Zacharie Cloutier

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Zacharie Cloutier

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Rue Saint-Jean, Mortagne, Perche, France
Death: Died in Château-Richer, Québec, Canada
Place of Burial: Château-Richer, Québec, Canada
Immediate Family:

Son of Dénis Cloutier and Marie-Renée Brière
Husband of Sainte Cloutier and Xainte Dupont
Father of Jean Cloutier, Sr; Anne; Charles Cloutier; Marie-Louise Cloutier; Zacharie Cloutier and 4 others
Brother of Michel Cloutier; Louis Cloutier; Renée Richard Cloutier; Catherine Cloutier; Nicolas Cloutier and 4 others
Half brother of Réne Cloutier; Léonard Cloutier; Denis Cloutier; Michelle Cloutier and Pierre Cloutier

Occupation: Maître charpentier (Master Carpenter); Menuisier; Ship Wright
Managed by: Gisèle J.M. Fiola
Last Updated:

About Zacharie Cloutier

From Naples.net:

For France, Samuel de Champlain founded a French settlement in Quebec in 1608. Accompanying Champlain and serving as his surgeon and apothecary (dispenser of medicines and drugs) was a man by the name of Robert Giffard a former resident of Mortagne. The name 'Cloutier', itself, supports the contention that Zacharie was a skilled person. It appears the name is a contraction of the French word "clou" meaning nail and "métier" meaning to make; thus a Cloutier being a 'maker of nails'. Jean Guyon, Master Mason, were signed to special contracts as witnessed by the notary Mathurin Roussel at La Rochelle on the 14th day of March 1634. The Seigneur agreed to give each man a few head of livestock to get started farming plus 1,000 arpents of land (one arpent equals 1-1/4 acre) or 1,250 acres.

Chateau-Richer is a delightful little community situated on the northern bank of the St. Lawrence River about 25 Km east of Quebec City, and not far from Montmorency Falls which tumble over the Laurentide escarpment and empty into the St. Lawrence River. Opposite Chateau-Richer in the Ile d'Orléans (island of Orleans). Originally the farms were long narrow lots fronting on the banks of the river giving each farmer good arable bottom land and access to the river for fishing, and transportation. The lots extended to the escarpment thus providing wooded areas, from which lumber and firewood could be obtained.

---

On March 14, 1634, Zacharie signed a contract with Robert Giffard to work in Canada. Robert got seigniory in that same year. On June 4, 1634, Zachary arrives in Quebec with his wife and five children.

Zacharie left the port of Dieppe, France in the spring of 1634. The trip took approximately two months. (Http://www3.telus.net/public/cloutiem/Cloutier/ent_03E.htm).

Zacharie and his family arrived in Quebec on June 4, 1634. The (?) was a flotilla of the "Cent-Associes" made up of four boats, his was the first to arrive. The last one reached in August. They were created by Samuel de Champlain himself. Zacharie worked with Jean Guyon to construct the Giffard manor, build the Quebec church, and the Fort St. Louis. Zacharie had many "disputes" with Giffard over the next ten years.

Zacharie put an end to associating with Giffard. He built houses and "thatched cottages" for those who wanted to in the area of Quebec City and the Côte de Beaupré. He also worked on the construction of the fort Saint-Denis under the Governor Huault de Montmagy. Zacharie was granted 1,000 acres of beautiful praires and woodland later called "fief de la Clouterie". In 1670, he sold it to Nicolas Dupont de Neuville. He later moved in with his son Jean in Chateau-Richer. He also once lived in Quebec City at the Côte de la montagne, translated "on the hill of the mountain". He was given the title of "bourgeois seigneur". (Http://www3.telus.net/public/cloutiem/Cloutier/ent_04E.htm).

Zacharie and Xainte were the first couple in Canada to celebrate its diamond and golden wedding. (Http://www3.telus.net/public/cloutiem/Cloutier/ent_05E.htm).

From FamilyOrigins.com:

At first, those who had a right to the name Cloutier were the nailmakers of the specialized drop forges. However, by the 16th century, when Zacharie Cloutier came into the world, the name had become a patronym. The genealogist Gabriel Drouin exaggerates only a little bit when he states that Zacharie Cloutier is the ancestor of all the French Canadians. However, one fact is certain: If Zacharie was not yet the universal forefather, he was in the process of becoming so. Therefore, those of us so descended might do well to beware of ocular myopathy.

In 1965, Madame Pierre Montagne wrote a book in which she told us about the French origins of the Cloutiers. This great friend of Canada, by her persistent *and systematic research in the state archives and parish records of the Perche of long ago, taught us a great deal about all those families which comprised the first significant wave of Canadian settlement, beginning in 1634.

