan, Domesday People, A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166, Volume I, Domesday Book (The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 1999), p. 456
  14. C. Warren Hollister, 'The Strange Death of William Rufus', Speculum, Vol. 48, No. 4 (Oct., 1973), pp. 645-46

--------------------------------------

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautier_Ier_Giffard

Gautier Ier Giffard

Gautier Ier Giffard († vers 1084) est un seigneur normand puis anglo-normand, contemporain de Guillaume le Conquérant. Sa biographie n'est pas facile à établir en raison de la confusion avec celle de son fils du même nom1.

Biographie

Gautier est lié à la famille ducale de Normandie, puisqu'il est un neveu de Gunnor2. C'est un seigneur cauchois : il possède Bolbec, puis, après 1055, acquiert Longueville, qui devient le chef-mois3 de la seigneurie.

Sa première apparition dans l'historiographie normande est en liaison avec la révolte du comte Guillaume d'Arques, en 1053. Ce dernier est alors en rébellion contre son seigneur et neveu Guillaume le Bâtard. Le duc de Normandie l'assiège dans le château d'Arques, puis, selon le chroniqueur Guillaume de Poitiers, confie la poursuite du siège à Gautier Giffard. Le seigneur cauchois remplit sa mission, puisque le rebelle finit par se rendre, après l'échec d'une armée venue le secourir. On retrouve peu après Gautier à la bataille de Mortemer, en 1054. Il fait partie des commandants normands qui taillent en pièces l'armée française commandée par Eudes, le frère du roi de France4. Gautier joue donc un rôle important à deux moments-clés du règne du jeune duc Guillaume. Les services rendus expliquent probablement la cession par le futur Conquérant du fief de Longueville à son fidèle guerrier après 10555.

Lors de la préparation de la conquête de l'Angleterre, Gautier fournit 30 navires et 100 chevaliers, ce qui atteste de sa puissance6. C’est l’un des conseillers proches de Guillaume le Conquérant7. Il participe assurément à la bataille d'Hastings. Un chroniqueur tardif raconte que, lors du combat, il tomba de son destrier, mais que le duc lui-même vint à son secours pour le sortir de cette mauvaise situation8.

Famille et descendance

Parents : Osbern de Bolbec et une sœur de Gunnor9.

Épouse : Ermengarde, fille de Gérard Flaitel, un seigneur du Talou.

Frère : Godefroi, père de Guillaume d'Arques.

Enfants :

  • Gautier II Giffard ;
  • Rohaise mariée à Richard de Bienfaite, fils du comte Gilbert de Brionne ;
  • Raoul Giffard, bienfaiteur de l'abbaye de Montivilliers ;
  • Osbern Giffard10.

Notes et références

  1. ↑ Orderic Vital évoque un Gautier Giffard surnommée le Vieux. Ce surnom pourrait indiquer que le moine parle de Gautier Ier. Toutefois, dans ce passage, Gautier paraît un proche du duc Robert Courteheuse. Présenté ainsi, il s'agirait plutôt de Gautier II. Orderic Vital, Histoire de Normandie, Tome 3, livre VI, éd. Guizot, 1825, p. 31 (traduction française de Historia ecclesiastica terminée vers 1142)
  2. ↑ Il est précisément le fils d'une sœur de Gunnor.
  3. ↑ Définition de chef-mois, ou chef-mets, dans l'Encyclopédie de Diderot et D'Alembert [archive].
  4. ↑ Guillaume de Poitiers, Vie de Guillaume le Conquérant, éd. Guizot, Mancel, 1826, p. 363-364 (traduction française de Gesta Guillelmi ducis Normannorum et regis Anglorum, écrite vers 1073-1074).
  5. ↑ Pierre Bauduin, La première Normandie (xe ‑ xie siècles), Presses Universitaires de Caen, 2004, p. 311 et Jacques Le Maho, « L’apparition des seigneuries châtelaines dans le Grand-Caux à l'époque ducale », Archéologie médiévale, tome VI, 1976, p. 51-55.
  6. ↑ François Neveux, la Normandie des ducs aux rois (xe ‑ xiie siècle), Rennes, Ouest-France, 1998, p. 151
  7. ↑ David Douglas, William the Conqueror, 1964, p. 144.
  8. ↑ Benoît de Saint-Maure, Chronique des ducs de Normandie, cité par Peter Damian-Grint, « Research and invention in Benoît de Saint-Maure’s, Chronique des ducs de Normandie », Anglo-Norman studies, 1998, no 21, p. 21.
  9. ↑ Guillaume de Jumièges, Histoire des ducs de Normandie, éd. Guizot, Mancel, 1826, avec interpolations d'Orderic Vital et Robert de Thorigny, livre VIII, p. 301-302 (traduction française de Gesta Normannorum Ducum écrit vers 1070).
  10. ↑ Jacques Le Maho, « L'apparition des seigneuries châtelaines dans le Grand-Caux à l'époque ducale », Archéologie médiévale, tome VI, 1976, p. 34-35.

