William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury

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William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury

Nicknames: "1st Earl of Salisbury"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Cassington, Oxfordshire, England
Death: Died in Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England
Cause of death: Wounds from a tournament at Windsor.
Place of Burial: Bisham Priory, Bisham, Berkshire, England, UK
Immediate Family:

Son of William Montague, 2nd Baron Montague and Elizabeth de Montfort
Husband of Catherine de Montagu, Countess of Salisbury and Elizabeth DeMontfort
Father of Elizabeth de Montague; William de Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury; John de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute; Anne (Anneys) de Grey; Sybil de Montagu and 5 others
Brother of Alice de Montagu; Mary Montague; Lady Catherine de Montagu and Edward Montague, 3rd Baron Montague

Occupation: King of the Isle of Man, 1st Earl of Salisbury, 1st Earl of Solisbury and 3rd Baron Montagu
Managed by: Andrew Dean Kemp
Last Updated:

About William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury

William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Montagu,_1st_Earl_of_Salisbury

Born 1301 Cassington, Oxfordshire

Died 30 January 1344 Windsor, Berkshire

Cause of death Injuries from a tournament

Resting place Bisham Abbey, Berkshire

Nationality English

Other names William Montacute

Years active c. 1320–1344

Known for Service to Edward III

Title 1st Earl of Salisbury

Successor William Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury

Spouse(s) Catherine Grandison

Children William Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury,

John Montagu, 4 daughters

Parents William de Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu,

Elizabeth Montfort

William Montagu (alias Montacute), 1st Earl of Salisbury and King of the Isle of Man (1301 – January 30, 1344) was an English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III. The son of William de Montagu, the second Baron Montagu, he entered the royal household at an early age, and became a close companion of the young Prince Edward. The relationship continued after Edward was crowned king following the deposition of Edward II in 1327. In 1330, Montagu was one of Edward's main accomplices in the coup against Roger Mortimer, who up until then had been acting as the king's protector.

In the following years Montagu served the king in various capacities, primarily in the Scottish Wars. He was richly rewarded, and among other things received the lordship of the Isle of Man. In 1337, he was created Earl of Salisbury, and given an annual income of 1000 marks to go with the title. He served on the Continent in the early years of the Hundred Years' War, but in 1340 he was captured by the French, and in return for his freedom had to promise never to fight in France again. Salisbury died of wounds suffered at a tournament early in 1344.

Legend has it that Montagu's wife Catherine was raped by Edward III, but this story is almost certainly French propaganda. William and Catherine had six children, most of whom married into the nobility. Modern historians have called William Montague Edward's "most intimate personal friend"[1] and "the chief influence behind the throne from Mortimer's downfall in 1330 until his own death in 1344."[2]

Family background

William was born in Cassington in Oxfordshire in 1301. His was the eldest son of William de Montagu, the second Baron Montagu, and Elizabeth Montfort, daughter of Peter de Montfort of Beaudesert, Warwickshire.[3] The Montagu family, a West Country family with roots going back to the Conquest, held extensive lands in Somerset, Dorset and Devon.[4] The father, William Montagu, distinguished himself in the Scottish Wars during the reign of Edward I, and served as steward of Edward II's household. Some members of the nobility, including Thomas of Lancaster, viewed Montagu with suspicion, as a member of a court party with undue influence on the king.[5] For this reason he was sent to Aquitaine, to serve as seneschal. Here he died in October 1319.[5] Even though he sat in parliament as a baron, the second lord Montagu never rose above a level of purely regional importance.[6]

Early service

The younger William was still a minor at the time of his father's death, and entered the royal household as a ward of the king in 1320.[7] On 21 February 1323 he was granted his father's lands and title.[3] His service to Edward II took him abroad to the Continent in both 1320 and 1325.[3] In 1326 he was knighted.[6] After the deposition of Edward II in 1327, Montagu continued in the service of Edward's son Edward III. He helped the new king in repelling the Scottish invasion of 1327, and was created knight banneret in 1328.[3]

Montagu enjoyed a close relationship with Edward III, and accompanied him abroad on a diplomatic mission in 1329. That same year he was sent on an embassy to negotiate a marriage alliance with King Philip VI of France.[3] His most important task, however, came in connection with a mission to the Papacy in Avignon. The young king—along with his government—was under the dominance of his mother Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, who had been responsible for the deposition of the king's father.[8] Montagu explained the king's situation, and Pope John XXII asked for a special signal that assure him that he was dealing with the king in person. After Montagu's return, Richard Bury, Keeper of the Privy Seal, wrote to inform the pope that only letters containing the words pater sancte (holy father), in Edward's own handwriting, were indeed from the king. Only Edward, Bury and Montagu were party to the scheme.[9]

Coup against Mortimer

When Mortimer discovered the conspiracy against him, Montagu was brought in for interrogation – along with the king – but gave nothing away.[7] Afterward he supposedly advised Edward to move against his protector, because "It was better that they should eat the dog than that the dog should eat them".[3] On 19 October 1330, while Mortimer and Isabella were entrenched in Nottingham Castle, the constable of the castle showed Montagu a secret entrance through an underground tunnel.[10] Along with Edward de Bohun, Robert Ufford, and John Neville and others, he entered the castle, where he met up with the king.[3] A short brawl followed before Mortimer was captured. The queen stormed into the chamber shouting "Good son, have pity on noble Mortimer".[11] Edward did not obey his mother's wishes, and a few weeks later Mortimer was executed for treason in London.[12] As a reward for his part in the coup, Montagu was given lands worth £1000, including the Welsh lordship of Denbigh that had belonged to Mortimer.[13] His family also benefited; his brother Simon became Bishop of Worcester and later of Ely.[14] Another brother, Edward de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute, was married to Alice, a co-heir of Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk.[15]

Service under Edward III

Edward III founded the Order of the Garter in 1348, and included Salisbury's son among in the founding members.