The earliest records available from the parish of Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-Mortagne date from the year 1600. The Cloutier family patriarch was father Denis, married to Renée Briere. We learn that after 1600, they had three children: Jacques, baptized 16 March 1601; Claude, baptized 17 March 1605; and Loyse, christened 22 February 1608 and buried on 3 March of the same year. Mother Renée herself, died and was buried on 1 May 1608. On 3 November of that year, the banns of marriage between father Denis Cloutier and Jeanne Rahir-Gaultier were published. From this second union were born: Le'onard, baptized 18 October 1609; Denis, baptized 29 February 1612 and buried three days later; then the twins Pierre and Michelle, named on 27 March 1613.

But where do we find Zacharie in this family? Since he does not appear in the records of Saint-Jean-Baptiste parish, it must be assumed that he was born prior to 1600 and was therefore, one of several other children of Denis and Rene'e, such as: Michel, married to Jeanne Commanche; Renée, bonded to Claude Noe; Nicolas, joined to Catherine Roussel; Louis, linked to Madeleine Truchet and Catherine, coupled to Francois Noé.

PEACEMAKER AND HEAD OF FAMILY

Zacharie Cloutier first saw the light of day about the year 1590. On 13 July 1616, in the parish of his birth, he married Xainte Dupont from the locality of Feings. She had been born in 1596 and was the widow of Michel Ler-musier (?). In Mortagne, on 2 March 1633, the notary Mathurin Roussel wrote an agreement which demonstrated how the future Canadian played the role of family peacemaker between his father and one of his brothers:

"Furent presents Zacharie Cloustier, carpentier, demeurant a Mortagne; paroisse Saint-Jean, d'une part, et Jacques Cloustier, son frère, cordier, demeurant au dit lieu et paroisse d'autre part, et encore le dit Zacharie Cloustier se faisant et portant fort de Denis Cloustier, son père, promettant qu'il aura ses présentes plus agre'ables et les lui faire ratifier...et heritiers de defunts Renée Briere, leur mere, femme en premières noces du dit Denis, et a Jeanne Gaultier, sa femme en second mariage,... This was obviously a dispute concerning a family inheritance. Zacharie and Xainte had six children while still living in Mortagne. They were: Zacharie, 1617; Jean,1620; Xaintes, 1622; Anne, 1626; Charles, 1629; and Louise, 1632. The little Xaintes died on 19 September, 1632. Thus the Cloutiers had five living children and would have no more.

IN NEW FRANCE FROM 1634

On 15 January 1634, Surgeon Robert Giffard, a notable proponent of a Canadian community, was soliciting potential emigrants, when he received notice that he had been awarded the seigneury of Beauport from the One Hundred Associates. Giffard had been in New France before: From 1621 to 1626, and again in 1628. In 1634 he successfully recruited several citizens of Perche as prospective residents for his newly acquired realm: One of whom was Zacharie Cloutier.

This contract of servitude, signed by Cloutier and Guyon in joinder, in favor of Giffard, was written up by the notary Mathurin Roussel at LaRochelle on 14 March 1634. It stipulated that Giffard would pay the passage plus food and lodging in Canada (to the extent that the land permitted), for Cloutier and Guyon plus one family member each, for a period of three years, to date from 24 June 1634. After two years the two men would be allowed to send for the rest of their families, also at the expense of the Seigneur of Beauport. Giffard agreed to give each man a few head of livestock to get started farming, plus one thousand arpents of land with the right to build on it, in addition to the right to hunt, fish and trade with the savages. And so it was done. However, according to Raoul Cloutier, author of a voluminous essay on his ancestors, even though Zacharie had agreed to leave France with his seventeen year old son only, he changed his mind and decided to bring the entire family out to Canada. By 22 July 1634, master-carpenter Zacharie Cloutier and master-mason Jean Guyon were hard at work on construction of a manor house for their lord as well as the parish church and Fort Saint-Louis in Quebec.

FIRST MARRIAGE CONTRACT IN CANADA

As soon as the Cloutier family was settled down, Zacharie did not waste any time getting organized. He had already begun to plan for the future of his children and on 27 July 1636, he arranged for his daughter Anne to take a husband. This was unusual for two reasons: The marriage contract with Robert Drouin was the first of it's kind in Canada and Anne was only ten and a half years old! A stipulation in the agreement provided that Anne was to continue to live at home with her parents until she was thirteen. The religious ceremony took place when Anne was eleven but Robert had to content himself with non-conjugal visits for two more years.