Articles connexes

  • Duché de Normandie
  • Famille Giffard

Sources

  • Guillaume de Poitiers, Vie de Guillaume le Conquérant, éd. Guizot, Mancel, 1826, (traduction française de Gesta Guillelmi ducis Normannorum et regis Anglorum écrit vers 1073-1074).
  • Guillaume de Jumièges, Histoire des ducs de Normandie, éd. Guizot, Mancel, 1826, avec interpolations d'Orderic Vital et Robert de Thorigni, livre VIII, p. 301-302 (traduction française de Gesta Normannorum Ducum écrit vers 1070).
  • Jacques Le Maho, « L'apparition des seigneuries châtelaines dans le Grand-Caux à l’époque ducale », Archéologie médiévale, tome VI, 1976, p. 5-148.
  • Jacques Le Maho, « Autour des origines d'un grand lignage normand, la motte des Giffard à Montivilliers (xie ‑ xiie siècles) », Recueil des publications de la Société havraise d'études diverses, no 147, 1979, p. 11-16.

----------------------------

ARTICLE

THE COMPANIONS OF THE CONQUEROR

By G. ANDREWS MORIARTY, AM.. LLB., F.A.S.G., F.S.A.,

of Ogunquit, Maine

(Copied from THE AMERICAN GENEALOGIST, October 1944 V. 21 No. 2 Pages 111 - 113)

In his review of “The Falaise Roll” in The AMERICAN GENEALOGIST, July 1939 (pp. 56-63), this writer pointed out that a list of the tenants who can actually be proved to have been present at the Battle of Hastings is a very small one and must be based upon the named figures in the Bayeux Tapestry and upon William of Poictiers and Guy of Amiens, and the naming of certain persons by Orderic Vitalis, about whom he may be presumed to have had special knowledge. He further stated that the names recorded in the Roman de Rou of Robert Wace, the Battle Abbey Roll and its derivatives, the Dives Roll and the Falaise Roll cannot be accepted as proof of a man’s presence at the battle. He further pointed out that from certain other evidence a second list might be compiled of persons who were most probably present and expressed the hope that such lists would be compiled at some future dale.

It is very gratifying to be able to state that two such lists have at last been compiled by Prof. David Douglas and have been printed in an English Periodical called “History” for September 1943 (pp. 129-147) and it is a matter of satisfaction to note that Prof. Douglas has, quite independently, worked along the lines suggested in the review. The first list of those whose presence at the battle is assured, and which is in all probability final, consists of twenty-seven names. The second list of those who were probably present is based upon charter evidence, i.e., those who attested Duke William’s charters under circumstances which renders it most probable that they took part in the expedition. This writer was pleased to note that among these names Prof. Douglas lists Pons and suggests that he may be the progenitor of the Cliffords, as was suggested in the aforementioned review and still earlier in a note in the Genealogical Department of the "Boston Transcript". Prof. Douglas points out that his second list will probably be enlarged after an intensive and critical study has been made of the Norman charters, a thing which has not yet been done.

As these lists of Prof. Douglas are based upon evidence, which, to this writer, seems conclusive it seems well to place them before the American genealogical public, as ones upon which there may he complete reliance.

List of those who were certainly at Hastings: (* indicates those from whom descent can be traced.)

  • Eustace Count of Boulogne.
  • Robert Count of Mortain.
  • WilIiam, son of Count Richard of Evreux.
  • Geoffrey, son of Rotrou, Count of Mortagne anti Perche.
Odo, Bishop of Bayeux. 
Geoffrey, Bishop of Coutances. 
  • William fitz Osbern.
  • Aimeri, Vicomte de Thouars, the Poictivin.
  • Walter Giffard.
  • Ralf de Toeni.
  • Hugh de Montfort.
  • Hugh de Grantmesnil.
  • William de Warenne.
  • Robert, son of Roger de Beaumont.
  • William Malet.
Gulbert d’Affray. 
Robert de Vitot. 
  • Engenulf de 1’Aigle.
Gerelmus de Panileuse. 

