Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria

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Waltheof

Nicknames: "Valthiof", "Walleff", "Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton", "Waltheof", "Earl of Northumbria"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Wallsend, UK
Death: Died in St. Giles Hill,, Winchester, Hampshire, England
Cause of death: Beheaded for treason. May have been innocent.
Place of Burial: Crowland Abbey, Crowland, Lincolnshire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Siward Biornsson, Earl of Northumbria; Siward von Huntingdon, Earl of Northumbria; Ælflæd and Ælflaeda Ealdred von Bernica
Husband of Judith de Lens, Countess of Huntingdon
Father of Matilda Maude (Queen of Scotland) Huntingdon & Northampton; Uchtred FitzWalthe, Lord of Tynedale; Adelisa de Huntington, and Maud von Huntingdon, 1113
Brother of Sybil FitzSiward, Queen and Osbeorn Bulax

Occupation: Earl of Northumbria (Huntingdon and Northamptonshire) 1065, 1st Earl of Northumberland 1072
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria

Waltheof (1050-31 May 1076), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I. He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character.

for more info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltheof_II,_Earl_of_Northumbria

--------------------

Waltheof (1050-31 May 1076), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I. He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character.

Early life He was the second son of Earl Siward, Earl of Northumbria. His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia, son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria. In 1054, Waltheof’s brother, Osbearn, who was much older than him, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father’s heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact, around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire. Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William’s court until 1068.

First revolt When Sweyn II invaded Northern England in 1069 Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York. He would again make a fresh submission to William after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens. In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton.

The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire, is now part of the city of Sheffield.

In 1072, William expelled Gospatric from the earldom of Northumbria. Gospatric was Waltheof’s cousin and had taken part in the attack on York with him, but like Waltheof, had been pardoned by William. Godpatric fled into exile and William appointed Waltheof as the new earl.

Waltheof had many enemies in the north. Amongst them were members of a family who had killed Waltheof’s maternal great-grandfather, Uchtred the Bold, and his grandfather Ealdred. This was part of a long-running blood feud. In 1074, Waltheof moved against the family by sending his retainers to ambush them, succeeding in killing the two eldest of four brothers.

Second revolt and death In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. His motives for taking part in the revolt are unclear, as is the depth of his involvement. However he repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc, and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy. He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death.

He spent almost a year in confinement before being beheaded on May 31, 1076 at St. Giles's Hill, near Winchester. He was said to have spent the months of his captivity in prayer and fasting. Many people believed in his innocence and were surprised when the execution was carried out. His body was initially thrown in a ditch, but was later retrieved and was buried in the chapter house of Croyland Abbey.

Cult of martyrdom In 1092, after a fire in the chapter house, the abbot had Waltheof’s body moved to a prominent place in the abbey church. When the coffin was opened, it is reported that the corpse was found to be intact with the severed head re-joined to the trunk. This was regarded as a miracle, and the abbey, which had a financial interest in the matter began to publicise it. As a result, pilgrims began to visit Waltheof’s tomb.

After a few years healing miracles began to occur in the vicinity of Waltheof’s tomb, often involving the restoration of the pilgrim’s lost sight.

Family and children In 1070 he married Judith of Lens, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale. They had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland, and another of whom, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny.

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose.

References Chronicle of Britain ISBN 1-872031-35-8 Oxford DNB article: http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/28646?docPos=2 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines 98A-23, 130-25. This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. -------------------- WALTHEOF, son of SIWARD Earl of Northumbria & his wife Ælfled of Northumbria (-executed St Giles's Hill, Winchester 31 May 1076, bur Crowland Abbey[449]). His parentage is recorded by Roger of Hoveden[450]. Matthew of Paris specifies that he was the son of Siward, of Danish origin[451]. Snorre names “Earl Valthiof”, although stating that he was the son of “Earl Gudin Ulfnadson” and “Earl Ulf´s sister Gyda”[452]. He was installed as Earl of Huntingdon and Northamptonshire after Tostig Godwinson was banished in Oct 1065. Snorre recounts that “Earl Morukare and…Earl Valthiof” failed to prevent Harald III King of Norway after landing on the river Humber in 1066 in a battle “upon the Wednesday next Mathias´ day”, adding that “Earl Valthiof…fled up to the castle of York”[453]. Snorre also recounts that “Earl Valthiof” took part in the battle of Hastings and “escaped by flight”, seriously condensing his account of Waltheof´s subsequent career when he adds that King William “sent a message to Earl Valthiof that they should be reconciled” but that he was captured “at a heath north of Kastala-bryggia…put…in fetters and afterwards he was beheaded”[454]. Snorre´s narrative includes two fragments of a poem in praise of Waltheof, presumably written contemporarily with Waltheof´s life. Jonathan Allen suggests that Waltheof himself may have patronised an Icelandic skald (court poet) whose work was eventually passed through to Snorre, providing interesting evidence of the persistence of Scandinavian culture in England in the second half of the 11th century[455]. Florence of Worcester records that "Waltheofum Siwardi ducis filius" went with King William to Normandy 21 Feb [1067][456]. Orderic Vitalis records that, in 1069, Waltheof assisted the Danes in their attack on the Norman garrison at York, but that he was pardoned by the king who arranged Waltheof's marriage and restored him to his pre-conquest earldom[457]. Simeon of Durham records that "Waltheu the son of earl Siward…by Elfleda daughter of Earl Aldred" was installed as Earl of Northumberland after the earldom was confiscated from Gospatrick [in 1072][458]. Earl Waltheof joined the conspiracy of the Earls of Norfolk and Hereford against King William in 1075, repented and asked for the king's pardon, but was tried at Westminster at Christmas 1075, imprisoned at Winchester and, after the trial resumed there, beheaded[459]. Florence of Worcester records that "comitumque Waltheofum" joined the conspiracy of William Earl of Hereford and Ralph Earl of Norfolk in [1074] but was tried and beheaded at Winchester the following year[460].