THE FIEF ON THE RIVER BUISSON

A ruling drawn up by Jean de Lespinasse on 3 February 1637, reveals that Jean Guyon and Zacharie Cloutier, who seem to have done nothing one without the other, finally took possession of the fiefs promised to them by Giffard. That of Guyon was named "du Buisson" and that of Zacharie was called "La Clouterie". It is in this act that we first observe the signature of Zacharie Cloutier in the form of an axe, the mark of his trade. A facsimile is reproduced at the end of this Chapter. In 1641, a map made by the engineer-surveyor Jean Bourdon, shows the layout of these lands "from Kebec to Cap Tourmente". We may note thereon that the sons of Zacharie, as well as other colonists, were settled on the territory extending from the river at Petit Pre' to- the river at Chiens, which became the future parish of Chateau-Richer. On 29 May 1644, notary Guillaume Tronquet recorded that "Giffard, Sieur de Beauport, visited the Buisson river in company with Jean Guyon, Zacharie Cloutier, Adrien du Chesne, Jean Bourdon and Abraham Martin", and that he gave them the land "from this river up to the first point, running along the length of the Saint Lawrence river."

DISPUTES BETWEEN GIFFARD AND HIS VASSELS

Historian Marcel Trudel reports that things did not always go well between Seigneur Giffard and his habitants. On 18 December 1636, the Lord of Beauport obtained a judgment against Cloutier and Guyon concerning certain work which was due him. Then after the division of the land on 10 December 1637, certain boundary disputes occurred. Governor Montmagny delayed making his decision until 4 May 1642. On 2 July 1646, Giffard sued Guyon and Cloutier for refusing to render him "faith and homage" as all good vassels were required to do with regard to their seigneur. On the 19th of the same month the Governor ordered them to comply. The two recalcitrants got even in their own way by refusing to present the inventory (aveu et denombrement) as required from all landowners in a seigneury. On 20 August, the Governor compelled the rebels to comply once and for all. It is necessary to understand them, they who had always considered Giffard as an equal. Their pride having blinded them, they found it difficult to accept their former friend as their superior in the hierarchy.

BOURGEOIS SEIGNEUR AND MASTER CARPENTER

In 1651, the family Cloutier lived on Côte de la Montagne in the town of Quelbec. Twelve years later Zacharie was described as a bourgeois seigneur working as a master-carpenter. In addition to his fief'of 693 arpents, he owned a lot measuring 41.4 toises. By this time he was 73 years old and his wife was 67. He also owned a lot in the lower town Quebec, between those of Pascal Lemaistre and Jean Guyon. The census ol 1666 indicates that both Zacharies, father and son, lived on the Beaupré coast. Then the next census, that of 1681, fails to mention either the venerable pioneer or his wife. What became of them?

In order to remain to his land at Chateau-Richer, Zacharie sold his fief to Nicolas Dupont of Neuville on 20 December 1620. Prior to this however, on 19 January 1668, he had assembled his children before notary Michel Fillon, and prepared an agreement designed to minimize the difficulties which could arise from the inheritance after his and Xaintes deaths. Once all had been settled, the children promised to assist their parents and to attend to all of their needs. The following year, on 12 May 1669, Zacharie and Xainte made their will and placed themselves in the hands of son Zacharie. Old patriarch Zacharie died first at about 87 years of age. He fell into his last sleep on 17 November 1677. Xainte was taken in her turn less than three years later, on 14 July 1680. They both lie at rest in their favorite place, Chateau-Richer.

THE NEXT GENERATION

When the Cloutier family arrived in Quebec on 4 June 1634, it was already complete: Father, mother and five children and no others would be born on Canadian soil. Here is some additional information on the first generation:

1) Zacharie, 16 August 1617, married Madeleine-Barbe Esmard (Aymard, Emard, Esmart, Eymard) on 4 April 1648 at Saint-Barthelemi in LaRochelle, France. She was the daughter of Jean and of Marie Bineau (Bureau) of Niort in Poitou, France. According to Raoul Cloutier, young Zacharie was a level headed man, charitable, friendly and a good farmer. They had 8 children, 5 boys and 3 girls, all of whom married neighbors. Zacharie died 3 February 1708. Barbe followed him on 28 May of the same year. They were both interred at Chateau-Richer.

2) Jean, 13 May 1620, became a carpenter like his father. He married Marie Martin on 21 January 1648 at Quebec. She was the daughter of Abraham Martin dit 1'Ecossais and Marguerite Langlois. Jean and Marie had 14 children, 10 of whom were girls. Jean died on 16 October 1690 and Marie followed him on 26 April 1699. It was his descendants who kept the ancestral home for nearly three centuries.