In the years to come, Montagu acted as Edward's closest companion.[1] In April 1331, the two went on a secret expedition to France, disguised as merchants so they would not be recognised. In September of the same year, Montagu held a tournament at Cheapside, where he and the king were costumed as Tartars.[3] From 1333 onwards, Montagu was deeply engaged in the Scottish Wars, and distinguished himself at the Siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill. It was after this event that his lordship over the Isle of Man was recognised, a right he held from his grandfather.[3] The lordship was at the moment of a purely theoretical nature, however, since the island was still under Scottish control.

In February 1334 Montagu was sent on a commission to Edinburgh, to demand Edward Balliol's homage to Edward. In the great summer campaign of 1335, it was Montagu who provided the largest English contingent, with 180 men-at-arms and 136 archers.[3] He was well rewarded for his contributions: after the Scots had been forced to cede the Lowlands, Montagu was granted the county of Peeblesshire. He was also allowed to buy the wardship of Roger Mortimer's son Roger for 1000 marks, a deal that turned out to be very lucrative for Montagu.[16] At this point, however, the fortunes were turning for the English in Scotland. Montagu campaigned in the north again in 1337, but the siege of Dunbar met with failure.[17] Following the abortive attempt in Scotland, Edward III turned his attention to the continent.

The Hundred Years' War

Montagu was created Earl of Salisbury on 16 March 1337. This was one of six comital promotions Edward III made that day, in preparation for what was to become the Hundred Years' War.[18] To allow Montagu to support his new status, the king granted him land and rent of a value of 1000 marks a year. The money was provided from the royal stannaries of Cornwall.[19] A contemporary poem tells of a vow made by the earl on the eve of the wars – he would not open one of his eyes while fighting in France. The story is probably a satire; the truth was that Montagu had already lost the use of one of his eyes in a tournament.[20]

In April 1337, Montagu was appointed to a diplomatic commission to Valenciennes, to establish alliances with Flanders and the German princes.[21] In July 1338, he accompanied the king on another mission to the continent, again providing the greatest number of soldiers, with 123 men-at-arms and 50 archers.[3] In September of that year he was made Marshal of England. After the death of Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, this office had come into the hands of Norfolk's daughter Margaret. The king did not trust the office with her husband, so he decided instead to bestow it on his trusted companion, Montagu.[22] Edward's policy of building alliances put him in great debt, and when he left the Low Countries to return to England late in 1338, Salisbury had to stay behind as surety to the king's debtors, along with the king's family and the Earl of Derby.[23] The earl had earlier voiced concerns about the costly alliances, but he nevertheless remained loyal to the king's strategy.[24]

While Edward was away, Salisbury was captured by the French at Lille in April 1340, and imprisoned in Paris.[3] Reportedly, King Philip VI of France wanted to execute Salisbury and Robert Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, who was captured with him. Philip was, however, dissuaded by John of Bohemia, who argued that the earls could come in handy in an exchange, should any French noblemen be captured.[25] Though released on parole in September, it was not until May 1342 that he reached a final settlement with the French. Salisbury was freed in a prisoner exchange, but only on the condition that he never fight in France again.[3]

Final years

Salisbury's residence of Bisham Manor in Berkshire.

Salisbury had long been frustrated by the failure of the government in England to provide sufficient funds for the war effort.[26] On his return, however, he played little part in the conflict of 1341 between King Edward and Chancellor John Stratford. In May that year he was appointed to a committee to hear the king's charges against Stratford, but little came from this.[27] In 1342–43 he fought with Robert of Artois in the Breton War of Succession, and in 1343 helped negotiate the Truce of Malestroit.[3] It was probably sometime after this he made good his claim on the Isle of Man, by conquering the island which was until then held by the Scots.[3]

His final international commission took place late in 1343, when he accompanied Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Derby, on a diplomatic mission to Castile.[3] Early in 1344 he was back in England, where he took part in a great tournament at Windsor. It was during this tournament, according to the chronicler Adam Murimuth, that he received wounds that would prove fatal.[3] Salisbury died on 30 January 1344. He was buried at Bisham Priory in Berkshire, adjoining his home, Bisham Manor. He had founded the priory himself in 1337, on his elevation to the earldom.[28] King Edward's financial obligations were never paid in full during the earl's lifetime, and at Salisbury' death the king owed him £11,720. Of this, some £6374 were written off by his executors in 1346.

Family

In or before 1327 Salisbury married Catherine, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison. Two anecdotal stories revolve around Catherine Montagu; in one she is identified as the "Countess of Salisbury" from whose dropped garter Edward III named the Order of the Garter.[3] In the other, Edward III falls in love with the countess, and arranges to be alone with her so he can rape her. Neither story is supported by contemporary evidence, and the latter almost certainly is a product of French propaganda.[29]

William and Catherine had six children, most of whom made highly fortunate matches with other members of the nobility.[15] The first Earl of Salisbury made enormous additions to the family fortune; at the time of his father's death, the lands had been valued at just over £300. In 1344, only the annual income of the lands has been estimated to more than £2,300,[15] equivalent to about £930 thousand in present day terms.[30] Edward was also free with granting franchises to Salisbury, including the return of writs, which gave the earl authority in his lands normally held by the royally appointed sheriff.[31] Salisbury's oldest son William succeeded his father in July 1349, while still a minor, as William Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury.[32] The younger William was one of the founding members of the Order of the Garter, but he never enjoyed the same favour with the king as his father had.[6]

The children of William and Catherine were as follows:[33]

Name Birth Death Notes

Elizabeth Montagu — 1359 Married Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer before 27 April 1341