m (1070) JUDITH de Lens, daughter of LAMBERT de Boulogne Comte de Lens & his wife Adelais de Normandie (1054-after 1086). Her marriage is recorded by Orderic Vitalis who calls her the king's "consobrina"[461]. A manuscript records that “Juditha comitissa…uxor Waldevi comitis Huntingdon, et neptis Gulielmi Conquestoris” founded Elstow priory[462]. Her parentage is further clarified by the foundation charter of Saint-Martin d´Auchy narrates the church´s foundation by “Guerinfrido qui condidit castellum…Albamarla” and names “Engueranni consulis qui filius fuit Berte supradicti Guerinfridi filie et Adelidis comitisse uxoris sue sororis…Willelmi Regis Anglorum” and “Addelidis comitissa supradicti Engueranni et supradicte Adelidis filia…Judita comitissa domine supradicte filia”[463]. The Vita et Passio Waldevi Comitis records that “Waldevus” married “rex Willelmus…neptem suam Juettam filiam comitis Lamberti de Lens, sororem…Stephani comitis de Albemarlia”[464]. Orderic Vitalis says Waltheof's marriage with Judith was arranged by King William "to strengthen the bonds of friendship" with her future husband[465]. She deposed against her husband when he was accused of involvement in the conspiracy of the Earls of Norfolk and Hereford in 1075[466].

Earl Waltheof & his wife had two children:

1. MATILDA [Maud] of Huntingdon ([1071/74]-[23 Apr 1130/22 Apr 1131], bur Scone Abbey, Perthshire). Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records the marriage of Matilda eldest daughter of Judith and "Earl Simon[467]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that the eldest of the three daughters of Waltheof & his wife married "Simon de Senlis" and later "David frère de la seconde Mathilde reine des Anglais"[468]. Her parents are named by Orderic Vitalis[469]. Robert of Torigny records that the wife of "David [rex Scotiæ] frater [Alexandri]" was "filiam Gallevi comitis et Judith consobrini regis", naming "Symon Silvanectensis comes" as her first husband[470]. "Matilde comitisse, Henrico filio comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[471]. "Matildis comitissa…" witnessed inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow[472]. m firstly ([1090]) SIMON de Senlis [St Lis], son of [RANULF "the Rich" & his wife --- (-Priory of La Charité-sur-Loire 1111). Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton de iure uxoris. m secondly (1113) DAVID of Scotland Prince of Cumbria, son of MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland & his wife Margaret of England ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). Earl of Northampton and Huntingdon de iure uxoris. He succeeded his brother in 1124 as DAVID I King of Scotland.

2. ADELISA of Huntingdon ([1073/76]-after [1126]). Her parentage is recorded by Orderic Vitalis, who also records her marriage and names her two sons and indicates she had "several daughters" without naming them[473]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that Judith daughter of Waltheof and his wife married "Raoul de Ternois"[474]. Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records the marriage of Alice younger daughter of Judith and "Rodolph de Tournay", her dowry being "the lordship of Wilchamstowe"[475]. She inherited Walthamstow, Essex[476]. m (1103) RAOUL de Tosny Seigneur de Tosny et de Conques, son of ROGER de Tosny & his wife Isabelle de Montfort (-(-[1126], bur Conques Saint-Pierre).

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISH%20NOBILITY%20MEDIEVAL.htm#AdelisaHuntingdondiedafter1126

-------------------- Unlike his contemporary and fellow resistance leader, Edric the Wild, the life of Waltheof is reasonably well documented. The youngest son of one of Canute’s Danish jarls, Siward, and Aefled, the daughter of the English Earl of Northumberland, he appears to have been prepared as a child for a life in the Church. This all changed when Siward, with the encouragement of King Edward the Confessor and the Witan, led an expeditionary force in 1054 to Scotland in support of Malcolm, son of Dunstan, King of Scots, against King Thorfinn Macbeth. In the resultant campaign Siward’s eldest son, Osbarn, was killed, thus leaving Waltheof at the likely age of 10, as Siward’s heir. Siward died from natural causes in 1055. The earldom was given to Tostig Godwinson as Waltheof was obviously too young to control a vital marcher region.

For a variety of reasons, Northumberland revolted against Tostig in 1065 and the thegns demanded that the earldom be given to Morcar, brother of the Earl of Mercia, Edwin. The lower part of the earldom, what had been Middle Anglia, was passed to Waltheof and his title is now given sometimes as Earl of Huntingdon and sometimes that of Northampton. Given that the earldoms in England at that time were awarded on a combination of family mana and personal ability, this granting of a minor earldom to the young and inexperienced Waltheof can be seen as a wise and shrewd move.

The young Earl’s involvement in the battles of 1066 is subject to much speculation. The reliable English sources are silent but various Icelandic sources contain garbled and, at times contradictory, story of him being involved in the battles of Fulford, Stamford Bridge and Hastings. Be that as it may, by late 1066 he had made his peace with William the Bastard and retained his earldom. This in itself suggests that he was not involved at Hastings, as William had proclaimed all who fought against him there traitors and their land confiscated. This presumptuous proclamation was made despite the fact that he had not being proclaimed King by the Witan until much later!

Waltheof was one of the hostages, including Edwin, Morcar and Archbishop of Canterbury Stigand, taken to Normandy in 1067 and kept there till mid 1068. The North of England at this time was still out of William’s grasp, though he had appointed Copsi, a henchman of Tostig Godwinson, to rule in the absence of the hostage, Morcar. This may have been a very cunning move as the North then seethed with disputes between the various thegns appointed by King Harold, Earl Morcar and William the Bastard. Another unsettling element was the presence of Edgar Aetheling who had, after King Harold’s death, been declared King by the Witan. Over this fermenting brew of self-interest there hovered the vinegar fly of Gospatric, a descendent of the old Northumbrian kings and a cousin of the King of Scots. At an opportune moment Gospatric bought the earldom of Northumberland from the money hungry William.