3) Anne, 19 January 1626, married the brickmaker Robert Drouin in 1637. They had six children, of whom, all but two died in infancy. Anne herself died on 4 February 1648. Robert remarried in 1649 to the widow Marie Chapelier who was not accepted by the Cloutiers and, as a result, Zacharie and Xainte raised their granddaughters, Geneviève and Jeanne Drouin, as their own.

4) Charles, 3 May 1629, was not interested in farming, so he too became a carpenter. On 20 April 1659, he married Louise Morin, the daughter of Noel and of Hélène Desportes who, as Hélène Langlois, was generally recognized to have been the first white child born in New France. Charles and Louise had 13 children, 6 boys and 7 girls. Charles died on 5 June 1709 and Louise on 29 April 1713.

5) Louise, 18 March 1632, married François Marguerie, Sieur de la Haye, at age fourteen. He was one of the most colorful men of early New France. A guide and interpreter of Indian languages, he lived and worked among the tribes and even survived capture and imprisonment by the Iroquois. They were married on 26 October 1645 and went to live at Trois-Rivières. Shortly thereafter he was drowned in a canoe accident. Childless and widowed at seventeen, Louise returned to Quebec where, five months later, on 10 November 1648, she married the tailor Jean Mignot dit Chatillon: They had 14 children. Mignot died about 1680 and in 1689 Louise married for a third time to the saddlemaker Jean-Pierre Mataux (Mataut, Matteau). They were childless and Louise died on 22 January 1699 at age 68.

MANY NAME VARIATIONS

The surname Cloutier was sometime Cloustier in the days of our ancestor. Succeeding generations have added the following: Gary, Cluchier, Clukey, Clurkey, Cluquet, Clouter, Lapensee and Nailer. (Chapter 6)

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zacharie_Cloutier

http://larryvoyer.com/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I46422&tree=v7_28 -------------------- pp 15406-15407

Arrived in New World Aug. 8 1634 w/ 5 kids. Settled at Beauport in 1644 at Manor of.. -------------------- ls immigrent a Quebec le 10 juin 1634

Engagé le 14 mars 1634 à Mortagne par Robert Giffard

Concession de l'arrière-fief de LaCloutièrerie dans Beauport le 14 mars 1634, vendu à Nicolas Dupont le 20 décembre 1670

__________________________

Zacharie Cloutier peut être considéré à juste titre comme l’ancêtre de tous les francophones d’Amérique.

Il est né en 1590 à Mortagne, dans le Perche, en France.

Il y épousa Xainte Dupont et ils émigrèrent en Nouvelle-France en 1634 avec leurs cinq enfants.

A son arrivée au pays, Zacharie est âgé de quarante-quatre ans. Il s’établit, avec sa famille, dans la seigneurie de Robert Giffard, à Beauport.

Il y prend possession d’une terre le 29 mai 1644.

Peu de temps après, il déménage à Château-Richer où il vivra le reste de ses jours.

Occasionnellement, Zacharie Cloutier viendra prêter main-forte pour effectuer des travaux de maçonnerie et de menuiserie dans de gros ouvrages.

Au recensement de 1667, il a 77 ans, Xainte en a 71 et ils ont deux bestiaux.

Il trépassa à l’automne de l’année 1677. Il était âgé de 87 ans. Son fils Zacharie continuera la culture de la terre paternelle.

Des cinq enfants Cloutier, trois fils se marièrent à Château-Richer. Les générations suivantes se dispersèrent peu à peu et s’étendirent à travers toute l’Amérique. -------------------- Ils immigrent a Quebec le 10 juin 1634

Engagé le 14 mars 1634 à Mortagne par Robert Giffard

Concession de l'arrière-fief de LaCloutièrerie dans Beauport le 14 mars 1634, vendu à Nicolas Dupont le 20 décembre 1670

__________________________

Zacharie Cloutier peut être considéré à juste titre comme l’ancêtre de tous les francophonesd’Amérique.

Il est né en 1590 à Mortagne, dans le Perche, en France.

Il y épousa Xainte Dupont et ils émigrèrent en Nouvelle-France en 1634 avec leurs cinq enfants.

A son arrivée au pays, Zacharie est âgé de quarante-quatre ans. Il s’établit, avec sa famille, dans la seigneurie de Robert Giffard, à Beauport.

Il y prend possession d’une terre le 29 mai 1644.

Peu de temps après, il déménage à Château-Richer où il vivra le reste de ses jours.

Occasionnellement, Zacharie Cloutier viendra prêter main-forte pour effectuer des travaux de maçonnerie et de menuiserie dans de gros ouvrages.

