Wolfert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven

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Wolphert Gerretse Van Kowenhoven

Also Known As: "Kouwenhoven", "Couwenhooven", "Wulphert Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven", "Wolfert Gerrotsz Van Couwenhoven", "Wulffer Geritsz Van Couwenhoven", "Wulpher Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven", "and others", "van Kouwenhoven"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Amersfoort, Ultrect, Holland
Death: Died in New Amersfoort, Kings Co., New York
Place of Burial: Long Island, NY
Immediate Family:

Son of Gerritt Jansz Van Couwenhoven; Gerrit Wolfertse Suype; Gerritt Jansz Van Kouwenhoven; Styne Sara Roberts and Sarah Van Kouwenhoven
Husband of Aeltje Jansdochter; Neeltgen Van Kouwenhoven and Neeltgen Jacobsdochter Jansen
Father of Gerrit Wolfertse Wolphertse van Couwenhoven; Jacob Wolphertse van Couwenhoven; Derick Wolfertse van Couwenhoven and Pieter Wolphertse Van Couwenhoven, Lieutenant
Brother of Willem Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven and Jan Gerretse Van Couwenhoven

Occupation: A baker, came to new ams via ships cow, macerel, sheep, , http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~conover/conover-p/p2428.htm#i279
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Wolfert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven

http://genealogy.wikia.com/wiki/Wolfert_Gerritse_Van_Kouenhoven_(bef_1595-%3F)

Wolfert Gerritse Van Kouenhoven (bef 1595-?) was one of the founders of New Amsterdam. He was one of five head farmers first sent by the Dutch West India Company to New Netherlands in 1625.

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The Dutch name has undergone numerous changes in yielding to the English language. The "Van" was dropped and changed to a C, then to Kowenhoven or Cowenhoven, later Covenhoven and finally Conover.

The Couwenhoven family originated in American with Wolfert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven and his wife "Neltie". He came from

Amersfoort, Province of Utrecht, Holland in 1630 with the Dutch emigrants. They settled in Rensselaerwick, near what is now Albany, NY. He was employed by the Partrron as superintendent of farms. He afterwards resided on Manhattan Island and later the families were found in Brooklyn and New Utrecht, NY.; then in Monmouth Co. N.J. Here Albert (Wolphert) and his family were members of the Freehold Dutch Reformed Church as early as 1709.More info in various New Jersey records and in"American Family Antiquity" and "Early Dutch Settlers of Monmouth County, N.J. All of the children of Wolfert Gerretsevan Couwenhoven and his wife Neeltie were born near Amersfoort, Utrecht, Holland and emigrated to American with their father in 1630.

Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was born before May 1, 1579; when baptisms began in Amersfoort, Netherlands. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was the son of Gerritt Jansz Couwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was

born circa 1583 at Netherlands; he stated on October 8, 1638 that he was 54 years old. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven

was born circa 1584. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was born circa 1588 at Netherlands.

Marriage banns for Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven and Neeltgen Jacobsdochter were published on January 9, 1605 at Amersfoort, Utrecht,Netherlands. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven married Neeltgen Jacobsdochter, daughter of Jacob Petersz and Metgen Jacobsdr, on January 17, 1604/5 at Dutch Reformed Church, Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven died between March 2, 1662 and June 24, 1662 at New Amersfoort, Kings County, New York.

Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was also known as Wulphert Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse VanKouwenhoven was also known as Wolfert Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was also known

as Wulffer Geritsz Van Couwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was also known as Wulpher Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was also known as Wolfert Gerretson Van Couwenhoven. WolphertGerretse Van Kouwenhoven was also known as Wolfert Gerretsen Van Kouwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhovenwas also known as Wolfert Garretsen Van Couwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was also known as WolfertGerretsz Van Kouwenhoven. The first reference to WOLFER GERRITSE when Wulphert Gerrits signed an agreement with his

stylized A. According to the terms of that document, he agreed to assume the property and debts of the deceased parents of his wife Neeltgen Jacobsdr from the other heirs for 100 guilders. Her brother Herman Jacobsz also signed this document as well as her brother-in-law Willem Dircx who was married to Aeltgen Jacobs Petergen Petersdr, the underage daughter of her brother Peter Jacobsz, had already recieved 50 guilders on December 15, 1611. Wulphert Gerritsz and his wife Neeltgen Jacosdr sold a bleach camp outside the Coppelpoort of Amersfoort to Hendrick Janss and his wife Hasgenb Thonis fo 1,200 Carolus guilders, the occupation of Wolfert is not disclosed in this document. On March 22, 1612,In the settlement of the estate of Wolfert's wife in Amersfoort, it was declared before the court that his profession at the time was baker on August 8, 1612 at Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. Wolphert took part in a curious agreement with Herman Zieboltz of Amsterdam, before Johan van Ingen, an officer of the court of Utrechet. The name of the Amsterdammer suggests that he was a German or that he was of German descent. His name is also spelled Syboelt and Zyeboltz in those documents. According to a "donatiaq inervivos" (gift to a living person) Ziebolz gave Wolphert two morgans of turf ground near Cologne in recognition of services rendered (but not payment for them). No monetary amount is mentioned for the services or the turf ground. In a second document of the same date issued by the same officer of the court of Utrecht, Ayeboliz made a debt owed by him by Henrick Adrianesz and Adriaen Adriansz over to Wulpher Gerrits, baker, and Cornelis Wynantsz ,inkeeper. This second document authorized Wulpher Gerritss and Cornelis Wynantsz to assume ownership of the two morgens of turfground mentioned in the first document. These documents create the impression that Zieboltz was unable to pay Wolfert money that he owed him, that the Amsterdammer made over a debt on which he had not been able to collect, and that Wolfert may have agreed to these vague terms because he would otherwise not be able to retrieve anything from his business dealings with the Zieboltz.

On April 14, 1615. Wulpher Gerritss ,baker ,appeared as a witness before Johan van Ingen officer of the court of Utrecht, in a case in which Willem Gerritz ,miller ,testified that Griet Maes was evading the city grain tax. The document does not specify that Wulpher and Willem were brothers, and if such were the case, it is likely that this would have been discussed in the document. On May 16, 1616. Hendrick Janss and Haesgen Thonis made the last payment on the bleach camp which they had purchased from Wolfert Gerretse and Neeltge Jacbsdr, and the property was made over to them. On October 28, 1616. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven bought from Aert van Schayck and his wife Anna Barents, a house on the Langegraft in Amersfoort whch lay between the house of the aforesaid Aert on the one side and that of Henrickgen Barents, widow of Aelbert Conrneiss, on the other side. While the breadth of the house lay on the Lieverrouwestraet (Dear Lady Street). Wolphert was listed as a baker. On January 30, 1617 at Langegraft, Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. Within a short time, Wolpeher palced three mortgages on this house.

Perhaps the transactions with Zieboltz were unprofitable, and this was one of the causes for his need for money. On Feb 15,1617, Wulpher Gerritss ,baker, and his wife Neeltgen Jacobsdr borrowed 100 guidlers from the Armen te Amersfoort on which he agreed to pay 6 guilders per year. On May 16, 1617, Wulpher Gerritss, baker, and his wife Neeltgen borrowed 200 guilders from Cornelis Baecx van der Tommen at a yearly interest of 12 guilders. On Jul 25, 1617, Wul;phur Gerritss ,baker, and his wife Neelttgen Jacobsdr borrowed 250 guilders from Anna Goerts, widow of Franck Frandkss at 15 guilders interest per year.

Between February, 1617 and July, 1617. Wulphert Gerritsz and his wife Neeltgen Jacobs purchased a bleachcamp outside the Coppelpoort of Amersfoort with Hubert Lambertsz Moll and his wife Geertgen Cornisdochter as their partners. They borrowed 500 Carolus Guilders from Ghijsbert Cornelisz van Cuijlenburch, a citizen of the city of Utrecht, at an annual interest of 25 guilders and 20 stivers. In addition, Hubert Lamberts and his wife Geertje Cornelisdochter contracted a special mortgage of 400 Carolus guilders with the consent of Wulffert Gerritsz and his wife. On the north side of the property lay the River Eem, on the east the city moat and on the south and west the heirs of Gerrit van Speulde. This propety came with two other mortgages:200 guilders to the Poth and 600 guilders to Jo. Catharina van Morendael not yet conveyed to her. In a codicil, Wulpher Gerritsz baker and his wife Neeltgen Jacobs become party to the mortgage of Hubert Lambertsz Moll and his wife Geertge Cornelis for 400 guilders with interest on Ghijsbert Cornelisz van Culenborch with restriction that Wulpher would pay 150 guilders in the year

1618 and thereafter be free of obligation.

In the margin is a notation that Dirck van Cullenburch as heir of his father Gysbert van Culenburch acknowledged that the obligation on the mortgage was fully paid on Mar 5, 1628 on January 3, 1618. In the seventeenth century, a bleach camp was a capital intensive, seasonal business which required the labor of relatively many workers. Profits were meager because the buyers of the finished product and the suppliers of raw materials such as lye were generally the same persons, and they acted to keep their costs and thus the profits of the bleachers love. There were three types of bleaching activities, and the skills and experience required of workers was generally so high that each bleachery specialized in but one sort of material: Yarn (garenblekerij), woven cloth (lijnwaadblekerij), or clothing (klerenblekerij). In all three cases, the material was first generally cooked in a lye solution and later spread out on green grass for many weeks in small fields surrounding the bleach house where it was kept damp. Later, it was cooked in a solution of wheat meal before being again spread on the field for a lenghty period,the entire process requiring about three months. The consequences of this long procedure was that only wealthy people were the customers of clothing bleachers because only they could afford to part with many items of clothing for so long a time. No equipment of the bleach camp listed in the purchase document for Wolphert are given. So no indication of what type of bleachery Wolphert purchased. The bleach camp he sold in 1612 included a bleach table meaning it may have been a cloth bleach camp. Wulphert Gerritss, baker, and his wife Neeltge Jacobs contracted a mortgage with Coenraet Fransz, former mayor of the city of Amersfoort, for 100 guilders at an annual interest of 6 guilders, with the house of Wulphert on the Langegracht as security, which house lay between the house of Aert van Schayck and that of Hednrickgen Speldemaeckster.

It does not appear that Wolferts endeavor as bleacher met with great success, and this may have been caused by a general malaise in the weavers trade in Amersfoort in this period, which in turn lay on a lack of capital. Because Wolfert's work was dependent on this industry, he was limited as a businessman by the lack of success of the parent industry. On September 17,1618. Wolphert was appointed guardian over the five under aged children of Willem Gerritsz Couwenhoven.

From NYGBR Wulffer Geridtz, bleacher, residing by the Coppelpoort and Harman Willemsz citizen of Amersfoort as "bloetvoochden" (blood guardians) of the five sons of Willem Gerridsz Couwenhoven, namely Gerridt, Willem, Jan, Harmen, and Willem the Younger,none of whom had yet reached the age of majority, made an agreement with the mother of the children Neeltgen Willemsdr the widow of Willem Gerridtsz assisted by the owner of Cowenhoven the honorable Johan de Wijs.