1068 saw the first uprising in Northumberland against the new Norman king, but the split leadership ensured it fizzled out before the flames of revolt could catch. 1069 and there were four uprisings in the area. Waltheof appears in the last and most important of them. The first uprising had been caused by the appointment of Robert of Comings as Earl of Northumberland to replace Gospatric, who had fled to Scotland when the previous year's risings had collapsed. The northerners had found it hard enough to accept a southerner such as Tostig as Earl, and they certainly didn’t want a Frenchman. They killed Robert and his whole force of 500-900 men (accounts vary) at Durham, allowing only one to escape and tell the tale. Encouraged by this the City of York revolted, slaying the Norman governor, but failing to take the newly erected castle. Eastertide and the whole North erupted, but William soon brought up an army and broke the Northumbrian force that was besieging York castle. However, it was the arrival of the Danish fleet in September 1069 that caused the Normans to suffer their heaviest defeat in the North.

King Swegyn Astrithson of Denmark had a strong claim on the English throne. An appeal to him by the English to pursue that claim, and revenge his cousin, King Harold, had been made during William’s absence in Normandy in 1067. Ever cautious, Swegyn did not make a move until two years later. Even then he sent his brother, Asbjorn, to lead the fleet. It was an act that, rather than uniting the English behind one war leader, as they might have behind Swegyn, just added yet another strand to the cloth of confused leadership.

Raiding the East Coast on their way North, the fleet of Danes and other elements met little success until they entered the River Humber. Here Waltheof and those who had fled earlier to Scotland, including Edgar Aetheling and Gospatric met them. The Anglo Danish force moved on York, which by this time now had two castles to keep it subservient to Norman wishes. On the arrival of the allies the Normans fired houses near the castles to clear their view and destroy any material that may have been used to fill the defensive ditches surrounding the castles. This act was done with the normal Norman delicacy, with the result that almost the entire city was burnt down! In the resultant fight the Norman garrisons left their castles to attack and then die at the hands of the allies. Waltheof’s exploits of beheading many of the Normans with his long axe as they came through the gates was recorded in sagas and remembered for years after.

William’s reaction was immediate and he personally hastened North with a large army. With York having been burnt and unable to provide sustenance, the allied army broke up; the Danes to the Humber where they wintered over and the English to more northern parts of the earldom. This revolt and its tying down of William and so many of his military resources led to an explosion of uprisings elsewhere. William took what was left of York and began pursuing the scattered elements of English and Danes but very quickly he was obliged to turn his attention elsewhere, leaving lieutenants to meanwhile contain the northern revolt. But they were not up to the job.

As a result of his men’s failure, William then had to move back North from his base at Nottingham, only to be blocked by the flooded River Aire. Despite this and constant harassment from the locals and the Danes, he continued to move North after one of his knights found a usable ford. York was still a devastation so, given his normal priorities, the first thing William did was rebuilt the castles. He then commenced to teach the Northumbrians what it meant to upset a Norman King by starting the harrowing of the North, killing anything animate and destroying anything not. Those who could fled. The wealthy fled to the North of the Earldom or Scotland, the rest to the Camp of Refuge at the Isle of Ely, where Hereward the Wake was defying the Normans. Few made it through the winter weather and their unburied corpses littered the countryside. Having lost their Northumbrian allies, the Danes allowed themselves to be bought off. Only Waltheof and a small number of followers fought on, holding out near Coatham on the coast. However, even they eventually saw the hopelessness of their situation and submitted to King William.

It was after this that William, possibly trying to buy loyalty, married Waltheof to his own niece, Judith, in 1070. After behaving himself for 2 years, Waltheof was granted the Earldom of Northumberland as a replacement for the disgraced Gospatric. He also retained those lands he had held as Earl of Huntingdon, though it would appear he transferred the ownership of his personal holdings in the area to Judith, in the English manner of providing a wife with land of her own.

A blot on Waltheof’s character now appeared in his renewing an old family feud that had its origins in 1016. Waltheof sent some of his huscarls to kill the brothers Carlson and their kin. He did this despite the fact that they, and Waltheof and his kin had earlier been fighting side by side against the Normans. Balancing this dark side of Waltheof’s character is his support of the Church, including the financing of several new foundations. He also played a part in the Church’s attempt to restore the northern lands that William had harrowed. Aldwin, Prior of Winchcombe, recruited two monks from Evesham, Elfwi and a former Norman knight, Reinfrid, to join him in establishing the Church’s presence in the harrowed land. They based themselves at Jarrow, and it was here that Waltheof granted them the Church at Tynemouth and all its lands. He also gave them his nephew Morcar, to be educated.

From his being made Earl of Northampton in 1072 to 1075 Waltheof spent his time ruling his earldom, giving to the Church, begetting children and serving on a royal commission looking into the losses suffered by the Church at Ely.

It was in 1075 that the half English - half Breton Ralf, Earl of East Anglia, married the sister of Roger Earl of Herefordshire and, at the wedding feast, began weaving the sticky web of intrigue that was to ensnare and prove fatal to Waltheof. Just what his involvement was will never be known. Some sources, such as the Anglo Saxon Chronicle and the Book of Hyde, indicate that he was intimately involved. Others, such as Orderic Vitalis and William of Malmesbury, claim that he refused to take part but had to swear an oath not to betray the plot.

The desirability of their wishing to involve Waltheof, in what became known as the Revolt of the Earls, is easy to see. His lands in the Midlands would provide a corridor between those of Roger in the West and Ralf in the East, effectively cutting England in half. Waltheof must have quickly had second thoughts about being involved as, the day after the Bridal Ale, he rushed to London and confessed his share of guilt to Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury. Lanfranc absolved him and advised him to go to Normandy and throw himself on William’s mercy. This Waltheof did, together with presenting some expensive gifts that he knew would appeal to William’s avarice.