Au recensement de 1667, il a 77 ans, Xainte en a 71 et ils ont deux bestiaux.

Il trépassa à l’automne de l’année 1677. Il était âgé de 87 ans. Son fils Zacharie continuera la culture de la terre paternelle.

Des cinq enfants Cloutier, trois fils se marièrent à Château-Richer. Les générations suivantes se dispersèrent peu à peu et s’étendirent à travers toute l’Amérique. -------------------- A Carpenter Born: Cardin-Mortagne, Perche, France St. Jean de Cardin

OCCUPATION: Charpentier (carpenter), ship wright

Contracted to join an expedition to New France led by Robert Giffard on March 14, 1634 (Mortagne, Notary Mathurin Roussel). Set sail from the port of Dieppe in mid-april 1634, accompanied by his family. The fleet consisted of four ships under the command of Duplessis-Bochard. Arrived in Quebec on June 4, 1634. Helped to establish the settlement at Beauport.

On February 3, 1637, he was granted 1000 arpents of land at Beauport, situated on the St. Lawrence River, with two-tenths of a mile of frontage on the river, extending north for four and six-tenths miles.This land was sold to Nicolas Dupont on December 20, 1670 for 400 livresTournois, plus an additional 600 livres to the children. Zacharie and his wife went to Château-Richer to live with their son Zacharie).

CENSUS: 1666 & 1667 Rencensements (census) annotes de la Nouvell-France(Quebec) page 252. Zacarie Cloustier listed as HH age 77 ans (years) 2 betes Sainte duPont sa femme (wife) 72 ans.

Zacharie Cloutier came to Quebec in 1634; he signed a contract of servitude on March 14 1634. By July 22 1634, Master-carpenter Zacharie Cloutier and Master-mason Jean Guyon were at work on the manor house of Robert Giffard at Beauport. They were also working on the parish church and Fort Saint-Louis in Quebec.

Arrived 8 Aug 1634 with 5 children. Settled at Beauport in 1664 at the manor of Robert Gifford. Moved to Château Richer. ("Maitre Zacharie"). Beauport is Canada's first rural colony. In 1647 marched with garlanded torches through Quebec to celebrate Fete-Dieu. hired, Robert Giffard, Mar3, 1634, Mortagne, Concession as vice Fief of La Cloutièrerie dans Beauport.

-------------------

The earliest records available from the parish of Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-Mortagne date from the year 1600. The Cloutier family patriarch was father Denis, married to Renée Brière. We learn that, after 1600, they had three children: Jacques, baptized March 16, 1601; Claude, baptized March 17, 1605 and Loyse, baptized February 22, 1608 and buried, on March 3 of the same year. Mother Renée, herself, died and was buried, on May 1, 1608. On November 3, of that year, the banns of marriage between father Denis Cloutier and Jeanne Rahir-Gaultier were published. From this second union were born: Leonard, baptized October 18, 1609; Denis, baptized February 29, 1612 and buried three days later; then the twins, Pierre and Michelle, baptized March 27, 1613.

But where do we find Zacharie in this family? Since he does not appear in the records of Saint-Jean-Baptiste parish, it must be assumed that, he was born prior to 1600 and was one of several other children of Denis and Renée, such as: Michel, married to Jeanne Commanche; Renée, bonded to Claude Noe; Nicolas, joined to Catherine Roussel; Louis, linked to Madeleine Truchet and Catherine, coupled to François Noe.

PEACEMAKER AND HEAD OF FAMILY Zacharie Cloutier first saw the light of day about the year 1590. On July 13, 1616, in the parish of his birth, he married Sainte Dupont, from the locality of Feings. She had been born in 1596 and was the widow of Michel Lermusier. In Mortagne, on March 2, 1633, the Notary Mathurin Roussel wrote an agreement which demonstrated how the future Canadian played the role of family peacemaker between his father and one of his brothers. This was obviously a dispute concerning a family inheritance.

Zacharie and Sainte had six children while still living in Mortagne. They were: Zacharie, born 1617; Jean, born 1620; Saintes, born 1622; Ann born 1626; Charles, born 1629 and Louise, born 1632. The little Saintes died, on September 19, 1632. The Cloutiers had five living children and would have no more.

IN NEW FRANCE FROM 1634 On January 15, 1634, Surgeon Robert Giffard, a notable proponent of a Canadian community, was soliciting potential emigrants when, he received notice that, he had been awarded the Seigneurie of Beauport from the One Hundred Associates. Giffard had been in New France before, from 1621 to 1626 and again in 1628. In 1634, he successfully recruited several citizens of Perche as prospective residents for his newly acquired realm, one of which was Zacharie Cloutier.