This document indicates that Wolfert Gerritse had a brother Willem and that he was the tenant of the farm Couwenhoven which was owned by Johan de Wijs. This document indicates that Wolfert is connected to the Couwenhoven by Hoogland. It is at the

same time possible that he was also linked to the Couwenhoven near Woudenberg because he was a son of Gerrit Willemsz van Couwenhoven, but documentation for this has not been discovered. On November 5, 1622. Beermt van Munster made a deposition under oath before the lieutenant, the schout, and the schepenen Dam and Bronchorst at the request of the (police) officer. He stated that the previous Saturday afternoon he had caught a bucket of fish by the Coppelpoort bridge and had given half of it to Wulphert the bleacher according to an agreement which they had made, and that Beernt had caught a small number of fish threafter. Wulpher and Harmen

Teut then took these fish from Beernt, and they would not divide them with him. Wulpher took the net and tried to give it to his wife. Harman hit Beernt in the eye with a weight in the net, but by then, it was ripped. Beernt then went to the defense of his wife, and Wulpher drew his knife and threatened him without harming him. Dirck Gerritsz, stevedore, using well-chosen words, separated the people from each other. On April 1 1623, Dirch Gerrisz was heard at the request of the officer and made a similar deposition under oath. On March 24, 1623. Hubert Moll and his wife Geertgen Cornelis sold a bleach camp to Wulpher Gerritsz ,bleacher, and his wife in which they had been residing. This was situated in Amersfoort outside the Coppelpoort. The property description differs slightly from that given for the land transaction of 1618, but the mortgages are the same. It is likely that this is the same ground that Wulpher Gerritsz and Hubert Moll purchased then. On the date of purchase in 1623, Wulpher Gerritss sold this property to Monsieur Jacques Chiese Cuirass(ier) of the company of his Princely Excellency (Maurits?) and the purchaser assumed the mortgages.

This is the last document pertaining to Wolfert Gerritse that has been discovered in the archives of Amersfoort. On June 11,1623. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was a baker and then later a bleacher (bleaching laundry on a grassfield in the sun) before 1624. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven immigrated between 1624 and 1625 to New Amsterdam, New York County, New York. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven and Neeltgen Jacobsdochter immigrated in June, 1625 to New

Netherlands; or July 1625, with his wife and family on a ship of the Dutch West India Company which sailed in the expedidition that was comprised of the ships Mackerel, Horse, Cow and Sheep. Wolfert returned to the Netherlands in 1629. He returned from the Netherlands on board "De Endracht" (the Unity) on May 24, 1630. There exists a letter from Kiiaen van Rensselaer to Wolfert which I have to get from sources. At this time Wolfert was in the Netherlands and the letter had to do with terminating Wolfert's contract with van Rensselaer and mentions that Wolferts wife was unhappy living in New Netherlands. In the letter van Rensselaer states he would not want someone who was not happy working for him to remain in his employ under the circumstances. It was a friendly letter. According to the source there are several letters fo Wolfert from Van Rensselaer. The letter above was read over the phone to me and I have yet to recieve the exact copy and don't take short hand. In 1632.Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven "Keskateuw" located on Long Island from the Indians. Here was established the first known white settlement on Long Island. Wolphert called his "plantation" Achterveldt, shown on the Manatu Map of New Netherlands as farm No. 36 near the Indian long house to the Kestachau tribe. Wolphert's house surrounded by palisades, was the focal pont of the village of New Amersfoort, later called Flatlands. On June 30, 1636. He got "Small Civil Rights". On April 18,1657, Wolfert Gerritsen Van Couwenhoven was named in a suit filed by Frans Jansen regarding a dispute over a contract in which Jansen was to buy land from Wofert. This was the first time the name Van Couwenhoven was mentioned in referenc to

Wolfert on October 20, 1661.

Children of Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven and Neeltgen Jacobsdochter:

Gerret Wolfersen Van Kouwenhoven+ (circa 1610 - circa 1648)

Lt. Pieter Wolphertse Van Kouwenhoven+ (circa 1614 - )

Jacob Wolphertse Van Kouwenhoven+ (1615 - before April 21, 1670)

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http://genealogy.wikia.com/wiki/Wolfert_Gerritse_Van_Kouenhoven_(bef_1595-%3F)

Wolfert Gerritse Van Kouenhoven (bef 1595-?) was one of the founders of New Amsterdam. He was one of five head farmers first sent by the Dutch West India Company to New Netherlands in 1625.

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The Dutch people had a certain naming practice when naming their children. The first children were named after their grandparents, usually the first son being named after the paternal grandfather, the second after the maternal grandfather, the first daughter being named after the maternal grandmother and the second after the paternal grandmother. Sometimes the first son was named after the maternal grandfather, but regardless, the first children were named after their grandparents, thus giving invaluable clues to the given names of the next generation. After this, children were usually named after their aunts and uncles. There were exceptions to this naming pattern. For example, if the wife were a widow when married, the first child might be named after her deceased husband. The same held true if the husband were a widower and then the first daughter might be named after his deceased wife. Then the usual naming pattern got moved down by one. They often took turns in naming the children also, usually the husband's side first and then the wife's side. All of these naming practices depended, of course, upon the appropriate gender of the child.

Also of great value were the names of the witnesses, sponsors or Godparents, as they are sometimes called. These witnesses were members of the family, usually brothers and sisters of the parents, or else the grandparents themselves, if the child were being named after them. With this naming practice, it can be seen that the names of the witnesses play a vital role. If a man had five sons and all of the first grandsons were being named after him, it can be seen that the witnesses can place a child in the correct family by looking at how they are related. (In this case, the researcher is usually looking for members of the wife's family in the next generation down. For example, if a man had 5 grandsons named Hendrick, one would first look at which wife is listed with Hendrick. If no wife's name were given, which can happen, then the witnesses can give a clue as to which Hendrick is having a child baptized.) These naming practices continued until about 1800, but with more conservative families, a little bit longer. Also, the Dutch records are wonderful in that they give (usually) the wife's maiden name in the baptismal and marriage records. Summarizing then, we have the following advantages given in Reformed Dutch Church records. The wife's maiden name is given. (usually) The naming practice gives us a clue as to the next generation back. Finally, the witnesses give clues as to which family we are searching.

Where to Access

A number of Reformed Dutch Church records are on microfilm and obtainable at your local LDS Family History Center. Also, a number of these Reformed Dutch Church records have been published. Check the following places for these published records.

1. The Holland Society of New York City.

2. The New York Genealogical and Biographical Society in New York City.

3. Various NJ and NY Genealogical and Historical Societies have records for sale that have been published by someone else. Here is one example:

Bergen Historic Society

P.O. Box 244

Englewood, NJ 07631

4. The Genealogical and Historical Societies in both NY and NJ have published many tombstone listings for various Reformed Dutch Church Graveyards.

5. The DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) has published many cemetery records and some church records.

Also, check out the following repositories:

1. The Archives of the Reformed Dutch Church of America is housed in New Brunswick, NJ at the Gardner Sage Library. The address is:

Archives for the Reformed Church in America

21 Seminary Place

New Brunswick, NJ 08901

(732) 246-1779

2. The Genealogical Society of NJ has their archives in New Brunswick, NJ at the Special Collections Sections of the Alexander Library. It is just blocks away from the Gardner Sage Library.

3. The New Jersey State Library in Trenton, New Jersey has both NJ and NY Reformed Dutch Church records.

4. The DAR in Washington, DC, has the Holland Society and New York Genealogical and Biographical Yearbooks.

5. The Holland Society of New York may be of some assistance.

122 East 58th Street

New York City, NY 10022

Source: http://www.ristenbatt.com/genealogy/dutch_ch.htm, “On the Trail of Our Ancestors: Reformed Dutch Church Records”. Donna Speer Ristenbatt.

The arrival of a new baby was an event of great happiness in the Dutch household. There were varying customs following the birth of the child, particularly the customs involving the baptism of the child and the celebration which ensued. Before the baby was born, however, there were great preparations, just as there are today.

In rich homes, presents poured in. Many of these presents were silver, such as the cup, the pap-bowl, the cinnamon bowl, spoons, etc. The husband's mother or aunt frequently gave a handsome basket lined with silk, preferably yellow, draped with lace, and filled with toilet articles. Another and larger basket contained the linen. The cradle was also tastefully and comfortably draped, and stood near the fire, from which it was protected by a screen. Special drinks and sweet cakes, or biscuits, were offered to visitors. In 1662, a case came into the New Amsterdam Court regarding these special breads:

"Pursuant to the order of this, W. court, the defendant produces a declaration of Hieletje Jans, wife of Yde Cornelis, passed before the Notary Salomon La Chair, 23 August 1662, to the effect that she had agree with defendant in the presence of her husband's sister and Tryntje Walings, to bake a quantity of biscuit for her lying- in. Burgomasters and Schepens, having read and considered the declaration, find that defendant has not baked the rolls with a design to sell them; but for biscuit; therefore dismiss the Officer's entered demand and deduced conclusion."

Regarding the customs surrounding baptisms, the richer people tended to do things a little differently from the poorer classes. The usual custom was for the mother not to attend church until six weeks had passed after the birth of the child. According to the resolutions of the church, the child had to be baptized as soon as possible after birth, but it became customary among the richer classes to put off the baptism until after the mother had made her first visit to the church. It would have been considered bad manners if the mother had gone out of doors, or appeared in society, or in the street before this ceremony, and it would have been against all customs if at her return, no "churchtrip meal" (kerkgangsmaal) had been served. According to the old Dutch custom at these dinners, there was "hearty fare and plenty of good cheer". Since this began to be carried to excess, an ordinance from the church was published that at a christening-dinner, no more than a specified number of neighbors were allowed to be present. This number differed in the various towns.

The baptism took place in the church, sometimes before, and sometimes after the sermon, but generally during the afternoon service, rarely at the morning or evening service. The compulsory baptism, performed in case of illness by the nurse, was not considered legal. Sick children were sometimes baptized before the service. (In other localities, sick children were sometimes baptized at home.) Natural children, the birth of whom had to be sworn to by the nurse before the church council, were christened in some places in the forenoon. The father had to be present at the baptism, and it was left to him to bring brothers or sisters as witnesses, provided these were members of the Reformed Church and did not stand under "censure" or excommunication. On such occasion, prominent burghers wore a special suit of clothes, called the "Lord's Supper Suit" (avondmaalpak), or they appeared in a solemn black suit and white collar. Many, however, wore their wedding- suit or had one made for the occasion.

The laws of New Amsterdam were very strict regarding any irregular baptisms. In 1674, Schout De Mill, against Jannettie de Kleuse, said that she baptized a child of Reformed parents on the 18th of April,

"when the father was from home, which is a thing which can never be tolerated by those of the Reformed religion; he concludes therefore that the defendant shall be imprisoned and moreover be condemned in a fine of one hundred guilders zeawant, with cost. Defendant admits she baptized the child through ignorance; and requests forgiveness if she did wrong. The W. Court having considered the matter and likewise weighed the evil consequences and other inconveniences, which might result and arise therefrom, condemn the defendant for her profanation and disrespect of the Holy Sacrament of Baptism that she shall be imprisoned and remain there until further order."