William made light of the matter, but had his agents in England move against the other two Earls. An Anglo-Norman force crushed Roger who then spent his remaining years a prisoner. Another Anglo-Norman force defeated Ralf and then penned him up in Norwich. From here Ralf went to Denmark, to gather reinforcements, whilst his new bride held the city. After three months Norwich was compelled to surrender, just before the arrival of the Danish fleet. After sporadic raiding, the Danes returned home, leaving Ralf to join his wife in Brittany and thenceforth continue his war against William.

With the revolt now broken, William placed Waltheof under close arrest. The reason for this action is unknown, though some sources say that Waltheof was betrayed by his wife, Judith, William’s niece, who passed on information that she had been privy to. Waltheof was kept in close confinement for several months before he was sentenced by the King to be beheaded or treason.

The execution took place on 31 May 1076 on St. Giles Hill, Winchester. After giving away his clothes to the poor, Waltheof’s last moments were spent in prayer. Feeling he was taking too long, the executioner drew his sword and struck just as Waltheof got to:

"Lead us not into temptation." According to witnesses, the severed head was then heard in a clear voice to complete the prayer with: "but deliver us from evil. Amen"

After lying in unconsecrated ground for a fortnight, Abbot Ulfkettle of Crowland, a foundation that Waltheof had been a patron of, asked for and was granted permission to take the body away for reburying. To his dying day, Archbishop Lanfranc insisted Waltheof was guiltless of the crime he had been accused of. It is also recorded that the English and Normans alike at William’s court were horrified at the King’s actions.

One fate of traitors was the confiscation of all their possessions to the crown. In this case it didn’t happen. All of Waltheof’s personal holdings passed to his wife, Judith, who also continued to oversee the Earldom of Huntingdon. A consideration for a beloved niece? Or a reward for providing information on her husband that allowed William the Bastard to remove the last of the native English nobility from the scene?

It was not long before the English began to treat Waltheof as a martyr in the ilk of St Edmund King and Martyr and miracles were soon being reported at his tomb. Waltheof may only have been a pseudo-Saint, more a symbol of a people’s suffering and longing, but his grandson, also Waltheof, was later canonised.

Waltheof was a man who, in more peaceful times, would have been a national figure, and if needed, a powerful warrior. But he did not have the personality needed to lead the English resistance to the Norman Conquest. Often he failed to see the woods for the trees, and allowed his opportunities to be stolen from him. http://www.britannia.com/history/articles/waltheof.html

From Wikipedia entry: "Last of the Anglo-Saxon earls, the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of Wm I, reputed for his physical strength but weak, unreliable in character, said to be devout, charitable, probably educated for a monastic life. In fact, around 1065 he became Earl of Northumbria, possibly including the earldoms of Northampton and Huntingdon. After 1066 he submitted to Wm and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions, but then when Sweyn II invaded N England in 1069 Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York. He would again make a fresh submission to Wm after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens. In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton. The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ('Walleff'); 'In Hallam (Halun), one manor with its 16 hamlets, there are 29 carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an 'Aula' [hall or court]. There may have been about 20 ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith.' (Hallam, or Hallamshire, is now part of the city of Sheffield. In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against Wm. He again repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc, and then in person to Wm, who was at the time in Normandy. He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death. He was beheaded on 31 May 1076 at St. Giles's Hill, near Winchester. Regarded by the English as a martyr, miracles were rumoured at his tomb in Crowland. The earldom of Northampton died with him and he would remain the last person to hold a Saxon-era title until the Earl of Wessex nearly a thousand years later. He was a son of Sigurd, Earl of Northumbria. In 1070 he married Judith of Lens, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale. They had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland. One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d1159), abbot of Melrose.

He was a son of Earl Siward of Northumbria, and, although he was probably educated for a monastic life, became earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria about 1065. After the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William the Conqueror; but when the Danes invaded the north of England in 1069 he joined them and took part in the attack on York, only, however, to make a fresh submission after their departure in 1070. Then, restored to his earldom, he married William's niece, Judith, and in 1072 was appointed Earl of Northampton. The Domesday Book (ordered to be prepared by William the Conqueror, and finally completed in 1086) mentioned Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 kmø] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire, is now part of the city of Sheffield, in the county of South Yorkshire). In 1075 Waltheof joined the conspiracy against the king arranged by the earls of Norfolk and Hereford; but soon repenting of his action he confessed his guilt to Archbishop Lanfranc, and then to William, who was in Normandy. Returning to England with William he was arrested, and after being brought twice before the king's court was sentenced to death. On the 31st of May 1076 he was beheaded on St Giles's Hill, near Winchester. Weak and unreliable in character, Waltheof, like his father, is said to have been a man of immense bodily strength. Devout and charitable, he was regarded by the English as a martyr, and miracles were said to have been worked at his tomb at Crowland. The earl left three daughters, the eldest of whom, Matilda, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland. One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) -------------------- Waltheof (1050-31 May 1076), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be executed during the reign of William I. Contents [show]

   * 1 Early life
   * 2 Family and children
   * 3 First revolt
   * 4 Second revolt and death
   * 5 Cult of martyrdom
   * 6 In popular culture
   * 7 References

[edit] Early life

Waltheof was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria. His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia, son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria. In 1054, Waltheof’s brother, Osbearn, who was much older than he, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father’s heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire. Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William’s court until 1068. [edit] Family and children

In 1070 Waltheof married Judith of Lens, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale. They had three children, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland, and another of whom, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny. Their son Uchtred Uchtred of Tynedale married Bethoc; daughter of Donald III, King of Scotland.