This contract of servitude, signed by Cloutier and Jean Guyon in joinder, in favor of Giffard, was written up by Notary Mathurin Roussel, at La Rochelle, on March 14, 1634. It stipulated that, Giffard would pay the passage plus food and lodging in Canada ( to the extent that the land permitted ), for Cloutier and Guyon, plus one family member each, for a period ot three years, to date from June 24, 1634. After two years, the two men would be allowed to send for the rest of their families, also at the expense of the Seigneur of Beauport. Giffard agreed to give each man a few head of livestock to get started farming, plus one thousand arpents of land with the right to build on it, in addition to the right to hunt, fish and trade with the savages. And so it was done. According to Raoul Cloutier, author of a voluminous essay on his ancestors, even though Zacharie had agreed to leave France with his seventeen year old son only, he changed his mind and decided to bring the entire family to Canada. By July 22, 1634, master-carpenter Zacharie Cloutier and master-mason Jean Guyon, were hard at work on construction of a manor house for their lord as well as the parish church and Fort Saint-Louis in Québec.

FIRST MARRIAGE CONTRACT IN CANADA As soon as the Cloutier family was settled down, Zacharie did not waste any time getting organized. He had already begun to plan for the future of his children and on July 27, 1636, he arranged for his daughter, Anne, to take a husband. This was unusual for two reasons: The marriage contract with Robert Drouin, son of Robert and Marie Dubois, was the first of its kind in Canada and Anne was only ten and a half years old! A stipulation in the agreement provided that, Anne was to continue to live at home with her parents until she was thirteen. The religious ceremony took place when Anne was eleven but, Robert had to contend himself with non-conjugal visits for two more years.

THE FIEF ON THE RIVER BUISSON A ruling drawn up by Jean de Lespinasse, on February 3, 1637, reveals that, Jean Guyon and Zacharie Cloutier, who seem to have done nothing without the other, finally took possession of the fiefs promised to them by Giffard. That of Guyon was named "du Buisson "and that of Cloutier was called "La Cloutièrie ". It is in this act that, we first observe the signature of Zacharie Cloutier, in the form of an axe, the mark of his trade. In 1641, a map made by the engineer-surveyor Jean Bourdon, shows the layout of these lands "from Kebec to Cap Tourmente ". We may note that, the sons of Zacharie as well as other colonists, were settled on the territory extending from the river at Petit Pre to the river at Chiens, which became the future parish of Château-Richer. On May 29, 1644, Notary Guillaume Tronquet recorded that: "Giffard, Sieur de Beauport, visited the Buisson river in company with Jean Guyon, Zacharie Cloutier, Adrien du Chesne, Jean Bourdon and Abraham Martin", and that, he gave them the land "from this river up to the first point, running along the length of the Saint Lawrence river."

DISPUTES BETWEEN GIFFARD AND HIS VASSALS Historian, Marcel Trudel, reports that, things did not always go well between Seigneur Giffard and his habitants. On December 18, 1636, the Lord of Beauport obtained a judgement against Cloutier and Guyon concerning certain work which was due him. Then, after the division of the land, on December 10, 1637, certain boundaries disputes occured. Governor Montmagny delayed making his decision until May 4, 1642. On July 2, 1646, Giffard sued Guyon and Cloutier for refusing to render him " faith and homage " as all good vassals ( humble servant or subordinate ) were required to do with regard to their seigneur. On the 19th, of the same month, the Governor ordered them to comply. The two disobedients got even in their own way by refusing to present the inventory as required from all landowners in a seigneurie. On August 20, the Governor compelled the rebels to comply once and for all. It is necessary to understand them. They had always considered Giffard as an equal. Their pride having blinded them, they found it difficult to accept their former friend as their superior in the hierarchy.

BOURGEOIS SEIGNEUR AND MASTER CARPENTER In 1651, the Cloutier family lived on Côte de la Montagne, in the town of Québec. Twelve years later, Zacharie was described as a bourgeois seigneur working as a master-carpenter. In addition to his fief of 693 arpents, he owned a lot measuring 41.4 toises ( fathom/6feet ). By this time, he was 73 years old and his wife was 67. He also owned a lot in the lower town of Québec between those of Paschal Lemaistre and Jean Guyon. The census of 1666 indicates that both Zacharie, father and son, lived on the Beaupre coast. Then, the next census, that of 1681, fails to mention either the venerable pioneer or his wife. What became of them?