At Heemstede[sic], there was, in 1657,a Presbyterian colony and preacher named Richard Denton, who was liked by the Dutch because he conformed in all things to the Dutch Church. One learns from Megapolensis and Drisius that the Independents of the place listened attentively to his preaching, "but when he began to baptise the children of such parents as are not members of the church, they sometimes burst out of the church."

The christening robe was as costly as the parents' means would allow. Rich families wrapped the baby in a handsome lace shawl. The little bonnet showed whether the child was a boy or a girl - six plaits for a boy and three for a girl. The bows of ribbon also indicated whether it was a boy or girl, by their color and the way they were tied. If the mother had died, or the parents happened to be in mourning, the baby was dressed in white with black bows. Once the baby was dressed, neighbors and friends were invited to come and visit, and light refreshments were offered. Then the christening-party started for the church. The baby was laid on a pillow and wrapped in a "christening-cloth" of white silk, satin, or Marseilles embroidery, and the long skirt of the child's robe was arranged in folds over the nurse's shoulder to be held by one of the witnesses. If there were no font in the church, an urn of gold or silver gilt was used, and this was filled with lukewarm water. In some places the elder children of seven, eight, or nine would carry the baby.

Once the christening-party returned from church, the child was blessed by the father, and dressed in another outfit, called a presentation robe, to be presented to the friends and relatives who were invited to the christening dinner. In the meantime, the "berkemeyer", or large glass goblet with a cover, filled with sugared Rhine wine, or the silver brandy bowl, was passed around.

The christening dinner was a very costly and elaborate affair and differed little from the wedding feast. During the dinner, the child was again presented to the guests, when songs were sung and speeches and toasts were made. The family silver and porcelain was set upon the table, which was also decorated with fruits and flowers, fine pastries and cakes. Among these delicacies were the "suikerdelbol gaan, or sugared roll, "kraamvetjes", cakes made hollow and filled with sugar. Aniseeds covered with a coating of white sugar, rough for boys and smooth for girls, were also served. The "kandeel pot" (caudle cup or cinnamon cup) was never missing. This was a tall drinking cup filled with Rhine wine sweetened with sugar. In it was placed a stick of cinnamon, - a long one if the child were a boy and a short one if a girl. When this was handed, the sugar was stirred in the cup with the cinnamon stick by the person who presented it.

Being at a christening was long remembered, and in later years people often remarked to a young man or woman, "Old friend, I had a sugar piece with you." ("Oude Kennis, ik heb bij je nog een stik met suiker gehad".)

Upon returning from the baptismal font, the christening gifts were presented or promised. These were usually of gold or silver, such as porringers, pap-bowls with spoons, a silver whistle, a silver mounted bag, if the godfathers and godmothers were of the rich burgher class; but the farmers presented the child with silver shoe buckles or coat buttons or some trifle. It was also the custom to give a "luyer korf" (napkin basket) completely furnished, or a gold or silver rattle.

Sometimes the christening presents were made on the day of the birth, or a few days afterwards, on which occasion a dinner or "kinderbier" (baby beer) was given. These festivities sometimes lasted six weeks, one christening feast following another. In the meantime, the husband neglected his business or his work, and debts often resulted. The presents were kept in the "show cabinet" where the bride's gifts and the bridegroom's pipe were on exhibition. The silver was taken to the mint only in dire need, and then sometimes it was discovered that the "gold" presents were often of gilded brass.

For more information on these customs, check the source for this material:

Dutch New York by Esther Singleton, published by Dodd, Mead and Company (originally), 1909.

Source: http://www.ristenbatt.com/genealogy/dutch_bi.htm. “On the Trail of Our Ancestor: Birth and Baptismal Customs”. Donna Speer Ristenbatt.

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Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was also known as Wulphert Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wolfert Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wulffer Geritsz Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wulpher Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wolfert Garretsen Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wolfert Gerretsen Van Kouwenhoven. He was also known as Wolfert Gerretson Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wolfert Gerretsz Van Kouwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was born b 1. May. 1579; when baptisms began in Amersfoort, Netherlands. He was the son of Gerritt Jansz Couwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was born c 1583 at Netherlands; he stated on October 8, 1638 that he was 54 years old. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was born c 1584. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was born c 1588 at Netherlands. He married Aeltje Jansdochter. Marriage banns for Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven and Neeltgen Jacobsdochter were published on 9. Jan. 1605 at Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven married Neeltgen Jacobsdochter, daughter of Jacob Petersz and Metgen Jacobsdr, on 17. Jan. 1604/5 at Dutch Reformed Church, Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. On 15. Dec. 1611 The first reference to WOLFER GERRITSE when Wulphert Gerrits signed an agreement with his stylized A. According to the terms of that document, he agreed to assume the property and debts of the deceased parents of his wive Neeltgen Jacobsdr from the other heirs for 100 guilders. Her brother Herman Jacobsz also signed this document as well as her brother-in-law Willem Dircx who was married to Aeltgen Jacobs Petergen Petersdr, the underage daughter of her brother Peter Jacobsz, had already received 50 guilders.

On 22. Mar. 1612 Wulphert Gerritsz and his wife Neeltgen Jacosdr sold a bleachcamo outside the Coppelpoort of Amersfoort to Hendrick Janss and his wife Hasgenb Thonis fo 1,200 Carolus guilders, the occupation of Wolfert is not disclosed in this document.

In the settlement of the estate of Wolfert's wife in Amersfoort, it was declared before the court that his profession at the time was baker on 8. Aug. 1612 at Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. On 14. Apr. 1615

Wolphert took part in a curiious agreement with Herman Zieboltz of Amsterdam, before Johan van Ingen an officer of the court of Utrechet. The name of the Amsterdammer suggests that he was a German or that he was of German descent. His name is also spelled Syboelt and Zyeboltz in those documents. According to a "donatiaq iner vivos" (gift to a living person) Ziebolz gave Wolphert two morgans of turf ground near Cologne in recognition of services rendered )but not payment for them). No monetary amount is mentioned for the services or the turf ground. In a second document of the same date issued by the same officer of the court of Utrecht, Ayeboliz made a debt owed by mim by Henrick Adrianesz and Adriaen Adriansz over to Wulpher Gerrits baker and Cornelis Wynantsz inkeeper. This second document authorized Wulpher Gerritss and Cornelis Wynantsz to assume ownership of the two morgens of turfground mentioned in the first document. These documents create the impression thaqt Zieboltz was unable to pay Wolfert money that he owed him, that the Amsterdammer made over a debt on which he had not been able to collect, and that Wolfert may have agreed to these vague terms because he would otherwise not be able to retrieve anything from his business dealings with the Zieboltz.

On 16. May. 1616 Wulpher Gerritss baker appeared as a witness before Johan van Ingen officer of the court of Utrecht, in a case in which Willem Gerritz miller testified that Griet Maes was evading the city grain tax. The document does not specify that Wulpher and Willem were brothers, and if such were the case, it is likely that this would have been discussed in the document.

On 28. Oct. 1616 Hendrick Janss and Haesgen Thonis made the last payment on the bleach camp which they had purchased from Wolfert Gerretse and Neeltge Jacbsdr, and the property was made over to them.

Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven from Aert van Schayck and his wife Anna Barents a house on the Langegraft in Amersfoort whch lay between the hosue of the aforesaid Aert on the one side and that fo Henrickgen Barents widow of Aelbert Conrneiss on the other side, while the breadt of the house lay on the Lieverrouwestraet (Dear Lady Street). Wolphert was listed as a baker.

On 30. Jan. 1617 at Langegraft, Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. On bt Feb. 1617 - Jul. 1617 Within a short time, Wolpeher palced three mortgages on this house. Perhaps the transactions with Zieboltz were unprofiatble, and this was one of the causes fo his need for money. On Feb 15, 1617, Wulpher Gerritss baker and his wife Neeltgen Jacobsdr borrowed 100 guidlers from the Armen te Amersfoort on which he agreed to pay 6 guilders per year. On May 16, 1617, Wulpher Gerritss baker and his wife Neeltgen borrowed 200 guilders from Cornelis Baecx van der Tommen at a yearly interest of 12 guilders. On Jul 25, 1617, Wul;phur Gerritss baker and his wife Neelttgen Jacobsdr borrowed 250 guilders from Anna Goerts widow of Franck Frandkss at 15 guilders interest per year.

On 3. Jan. 1618 Wulphert Gerritsz and his wife Neeltgen Jacobs purchased a bleachcamp outside the Coppelpoort of Amersfoort with Hubert Lambertsz Moll and his wife Geertgen Cornisdochter as thier partners. They borrowed 500 Carolus Guilders from Ghijsbert Cornelisz van Cuijlenburch, a citizen of the city of Utrecht, at an annual interest of 25 guilders and 20 stivers. In addition, Hubert Lamberts and his wife Geertje Cornelisdochter contracted a special mortgage ofr 400 Carolus guilders with the consent of Wulffert Gerritsz and his wife. On the no9rth side of the property lay the River Eem, on the east the city moat and on the south and west the heirs of Gerrit van Speulde. This propety came with two other mortgages: 200 guilders to the Poth and 600 guilders to Jo. Catharina van Morendael not yet conveyed to her. In a codicil, Wulpher Gerritsz baker and his wife Neeltgen Jacobs become party to the mortgage of Hubert Lambertsz Moll and his wife Geertge Cornelis for 400 guilders with interest on Ghijsbert Cornelisz van Culenborch with restriction that Wulpher would pay 150 guilders in the year 1618 and thereafter be free of oblicgation.

In the margin is a notation that Dirck van Cullenburch as heir of his father Gysbert van Culenburch acknowledged that the obligation on the mortgage was fully paid on Mar 5, 1628.

In the seventeenth century, a bleach camp was a capital intensive, seasonal business which required the labor of relatively many workers. Profits were meager because the buyers of the finished product and the suppliers of raw matierials such as lye were generally the same persons, and they acted to keep theri costs and thus the profits of the bleachers love. There were three types of bleaching activities, and the skills and experience reqiuired of workers was generally so high that each bleachery specialized in but one sort of material: Yarn (garenblekerij), woven cloth (lijnwaadblekerij), or clothing (klerenblekerij). In all three cases, the material was first generally cooked in a lye solution and later spread out on green grass for many weeks in small fields surrounding the bleach house where it was kept damp. Later, iot was cookled in a solution of wheat meal before being again spread on the field for a lenghtly period, the entire process requiring about three months. The consequences of this long procedure was that o9nly wealthy people were the customers of clothing bleachers because only they could afford to part with many items of clothing for so long a time. No equipment of the bleach camp listed in the purcahse document for Wolphert are given. So no indication of what type of bleachery Wolphert purchased. The bleach camp he sold in 1612 included a bleach table meaning it may have been a cloth bleach camp.

On 17. Sep. 1618 Wulphert Gerritss baker and his wife Neeltge Jacobs contracted a mortgage with Coenraet Fransz, former mayor of the city of Amersfoort, for 100 guilders at an annual interest of 6 guilders, with the house of Wulphert on the Langegracht as security, which house lay between the house of Aert van Schayck and that of Hednrickgen Speldemaeckster.