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose. [edit] First revolt

When Sweyn II invaded Northern England in 1069 Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York. He would again make a fresh submission to William after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens. In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton.

The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire, is now part of the city of Sheffield)

In 1072, William expelled Gospatric from the earldom of Northumbria. Gospatric was Waltheof’s cousin and had taken part in the attack on York with him, but like Waltheof, had been pardoned by William. Gospatric fled into exile and William appointed Waltheof as the new earl.

Waltheof had many enemies in the north. Amongst them were members of a family who had killed Waltheof’s maternal great-grandfather, Uchtred the Bold, and his grandfather Ealdred. This was part of a long-running blood feud. In 1074, Waltheof moved against the family by sending his retainers to ambush them, succeeding in killing the two eldest of four brothers. [edit] Second revolt and death

In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. His motives for taking part in the revolt are unclear, as is the depth of his involvement. However he repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy. He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death.

He spent almost a year in confinement before being beheaded on May 31, 1076 at St. Giles's Hill, near Winchester. He was said to have spent the months of his captivity in prayer and fasting. Many people believed in his innocence and were surprised when the execution was carried out. His body was initially thrown in a ditch, but was later retrieved and was buried in the chapter house of Croyland Abbey. [edit] Cult of martyrdom

In 1092, after a fire in the chapter house, the abbot had Waltheof’s body moved to a prominent place in the abbey church. When the coffin was opened, it is reported that the corpse was found to be intact with the severed head re-joined to the trunk. This was regarded as a miracle, and the abbey, which had a financial interest in the matter began to publicise it. As a result, pilgrims began to visit Waltheof’s tomb.

After a few years healing miracles were reputed to occur in the vicinity of Waltheof’s tomb, often involving the restoration of the pilgrim’s lost sight.

   * Waltheof was portrayed by actor Marcus Gilbert in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror (1990).
   * Waltheof is the subject of Juliet Dymoke's 1970 historical novel "Of the Ring of Earls"
   * Waltheof is a major character in Elizabeth Chadwick's 2002 historical novel "The Winter Mantle"

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltheof_II,_Earl_of_Northumbria

-------------------- From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps06/ps06_056.htm

Made peace with *William the Conqueror and then openly rebelled. He was beheaded on a hilltop in full public view. This execution ended the reign of the Saxon noblemen. (Winston Churchill's "History of the English-speaking People")

Waltheof, son of Siward the Dane, Earl of Northumberland, was married to the niece of William the Conqueror, Judith of Lens, in hopes the marriage would conciliate the powerful Saxon nobility after William conquered England. "Notwithstanding...he (Waltheof) entered into a conspirace against King William, was taken prisoner, and be headed at Winchester. He left as his heir, Maude who married Simon de St. Liz, Earl of Northumberland, Huntington, and Northampton.

Waltheof II, Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton and Lord of Hallamshire, Wolthamstow and Toteenhard; married Lady Judith Lens who was the King's cousin and who founded the Nunnery of Elstow. {Cf. ID2151 - apparently there is a discrepancy in fathers; information for ID2614 from "Royal Ancestors of Magna Charta Barons," by Carr P. Collins, Jr., Dallas, 1959, p. 143 - not always reliable.} Waltheof II was beheaded on St. Giles' Hill near Winchester.

References: [AR7],[PlantagenetA],[Talbot1],[RD500],[RFC],[CP], [ConverseA],[RoyalAAF] -------------------- Waltheof (1050-31 May 1076), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I. He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character.

He was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria. His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia, son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria. In 1054, Waltheof’s brother, Osbearn, who was much older than him, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father’s heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact, around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire. Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William’s court until 1068.

In 1070 he married Judith of Lens, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale. They had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland, and another of whom, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny.

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose. -------------------- Waltheof (1050-31 May 1076), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be executed during the reign of William I.

Contents [hide] 1 Early life 2 Family and children 3 First revolt 4 Second revolt and death 5 Cult of martyrdom 6 In popular culture 7 References


[edit] Early life Waltheof was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria. His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia, son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria. In 1054, Waltheof’s brother, Osbearn, who was much older than he, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father’s heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire. Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William’s court until 1068.

[edit] Family and children In 1070 Waltheof married Judith of Lens, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale. They had three children, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland, and another of whom, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny. Their son Uchtred Uchtred of Tynedale married Bethoc; daughter of Donald III, King of Scotland.

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose.

[edit] First revolt When Sweyn II invaded Northern England in 1069 Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York. He would again make a fresh submission to William after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens. In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton.

The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire, is now part of the city of Sheffield)

In 1072, William expelled Gospatric from the earldom of Northumbria. Gospatric was Waltheof’s cousin and had taken part in the attack on York with him, but like Waltheof, had been pardoned by William. Gospatric fled into exile and William appointed Waltheof as the new earl.

Waltheof had many enemies in the north. Amongst them were members of a family who had killed Waltheof’s maternal great-grandfather, Uchtred the Bold, and his grandfather Ealdred. This was part of a long-running blood feud. In 1074, Waltheof moved against the family by sending his retainers to ambush them, succeeding in killing the two eldest of four brothers.

[edit] Second revolt and death In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. His motives for taking part in the revolt are unclear, as is the depth of his involvement. However he repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy. He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death.

He spent almost a year in confinement before being beheaded on May 31, 1076 at St. Giles's Hill, near Winchester. He was said to have spent the months of his captivity in prayer and fasting. Many people believed in his innocence and were surprised when the execution was carried out. His body was initially thrown in a ditch, but was later retrieved and was buried in the chapter house of Croyland Abbey.