In order to return to this land at Château-Richer, Zacharie sold his fief to Nicolas Dupont of Neuville, on December 20, 1670. Prior to this however, on January 19, 1668, Zacharie assembled his children before Notary Michel Fillon and prepared an agreement designed to minimize the difficulties which could arise from the inheritance after his and Saintes deaths. Once all had been settled, the children promised to assist their parents and to attend to all of their needs. The following year, on May 12, 1669, Zacharie and Sainte made their will and placed themselves in the hands of son Zacharie.

Old patriarch Zacharie died first at about 87 years of age. He fell into his last sleep, on November 17, 1677. Sainte was taken in her turn less than three years later, on July 14, 1680. They both lie at rest in their favorite place, Château-Richer.

MANY NAME VARIATIONS The surname Cloutier was sometimes Cloustier in the days of Our Ancestor. Succeeding generations have added the following: Cary, Cluchier, Clukey, Clurkey, Cluquet, Clouter, Lapensee and Nailer

THE PATRIARCH ZACHARIE CLOUTIER - Zacharie Cloutier from Mortagne from le Perche, district of Orne, N. France is our ancestor and that of all French Canadians - males and females. There is not one genealogy that does not mention this several times. During the winter of 1633-1634, a medical doctor from Mortagne, Robert Giffard, became Lord of Beauport, and recruited voters for his seigneury. By a contract passed by the city of Mortagne, he gave freehold of "la Clouterie" {?} at Beauport to our ancestor Zacharie Cloutier. At the end of March 1634, 42 people, among them Zacharie Cloutier, his wife Xainte Dupont and their five children left La Rochelle for Canada. On July 22, 1634 Zacharie Cloutier, Carpenter by trade, began building the residence of the Lord of Beauport. He also built the Catholic church in Quebec and the Fort Saint-Louis. Until 1670 Zacharie (and Xainte - I presume), lived in his free-hold, cultivating with a passion and then he sold it to Nicolas Dupont of Neuville and went to live at Chateau-Richer

http://awt.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=kpoirier&id=I03142 Zacharie CLOUTIER 90 - (son of Denis, d after 2 Mar 1633, & Renee GRIERE, buried 1 May 1608 St-Jean de Mortagne); d 17 buried 18 Sept 1677 Chateau-Richer; 76 yrs by record of 1666, 77 yrs by record of 1667, at Beaupre (Chateau-Richer); hired hand 14 Mar 1634 Mortagne by Robert GIFFORD; priviledged of L'arrier-fief de LaCloutiererie within Beauport 14 Mar 1634, sold to Nicolas DUPONT 20 Dec 1670.[DBC I 238, MSGCF (116); 106-113 (on behalf of the ancestors and parents in France),AG-OR]

Z.CLOUTIER et sa famille arrivent à Québec en 1634. Ils furent reçus par CHAMPLAIN. Plus tard ils s'établissent à BEAUPORT et Z.CLOUTIER y contruisit sa résidence qu'il nomma "La CLOUTERIE" Le 09 Nov 1676, célébration des noces de diamant, 52 petits-enfants et 10 arrière petit-enfants. Ce n'est que beaucoup plus tard qu'il se retira avec Xaint à CHATEAU-RICHIER, sur la côte de BEAUPORT, où les deux furent inhumés.

Z. CLOUTIER was born in the parish of St. Jean de Mortagne, Mortagne au Perche in the old provine called Le Perche east of Normandy. Their actual birthday are not known. Some time before the French revolution the parish of Sy. Jean was destroyed and all the records were transferred to the Mairie. In those days the churches were the only ones keeping records and many genealogy records troughout France were destroyed at the time of the French revolution[MASTER CLOUTIER.FTW]

Zacharie's good traveling buddy and fellow explorer, Jean Guyon Du Buisson. They both came to New France with surgeon, Robert Giffard. http://genforum.genealogy.com/cloutier/messages/34.html[47254.FTW] By Michel Ganivet, Secretary General of the Perche-Canada Association

In his book entitled Naissance d'une population, les Français établis au Canada au XVIIe siècle [Birth of a Population: French Settlers in Canada in the Seventeenth Century], Hubert Charbonneau and his co-authors cite 1,955 male and 1,425 female pioneers, for a total of 3,380 people, who helped to settle New France. Meanwhile, Mme Françoise Montagne has been able to pinpoint the number of Percheron immigrants at 146 adults. They therefore represent only 4.3% of the total, which is not very much. Other figures probably include the French-born children of these early starters when they mention 250 settlers, which raises the percentage to around 7%.