William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury 1328 1397 Succeeded his father 11 June 1349[34]

John Montague 1330 1390 Father of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury

Philippa Montagu — 1381 Married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March

Sibyl Montagu — — Married Edmund FitzAlan, the disinherited son of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel

Agnes Montagu — — Was contracted to marry John, eldest son of Roger Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Ruthyn

References

  1. ^ a b McKisack, May (1959). The Fourteenth Century: 1307-1399. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 152. ISBN 0-19-821712-9. 
  2. ^ Ormrod, W.M. (1990). The Reign of Edward III. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-300-04876-9. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Ormrod, W. M. (2004). "Montagu, William, first earl of Salisbury (1301-1344)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19001. 
  4. ^ Douch, R. (1951). "The career, lands and family of William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, 1301-44". Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research (London) 24: 85. 
  5. ^ a b Gross, Anthony (2004). "Montagu, William, second Lord Montagu (c.1285-1319)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19000. 
  6. ^ a b c Hicks, Michael (1991). Who's Who in Late Medieval England (1272-1485). Who's Who in British History Series. 3. London: Shepheard-Walwyn. pp. 79–81. ISBN 0856830925. 
  7. ^ a b Prestwich, M.C. (2005). Plantagenet England: 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 223. ISBN 0-19-822844-9. 
  8. ^ Ormrod (1990), p. 15.
  9. ^ McKisack (1959), p. 152.
 10. ^ McKisack (1959), p. 101.
 11. ^ Prestwich (2005), p. 224
 12. ^ Prestwich (2005), pp. 223–4
 13. ^ Prestwich (2005), p. 416
 14. ^ McKisack (1959), p. 153.
 15. ^ a b c Douch (1951), p. 87.
 16. ^ Mortimer later married Montagu's daughter Philippa; Prestwich (2005), p. 268
 17. ^ Douch (1951), p. 86.
 18. ^ Given-Wilson, Chris (1996). The English Nobility in the Late Middle Ages. London: Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 0415148839. 
 19. ^ Given-Wilson (1996), pp. 38–40.
 20. ^ Prestwich (2005), p. 343. According to Douch, the eye was lost in the Scottish Wars; Douch (1951), p. 86.
 21. ^ McKisack (1959), p. 121.
 22. ^ Prestwich, M.C. (1996). The Three Edwards: War and State in England 1272-1377 (reprint ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 190. 
 23. ^ McKisack (1959), p. 163.
 24. ^ Waugh, Scott L. (1991). England in the Reign of Edward III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 220. ISBN 0521325102. 
 25. ^ Prestwich (1996), p. 206
 26. ^ Prestwich (2005), p. 275
 27. ^ McKisack (1959), p. 177.
 28. ^ Prestwich (2005), p. 286
 29. ^ Gransden, Antonia (1972). "The alleged rape by Edward III of the countess of Salisbury". English Historical Review 87: 333–44. http://www.jstor.org/stable/563289. 
 30. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Measuring Worth: UK CPI.
 31. ^ Ormrod (1990), p. 99.
 32. ^ Leland, John L. (2004). "Montagu, William, second earl of Salisbury (1328-1397)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19002. 
 33. ^ Cokayne, George (1910–59). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (New ed.). London: The St. Catherine Press. 
 34. ^ Fryde, E. B. (1961). Handbook of British Chronology (Second ed.). London: Royal Historical Society. p. 448.

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William Montacute (alias Montagu), King of the Isle of Man, 1st Earl of Salisbury and 3rd Baron Montagu (1301-January 30, 1344) was an English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III.

LIFE: William was born in Cassington in Oxfordshire, the eldest son of William de Montacute, 2nd Baron Montacute and Elizabeth Montfort. He succeeded to his father's title in 1319.

Montacute accompanied Edward III in repelling the Scottish invasion of 1327. The next year he served Edward on diplomatic missions to the King of France (Charles IV or Philip VI) and to the Pope John XXII. In 1330, at the behest of the King, Montacute and some of his men arrested Rogr Mortimer, and after Mortimer's execution Montacute received a good part ofthe forfeited estates.

Montacute took part in the Second War of Scottish Independence (1333-1357) of the following years, otably at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. In the same year the King gave Montacute the English claim to the Isle of Man.

He was created Earl of Salisbury on 16 March 1337. In 1338 the new earl went on a lengthy diplomatic mission, first to France to declare King Edward claims to the French crown, and then to visit many of the German princes who might ally against France. Later that year he was made Marshall of England.

During the next two years, he was one of the commanders of the English forces in Flanders until he was captured by the French near Lille. He was released later in 1340 as part of a prisoner exchange, on the condition that he never again fight against the French. Itwas probably sometime after his return to England that he conquered the Isle of Man, which had been held by the Scots. He won and was crowned to King of Mann in 1344.

Lord Salisbury died from injuries said to have been received during a Windsor tournament. He was buried at Bisham Priory in Berkshire, which he had founded in 1337 adjoining his home, Bisham Manor.

Family: He married Catherine Grandison, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison. Legend holds that Edward III was in love with her, and she may have been the "Countess of Salisbury" from whose dropped garter the Order of the Garter derives its name. In another version of the story, the king forced his attentions on the countess, but this is thought to have originated in French propaganda.

Montacute was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, William.

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William Montacute (alias Montagu), King of the Isle of Man, 1st Earl of Salisbury and 3rd Baron Montagu (1301 – January 30, 1344) was an English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III.

Contents [hide]

1 Life

2 Family

3 References

4 External links


[edit] Life

William was born in Cassington in Oxfordshire, the eldest son of William de Montacute, 2nd Baron Montacute and Elizabeth Montfort. He succeeded to his father's title in 1319.