[edit] Cult of martyrdom In 1092, after a fire in the chapter house, the abbot had Waltheof’s body moved to a prominent place in the abbey church. When the coffin was opened, it is reported that the corpse was found to be intact with the severed head re-joined to the trunk. This was regarded as a miracle, and the abbey, which had a financial interest in the matter began to publicise it. As a result, pilgrims began to visit Waltheof’s tomb.

After a few years healing miracles were reputed to occur in the vicinity of Waltheof’s tomb, often involving the restoration of the pilgrim’s lost sight.

[edit] In popular culture

Lists of miscellaneous information should be avoided. Please relocate any relevant information into appropriate sections or articles. (April 2009) 

Waltheof was portrayed by actor Marcus Gilbert in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror (1990). Waltheof is the subject of Juliet Dymoke's 1970 historical novel "Of the Ring of Earls" Waltheof is a major character in Elizabeth Chadwick's 2002 historical novel "The Winter Mantle" [edit] References Chronicle of Britain ISBN 1-872031-35-8 Oxford DNB article This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Peerage of England Preceded by Cospatrick Earl of Northumbria 1072 - 1075 Succeeded by William Walcher Preceded by New title Earl of Northampton 1072 - 1076 Succeeded by Vacant Next held by: Simon I of St Liz Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltheof,_Earl_of_Northumbria" Categories: Earls in the Peerage of England | Earls of Northumbria | History of Sheffield | People from Sheffield | People executed under the Normans | People executed by decapitation | Executed English people | 11th-century executions | 1050 births | 1076 deaths -------------------- Waltheof I was the earl of Northumbria (963-995), the son and successor of Osulf I. His name is Scandinavian and implies that he had Viking ancestors. It remained in his family when Earl Siward married his great-granddaughter and named his son Waltheof. This son of Siward became Waltheof II, Earl of Northumbria. Nothing is known about Waltheof I's reign, despite its length. -------------------- Waltheof II, Earl of Northumbria From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria)

Waltheof (1050-31 May 1076), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I. He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character. He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact, around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire. Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. When Sweyn II invaded Northern England in 1069 Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York. He would again make a fresh submission to William after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens. In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton. The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire, is now part of the city of Sheffield. In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. He again repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc, and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy. He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death. He was beheaded on May 31, 1076 at St. Giles's Hill, near Winchester. Regarded by the English as a martyr, miracles were rumoured at his tomb in Crowland.

Family and children

He was a son of Earl Sigurd, Earl of Northumbria. In 1070 he married Judith of Lens, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale. They had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland. One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose.

References

Chronicle of Britain ISBN 1-872031-35-8 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines 98A-23, 130-25.

Waltheof Siwardsson, 1st Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton b. before 1035, d. 31 May 1076

Father Siward Digera, Earl of Northumbria1,2,3 b. circa 980, d. 1055 Mother Ælfflæd of Northumbria1,2

    Waltheof Siwardsson, 1st Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton was the father of Maud of Huntingdon; eldest daughter and heiress of Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon, by Judith, niece of William the Conqueror.4 Waltheof Siwardsson, 1st Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton was younger, but only surving son of Siward, by his first wife Elfleda.2 Also called Waltheof Comes.3 He was born before 1035. He was the son of Siward Digera, Earl of Northumbria and Ælfflæd of Northumbria.1,2,3 Waltheof Siwardsson, 1st Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton was underage at the time of his father's death, leaving him unable to take over the earldom of Northumbria, in 1055.5 He became Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton on the banishment of Earl Tostig in October 1065.6 1st Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton at England in October 1065.2,1,6 He was not known to have opposed the Conqueror in 1066.6 He was taken to Normandy in 1067.6 He joined the Danes in their descent on Yorkshire, distinguishing himself in the attack on the city of York in 1069.6 He was the successor of Gospatric fitz Maldred, Earl of Northumberland; Earl of northern Northumbria, beyond the Tees.7,8,1,9 Waltheof Siwardsson, 1st Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton married Judith "the Countess" de Lens, daughter of Lambert, comte de Boulogne and Adelaide de Normandie, in 1070.1,10,11 Waltheof Siwardsson, 1st Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton submitted himself, when the Danes left England, to William, and was restored to his Earldom of Huntingdon in January 1070.6 1st Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton at England between January 1070 and 1076.6 He was became Earl of Northumberland after Gospatrick, following, at last, his father to the Earldom, but only to the northern portion of it, in 1072.2 Earl of northern Northumberland, beyond the Tees at England between 1072 and 29 April 1075.1,2 He was a witness where 1st Earl of Norfolk and Suffolk Ralph de Gaël entered into a conspiracy against King William with his brother-in-law, Roger, 2nd Earl of Hereford, in 1075 at spring or summer.12 Waltheof Siwardsson, 1st Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton witnessed the marriage of 1st Earl of Norfolk and Suffolk Ralph de Gaël and Emma of Hereford in 1075 at spring or summer, Exning, Suffolk, England; His 2nd.13,12 Waltheof Siwardsson, 1st Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton attended the wedding of Ralph de Gael, Earl of Norfolk, and was enticed to join the conspiracy of the Earls of Norfolk and Hereford to seize England for themselves in 1075 at spring or summer, Exning, Suffolk, England.10 He was a witness where Roger de Bréteuil, 2nd Earl of Hereford entered into a conspiracy against King William with his brother-in-law, Ralph de Gael, Earl of Norfolk, in 1075.12 Waltheof Siwardsson, 1st Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton repented his decision to rebel and taking Lanfranc's advice, went to Normandy and asked pardon of the King, who initially gave it, treating the matter lightly at the time.10 He was brought to trial on Christmas for joining the conspiracy on 25 December 1075 at Winchester, England.10 He imprisoned until the trial resumed in May 1076 at Winchester, England.10 He died on 31 May 1076 at St. Giles Hill, Winchester, Hampshire, England. Condemned and beheaded on the Feast of St. Petronella, for conspiring against the King William. s.p.m.2,14,10 He was the predecessor of Bishop of Durham Walcher of Durham; Earl of northern Northumberland, beyond the Tees.2 Waltheof Siwardsson, 1st Earl of Northumberland, Huntingdon and Northampton was buried in Lincolnshire, England. A fortnight later, the Abbot Ulfketel, at Judith's request, and by the King's permission, removed his body to Crowland, where it was honorably entombed. This place was hallowed ground, the burial place of St. Guthlac, to which Waltheof was a benefactor in life, and where, in death, he was said to have performed posthumous miracles.14,10 He was the predecessor of Simon de St. Liz I, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon; 2nd Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton.15