It does not appear that Wolferts endeavor as bleacher met with great success, and this may have been caused by a general malaise in the weavers trade in Amersfoort in this period, which in turn lay on a lack of capital. Because Wolfert's work was dependent on this industry, he was limited as a businessman by the lack of sucess of the parent industry.

On 5. Nov. 1622 Wolphert was appointed guardian over the five under aged children of Willem Gerritsz Couwenhoven.

From NYGBR

Wulffer Geridtz, bleacher residing by the Coppelpoort and Harman Willemsz citizen of Amersfoort as "bloetvoochden" (blood guardians) of the five sons of Willem Gerridsz Couwenhoven, namely Gerridt, Willem, Jan, Harmen, and Willem the Younger, none of whom had yet reached the age of majority, made an agreement with the mother of the children Neeltgen Willemsdr the widow of Willem Gerridtsz assisted by the owner of Cowenhoven the honorable Johan de Wijs.

This document indicates that Wolfert Gerritse had a brother Willem and that he was the tenant of the farm ouwenhoven which was owned by Johan de Wijs. This document indicates that Wolfert is connected to the Couwenhoven by Hoogland. It is at the same time possible that he was also linked to the Couwenhoven near Woudenberg because he was a son of Gerrit Willemsz van Couwenhoven, but documentation for this has not been discovered.

On 24. Mar. 1623 Beermt van Munster made a deposition under oath before the lieutenant, the schout, and the schepenen Dam and Bronchorst at the request of the (police) officer. He stated that the previous Saturday afternoon he had caught a bucket of fish by the Coppelpoort bridge and had given half of it to Wulphert the bleacher according to an agreement which they had made, and that Beernt had caught a small number of fish threafter. Wulpher and Harmen

Teut then took these fish from Beernt, and they would not divide them with him. Wulpher took the net and tried to give it to his wife. Harman hit Beernt in the eye with a weight in the net, but by then, it was ripped. Beernt then went to the defense of his wife, and Wulpher drew his knife and threatened him without harming him. Dirck Gerritsz, stevedore, using well-chosen words, separated the people from each other. On April 1 1623, Dirch Gerrisz was heard at the request of the officer and made a similar deposition under oath.

On 11. Jun. 1623 Hubert Moll and his wife Geertgen Cornelis sold a bleach camp to Wulpher Gerritsz bleacher and his wife in which they had been residing. This was situated in Amersfoort outside the Coppelpoort. The property description differs slightly from that given for the land transaction of 1618, but the mortgages are the same. It is likely that this is the same ground that Wulpher Gerritsz and Hubert Moll purchased then. On the date of purchase in 1623, Wulpher Gerritss sold this property to Monsieur Jacques Chiese Cuirass(ier) of the company of his Princely Excellency (Maurits?) and the purchser assumed the mortgages.

This is the last document pertaining to Wolfert Gerritse that has been discovered in the archives of Amersfoort.

He was a baker and then later a bleacher (bleaching laundry on a grassfield in the sun)

b 1624. He immigrated bt 1624 - 1625 to New Amsterdam, New York County, New York. He and Neeltgen Jacobsdochter immigrated in Jun. 1625 to New Netherlands; or July 1625, with his wife and family on a ship of the Dutch West India Company which saled in the expedidition that was comprsed of the ships Mackerel, Horse, Cow and Sheep. On 1629 Wolfert returned to the Netherlands.

On 24. May. 1630 He retruned from the Netherlands on board "De Endracht" (the Unity).

There exists a letter from Kiiaen van Rensselaer to Wolfert which I have to get from sources. At this time Wolfert was in the Netherlands and the letter had to do with terminating Wolfert's contract with van Rensselaer and mentions that Wolferts wife was unhappy living in New Netherlands. In the letter van Rensselaer states he would not want someone who was not happy working for him to remain in his employ under the circumstances. It was a friendly letter. According to the source there are several letters fo Wolfert from Van Rensselaer. The letter above was read over the phone to me and I have yet to receive the exact copy and don't take short hand in 1632.

Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven "Keskateuw" located on Long Island from the Indians. Here was established the first kown white settlement on Long Island. Wolphert called his "plantation" Achterveldt, shown on the Manatu Map of New Netherlands as farm No. 36 near the Indian long house to the Kestachau tribe. Wolphert's house surrounded by palisades, was the focal pont of the village of New Amersfoort, later called Flatlands.

On 30. Jun. 1636. On 18. Apr. 1657 He got "Smal Civil Rights."

On 20. Oct. 1661 Wolfert Gerritsen Van Couwenhoven was named in a suit filed by Frans Jansen regardin a dispute ofver a contract in which Jansen was to buy land from Wofert. This was the first time the name Van Couwenhoven was mentioned in reference to Wolfert.

He died bt 2. Mar. 1662 - 24. Jun. 1662 at New Amersfoort, Kings County, New York. In the October 2004The New York Genealogical & Biographical Society, Review, published and article titled Wolfert Gerritse in the Netherlands: Further Thoughts About the Van Couwenhoven Family This article follows.

WOLFERT GERRITSE IN THE NETHERLANDS: Further Thoughts About the Van Couwenhoven Family

BY WILLEM VAN KOUWENHOVEN

The purpose of this article. Several years ago, I made a study using documents about Wolfert Gerritse van Couwenhoven which Marcel Kemp had sought out at my request in the archives of the district Amersfoort in the Netherlands.[1] The New York Genealogical and Biographical Society was kind enough to publish this in THE RECORD as "Wolfert Gerritse in the Netherlands." (2] During the intervening time, I have developed several points of criticism about the article which pertain to the views which were expressed there about Wolfert's first wife Aeltge Jansdochter, the birth order of Wolfert and his brother Willem, the date on which the tenancy of Willem's son Jan on the farm Kouwenhoven was terminated, and the projected picture of Wolfert's childhood.

Wolfert Gerritse in recent literature. Additional information has been published in the meantime by Marcel Kemp and Gerard Raven as "Boerderij Kouwenhoven en de familie Van Kouwenhoven 1400-1650" in De Bewaarsman,[3] the publication of the Historische kring Hoogland, the Historical Society' of Hoogland. (The farm Kouwenhoven is located in the neighborhood Coelhorst within the former district Hoogland, which is now a part of the district Amersfoort.) Gerard Raven was co-editor of De Bewaarsman when the article was published. In addition to information about the early history of the farm that appeared in Kemp's article "De herkomst van Wolfert Gerritsz, stamvader van de Amerikaanse familie Van Kouwenhoven" in the 1996 Jaarboek van bet Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie[4] and in the above-mentioned article in THE RECORD, the article in De Bewaarsman contains information about a tenant on the farm in 1536, insights into the lives of the tenants in the period 1620-1650, and a report of the construction of a brick manor house on the farm during the eighteenth century by a new land owner, as well as the history of the farm to the present day. Only the material that pertains to the critique of the article in THE RECORD will be dealt with in this discussion.

Information about Kouwenhoven, its neighborhood Coelhorst, and the local Chapel Coelhorst were included in the booklet "Hoogland-West," the issue of De Bewaarsman for April 2001. The material about the chapel will be recounted in the portion of this critique that deals with Wolfert's childhood.

Aeltge Jansdochter, Wolfert's first wife. As first point of critique, the view of Aeltge Jansdochter which was set forth in the article in THE RECORD[5] should be revised - that it was uncertain that the Wolfert Gerritse who married Aeltge Jansdochter on 17 January 1605[6] was the same person as the Wolfert Gerritse who is found in numerous documents in the archives of Amersfoort in the period 1611-1623. M. Kemp expressed this opinion initially in the report of his impressively thorough search for documents regarding Wolfert Gerritse which was first given to this writer, and this opinion was used in the article for THE RECORD. By the time it was published, Kemp had expressed the same view in his article "De herkomst van Wolfert Gerritsz, ..."[7] Because other documents were not found which linked Aeltge Jansdochter to the baker/bleacher Wolfert Gerritse, Kemp hesitated to draw the conclusion that Aeltge was Wolfert's first wife.

This seems overly cautious. Only one Wolfert Gerritse has been found in the numerous other documents from more or less the same period that have been preserved in the records of the district Amersfoort. Although many documents from this period in the district have been lost for various reasons, those that have survived give no reason to surmise that there was at that time a second Wolfert Gerritse in the district to whom the entry in the marriage register might refer. It would then be better to reason that the Wolfert Gerritse of the marriage record is the same person who is found in all of the other documents. It then follows that Aeltge Jansdochter was Wolfert's first wife, that she died shortly after their marriage without bearing any children who survived, and that Neeltje Jacobsdochter, who is shown as his wife in the documents from the Amersfoort archives, was his second wife and the mother of his known children.

Willem Gerritse, Wolfert's younger brother. Secondly, there is a problem in the article with the estimated birth year that was given for Wolfert's brother Willem. While Kemp made no statements about Willem's birth year in his article in the Jaarboek, he and Raven estimated in the article in De Bewaarsman that Willem was born in the period 1580-1585.[8] Since Willem remained on the farm Couwenhoven as its tenant, it was assumed in the article for THE RECORD that he was older than Wolfert, who was born in 1584.1] Yet, none of Willem's five children had attained their majority when their father died in 1622. Thus, none of them were capable of succeeding him as tenant. The family was enabled to stay on the farm because Willem's widow Neeltge Willemsdochter married Peter Coenraetsz., apparently with the approval if not the instigation of the owner of the farm, Johan de Wijs of Amersfoort.[1]

If one of Willem's five sons was but a few months removed from attaining his majority, it would seem that it could have been arranged in one way or another that he become the tenant of the farm, if he was in other respects a suitable candidate for this work. That this did not occur suggests that the oldest son was several years removed from his majority, and this is the tenor of the agreement which the "blood guardians" Wolfert Gerritse and Harmen Willemsz. of Amersfoort (respectively the brother of Willem and the brother of Willem's widow) made with the mother of Willem's children on 5 November 1622.P 1] She was to care for the children and let them attend school and learn to read and write. Such stipulations suggest that some of the children were too young to have learned basic literacy skills at the time of their father's death.

Since Willem's children were not so old when he died in 1622, it would seem that the birth year 1580 that was assigned to him lies too far in the past and that it is likely that he was born several years later. If Willem's children are listed in birth order in the agreement between the "blood guardians" and the widow, Jan would be his third son. He became the tenant on Couwenhoven on 5 July 1636,02] and he married Nellitgen Henricxdr. five days later.[13] Assuming that both father and son married shortly after their twenty-first birthday and that there were three years between each child, results in an estimated birth date of circa 1587 for Willem rather than circa 1580, which was assigned in THE RECORD article.[14] Willem would have been legally eligible to enter into contracts as a tenant only when he reached his majority, which would seem to have been about 1608.