Montacute accompanied Edward III in repelling the Scottish invasion of 1327. The next year he served Edward on diplomatic missions to the King of France (Charles IV or Philip VI) and to the Pope John XXII. In 1330, at the behest of the King, Montacute and some of his men arrested Roger Mortimer, and after Mortimer's execution Montacute received a good part of the forfeited estates.

Montacute took part in the Second War of Scottish Independence (1333 - 1357) of the following years, notably at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. In the same year the King gave Montacute the English claim to the Isle of Man.

He was created Earl of Salisbury on 16 March 1337. In 1338 the new earl went on a lengthy diplomatic mission, first to France to declare King Edward claims to the French crown, and then to visit many of the German princes who might ally against France. Later that year he was made Marshall of England.

During the next two years, he was one of the commanders of the English forces in Flanders, until he was captured by the French near Lille. He was released later in 1340 as part of a prisoner exchange, on the condition that he never again fight against the French. It was probably sometime after his return to England that he conquered the Isle of Man, which had been held by the Scots. He won and was crowned to King of Mann in 1344.

Lord Salisbury died from injuries said to have been received during a Windsor tournament. He was buried at Bisham Priory in Berkshire, which he had founded in 1337 adjoining his home, Bisham Manor.

[edit] Family

He married Catherine Grandison, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison. Legend holds that Edward III was in love with her, and she may have been the "Countess of Salisbury" from whose dropped garter the Order of the Garter derives its name. In another version of the story, the king forced his attentions on the countess, but this is thought to have originated in French propaganda. The children of William and Catherine were:

Elizabeth Montacute (b. before 1325); married Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer before 27 April 1341.

John Montacute, (1327-1396); father of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury.

William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (1329-1397)

Anne Montacute, (b. 1330); married John De Grey on 12 June 1335.

Philippa Montacute (b. 1332); married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March.

Sibyl Montacute (b. before 1339); married Edmund FitzAlan about 1356.

Montacute was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, William.

[edit] References

Gransden, Antonia (1972). "The alleged rape by Edward III of the countess of Salisbury". English Historical Review 87.

Hunt, William (1894). "William de Montacute or Montagu, third Baron Montacute and first Earl of Salisbury". Dictionary of National Biography 38: 212–213.

[edit] External links

Royal Berkshire History: William Montacute, Earl of Salisbury

Peerage of England

Preceded by

William Montagu Baron Montagu

1319–1344 Succeeded by

William Montacute

Preceded by

New Creation Earl of Salisbury

1337–1344

Head of State of the Isle of Man

Preceded by

New Creation King of Mann

1333–1344 Succeeded by

William II Montacute

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Montacute,_1st_Earl_of_Salisbury"

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William Montagu (alias Montacute), 1st Earl of Salisbury and King of the Isle of Man (1301 – January 30, 1344) was an English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III. The son of William de Montagu, the second Baron Montagu, he entered the royal household at an early age, and became a close companion of the young Prince Edward. The relationship continued after Edward was crowned king following the deposition of Edward II in 1327. In 1330, Montagu was one of Edward's main accomplices in the coup against Roger Mortimer, who up until then had been acting as the king's protector.

In the following years Montagu served the king in various capacities, primarily in the Scottish Wars. He was richly rewarded, and among other things received the lordship of the Isle of Man. In 1337, he was created Earl of Salisbury, and given an annual income of 1000 marks to go with the title. He served on the Continent in the early years of the Hundred Years' War, but in 1340 he was captured by the French, and in return for his freedom had to promise never to fight in France again. Salisbury died of wounds suffered at a tournament early in 1344.

Legend has it that Montagu's wife Catherine was raped by Edward III, but this story is almost certainly French propaganda. William and Catherine had six children, most of whom married into the nobility. Modern historians have called William Montague Edward's "most intimate personal friend" and "the chief influence behind the throne from Mortimer's downfall in 1330 until his own death in 1344."

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Made baronet in the reign of Edward II. In the first of Edward III (1327)he was present at the expedition then made into Scotland, and in the 3rd of same reign attended the King when he was summoned to do homage to the King of France for his duchy of Aquitaine, and had also the honor to wait on his holiness the Pope as Edward's ambassador. But the best service, perhaps, which this brave man ever performed for his master, was his bringing the famous Mortimer Earl of March the Queen's gallant, to punishment. In the same year (1330) he was appointed governor of Sherbourne Castle in the county of Dorset, and of the Castle of Corsse with the Chace of Purbeck. In the 5th of Edsward III he had a charter of free warren in all his lordships of Cookham in County of Berkshire, Swyneston in County of Southampton, Fulmere in County of Bucks and of Catsound and Lewisham in Kent. In 1337 he was constituted Admiral of the King's fleet, from the mouth of the Thames westward and was advanced to the title and dignity of Earl of Salisbury. He was present at the memorable siege of the Castle of Dunbar. The same year he attended the King to Brabant and obtainedseveral more grants of lands, castles, fairs and advowsons in the Counties of Oxford, Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, Chester, Norfolk, Suffolk and Lincoln. In 1339 he obtained the King's precept to the lord treasurer and barons of the exchequer. In1340 he had the command of the army jointly with the Earl of Suffolk.

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William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury was born in 1301 at Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.

He was the son of Sir William Montague, 2nd Lord Montagu and Lady Elizabeth Montfort.

He married Catherine Grandison, daughter of William Grandison, 1st Lord Grandison, circa 1327.

He died between 30 January 1343 and 1344, from injuries received in a joust.

    

William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury was also known as William de Montacute.

He gained the title of 3rd Lord Montagu. He gained the title of 1st Earl of Salisbury in 1337.