(*?) Robert fitz Ernis.

Roger, son of Turold. 
Turstin, son of Rou. 
Erchembald, son of Erchembald the Vicomte. 
Vitalis. 
  • Wadard.
Taillefer. 
A member of the house of Ponthieu (“Pontivi nobilis haeres”). Perhaps Count Gui I. 

List of those witnessing Norman charters under circumstances which render it most probable that they accompanied time expedition:

  • Gerald the Seneschal (grandfather of William de Roumare).
  • Rodulf the Chamberlain (? de Tancarville).
Hugh d’Ivry, the Pincerna. 
  • Richard fitz Gilbert (de Clare).
  • Pons (? ancestor of the Cliffords).

In addition to these the following, who witnessed Duke William’s charter made at Caen on 17 June 1066 (Gall. Christ. XI, Instr. col. 59), were, I think, most probably at Hastings:

  • Richard the Vicomte of the Avranchin (father of Hugh Lupus).
  • Ranulf the Vicomte of the Bessin.
  • Ralf Tesson.
  • Fulk d’Aunou.
  • Those from whom descent can be traced.

(Copied from THE AMERICAN GENEALOGIST, October 1944 V. 21 No. 2 Pages 111 - 113)

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Walter was also called Gautier, seigneur de Longueville.

In 1053 he was already "past the prime of life."

He was a companion of Hugh de Gournay in the abortive attempt of Edward son of King Ethelred to recover the crown of England in 1035.

He was left by Duke William in command of the forces blockading the Castle of Arques in 1053. He was entrusted by Duke William with the defense of the district of Caux, in which Longueville is situate, on the occasion of the invasion of Normandy by Henry, King of France, in 1054.

He was joined William the Conqueror in the conquest of England, as the Lord of Longueville; he accompanied his sovereign to England and furnished the fleet, according to the List published by Taylor, with thirty vessels and a hundred men, in 1066.

Walter founded the Priory of St. Michel de Bolbec in 1079.

He was appointed by King William to superintend the compilation of the great survey of England, the Domesday Book, in 1084.

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From Planche's The Conqueror and His Companions (J.R. Planché, Somerset Herald. London: Tinsley Brothers, 1874)

"Here we have the name of an illustrious Norman, the progenitor of a race from which the noblest families in England are proud to trace their descent; and, strange to say, beyond this fact little or nothing is known about his own family which can be supported by credible authority. Even the origin of the name of Giffard, Gifford, or Giffart, as it is indifferently spelled, has yet to be definitively settled.

"The story that has been so often told about it, viz., that it signified a free-handed or liberal giver, is without any substantial foundation, and is, I believe, one of the many which have been so detrimental to the study of genealogy and heraldry, by misleading the inquirer or checking research altogether. It is upon the authority of William of Jumièges that this Walter Giffart, the companion of the Conqueror, the first we know of that name, has been set down as a son of Osborn de Bolbec by his wife, indifferently called Avelina and Duvelina, sister of Gonnor, wife of Richard, Duke of Normandy. Granting this to be true, as we have no documentary evidence to contradict it, the appellation of Giffart or Gifford, appears to be one of those sobriquets founded on personal peculiarities so commonly applied to distinguish certain members of a family previous to the general establishment of hereditary surnames.

"Instances of the practice are familiar to the veriest schoolboy; hence the complimentary suggestion of "Free-Giver," which I should be happy to leave undisputed could it be borne out by etymology. The family, however, was Norman, not Saxon; and it is in the Norman-French, or Low-Latin of the eleventh century, that we must look for its derivation. The word occurs in both those dialects. In Roquefort's Dictionnaire de la Langue Romane, "Giffarde" is rendered "Joufloue, qui a des grosses joues — servante de cuisine," the word being derived from giffe "the cheek," giffle also signifying in the same language "un soufflet," or blow on the cheek. An old French poet, Gautier cle Coisiny, complains that women of every class paint themselves, even the torchepot, "scullion," and the Giffarde, " kitchen maid or cook." So in the new Dictionnaire Franco-Normand, by M. George Métivier, we have "Giffair, rire comme un jouflou." And, to my great satisfaction, I find that this esteemed philologist has come to the same conclusion as myself, for under that word he has " Giffe, Giffle, Joue. Telle est l'origine de l'illustre famille Normande de Giffard, nom répandu très au-delà de cette Province (Jersey, of which Mons. Métivier is a native) et de nos îles." Vide also Ducange, sub voce "Giffardus," who has a similar interpretation, "Ancilla coquina." It is almost impossible to resist the conviction that Giffard, in the language of that day, signified a person with large cheeks, and was in consequence applied to a cook, who is popularly represented as fat and rubicund.