It should be emphasized that this is but an estimate that is based on reasonable assumptions about birth order and birth intervals that have been made in regard to two men. It should be expected that new documents about Willem and Jan could well require further slight corrections regarding their birth and marriage dates. Yet, Kemp's search in the Archives of Amersfoort was so thorough that it is unlikely that further documents about these persons will be found there. Perhaps a reference to them will by chance be discovered in one or more documents from other districts while other matters are being studied.

as the younger son who left home, learned a trade (perhaps with some parental support) and became a businessman. The thought that is being presented here is that although Willem was the younger son, he stayed on the farm, working it and perhaps initially serving as a caretaker for his parent(s) while the older brother Wolfert had years earlier left the homestead, even though it was customary in Hoogland that the oldest son succeed his father as tenant. Wolfert sought to survive in the business world of Amersfoort, where he already resided as a married man when he was twenty-one years old according to the entry in the marriage register of the Reformed Church of Amersfoort, which was located in the St. Joriskerk[15] (St. George's Church). This is a plausible explanation, yet it requires further refinement.

Jan Willemse's tenancy on Kouwenhoven ends. The other tenants on Kouwenhoven about which there is information were not able to labor there many years. Peter Coenraetsz. became tenant in 1622, and by 1638 he had died and was succeeded by Jan Willemsz van Kouwenhoven. While Kemp and Raven argue that Jan was deceased as early as 1646, it is certain that he was no longer living in 1656 when the estate of his mother Neeltge Willemsdr. was inventoried.[16

Kemp and Raven are of the opinion that Jan had died by 1646 since a police report from that year was made by Jan Bartz. who lived on Kouwenhoven.[17] Apparently the thought is that the farm Kouwenhoven was so small that the tenant farmer (pachter) could not have employed a resident worker (knecht), but only day laborers (dagloners) as they were needed. Thus, it could be reasonably concluded that a person who listed his residence as Kouwenhoven must have been the tenant farmer of that date.[18] It is noted that it is a problem that Jan Willemsz. and his wife Nelletge Hendrixdr. would then have had to have had eight children in ten years. Kemp and Raven conclude that Nelletge was forced to depart from Kouwenhoven following Jan's death because none of the children was old enough to become the succeeding tenant.

It would be more reasonable to consider that it would be bad for the health of the wife and the children which she bore if they came into the world made for a healthier farm. Although the pill' was not yet then known, local populations generally had their own effective means of planning parenthood, even in the seventeenth century. It would then seem better to conclude that by 1646, Jan Willemsz. and his wife Nelletge Hendrixdr. had relocated, that five of their children or so had been born on Kouwenhoven and that the rest were born in their new location before Jan died somewhat more than fifteen years after he had become the tenant farmer on Kouwenhoven. [19]

As a third point then, there is no need to change the view which was expressed in THE RECORD article of 1998 regarding Jan's death date, but it would appear that the family's tenancy on Kouwenhoven likely had already ended by 1646, ten years earlier than was presented in that article.

Wolfert's childhood. What were the circumstances of Wolfert's childhood? Farm work was much harder and heavier than it is now, and it was often necessary to labor in a strong wind in cold, wet weather, which caused severe illnesses. Although it now seems strange, the life of a farmer was similar then to that of a contemporary professional athlete. The training or work began for both early in life, and by the time each was thirty years old, he was already past his peak. While it is now unusual to find an athlete older than forty-five on a team roster, it was then unusual to find a farmer older than forty-five years old on a landlord's list of tenants - not because the older tenant was enjoying retirement in his luxurious villa, but because he had died of exhaustion and illness. Although it would seem that the average lifespan of a tenant farmer in this region did not differ greatly during this period from that of the general population and that it thus was about forty-five years, Jan Willemsz. was younger when he died, and it would seem that this was also true of his father. It would seem that some tenants died several years before they reached forty-five while a similar number lived a few years beyond that benchmark.

It would seem unlikely that Gerrit the father of Wolfert and Willem would have been able to work as a tenant farmer for many more years than the documented tenants of Kouwenhoven Peter Coenraetsz. and Jan Willemsz.[20] It would thus have been unlikely that he would have been able to work as a tenant much more than fifteen years. If Willem became the tenant about 1608, it would then seem that his predecessor may have begun his tenancy about 1593. This is three years later than the estimate given in the above cited article in THE RECORD.

According to the above calculations, Wolfert would then have been nine years old, and Willem six. At first sight, this would seem to suggest that there is something wrong with the assumptions behind these figures, since this would mean that the children apparently were not born on Kouwenhoven, but it is more profitable to reason that insight is thus given into the complex and fragile world into which the boys were born.

There is no document in which Wolfert is listed as a resident of Kouwenhoven or as its tenant farmer, nor for the reasons enumerated above, does it seem likely that such evidence of his presence on the farm will be discovered. Yet, he used the name Van Couwenhoven,[21] and he worked as a farmer and as a farm supervisor. Why the choice for this name? Where did he learn farm work? If he lived and worked on the farm Kouwenhoven as a child, both questions would be answered. Thus, because no better explanation has yet been found, it is reasonable to assume that this farm was his home and work place for a time during his early years.

In the earlier article in THE RECORD it was mentioned that a director of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) in the early seventeenth century bore the family name Couwenhoven,[22] and it was suggested that although this man was not a blood relative, his high position may have afforded Wolfert a further reason to use the name Van Couwenhoven in New Amsterdam rather than another reasonable choice of name such as Van Amersfoort or Van Coelhorst. In regard to this, Gerard Raven has commented[23] that the directors of the Dutch West India Company in Amsterdam would not necessarily know that a Couwenhoven was a director of the Dutch East India Company in Rotterdam. It is thus uncertain that it would have been professionally advantageous for Wolfert to use this name. This implies that he used it for personal reasons, that is to say, because he had lived and worked there during a significant portion of his youth.

It is possible that Wolfert and his brother Willem were born elsewhere and that their father only later became tenant on Kouwenhoven. If so, he probably was tenant for six or twelve years at their previous residence. If that is the case, the father likely died within five years of the start of his work on the farm, although he may have lived longer and have seen Willem become the tenant on the farm, in which event he may then have been able to do but limited work because he would already have reached the advanced age of 45 years. Still, there is a considerable likelihood that the father died before either boy attained his twenty-first year. This implies that there was a tenant intermediate between Willem and his father. If that was indeed the case, how were the children enabled to remain on the farm? And their mother? Other siblings? Because of the dearth of documents, it is not possible to answer these questions. There is for instance no testament or inventory for the estate of Wolfert's father in which his patronymic and that of his mother are disclosed with a list of their children, although it is reasonable to think that such documents once existed. It is not possible to ascertain precisely to what extent Wolfert's life and that of his father Gerrit and his brother Willem were in agreement or disagreement with the possibilities and probabilities which have been set forth here. The contours of the pieces of the puzzle do not come into clear view, and it is not possible to seen how they fit together.

Early change of family on the farm Kouwenhoven. Kemp and Raven list the tenant of Kouwenhoven about 1536 and in 1548 as Reyer Pot.[24l In 1564 the tenant was Gherit Jansz;[25] in 1619/20 Willem Gerritsz.[26] As noted above, the tenant in 1622 was Peter Coenraetsz., and in 1636 Jan Willemsz.,[27] while Jan Bartsz. apparently had become the tenant by 1646. Clearly a change of tenant families occurred sometime between 1548 and 1564 and again about 1646. Because of the short life expectancy and the disruptions of death, it is likely that other changes in tenant families on Kouwenhoven occurred during this period which are not disclosed because of the dearth of documents.

It is thus best to be cautious about drawing an easy conclusion that Gerrit the father of Wolfert and Willem succeeded his father on Kouwenhoven and that the family can be found on this farm much further back into the past. This accentuates the conclusion in the earlier article in THE RECORD that there is insufficient basis to conclude that there was a family relationship between Wolfert Gerritse and the Gherit (Gerrit) Jansz. who in 1564 was listed as the tenant of Kouwenhoven.[28] Kemp described him as a suitable candidate to be the father of Wolfert Gerritsz. and Willem Gerritsz. In his article, he placed brackets around the name [Jansz. Couwenhoven] in his "Genealogie Van Couwenhoven" to indicate that the names within the brackets were merely hypothetical for Gerrit Jansz.[29] He was certain that the father of Wolfert and Willem was Gerrit, and it was speculative if the father was Gerrit Jansz. Couwenhoven.[30] This thought is repeated in the article in De Bewaarsman with the cautionary observation that Gerrit Jansz. would have been unusually old if he were the father of Wolfert and Willem.[31]

A further weakness in the thesis that Gerrit Jansz. and Wolfert Gerritsz. were father and son is that the patronymic Gerritsz. (son of Gerrit) is largely the basis for asserting that this relationship exists while Gerrit together with Willem, Jan and Hendrik are the most common Dutch given names. Gerrit occurs as frequently as Willem in the registers of marriages and baptisms during this period. It is not surprising then that a tenant bore the name Gerrit Jansz., and without further documentary evidence, there is insufficient basis to assert that he was the father of Wolfert Gerritsz. It should be noted that Kemp has cautiously refrained from doing this.

Religious life in Wolfert's childhood, the Coelhorst Chapel. A discussion of religion and worship can be added to the treatment of Wolfert's childhood. The Coelhorst Chapel, which was built about 1350, stands just around the corner from the farm Kouwenhoven. This proximity evokes a picture of Wolfert trudging on Sunday mornings with other family members and residents of the neighborhood Coelhorst through the snow to worship services in this building. Yet, the historical story differs greatly from this.

About 1350, the residents of Hoogland no longer had to attend mass in Oud-Leusden, which was several miles south of Amersfoort while their hamlet then stood several miles northwest of the more northerly city.[321 They received their own chapel, which was dedicated to St. Nicholas, who was not only the patron saint of farmers in areas that had just been placed under cultivation, but also the protector from floods. The Reformation brought a step backward to this little settlement. In 1580, Catholic services were forbidden by the provincial parliament of Utrecht, and the church was closed. It seems to have been the intention of the Protestants to hold their own services in this building, which during the intervening two centuries had been endowed with the income from several farms, but a pastor could not be found. It was not until 1655 that it could be arranged that Reformed pastors from the region would hold services in turn in the chapel. In the meantime, itinerant priests had offered the mass for the faithful without interruption at other places in the neighborhood such as the manor house Hoogerhorst, until Hoogland was again assigned its own priest in 1640.[33 Ill feeling was likely generated when the chapel was closed and its income was not used for many decades for services in that building or for pastoral care for the local residents. Perhaps as a result, the Protestant families gradually departed from Coelhorst in the seventeenth century so that the hamlet was almost exclusively Catholic in the eighteenth century as is noted in another source.[34] This has remained unchanged in subsequent years.

It seems unlikely that such negligence by the administrators of the local Reformed church would have generated interest for that church and its teachings in Wolfert. When he lived in Coelhorst, it would seem that there was little that would have attracted him to the Reformed church. This may explain why none of his children are to be found in the baptismal registers of Amersfoort or Leusden. In a later period when he cultivated contacts with Reformed businessmen such as Killiaen van Rensselaer, he may have found it expedient to affiliate with their church. Perhaps it is for this reason that he is listed on 13 August 1651 as a witness of the baptism of Albert, son of Albert Albertszen, at the Reformed church in New Amsterdam.[35].