He was crowned King of Man in 1344

Child of William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury

Sibyl Montagu+ 3

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King of Isle of Man, 1st Earl of Salisbury, 3d Baron Montagu

1327 Accompanied Edward III to repel Scottish invasion

1328 diplomatic missions to France and Pope

1330 arrested Roger Mortimer, who was executed

1333 Battle of Jalidon Hill

1338 diplomatic mission to France to assert Edward's claims to throne, then to Germany to seek allies against France

1338 Marsall of England

1338-9 commanded English forces in Flanders

1340 captured by France, later exchanged for prisoners on condition he net return to fight French

Conquered Isle of Man from Scots

Died from injuries received in Windsor tournament -------------------- William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William Montagu (alias Montacute), 1st Earl of Salisbury and King of the Isle of Man (1301 – January 30, 1344) was an English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III. The son of William de Montagu, the second Baron Montagu, he entered the royal household at an early age, and became a close companion of the young Prince Edward. The relationship continued after Edward was crowned king following the deposition of Edward II in 1327. In 1330, Montagu was one of Edward's main accomplices in the coup against Roger Mortimer, who up until then had been acting as the king's protector.

In the following years Montagu served the king in various capacities, primarily in the Scottish Wars. He was richly rewarded, and among other things received the lordship of the Isle of Man. In 1337, he was created Earl of Salisbury, and given an annual income of 1000 marks to go with the title. He served on the Continent in the early years of the Hundred Years' War, but in 1340 he was captured by the French, and in return for his freedom had to promise never to fight in France again. Salisbury died of wounds suffered at a tournament early in 1344.

Legend has it that Montagu's wife Catherine was raped by Edward III, but this story is almost certainly French propaganda. William and Catherine had six children, most of whom married into the nobility. Modern historians have called William Montague Edward's "most intimate personal friend"[1] and "the chief influence behind the throne from Mortimer's downfall in 1330 until his own death in 1344."[2]

Family background

William was born in Cassington in Oxfordshire in 1301. His was the eldest son of William de Montagu, the second Baron Montagu, and Elizabeth Montfort, daughter of Peter de Montfort of Beaudesert, Warwickshire.[3] The Montagu family, a West Country family with roots going back to the Conquest, held extensive lands in Somerset, Dorset and Devon.[4] The father, William Montagu, distinguished himself in the Scottish Wars during the reign of Edward I, and served as steward of Edward II's household. Some members of the nobility, including Thomas of Lancaster, viewed Montagu with suspicion, as a member of a court party with undue influence on the king.[5] For this reason he was sent to Aquitaine, to serve as seneschal. Here he died in October 1319.[5] Even though he sat in parliament as a baron, the second lord Montagu never rose above a level of purely regional importance.[6]

[edit]Early service

The younger William was still a minor at the time of his father's death, and entered the royal household as a ward of the king in 1320.[7] On 21 February 1323 he was granted his father's lands and title.[3] His service to Edward II took him abroad to the Continent in both 1320 and 1325.[3] In 1326 he was knighted.[6] After the deposition of Edward II in 1327, Montagu continued in the service of Edward's son Edward III. He helped the new king in repelling the Scottish invasion of 1327, and was created knight banneret in 1328.[3]

Montagu enjoyed a close relationship with Edward III, and accompanied him abroad on a diplomatic mission in 1329. That same year he was sent on an embassy to negotiate a marriage alliance with King Philip VI of France.[3] His most important task, however, came in connection with a mission to the Papacy in Avignon. The young king—along with his government—was under the dominance of his mother Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer, who had been responsible for the deposition of the king's father.[8] Montagu explained the king's situation, and Pope John XXII asked for a special signal that assure him that he was dealing with the king in person. After Montagu's return, Richard Bury, Keeper of the Privy Seal, wrote to inform the pope that only letters containing the words pater sancte (holy father), in Edward's own handwriting, were indeed from the king. Only Edward, Bury and Montagu were party to the scheme.[9]

[edit]Coup against Mortimer

When Mortimer discovered the conspiracy against him, Montagu was brought in for interrogation – along with the king – but gave nothing away.[7] Afterward he supposedly advised Edward to move against his protector, because "It was better that they should eat the dog than that the dog should eat them".[3] On 19 October 1330, while Mortimer and Isabella were entrenched in Nottingham Castle, the constable of the castle showed Montagu a secret entrance through an underground tunnel.[10] Along with Edward de Bohun, Robert Ufford, and John Neville and others, he entered the castle, where he met up with the king.[3] A short brawl followed before Mortimer was captured. The queen stormed into the chamber shouting "Good son, have pity on noble Mortimer".[11] Edward did not obey his mother's wishes, and a few weeks later Mortimer was executed for treason in London.[12] As a reward for his part in the coup, Montagu was given lands worth £1000, including the Welsh lordship of Denbigh that had belonged to Mortimer.[13] His family also benefited; his brother Simon became Bishop of Worcester and later of Ely.[14] Another brother, Edward de Montacute, 1st Baron Montacute, was married to Alice, a co-heir of Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk.[15]

[edit]Service under Edward III

In the years to come, Montagu acted as Edward's closest companion.[1] In April 1331, the two went on a secret expedition to France, disguised as merchants so they would not be recognised. In September of the same year, Montagu held a tournament at Cheapside, where he and the king were costumed as Tartars.[3] From 1333 onwards, Montagu was deeply engaged in the Scottish Wars, and distinguished himself at the Siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill. It was after this event that his lordship over the Isle of Man was recognised, a right he held from his grandfather.[3] The lordship was at the moment of a purely theoretical nature, however, since the island was still under Scottish control.