"I beg to apologise to those of my readers who may not take any interest in such disquisitions, and hasten to the sayings and doings of Walter Giffard, with whom the name, whatever it meant, could not have originated, as an Osborne and a Berenger Giffard were his contemporaries, proving that the sobriquet of an individual had become the appellation of a family.

"We first hear of him in 1035, as a companion of Hugh de Gournay in the abortive attempt of Edward son of King Ethelred to recover the crown of England, and next in 1053, when he was left by Duke William in command of the forces blockading the Castle of Arques, and at that period was Lord of Longueville, and already past the prime of life, judging by his account of himself only thirteen years afterwards. In the following year he was entrusted by the Duke with the defense of the district of Caux, in which Longueville is situate, on the occasion of the invasion of Normandy by Henry, King of France. Subsequently he appears to have made a pilgrimage to St. lago de Compostella, in Spain, or may perhaps have been sent there by the Duke on some mission to Alfonso, King of Galicia, to whom William afterwards affianced his daughter Agatha, after the breaking off of the match with the Saxon Prince Edwin. All we learn from Wace is that in the great battle William's first horse had been brought to him by Giffard from Spain, "the gift of a king who had a great friendship for him." The Lord of Longueville accompanied his sovereign to England, having furnished his fleet with thirty vessels and a hundred men.

"Previous to the battle, Raoul de Conches, the hereditary standard-bearer of Normandy, having prayed quittance of service on that day, that he might fight with greater freedom in the field, the Duke called to him Walter Giffard, and desired him to bear his gonfanon, who also requested to be excused the honour on the plea of being too old and too feeble. "For the mercy of God, sire," said the old knight, "look upon my white and bald head; my strength is impaired, and I am short of breath," and in answer to the Duke's passionate reproaches, urged that he had a large contingent of men-at-arms in the field, whom he was bound to lead into action, and at the head of them he was ready to die in his sovereign's cause. Whereupon the Duke excused him, and assured him that he loved him more than ever, and that if he survived that day it should be the better for him (Walter) as long as he lived.

"We hear of no special exploit performed by him during the battle, Benoît de St.-More merely saying that he was struck down in the mélée, and rescued apparently by William himself. At its close, however, after Harold had been mortally wounded, this brave old Lord of Longueville, with his bald head and his white locks, is accused of assisting to mutilate the body of the heroic King!

"It would be an indignity to the noble veteran to defend him against so infamous a charge, and fortunately there is no need to do so, for it is unsupported by any evidence, and the accuser stands convicted of falsehood and exaggeration sufficient to deprive him of any character for honesty whatever.

"When the fight was over, and the victorious Duke had ordered a space on the top of the hill to be cleared of the dead and dying, that his tent might be pitched there, and signified his intention to sup and sleep on the spot, Walter Giffard galloped up to him." Sire," he said, "what are you about? You are surely not fitly placed here among the dead. Many an Englishman lies bleeding and mingled with the slain, but yet living, and though wounded, only waiting to rise at night and escape in the darkness. They would delight to take their revenge, and would sell their lives dearly, no one caring who killed him afterwards, so he but slew a Norman first, for they say we have done them great wrong. You should lodge elsewhere, guarded by one or two thousand men whom you can best trust. Let a careful watch be set this night, for we know not what snares may be laid for us. You have made a noble day of it, but I like to see the end of the work." The Duke, however, adhered to his original determination. (Roman de Rou) There can be no doubt, I think, that this Walter Giffard who fought at Hastings was the person to whom William the Conqueror, in 1070, gave the earldom of Buckingham; for, old as he is said by Wace to have represented himself at that period, he lived nineteen years afterwards, and was one of the Commissioners intrusted by William to superintend the compilation of the great survey of England, and I can find no reason whatever for the ordinary assertion that his son, the second Walter, was the first earl.

"There is evidence that in 1079 he founded the priory of St. Michel de Bolbec, and he is reported to have died about 1081, which we may fairly understand to be 1085, the year in which Domesday was begun and completed.