October 31, 2007

A document described as the oldest surviving land deed for Long Island land was auctioned Wednesday for $156,000 in Manhattan.

The deed, signed by Dutch Colonial Gov. Wouter von Twiller at "Eylandt Manhatans" on June 6, 1636, confirms the purchase of 3,600 acres from the Lenape Indians. The land is known as Keskachauge, and constitutes a large portion of present day Brooklyn.

The winning bid was more than three times predicted, and for almost four times the opening bid of $40,000

"It is without question one of the oldest Dutch documents in private hands," said Jeremy Markowitz, head of Americana sales at Bloomsbury Auctions, a Manhattan auction house where the sale took place. "It is the first deed for land on Long Island."

Markowitz describes the deed as one of the earliest examples of private land ownership in the colony controlled by the Dutch West India Company.

"It is amazing it survived, being over 370 years old and preceding the first private land ownership in Manhattan."

Markowitz said the deed was signed a dozen years after the founding of the Dutch colony by von Twiller, the successor to the first and better known governor, Peter Minuit.

"We know from the records of the Dutch West India Company who received land deeds," Markowitz said. "There are only about a dozen land deeds that preceded this one" and they are for tracts north or south of present day New York City.

The 13-by-18-inch document, written in ink in Dutch, confirms the purchase of the land in the Flatlands section of Brooklyn from the Indians by Wolfert Gerritsz van Couwenhoven and Andries Hudde.

The auction catalog carries a price estimate of $50,000 to $75,000 but auction organizer Markowitz said that range was very conservative and there has been a lot of interest from institutions and private collectors.

On the reverse side, there is a reaffirmation of the original transaction in 1658 and signature of another more famous governor, Peter Stuyvesant, who amended it to say the sole owner of the property was Kouwenhoven. The endorsement was a result of the proclamation by the Dutch West India Company in 1652 that annulled all private land purchases and took all the land back

"It came from a private collector," Markowitz said. It has been auctioned several times after being held by the Kouwenhoven family for centuries.

The document has minor soiling and a small hole affecting two words where the deed is dated. The text reads:

"We, director and council of New Netherland, residing on the island of Manhattan at Fort Amsterdam ? herewith testify and declare, that today, date underwritten, before us personally appeared Tenkirau, Ketaun, Ararikan, Awackouw, Warinckehinck, Wappittawackenis, Ehettin, as owners; Penhawis, Kakappeteno being present as chiefs of the district, ? have transferred, ceded, surrendered and conveyed as lawful, true and free possession, as they therewith transfer, cede, surrender and convey to and for the behalf of Andries Hudde and Wolphert Gerritsz the westernmost of the flats called Keskateuw belonging to them on the island called Suan Hacky between the bay of the North river and the East River of New Netherland?"

According to Markowitz, on June 6, 1636, Wolfert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven and Andries Hudde purchased jointly the 3,600 acres. The same day Jacobus Van Corlear bought an adjoining tract, and 10 days later a third was purchased.

Together, these three tracts in present day Brooklyn constituted an area called 'Castuteeuw,' 'Kestateuw' and 'Casteteuw.'" The name is thought to be derived from the Lenape word for "where grass is cut."

The catalog notes "the sale of these lots was a significant event and constitutes among the earliest examples of private land ownership in New Netherland. At the time, it was highly unusual for land to be owned by anyone except the Dutch West India Company." And most land was leased rather than sold.

Colonial records show the first private purchase of land in the colony of New Netherland occurred in 1629, in present day Delaware. The 1636 purchases collectively are the seventh purchase of land in New Netherland, and the third in the present state of New York. The first private land sale on the island of Manhattan was recorded two years later.

Corlear purchased the land for speculation but Gerritsz van Kouwenhoven settled on the westernmost of the three plots and constructed a dwelling and laid out a plantation that eventually became the settlement and town of Flatlands. The pioneer called his estate Achterveldt and his dwelling stood near the junction of Kouwenhoven Place and Flatbush Avenue.

Last Edited=26 Dec 2009

Children of Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven and Neeltgen Jacobsdochter

Gerret Wolfersen Van Kouwenhoven+ (c 1610 - c 1648)

Lt. Pieter Wolphertse Van Kouwenhoven+ (c 1614 - )

Jacob Wolphertse Van Kouwenhoven+ (1615 - b 21. Apr. 1670)

-------------------- Note: Resided at birth 1584 3 km Northwest of Amsterdam - Couwenhoven, Utrecht, Netherlands. In 1626 at Bouwery #6 (91 acres bounded by present-day Division Street on North East River on East, Oliver St, and Chatham Square on south and Bowery on west). In 1630 Rensselaerswyck, 150 miles north of NA. In 1636 Achtervelt ("hindermost field") formerly called Great Flat (3600 acres Bedford Creck northwest to Foster Ave, west to Gravesend village line (East 17th Street) south to Bay Ave, southeast to Gerritsen Creck): home erected at present intersection of King's Highway & Flatbush Avein Flatlands, Brooklyn. Later called Amersfoort after the town in Netherlands. With his wife, Neeltje, and three sons, Gerrit, Jacob, and Pieter, he left Amerafoort, Utrech, Netherlands, in 1630 and was among the first to colonize the New World. He first settled in what is now Albany, New York, In 1636 he purchased over 2,000 acres in what is now Brooklyn, New York, and named his plantation Achterveldt, and later renamed it Flatlands. He was freeholder in Midout (Flatbush) 1637-1641; Commissioner from the Colony to Holland in 1653; a Schepen of New Amsterdam in 1654; and a Great Burger in 1657.

Wolpert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven, one of the founders of New Amsterdam (New York) and the founder of our family in America. He was one of five "head farmers" first sent by the Dutch West India Company to New Netherlands in 1625. Wolphert came with his wife Aeeltje Jans, whom he married January 17, 1605, in the Dutch Reformed Chuch at Amersfort, Holland, and their three surviving sons, Gerret, Jacob, and Pieter.

Until his return to Holland in 1629, Wolphert farmed Bouwerie (farm) No. 3 in New Amsterdam and, through his wife, engaged in the profitable fur trade. While in Holland, Wolphert signed a six year lease with the Dutch West India Company for Bouwerie No. 6 (about 91 acres). He also contracted with Kiliaen Van Rensselar, patron of Rensselarwick (comprised of many thousands of acres along the Hudson including most of present day Albany) as a factor or director and to be in charge of Bouwerie No. 7 in New Amsterdam, All this bore tribute to Wolphert's reputation for competence and dependability.

Upon his return from Holland May 24, 1630 on De Eendracht (The Unity), Wolphert farmed Bouwerie No. 6, and for about two years served under contract with Kiliaen Van Rensselar.

On June 30, 1636, Wolphert purchased land on Long Island called Keskateuw from the Indians, Here was established the first known white settlement on Long Island. Wolphert called his "plantation" Achterveldt, shown on the Manatus Map of New Netherlands as Farm No. 36, near the Indian long house of the Keskachau Tribe. Wolphert's house, surrounded by palisades, was the focal point of the village of New Amsterdam (later called Flatlands).

Source: (Birth)

Abbreviation: Stump, Brumbaugh, Pippenger of IN, PA 1440-1995; CD 702 WFTree Vol. 02 Tree 5501

Title: Stump, Brumbaugh, Pippenger of IN, PA 1440-1995; CD 702 WFTree Vol. 02 Tree 5501ree 5501ree 5501

Given Name: Wolphert Gerretse

Death: 24 JUN 1662 New Amsterdam, L I -------------------- Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven "Keskateuw" located on Long Island from the Indians. Here was established the first kown white settlement on Long Island. Wolphert called his "plantation" Achterveldt, shown on the Manatu Map of New Netherlands as farm No. 36 near the Indian long house to the Kestachau tribe. Wolphert's house surrounded by palisades, was the focal pont of the village of New Amersfoort, later called Flatlands.

On 30. Jun. 1636. On 18. Apr. 1657 He got "Smal Civil Rights."

On 20. Oct. 1661 Wolfert Gerritsen Van Couwenhoven was named in a suit filed by Frans Jansen regardin a dispute ofver a contract in which Jansen was to buy land from Wofert. This was the first time the name Van Couwenhoven was mentioned in reference to Wolfert. -------------------- Appears on charts: Relationship, Wolpert to David Conover

    Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was also known as Wulphert Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wolfert Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wulffer Geritsz Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wulpher Gerritsz Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wolfert Garretsen Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wolfert Gerretsen Van Kouwenhoven. He was also known as Wolfert Gerretson Van Couwenhoven. He was also known as Wolfert Gerretsz Van Kouwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was born b 1. May. 1579; when baptisms began in Amersfoort, Netherlands. He was the son of Gerritt Jansz Couwenhoven. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was born c 1583 at Netherlands; he stated on October 8, 1638 that he was 54 years old. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was born c 1584. Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven was born c 1588 at Netherlands. Wolphert married Aeltje Jansdochter. Marriage banns for Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven and Neeltgen Jacobsdochter were published on 9. Jan. 1605 at Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. Wolphert married Neeltgen Jacobsdochter, daughter of Jacob Petersz and Metgen Jacobsdr, on 17. Jan. 1604/5 at Dutch Reformed Church, Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. On 15. Dec. 1611 The first reference to WOLFER GERRITSE when Wulphert Gerrits signed an agreement with his stylized A. According to the terms of that document, he agreed to assume the property and debts of the deceased parents of his wive Neeltgen Jacobsdr from the other heirs for 100 guilders. Her brother Herman Jacobsz also signed this document as well as her brother-in-law Willem Dircx who was married to Aeltgen Jacobs Petergen Petersdr, the underage daughter of her brother Peter Jacobsz, had already received 50 guilders.

On 22. Mar. 1612 Wulphert Gerritsz and his wife Neeltgen Jacosdr sold a bleachcamo outside the Coppelpoort of Amersfoort to Hendrick Janss and his wife Hasgenb Thonis fo 1,200 Carolus guilders, the occupation of Wolfert is not disclosed in this document.

In the settlement of the estate of Wolfert's wife in Amersfoort, it was declared before the court that his profession at the time was baker on 8. Aug. 1612 at Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. On 14. Apr. 1615 Wolphert took part in a curiious agreement with Herman Zieboltz of Amsterdam, before Johan van Ingen an officer of the court of Utrechet. The name of the Amsterdammer suggests that he was a German or that he was of German descent. His name is also spelled Syboelt and Zyeboltz in those documents. According to a "donatiaq iner vivos" (gift to a living person) Ziebolz gave Wolphert two morgans of turf ground near Cologne in recognition of services rendered )but not payment for them). No monetary amount is mentioned for the services or the turf ground. In a second document of the same date issued by the same officer of the court of Utrecht, Ayeboliz made a debt owed by mim by Henrick Adrianesz and Adriaen Adriansz over to Wulpher Gerrits baker and Cornelis Wynantsz inkeeper. This second document authorized Wulpher Gerritss and Cornelis Wynantsz to assume ownership of the two morgens of turfground mentioned in the first document. These documents create the impression thaqt Zieboltz was unable to pay Wolfert money that he owed him, that the Amsterdammer made over a debt on which he had not been able to collect, and that Wolfert may have agreed to these vague terms because he would otherwise not be able to retrieve anything from his business dealings with the Zieboltz.