In February 1334 Montagu was sent on a commission to Edinburgh, to demand Edward Balliol's homage to Edward. In the great summer campaign of 1335, it was Montagu who provided the largest English contingent, with 180 men-at-arms and 136 archers.[3] He was well rewarded for his contributions: after the Scots had been forced to cede the Lowlands, Montagu was granted the county of Peeblesshire. He was also allowed to buy the wardship of Roger Mortimer's son Roger for 1000 marks, a deal that turned out to be very lucrative for Montagu.[16] At this point, however, the fortunes were turning for the English in Scotland. Montagu campaigned in the north again in 1337, but the siege of Dunbar met with failure.[17] Following the abortive attempt in Scotland, Edward III turned his attention to the continent.

[edit]The Hundred Years' War

Montagu was created Earl of Salisbury on 16 March 1337. This was one of six comital promotions Edward III made that day, in preparation for what was to become the Hundred Years' War.[18] To allow Montagu to support his new status, the king granted him land and rent of a value of 1000 marks a year. The money was provided from the royal stannaries of Cornwall.[19] A contemporary poem tells of a vow made by the earl on the eve of the wars – he would not open one of his eyes while fighting in France. The story is probably a satire; the truth was that Montagu had already lost the use of one of his eyes in a tournament.[20]

In April 1337, Montagu was appointed to a diplomatic commission to Valenciennes, to establish alliances with Flanders and the German princes.[21] In July 1338, he accompanied the king on another mission to the continent, again providing the greatest number of soldiers, with 123 men-at-arms and 50 archers.[3] In September of that year he was made Marshal of England. After the death of Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, this office had come into the hands of Norfolk's daughter Margaret. The king did not trust the office with her husband, so he decided instead to bestow it on his trusted companion, Montagu.[22] Edward's policy of building alliances put him in great debt, and when he left the Low Countries to return to England late in 1338, Salisbury had to stay behind as surety to the king's debtors, along with the king's family and the Earl of Derby.[23] The earl had earlier voiced concerns about the costly alliances, but he nevertheless remained loyal to the king's strategy.[24]

While Edward was away, Salisbury was captured by the French at Lille in April 1340, and imprisoned in Paris.[3] Reportedly, King Philip VI of France wanted to execute Salisbury and Robert Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, who was captured with him. Philip was, however, dissuaded by John of Bohemia, who argued that the earls could come in handy in an exchange, should any French noblemen be captured.[25] Though released on parole in September, it was not until May 1342 that he reached a final settlement with the French. Salisbury was freed in a prisoner exchange, but only on the condition that he never fight in France again.[3]

[edit]Final years

Salisbury had long been frustrated by the failure of the government in England to provide sufficient funds for the war effort.[26] On his return, however, he played little part in the conflict of 1341 between King Edward and Chancellor John Stratford. In May that year he was appointed to a committee to hear the king's charges against Stratford, but little came from this.[27] In 1342–43 he fought with Robert of Artois in the Breton War of Succession, and in 1343 helped negotiate the Truce of Malestroit.[3] It was probably sometime after this he made good his claim on the Isle of Man, by conquering the island which was until then held by the Scots.[3]

His final international commission took place late in 1343, when he accompanied Henry of Grosmont, Earl of Derby, on a diplomatic mission to Castile.[3] Early in 1344 he was back in England, where he took part in a great tournament at Windsor. It was during this tournament, according to the chronicler Adam Murimuth, that he received wounds that would prove fatal.[3] Salisbury died on 30 January 1344. He was buried at Bisham Priory in Berkshire, adjoining his home, Bisham Manor. He had founded the priory himself in 1337, on his elevation to the earldom.[28] King Edward's financial obligations were never paid in full during the earl's lifetime, and at Salisbury' death the king owed him £11,720. Of this, some £6374 were written off by his executors in 1346.

[edit]Family

In or before 1327 Salisbury married Catherine, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison. Two anecdotal stories revolve around Catherine Montagu; in one she is identified as the "Countess of Salisbury" from whose dropped garter Edward III named the Order of the Garter.[3] In the other, Edward III falls in love with the countess, and arranges to be alone with her so he can rape her. Neither story is supported by contemporary evidence, and the latter almost certainly is a product of French propaganda.[29]

William and Catherine had six children, most of whom made highly fortunate matches with other members of the nobility.[15] The first Earl of Salisbury made enormous additions to the family fortune; at the time of his father's death, the lands had been valued at just over £300. In 1344, only the annual income of the lands has been estimated to more than £2,300,[15] equivalent to about £930 thousand in present day terms.[30] Edward was also free with granting franchises to Salisbury, including the return of writs, which gave the earl authority in his lands normally held by the royally appointed sheriff.[31] Salisbury's oldest son William succeeded his father in July 1349, while still a minor, as William Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury.[32] The younger William was one of the founding members of the Order of the Garter, but he never enjoyed the same favour with the king as his father had.[6]

The children of William and Catherine were as follows:[33]

Name Birth Death

Elizabeth Montagu — 1359 Married Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer before 27 April 1341

William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury1328 1397 Succeeded his father 11 June 1349[34]

John Montague 1330 1390 Father of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury

Philippa Montagu — 1381 Married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March

Sibyl Montagu — — Married Edmund FitzAlan, the disinherited son of Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel

Agnes Montagu — — Was contracted to marry John, eldest son of Roger Grey, 1st Baron Grey de Ruthyn

[edit]References

^ a b McKisack, May (1959). The Fourteenth Century: 1307-1399. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 152. ISBN 0-19-821712-9.

^ Ormrod, W.M. (1990). The Reign of Edward III. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-300-04876-9.

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Ormrod, W. M. (2004). "Montagu, William, first earl of Salisbury (1301-1344)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19001.

^ Douch, R. (1951). "The career, lands and family of William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, 1301-44". Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research (London) 24: 85.