Family Judith "the Countess" de Lens b. 1054/55 Children Alice of Huntingdon+ b. c 1072?16,17 Maud of Huntingdon+ b. 1072, d. 113018,19 Citations [S1075] Translated and edited by Michael Swanton, ASC+, pg. 294. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, IX:705. [S1278] K.S.B. Keats-Rohan, Domesday Descendants, pg. 223. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, VI:641. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, IX:703. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, VI:638. [S217] Transcribed by Colin Hinson, English Peerage (to 1790). [S484] Peter Townend, B:P, 105th, pg. 10-11 - Abergavenny. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, IX:704. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, VI:639. [S1032] K.S.B. Keats-Rohan, Domesday People, pg. 286. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, VI:449. [S1075] Translated and edited by Michael Swanton, ASC+, pg. 210. [S1075] Translated and edited by Michael Swanton, ASC+, pg. 212. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, VI:640. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, XII/1:Tony:761/2. [S1278] K.S.B. Keats-Rohan, Domesday Descendants, pg. 740. [S484] Peter Townend, B:P, 105th, Kings of Scotland, pgs. lxx-lxxv. [S215] Revised by others later George Edward Cokayne CP, IX:706.

-------------------- Waltheof II, Earl of Northumbria, was the last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I. He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character.

Waltheof was our ancestor through two distinct descent lines--through his daughter Maud and his daughter Alice, each of whom was independently our ancestor.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltheof_II,_Earl_of_Northumbria for considerably more information.

Also see "My Lines" ( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p349.htm#i8095 ) from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA ( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm ) -------------------- Waltheof (1050-31 May 1076), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I. He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character.

He was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria. His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia, son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria. In 1054, Waltheof’s brother, Osbearn, who was much older than him, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father’s heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact, around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire. Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William’s court until 1068.

In 1070 he married Judith of Lens, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale. They had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland, and another of whom, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny.

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltheof%2C_Earl_of_Northumbria

http://www.britannia.com/history/articles/waltheof.html -------------------- Waltheof (1050-31 May 1076), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I. He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character. Early life

Waltheof was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria. His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia, son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria. In 1054, Waltheof’s brother, Osbearn, who was much older than he, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father’s heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact, around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire. Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William’s court until 1068. Family and children

In 1070 Waltheof married Judith of Lens, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale. They had three children, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland, and another of whom, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny. Their son Uchtred Uchtred of Tynedale married Bethoc; daughter of Donald III, King of Scotland.

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose. First revolt

When Sweyn II invaded Northern England in 1069 Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York. He would again make a fresh submission to William after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens. In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton.

The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire, is now part of the city of Sheffield.

In 1072, William expelled Gospatric from the earldom of Northumbria. Gospatric was Waltheof’s cousin and had taken part in the attack on York with him, but like Waltheof, had been pardoned by William. Gospatric fled into exile and William appointed Waltheof as the new earl.

Waltheof had many enemies in the north. Amongst them were members of a family who had killed Waltheof’s maternal great-grandfather, Uchtred the Bold, and his grandfather Ealdred. This was part of a long-running blood feud. In 1074, Waltheof moved against the family by sending his retainers to ambush them, succeeding in killing the two eldest of four brothers. Second revolt and death

In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. His motives for taking part in the revolt are unclear, as is the depth of his involvement. However he repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc, and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy. He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death.

He spent almost a year in confinement before being beheaded on May 31, 1076 at St. Giles's Hill, near Winchester. He was said to have spent the months of his captivity in prayer and fasting. Many people believed in his innocence and were surprised when the execution was carried out. His body was initially thrown in a ditch, but was later retrieved and was buried in the chapter house of Croyland Abbey. Cult of martyrdom

In 1092, after a fire in the chapter house, the abbot had Waltheof’s body moved to a prominent place in the abbey church. When the coffin was opened, it is reported that the corpse was found to be intact with the severed head re-joined to the trunk. This was regarded as a miracle, and the abbey, which had a financial interest in the matter began to publicise it. As a result, pilgrims began to visit Waltheof’s tomb.

After a few years healing miracles were reputed to occur in the vicinity of Waltheof’s tomb, often involving the restoration of the pilgrim’s lost sight. In popular culture

   * Waltheof was portrayed by actor Marcus Gilbert in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror (1990).
   * Waltheof is the subject of Juliet Dymoke's 1970 historical novel "Of the Ring of Earls"
   * Waltheof is a major character in Elizabeth Chadwick's 2002 historical novel "The Winter Mantle"

-------------------- Waltheof (1050-31 May 1076), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I. He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character.

  • Early life*

He was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria. His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia, son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria. In 1054, Waltheof’s brother, Osbearn, who was much older than him, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father’s heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact, around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire. Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William’s court until 1068.

  • First revolt*

When Sweyn II invaded Northern England in 1069 Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York. He would again make a fresh submission to William after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens. In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton.

The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire, is now part of the city of Sheffield.

In 1072, William expelled Gospatric from the earldom of Northumbria. Gospatric was Waltheof’s cousin and had taken part in the attack on York with him, but like Waltheof, had been pardoned by William. Gospatric fled into exile and William appointed Waltheof as the new earl.