On 16. May. 1616 Wulpher Gerritss baker appeared as a witness before Johan van Ingen officer of the court of Utrecht, in a case in which Willem Gerritz miller testified that Griet Maes was evading the city grain tax. The document does not specify that Wulpher and Willem were brothers, and if such were the case, it is likely that this would have been discussed in the document.

On 28. Oct. 1616 Hendrick Janss and Haesgen Thonis made the last payment on the bleach camp which they had purchased from Wolfert Gerretse and Neeltge Jacbsdr, and the property was made over to them.

Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven purchased from Aert van Schayck and his wife Anna Barents a house on the Langegraft in Amersfoort whch lay between the hosue of the aforesaid Aert on the one side and that fo Henrickgen Barents widow of Aelbert Conrneiss on the other side, while the breadt of the house lay on the Lieverrouwestraet (Dear Lady Street). Wolphert was listed as a baker. On 30. Jan. 1617 at Langegraft, Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands. On bt Feb. 1617 - Jul. 1617 Within a short time, Wolpeher palced three mortgages on this house. Perhaps the transactions with Zieboltz were unprofiatble, and this was one of the causes fo his need for money. On Feb 15, 1617, Wulpher Gerritss baker and his wife Neeltgen Jacobsdr borrowed 100 guidlers from the Armen te Amersfoort on which he agreed to pay 6 guilders per year. On May 16, 1617, Wulpher Gerritss baker and his wife Neeltgen borrowed 200 guilders from Cornelis Baecx van der Tommen at a yearly interest of 12 guilders. On Jul 25, 1617, Wul;phur Gerritss baker and his wife Neelttgen Jacobsdr borrowed 250 guilders from Anna Goerts widow of Franck Frandkss at 15 guilders interest per year. On 3. Jan. 1618 Wulphert Gerritsz and his wife Neeltgen Jacobs purchased a bleachcamp outside the Coppelpoort of Amersfoort with Hubert Lambertsz Moll and his wife Geertgen Cornisdochter as thier partners. They borrowed 500 Carolus Guilders from Ghijsbert Cornelisz van Cuijlenburch, a citizen of the city of Utrecht, at an annual interest of 25 guilders and 20 stivers. In addition, Hubert Lamberts and his wife Geertje Cornelisdochter contracted a special mortgage ofr 400 Carolus guilders with the consent of Wulffert Gerritsz and his wife. On the no9rth side of the property lay the River Eem, on the east the city moat and on the south and west the heirs of Gerrit van Speulde. This propety came with two other mortgages: 200 guilders to the Poth and 600 guilders to Jo. Catharina van Morendael not yet conveyed to her. In a codicil, Wulpher Gerritsz baker and his wife Neeltgen Jacobs become party to the mortgage of Hubert Lambertsz Moll and his wife Geertge Cornelis for 400 guilders with interest on Ghijsbert Cornelisz van Culenborch with restriction that Wulpher would pay 150 guilders in the year 1618 and thereafter be free of oblicgation.

In the margin is a notation that Dirck van Cullenburch as heir of his father Gysbert van Culenburch acknowledged that the obligation on the mortgage was fully paid on Mar 5, 1628.

In the seventeenth century, a bleach camp was a capital intensive, seasonal business which required the labor of relatively many workers. Profits were meager because the buyers of the finished product and the suppliers of raw matierials such as lye were generally the same persons, and they acted to keep theri costs and thus the profits of the bleachers love. There were three types of bleaching activities, and the skills and experience reqiuired of workers was generally so high that each bleachery specialized in but one sort of material: Yarn (garenblekerij), woven cloth (lijnwaadblekerij), or clothing (klerenblekerij). In all three cases, the material was first generally cooked in a lye solution and later spread out on green grass for many weeks in small fields surrounding the bleach house where it was kept damp. Later, iot was cookled in a solution of wheat meal before being again spread on the field for a lenghtly period, the entire process requiring about three months. The consequences of this long procedure was that o9nly wealthy people were the customers of clothing bleachers because only they could afford to part with many items of clothing for so long a time. No equipment of the bleach camp listed in the purcahse document for Wolphert are given. So no indication of what type of bleachery Wolphert purchased. The bleach camp he sold in 1612 included a bleach table meaning it may have been a cloth bleach camp. On 17. Sep. 1618 Wulphert Gerritss baker and his wife Neeltge Jacobs contracted a mortgage with Coenraet Fransz, former mayor of the city of Amersfoort, for 100 guilders at an annual interest of 6 guilders, with the house of Wulphert on the Langegracht as security, which house lay between the house of Aert van Schayck and that of Hednrickgen Speldemaeckster.

It does not appear that Wolferts endeavor as bleacher met with great success, and this may have been caused by a general malaise in the weavers trade in Amersfoort in this period, which in turn lay on a lack of capital. Because Wolfert's work was dependent on this industry, he was limited as a businessman by the lack of sucess of the parent industry.

On 5. Nov. 1622 Wolphert was appointed guardian over the five under aged children of Willem Gerritsz Couwenhoven. From NYGBR Wulffer Geridtz, bleacher residing by the Coppelpoort and Harman Willemsz citizen of Amersfoort as "bloetvoochden" (blood guardians) of the five sons of Willem Gerridsz Couwenhoven, namely Gerridt, Willem, Jan, Harmen, and Willem the Younger, none of whom had yet reached the age of majority, made an agreement with the mother of the children Neeltgen Willemsdr the widow of Willem Gerridtsz assisted by the owner of Cowenhoven the honorable Johan de Wijs.

This document indicates that Wolfert Gerritse had a brother Willem and that he was the tenant of the farm ouwenhoven which was owned by Johan de Wijs. This document indicates that Wolfert is connected to the Couwenhoven by Hoogland. It is at the same time possible that he was also linked to the Couwenhoven near Woudenberg because he was a son of Gerrit Willemsz van Couwenhoven, but documentation for this has not been discovered.

On 24. Mar. 1623 Beermt van Munster made a deposition under oath before the lieutenant, the schout, and the schepenen Dam and Bronchorst at the request of the (police) officer. He stated that the previous Saturday afternoon he had caught a bucket of fish by the Coppelpoort bridge and had given half of it to Wulphert the bleacher according to an agreement which they had made, and that Beernt had caught a small number of fish threafter. Wulpher and Harmen Teut then took these fish from Beernt, and they would not divide them with him. Wulpher took the net and tried to give it to his wife. Harman hit Beernt in the eye with a weight in the net, but by then, it was ripped. Beernt then went to the defense of his wife, and Wulpher drew his knife and threatened him without harming him. Dirck Gerritsz, stevedore, using well-chosen words, separated the people from each other. On April 1 1623, Dirch Gerrisz was heard at the request of the officer and made a similar deposition under oath.

On 11. Jun. 1623 Hubert Moll and his wife Geertgen Cornelis sold a bleach camp to Wulpher Gerritsz bleacher and his wife in which they had been residing. This was situated in Amersfoort outside the Coppelpoort. The property description differs slightly from that given for the land transaction of 1618, but the mortgages are the same. It is likely that this is the same ground that Wulpher Gerritsz and Hubert Moll purchased then. On the date of purchase in 1623, Wulpher Gerritss sold this property to Monsieur Jacques Chiese Cuirass(ier) of the company of his Princely Excellency (Maurits?) and the purchser assumed the mortgages.

This is the last document pertaining to Wolfert Gerritse that has been discovered in the archives of Amersfoort.

He was a baker and then later a bleacher (bleaching laundry on a grassfield in the sun) b 1624. He immigrated bt 1624 - 1625 to New Amsterdam, New York County, New York. He and Neeltgen Jacobsdochter immigrated in Jun. 1625 to New Netherlands; or July 1625, with his wife and family on a ship of the Dutch West India Company which saled in the expedidition that was comprsed of the ships Mackerel, Horse, Cow and Sheep. On 1629 Wolfert returned to the Netherlands. On 24. May. 1630 He retruned from the Netherlands on board "De Endracht" (the Unity). There exists a letter from Kiiaen van Rensselaer to Wolfert which I have to get from sources. At this time Wolfert was in the Netherlands and the letter had to do with terminating Wolfert's contract with van Rensselaer and mentions that Wolferts wife was unhappy living in New Netherlands. In the letter van Rensselaer states he would not want someone who was not happy working for him to remain in his employ under the circumstances. It was a friendly letter. According to the source there are several letters fo Wolfert from Van Rensselaer. The letter above was read over the phone to me and I have yet to receive the exact copy and don't take short hand in 1632.

Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven purchased "Keskateuw" located on Long Island from the Indians. Here was established the first kown white settlement on Long Island. Wolphert called his "plantation" Achterveldt, shown on the Manatu Map of New Netherlands as farm No. 36 near the Indian long house to the Kestachau tribe. Wolphert's house surrounded by palisades, was the focal pont of the village of New Amersfoort, later called Flatlands. On 30. Jun. 1636. On 18. Apr. 1657 He got "Smal Civil Rights." On 20. Oct. 1661 Wolfert Gerritsen Van Couwenhoven was named in a suit filed by Frans Jansen regardin a dispute ofver a contract in which Jansen was to buy land from Wofert. This was the first time the name Van Couwenhoven was mentioned in reference to Wolfert.

He died bt 2. Mar. 1662 - 24. Jun. 1662 at New Amersfoort, Kings County, New York. In the October 2004The New York Genealogical & Biographical Society, Review, published and article titled Wolfert Gerritse in the Netherlands: Further Thoughts About the Van Couwenhoven Family This article follows.

WOLFERT GERRITSE IN THE NETHERLANDS: Further Thoughts About the Van Couwenhoven Family BY WILLEM VAN KOUWENHOVEN The purpose of this article. Several years ago, I made a study using documents about Wolfert Gerritse van Couwenhoven which Marcel Kemp had sought out at my request in the archives of the district Amersfoort in the Netherlands.[1] The New York Genealogical and Biographical Society was kind enough to publish this in THE RECORD as "Wolfert Gerritse in the Netherlands." (2] During the intervening time, I have developed several points of criticism about the article which pertain to the views which were expressed there about Wolfert's first wife Aeltge Jansdochter, the birth order of Wolfert and his brother Willem, the date on which the tenancy of Willem's son Jan on the farm Kouwenhoven was terminated, and the projected picture of Wolfert's childhood. Wolfert Gerritse in recent literature. Additional information has been published in the meantime by Marcel Kemp and Gerard Raven as "Boerderij Kouwenhoven en de familie Van Kouwenhoven 1400-1650" in De Bewaarsman,[3] the publication of the Historische kring Hoogland, the Historical Society' of Hoogland. (The farm Kouwenhoven is located in the neighborhood Coelhorst within the former district Hoogland, which is now a part of the district Amersfoort.) Gerard Raven was co-editor of De Bewaarsman when the article was published. In addition to information about the early history of the farm that appeared in Kemp's article "De herkomst van Wolfert Gerritsz, stamvader van de Amerikaanse familie Van Kouwenhoven" in the 1996 Jaarboek van bet Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie[4] and in the above-mentioned article in THE RECORD, the article in De Bewaarsman contains information about a tenant on the farm in 1536, insights into the lives of the tenants in the period 1620-1650, and a report of the construction of a brick manor house on the farm during the eighteenth century by a new land owner, as well as the history of the farm to the present day. Only the material that pertains to the critique of the article in THE RECORD will be dealt with in this discussion.