^ a b Gross, Anthony (2004). "Montagu, William, second Lord Montagu (c.1285-1319)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19000.

^ a b c Hicks, Michael (1991). Who's Who in Late Medieval England (1272-1485). Who's Who in British History Series. 3. London: Shepheard-Walwyn. pp. 79–81. ISBN 0856830925.

^ a b Prestwich, M.C. (2005). Plantagenet England: 1225-1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 223. ISBN 0-19-822844-9.

^ Ormrod (1990), p. 15.

^ McKisack (1959), p. 152.

^ McKisack (1959), p. 101.

^ Prestwich (2005), p. 224

^ Prestwich (2005), pp. 223–4

^ Prestwich (2005), p. 416

^ McKisack (1959), p. 153.

^ a b c Douch (1951), p. 87.

^ Mortimer later married Montagu's daughter Philippa; Prestwich (2005), p. 268

^ Douch (1951), p. 86.

^ Given-Wilson, Chris (1996). The English Nobility in the Late Middle Ages. London: Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 0415148839.

^ Given-Wilson (1996), pp. 38–40.

^ Prestwich (2005), p. 343. According to Douch, the eye was lost in the Scottish Wars; Douch (1951), p. 86.

^ McKisack (1959), p. 121.

^ Prestwich, M.C. (1996). The Three Edwards: War and State in England 1272-1377 (reprint ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 190.

^ McKisack (1959), p. 163.

^ Waugh, Scott L. (1991). England in the Reign of Edward III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 220. ISBN 0521325102.

^ Prestwich (1996), p. 206

^ Prestwich (2005), p. 275

^ McKisack (1959), p. 177.

^ Prestwich (2005), p. 286

^ Gransden, Antonia (1972). "The alleged rape by Edward III of the countess of Salisbury". English Historical Review 87: 333–44.

^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Measuring Worth: UK CPI.

^ Ormrod (1990), p. 99.

^ Leland, John L. (2004). "Montagu, William, second earl of Salisbury (1328-1397)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19002.

^ Cokayne, George (1910–59). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom (New ed.). London: The St. Catherine Press.

^ Fryde, E. B. (1961). Handbook of British Chronology (Second ed.). London: Royal Historical Society. p. 448.

William de Montagu (Montacute) [Earl of Salisbury] [Earl of Salisbury] 1, 2, 3 was born in 1302/1310 in ,Cassington,Oxfordshire,England. He was christened in (17-18 1320). He died on 30 Jan 1343/1350 in ,Windsor Castle,Berkshire,England. He was buried in ,Bisham,Berkshire,England. He married Katherine de Grandison [Cntss Salisbury [Cntss Salisbury in 1327 in of,Cassington,Oxfordshire,England. The marriage ended in divorce.

Katherine de Grandison [Cntss Salisbury [Cntss Salisbury [Parents] 1, 2, 3 was born about 1304 in ,Ashford,Hertfordshire,England. She died on 23 Nov 1349 in ,Bisham,Berkshire,England. She was buried in ,Bisham,Berkshire,England. She married William de Montagu (Montacute) [Earl of Salisbury] [Earl of Salisbury] in 1327 in of,Cassington,Oxfordshire,England. The marriage ended in divorce.

They had the following children:

		M	i	 John de Montagu (Montacute) [Baron Montagu] [Baron Montagu] was born about 1327. He died on 25 Feb 1389/1390.
		F	ii	 Elizabeth de Montagu [Baroness Badlesmere] [Baroness Badlesmere] was born after 1327. She died on 31 May 1359.
		M	iii	 William de Montagu [Earl of Salisbury] [Earl of Salisbury] was born on 25 Jun 1328. He died on 3 Jun 1397.
		F	iv	 Anne (Anneys) de Montagu was born about 1330.
		F	v	 Sibyl de Montagu was born about 1330.
		F	vi	 Philippe de Montagu [Countess of March] [Countess of March] was born about 1332. She died on 5 Jan 1381/1390.
		M	vii	 Robert Montagu 1, 2 was born about 1334 in of,Shepton Montague,Somersetshire,England.

--------------------

Sir William de Montagu [g], Earl of Salisbury, b abt 1302, Cassington, Oxfordshire, England, d 30 Jan 1343/44. He md Katherine de Grandison 1327, Oxfordshire, England, daughter of Sir William de Grandison and Sibyl de Tregoz.

Children of William de Montagu and Katherine de Grandison were:

Philippa de Montagu b abt 1332, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, d abt 1381, Berkshire, England. She md Sir Roger de Mortimer, Earl of March, abt 1345, son of Sir Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March, and Elizabeth de Badlesmere.

Sibyl de Montagu b abt 1334. She md Edmund Fitz Alan bef Jul 1349, son of Sir Richard Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, and Isabel le Despenser.

g. He was aged 17 to 18 in May 1320 and succeeded his father 18 Oct 1319. He was knighted in 1326, and summoned for service in Scotland 1327. In May 1329 he attended the King at Amiens and beginning in Jun he began his successful service as the King's diplomatist. He was a prime force in the seizure of Mortimer in 1330, for which his reward included the castle and lordship of Denbigh, as well as other lands formerly held by Mortimer. In 1333 he was in command of the siege of Berwick, and from Mar 1333/34 to May 1337 was joint keeper, with Henry de Ferrers, of the Channel Islands. He was with the King in Scotland 1335 and 1336, and in Jan 1336/37 was appointed Admiral from the mouth of the Thames westwards. On 16 Mar 1336/37 he was created Earl of Salisbury, and the following Oct was joint commander in Scotland, as well as a commissioner to treat for a peace, and in Dec sole commissioner to deal with John of the Isles for a treaty. He accompanied the King to Flanders in Jul 1338, and on 20 Sep at Antwerp, he was made Marshal of England for life. In Dec of 1339 he remained as hostage to the Duke of Lorraine while the King returned to England, and in Aug 1343, with the Earl of Suffolk, he went on an embassy to Castile, where he is said to have fought the Moors. He died the following Jan and was buried at Bisham, which he had founded. In addition to sons William and John, he and wife Katherine de Grandison had four daughters, (1) Sibyl, who married Edmund de Arundel; (2) Philippe, who married Roger de Mortimer, Earl of March; (3) Elizabeth who married Giles de Badlesmere, Hugh le Despenser, and Guy de Bryan; and (4) Agnes, who married John de Grey.