Waltheof had many enemies in the north. Amongst them were members of a family who had killed Waltheof’s maternal great-grandfather, Uchtred the Bold, and his grandfather Ealdred. This was part of a long-running blood feud. In 1074, Waltheof moved against the family by sending his retainers to ambush them, succeeding in killing the two eldest of four brothers.

  • Second revolt and death*

In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. His motives for taking part in the revolt are unclear, as is the depth of his involvement. However he repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc, and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy. He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death.

He spent almost a year in confinement before being beheaded on May 31, 1076 at St. Giles's Hill, near Winchester. He was said to have spent the months of his captivity in prayer and fasting. Many people believed in his innocence and were surprised when the execution was carried out. His body was initially thrown in a ditch, but was later retrieved and was buried in the chapter house of Croyland Abbey.

  • Cult of martyrdom*

In 1092, after a fire in the chapter house, the abbot had Waltheof’s body moved to a prominent place in the abbey church. When the coffin was opened, it is reported that the corpse was found to be intact with the severed head re-joined to the trunk. This was regarded as a miracle, and the abbey, which had a financial interest in the matter began to publicise it. As a result, pilgrims began to visit Waltheof’s tomb.

After a few years healing miracles were reputed to occur in the vicinity of Waltheof’s tomb, often involving the restoration of the pilgrim’s lost sight.

  • Family and children*

In 1070 he married Judith of Lens, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale. They had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland, and another of whom, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny.

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose.

  • In popular culture*

Lists of miscellaneous information should be avoided. Please relocate any relevant information into appropriate sections or articles. (April 2009)

   * Waltheof was portrayed by actor Marcus Gilbert in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror (1990).
   * Waltheof is the subject of Juliet Dymoke's 1970 historical novel "Of the Ring of Earls"
   * Waltheof is a major character in Elizabeth Chadwick's 2002 historical novel "The Winter Mantle"

References

   * Chronicle of Britain ISBN 1-872031-35-8
   * Oxford DNB article
   * This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

-------------------- Waltheof (1050 – 31 May 1076), 1st Earl of Northumberland and 1st Earl of the Honour of Huntingdon and Northampton and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls. He was the only English aristocrat to be executed during the reign of William I.

Early Life

Waltheof was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria. His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia, son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria. In 1054, Waltheof’s brother, Osbearn, who was much older than he, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father’s heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire. Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William’s court until 1068.

Family and children

In 1070 Waltheof married Judith of Lens, daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy, Countess of Aumale. They had three children, the eldest of whom, Maud, brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland, and another, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny. Their son Uchtred of Tynedale married Bethoc; daughter of Donald III, King of Scotland.

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose.

First revolt

When Sweyn II invaded Northern England in 1069, Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York. He would again make a fresh submission to William after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens. In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton.

The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire, is now part of the city of Sheffield)

In 1072, William expelled Gospatric from the earldom of Northumbria. Gospatric was Waltheof’s cousin and had taken part in the attack on York with him, but like Waltheof, had been pardoned by William. Gospatric fled into exile and William appointed Waltheof as the new earl.

Waltheof had many enemies in the north. Amongst them were members of a family who had killed Waltheof’s maternal great-grandfather, Uchtred the Bold, and his grandfather Ealdred. This was part of a long-running blood feud. In 1074, Waltheof moved against the family by sending his retainers to ambush them, succeeding in killing the two eldest of four brothers.

Second revolt and death

In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. His motives for taking part in the revolt are unclear, as is the depth of his involvement. However he repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy. He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death.

He spent almost a year in confinement before being beheaded on May 31, 1076 at St. Giles's Hill, near Winchester. He was said to have spent the months of his captivity in prayer and fasting. Many people believed in his innocence and were surprised when the execution was carried out. His body was initially thrown in a ditch, but was later retrieved and was buried in the chapter house of Croyland Abbey.

Cult of martyrdom

In 1092, after a fire in the chapter house, the abbot had Waltheof’s body moved to a prominent place in the abbey church. When the coffin was opened, it is reported that the corpse was found to be intact with the severed head re-joined to the trunk. This was regarded as a miracle, and the abbey, which had a financial interest in the matter began to publicise it. As a result, pilgrims began to visit Waltheof’s tomb.

After a few years healing miracles were reputed to occur in the vicinity of Waltheof’s tomb, often involving the restoration of the pilgrim’s lost sight.

In popular culture

   * Waltheof was portrayed by actor Marcus Gilbert in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror (1990).
   * Waltheof is the subject of Juliet Dymoke's 1970 historical novel Of the Ring of Earls
   * Waltheof is a major character in Elizabeth Chadwick's 2002 historical novel The Winter Mantle

-------------------- See "My Lines"

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p64.htm#i8200 )

from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm )

view all 54

Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria's Timeline

1045
1045
Wallsend, UK
1070
1070
Age 25
Artois, France
1072
1072
Age 27
Northumberland, England
1074
1074
Age 29
Tyndale, Eastlothian, Scotland
1076
May 31, 1076
Age 31
May 31, 1076
Age 31
St. Giles Hill,, Winchester, Hampshire, England

In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. His motives for taking part in the revolt are unclear, as is the depth of his involvement. However he repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc, and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy. He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death.

He spent almost a year in confinement before being beheaded on May 31, 1076 at St. Giles's Hill, near Winchester. He was said to have spent the months of his captivity in prayer and fasting. Many people believed in his innocence and were surprised when the execution was carried out. His body was initially thrown in a ditch, but was later retrieved and was buried in the chapter house of Croyland Abbey.

May 31, 1076
Age 31
Crowland, Lincolnshire, England
1085
1085
Age 31
Clifford Castle, Clifford, Herefordshire, England
1932
November 26, 1932
Age 31
November 26, 1932
Age 31