Information about Kouwenhoven, its neighborhood Coelhorst, and the local Chapel Coelhorst were included in the booklet "Hoogland-West," the issue of De Bewaarsman for April 2001. The material about the chapel will be recounted in the portion of this critique that deals with Wolfert's childhood.

Aeltge Jansdochter, Wolfert's first wife. As first point of critique, the view of Aeltge Jansdochter which was set forth in the article in THE RECORD[5] should be revised - that it was uncertain that the Wolfert Gerritse who married Aeltge Jansdochter on 17 January 1605[6] was the same person as the Wolfert Gerritse who is found in numerous documents in the archives of Amersfoort in the period 1611-1623. M. Kemp expressed this opinion initially in the report of his impressively thorough search for documents regarding Wolfert Gerritse which was first given to this writer, and this opinion was used in the article for THE RECORD. By the time it was published, Kemp had expressed the same view in his article "De herkomst van Wolfert Gerritsz, ..."[7] Because other documents were not found which linked Aeltge Jansdochter to the baker/bleacher Wolfert Gerritse, Kemp hesitated to draw the conclusion that Aeltge was Wolfert's first wife. This seems overly cautious. Only one Wolfert Gerritse has been found in the numerous other documents from more or less the same period that have been preserved in the records of the district Amersfoort. Although many documents from this period in the district have been lost for various reasons, those that have survived give no reason to surmise that there was at that time a second Wolfert Gerritse in the district to whom the entry in the marriage register might refer. It would then be better to reason that the Wolfert Gerritse of the marriage record is the same person who is found in all of the other documents. It then follows that Aeltge Jansdochter was Wolfert's first wife, that she died shortly after their marriage without bearing any children who survived, and that Neeltje Jacobsdochter, who is shown as his wife in the documents from the Amersfoort archives, was his second wife and the mother of his known children. Willem Gerritse, Wolfert's younger brother. Secondly, there is a problem in the article with the estimated birth year that was given for Wolfert's brother Willem. While Kemp made no statements about Willem's birth year in his article in the Jaarboek, he and Raven estimated in the article in De Bewaarsman that Willem was born in the period 1580-1585.[8] Since Willem remained on the farm Couwenhoven as its tenant, it was assumed in the article for THE RECORD that he was older than Wolfert, who was born in 1584.1] Yet, none of Willem's five children had attained their majority when their father died in 1622. Thus, none of them were capable of succeeding him as tenant. The family was enabled to stay on the farm because Willem's widow Neeltge Willemsdochter married Peter Coenraetsz., apparently with the approval if not the instigation of the owner of the farm, Johan de Wijs of Amersfoort.[1]

If one of Willem's five sons was but a few months removed from attaining his majority, it would seem that it could have been arranged in one way or another that he become the tenant of the farm, if he was in other respects a suitable candidate for this work. That this did not occur suggests that the oldest son was several years removed from his majority, and this is the tenor of the agreement which the "blood guardians" Wolfert Gerritse and Harmen Willemsz. of Amersfoort (respectively the brother of Willem and the brother of Willem's widow) made with the mother of Willem's children on 5 November 1622.P 1] She was to care for the children and let them attend school and learn to read and write. Such stipulations suggest that some of the children were too young to have learned basic literacy skills at the time of their father's death.

Since Willem's children were not so old when he died in 1622, it would seem that the birth year 1580 that was assigned to him lies too far in the past and that it is likely that he was born several years later. If Willem's children are listed in birth order in the agreement between the "blood guardians" and the widow, Jan would be his third son. He became the tenant on Couwenhoven on 5 July 1636,02] and he married Nellitgen Henricxdr. five days later.[13] Assuming that both father and son married shortly after their twenty-first birthday and that there were three years between each child, results in an estimated birth date of circa 1587 for Willem rather than circa 1580, which was assigned in THE RECORD article.[14] Willem would have been legally eligible to enter into contracts as a tenant only when he reached his majority, which would seem to have been about 1608.

It should be emphasized that this is but an estimate that is based on reasonable assumptions about birth order and birth intervals that have been made in regard to two men. It should be expected that new documents about Willem and Jan could well require further slight corrections regarding their birth and marriage dates. Yet, Kemp's search in the Archives of Amersfoort was so thorough that it is unlikely that further documents about these persons will be found there. Perhaps a reference to them will by chance be discovered in one or more documents from other districts while other matters are being studied.

as the younger son who left home, learned a trade (perhaps with some parental support) and became a businessman. The thought that is being presented here is that although Willem was the younger son, he stayed on the farm, working it and perhaps initially serving as a caretaker for his parent(s) while the older brother Wolfert had years earlier left the homestead, even though it was customary in Hoogland that the oldest son succeed his father as tenant. Wolfert sought to survive in the business world of Amersfoort, where he already resided as a married man when he was twenty-one years old according to the entry in the marriage register of the Reformed Church of Amersfoort, which was located in the St. Joriskerk[15] (St. George's Church). This is a plausible explanation, yet it requires further refinement.

Jan Willemse's tenancy on Kouwenhoven ends. The other tenants on Kouwenhoven about which there is information were not able to labor there many years. Peter Coenraetsz. became tenant in 1622, and by 1638 he had died and was succeeded by Jan Willemsz van Kouwenhoven. While Kemp and Raven argue that Jan was deceased as early as 1646, it is certain that he was no longer living in 1656 when the estate of his mother Neeltge Willemsdr. was inventoried.[16

Kemp and Raven are of the opinion that Jan had died by 1646 since a police report from that year was made by Jan Bartz. who lived on Kouwenhoven.[17] Apparently the thought is that the farm Kouwenhoven was so small that the tenant farmer (pachter) could not have employed a resident worker (knecht), but only day laborers (dagloners) as they were needed. Thus, it could be reasonably concluded that a person who listed his residence as Kouwenhoven must have been the tenant farmer of that date.[18] It is noted that it is a problem that Jan Willemsz. and his wife Nelletge Hendrixdr. would then have had to have had eight children in ten years. Kemp and Raven conclude that Nelletge was forced to depart from Kouwenhoven following Jan's death because none of the children was old enough to become the succeeding tenant.

It would be more reasonable to consider that it would be bad for the health of the wife and the children which she bore if they came into the world made for a healthier farm. Although the pill' was not yet then known, local populations generally had their own effective means of planning parenthood, even in the seventeenth century. It would then seem better to conclude that by 1646, Jan Willemsz. and his wife Nelletge Hendrixdr. had relocated, that five of their children or so had been born on Kouwenhoven and that the rest were born in their new location before Jan died somewhat more than fifteen years after he had become the tenant farmer on Kouwenhoven. [19]

As a third point then, there is no need to change the view which was expressed in THE RECORD article of 1998 regarding Jan's death date, but it would appear that the family's tenancy on Kouwenhoven likely had already ended by 1646, ten years earlier than was presented in that article. Wolfert's childhood. What were the circumstances of Wolfert's childhood? Farm work was much harder and heavier than it is now, and it was often necessary to labor in a strong wind in cold, wet weather, which caused severe illnesses. Although it now seems strange, the life of a farmer was similar then to that of a contemporary professional athlete. The training or work began for both early in life, and by the time each was thirty years old, he was already past his peak. While it is now unusual to find an athlete older than forty-five on a team roster, it was then unusual to find a farmer older than forty-five years old on a landlord's list of tenants - not because the older tenant was enjoying retirement in his luxurious villa, but because he had died of exhaustion and illness. Although it would seem that the average lifespan of a tenant farmer in this region did not differ greatly during this period from that of the general population and that it thus was about forty-five years, Jan Willemsz. was younger when he died, and it would seem that this was also true of his father. It would seem that some tenants died several years before they reached forty-five while a similar number lived a few years beyond that benchmark.

It would seem unlikely that Gerrit the father of Wolfert and Willem would have been able to work as a tenant farmer for many more years than the documented tenants of Kouwenhoven Peter Coenraetsz. and Jan Willemsz.[20] It would thus have been unlikely that he would have been able to work as a tenant much more than fifteen years. If Willem became the tenant about 1608, it would then seem that his predecessor may have begun his tenancy about 1593. This is three years later than the estimate given in the above cited article in THE RECORD. According to the above calculations, Wolfert would then have been nine years old, and Willem six. At first sight, this would seem to suggest that there is something wrong with the assumptions behind these figures, since this would mean that the children apparently were not born on Kouwenhoven, but it is more profitable to reason that insight is thus given into the complex and fragile world into which the boys were born.

There is no document in which Wolfert is listed as a resident of Kouwenhoven or as its tenant farmer, nor for the reasons enumerated above, does it seem likely that such evidence of his presence on the farm will be discovered. Yet, he used the name Van Couwenhoven,[21] and he worked as a farmer and as a farm supervisor. Why the choice for this name? Where did he learn farm work? If he lived and worked on the farm Kouwenhoven as a child, both questions would be answered. Thus, because no better explanation has yet been found, it is reasonable to assume that this farm was his home and work place for a time during his early years.

In the earlier article in THE RECORD it was mentioned that a director of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) in the early seventeenth century bore the family name Couwenhoven,[22] and it was suggested that although this man was not a blood relative, his high position may have afforded Wolfert a further reason to use the name Van Couwenhoven in New Amsterdam rather than another reasonable choice of name such as Van Amersfoort or Van Coelhorst. In regard to this, Gerard Raven has commented[23] that the directors of the Dutch West India Company in Amsterdam would not necessarily know that a Couwenhoven was a director of the Dutch East India Company in Rotterdam. It is thus uncertain that it would have been professionally advantageous for Wolfert to use this name. This implies that he used it for personal reasons, that is to say, because he had lived and worked there during a significant portion of his youth.

It is possible that Wolfert and his brother Willem were born elsewhere and that their father only later became tenant on Kouwenhoven. If so, he probably was tenant for six or twelve years at their previous residence. If that is the case, the father likely di -------------------- Wolphert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven w

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Wolfert Gerretse Van Kouwenhoven's Timeline

1579
May 1, 1579
Amersfoort, Ultrect, Holland
May 1, 1579
Amerstoort, Utrecht, Holland
May 1, 1579
1605
January 17, 1605
Age 25
Amersfoort, Amersfoort, Utrecht, The Netherlands
1610
1610
Age 30
Amersfoort, Amersfoort, Utrecht, The Netherlands
1612
1612
Age 32
Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands
1613
1613
Age 33
Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands
1614
1614
Age 34
Amersfoort, Utrecht, The Netherlands
1618
1618
Age 38
1622
1622
Age 42
Kings County, New York