William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William Montacute (alias Montagu), King of the Isle of Man, 1st Earl of Salisbury and 3rd Baron Montagu (1301 – January 30, 1344) was an English nobleman and loyal servant of King Edward III.

Life

William was born in Cassington in Oxfordshire, the eldest son of William de Montacute, 2nd Baron Montacute and Elizabeth Montfort. He succeeded to his father's title in 1319.

Montacute accompanied Edward III in repelling the Scottish invasion of 1327. The next year he served Edward on diplomatic missions to the King of France (Charles IV or Philip VI) and to the Pope John XXII. In 1330, at the behest of the King, Montacute and some of his men arrested Roger Mortimer, and after Mortimer's execution Montacute received a good part of the forfeited estates.

Montacute took part in the Second War of Scottish Independence (1333 - 1357) of the following years, notably at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. In the same year the King gave Montacute the English claim to the Isle of Man.

He was created Earl of Salisbury on 16 March 1337. In 1338 the new earl went on a lengthy diplomatic mission, first to France to declare King Edward claims to the French crown, and then to visit many of the German princes who might ally against France. Later that year he was made Marshall of England.

During the next two years, he was one of the commanders of the English forces in Flanders, until he was captured by the French near Lille. He was released later in 1340 as part of a prisoner exchange, on the condition that he never again fight against the French. It was probably sometime after his return to England that he conquered the Isle of Man, which had been held by the Scots. He won and was crowned to King of Mann in 1344.

Lord Salisbury died from injuries said to have been received during a Windsor tournament. He was buried at Bisham Priory in Berkshire, which he had founded in 1337 adjoining his home, Bisham Manor.

[edit]Family

He married Catherine Grandison, daughter of William de Grandison, 1st Baron Grandison. Legend holds that Edward III was in love with her, and she may have been the "Countess of Salisbury" from whose dropped garter the Order of the Garter derives its name. In another version of the story, the king forced his attentions on the countess, but this is thought to have originated in French propaganda. The children of William and Catherine were:

Elizabeth Montacute (b. before 1325); married Hugh le Despencer, 2nd Baron le Despencer before 27 April 1341.

John Montacute, (1327-1396); father of John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury.

William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (1329-1397)

Anne Montacute, (b. 1330); married John De Grey on 12 June 1335.

Philippa Montacute (b. 1332); married Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March.

Sibyl Montacute (b. before 1339); married Edmund FitzAlan about 1356.

Montacute was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, William.

[edit]References

Gransden, Antonia (1972). "The alleged rape by Edward III of the countess of Salisbury". English Historical Review 87.

Hunt, William (1894). "William de Montacute or Montagu, third Baron Montacute and first Earl of Salisbury". Dictionary of National Biography 38: 212-213. -------------------- Born 1301

Cassington, Oxfordshire

Died 30 January 1344

Windsor, Berkshire

Cause of death Injuries from a tournament

Resting place Bisham Abbey, Berkshire

Nationality English

Other names William Montacute

Years active c. 1320–1344

Known for Service to Edward III

Title Earl of Salisbury

Predecessor New creation

Successor William Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury

Spouse(s) Catherine Grandison

Children William Montagu, 2nd Earl of Salisbury,

John Montagu,

4 daughters

Parents William de Montagu, 2nd Baron Montagu,

Elizabeth Montfort

Earls of Salisbury, second Creation (1337)

William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury (1301–1344)

William Montacute, 2nd Earl of Salisbury (1328–1397)

John Montacute, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (1350–1400) (forfeit 1400)

Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury (1388–1428) (restored 1421, although styled and summoned to parliament as such from at least 1409)

Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury (1400–1460)

Richard Neville, 6th Earl of Salisbury and jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick ("Warwick the Kingmaker") (1428–1471) (abeyant in 1471)

On 9 August 1333 Edward III renounced all English claims over the Isle of Man, and recognised it as an independent kingdom under its then King, William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury. -------------------- William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury was born in 1301 at Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.2 He was the son of Sir William Montague, 2nd Lord Montagu and Lady Elizabeth Montfort. He married Catherine Grandison, daughter of William Grandison, 1st Lord Grandison, circa 1327. He died between 30 January 1343 and 1344, from injuries received in a joust.

    William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury was also known as William de Montacute.2 He gained the title of 3rd Lord Montagu. He gained the title of 1st Earl of Salisbury in 1337. He was crowned King of Man in 1344.2 
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William Montagu, 1st Earl of Salisbury's Timeline

1301
1301
Cassington, Oxfordshire, England
1319
November 6, 1319
Age 18
1325
1325
Age 24
Donyatt, Somersetshire, UK
1327
1327
Age 26
Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
1328
June 20, 1328
Age 27
Donyatt, Somerset, , England
1329
February 25, 1329
Age 28
Donyatt, Somersetshire, England
1330
1330
Age 29
Cassington, Oxfordshire, England
1330
Age 29
Donyatt, Somersetshire, England
1332
1332
Age 31
Salisbury, Wiltshire, England
1332
Age 31
Of, Shepton Montague, Somersetshire, England