"The wife of this Walter was Ermengarde, a daughter of Gerrard Flaitel, by whom he had a son, the second Walter, Earl of Buckingham, who died in 1102, and with whom he has been confounded. He had also a second son named William, who was Chancellor to William Rufus, made Bishop of Winchester by Henry I, 1107, and died in 1128, and a daughter, named Rohais or Rohesia, wife of Richard Fitz Gilbert, from whom descended the great house of Clare.

"Domesday commissioner; keeper of Windsor Castle; Earl of Buckingham. Holdings in 10 counties (in Domesday). King William II gave Buckingham to Walter Giffard soon after Domesday; Giffard’s principle estate was at Long Crendon and he was the biggest landowner in the county. He was made Earl of Buckingham, but in common with all other overlords was never resident at Buckingham.

"As his brother had, he also assumed the surname "Gyffarde", and is called Walter Giffard the Elder in the histories of Vitalis and Jumieges. In 1035 he was a companion of his brother-in-law, Hugh de Gournay, in the abortive attempt of Edward, son of the King, to recover the crown of England. He gained renown in the war between Normandy and France, and in 1053, was left by Duke William in command of the forces blockading the castle of Arcques. When Duke William invaded England in 1066, Walter Gyffarde, then of advanced age, furnished 80 vessels and 100 men at arms. He married a daughter of Girard Flatel, whom is variously identified as Ermengarde and Agnes, the latter appearing to be the most accepted. They had three identified children, Walter (d 1102), William, the Bishop of Winchester, and Rohais, wife of Richard Fitz Gilbert, and there were several additional daughters whose names are not known. It should also be noted that while Moriarty and others place Walter as a brother of Osbern (progenitor of the Brimpsfield Giffards), there are some who express doubt, referring to the fact that Walter's daughter, Rohese, was his heir, where it would seem likely that if he were brother to Osbern, said Osbern's male descendants would have been the heirs. Irregardless, it is certain they were of the same family, as both bore identical heraldic devices. " (Ref: Geneajourney.com - http://www.geneajourney.com/giffrd.html#daubolb )

Notes

Note: @N463@

  • Walter Giffard, died 1084, Lord of Longueville, a companion of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings, 1066.
  • Norr: Died before 1085.
  • Roll, page 21: Gautier Giffard, Comte de Longueville. Walter Giffard I was lord of Longueville in Caux, whom Jumieges tells us was the son of Osberne de Bolbeck and Wevie, a sister of Gonnor, the wife of Richard I, but as the duchess Gunnor was the great-grandmother of the Conqueror, this seems impossible; consequently it is necessary to be contented with the conclusion that he was descended from this union. [This seems to be the case.] Received the Earldom of Buckingham in 1070.
  • NEHGR: Walter, Count of Longueville, who assumed the surname of Gyffarde. Married a daughter of Girard Flatel (or Fleitel). Called Walter the Elder in the histories of Vitalis and William of Jumieges. In 1035 he was a companion of his brother-in-law, Hugh de Gournay, in the abortive attempt of Edward, son of King Ethelred, to recoved the crown of England. He gained renown in the armies of Duke William (the Conqueror) in the war between Normandy and France, and in 1053 he was left by Duke William in command of the forces blockading the castle of Arques. When Duke William invaded England in 1066, Walter Gyffarde, then well advanced in years, furnished 30 vessels and 100 men at arms.
  • Ayers: Walter Giffard, lord of Longueville in Normandy; accompanied William the Conqueror to England, 1066; received grants of 107 lordships, of which 48 were in Buckinghamshire; dead before 1085.

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Sources

  • http://genealogy.patp.us/conq/giffard.shm
  • GeneaJourney.com
  • Source: S38 Title: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700, Edition: 7th ed. Abbreviation: Ancestral Roots, 7th ed. Author: Weis, Frederick Lewis, Editor: Sheppard Jr., Walter Lee Publication: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1992
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Gautier Giffard I, Seigneur de Longueville's Timeline

1010
1010
Longueville-sur-Scie, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
1025
1025
Age 15
France ?
1030
1030
Age 20
Longueville, Normandy, France
1034
April 13, 1034
Age 24
Longueville, Normandy, France
1048
1048
Age 38
Longueville, Normandy, France
1060
1060
Age 50
Longueville-sur-Scie, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
1066
October 14, 1066
Age 56
Senlac Hill, Sussex, England
1066
Age 56
To England
1084
July 15, 1084
Age 74
Longueville-sur-Scie, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
1148
1148
Age 74
Longueville, Normandy, France