Whatever the case, we are obliged to recognize that the names of these pioneers turn up today in numerous Canadian family genealogies. A very approximate figure would put the number of direct descendants of these founding ancestors from le Perche at a million and a half. And this no doubt ignores the branches of the family tree found throughout North America or the vagaries of family names that have undergone some curious changes over centuries past.

How could such a phenomenon have occurred? I think the answer can be found in Elysée Reclus, who in essence writes that although the Percherons were not the largest group to settle Canada, they were the first.

To tell the story of these pioneers, we would have to talk of adventures, of epics. We would have to tell how these people surmounted a thousand dangers, survived terrible storms and fought Indian tribes daubed with war paint, lending this modern-day odyssey a style that is worthy of the biggest technicolour blockbusters from Hollywood. But let's keep it down to earth: le Perche, even though touched by winds and storms from time to time, is certainly too distant from the shore to have felt the breath of the open sea otherwise than by rumour, in the seventeenth century at least.

We are in the reign of Louis XIII. French society seems still frozen in its three estates: wealth and poverty are primarily inherited and everyone, in the words of a history book, "exists in the place God gave him from birth."

Yet signs of change are evident. The middle class, the artisans with their know-how and the farmers with property, are starting a slow but inexorable social ascent. The rate of illiteracy is indeed very high, but writings are circulating. Perhaps those of Samuel de Champlain, who published the story of his voyages with Jean Bergeon in 1613, got as far as le Perche. There is no indication. Our little province with its treed vistas still does not seem isolated from this opening up to the world: some noble families are showing the way. Many of them travel and fight in the royal armies engaged in Saintonge. Some of them already have two residences, an example being the Du Greniers, the lords of Le Pin et La Pellonnière (the native seigniory of Robert Drouin), who in 1612 has possessions in Oléron--in particular, the fine property of La Cailletière in Dolus that can still be admired today. Sea and ocean are also present in the persons of the shipwrights who come regularly to comb our forests for the oak they need to build their vessels. No doubt one of them should be credited with the graffiti found on the farm of Les Sablons near Bellême (now the restaurant of the Bellême-Saint-Martin Golf Club): these drawings show "flutes," the big merchant vessels built to cross the Atlantic.

So it is doubtless not by chance that in 1621 a doctor who had first been an apothecary at Tourouvre grows interested in New France. This is Robert Giffard, born at Autheuil near Tourouvre around 1587. Since a naval decree requires a surgeon on board every vessel, he takes ship and shortly thereafter sets foot on land near the "Habitation" built by Champlain at Quebec, which then has at most about forty settlers. Among them is Hèbert, a native of the Paris area who is also an apothecary.

Were the two men acquainted before? There is no indication. But one thing is certain: they join in agreeing with Champlain that this New France, despite the hostility of the English-backed Iroquois, deserves to get some fresh settlers. There are pictures suggesting that Robert Giffard spent seven happy years around a cabin called La Canardière by the Beauport River, hunting and fishing at his leisure. But I feel we should be very careful about accepting this under the circumstances. The permanent risk represented by the Aboriginal peoples, the threats of English incursions in reply to the siege of La Rochelle and the harshness of the climate would indicate that it was more than a holiday excursion for those already living there, numbering just 80 in 1627. Remember that at this same time more than 4,000 Dutch and English were already settled on the East coast.

Despite the long winters, however, the land is fertile on both sides of the St. Lawrence, and the fur trade in particular holds out immense potential that largely offsets any drawbacks. Persuaded like Champlain that this New France will not survive without the arrival of new settlers, Robert Giffard decides to return to France. At Paris on March 24, 1627, at the request of Guillaume de Caen, Equerry General of the Fleet, he says he "knows the country of New France from having been there and stayed there without interruption for five or six years and knows that this country, along the St. Lawrence River alone, can yield and support fifteen thousand beavers."

In this same year, this veritable "gold mine" prompts Richelieu to found the Company of One Hundred Associates, which is given the trading monopoly for this immense territory on condition of settling 4,000 people there before the year 1643.

This is an enormous task. Robert Giffard dreams only of getting back, but first he has to start a family and so marries Marie Regnouard at Mortagne. Their marriage contract is signed on February 12, 1628, in the presence of Mathieu Poitevin, notary.

Robert Giffard is no sooner married than he thinks about going back to sea. Leaving his young wife behind, he sets out to assemble an initial contingent of settlers. Fanned by the tensions surrounding the siege of La Rochelle, however, hostilities break out between France and England. The latter loses its grip on Aunis, but is looking for compensation. The vessels chartered by the Company of One Hundred Associates have a very bad end to their voyage. Reaching Tadoussac, the fleet commanded by the Sieur de Roquemont is intercepted by the fleet of Admiral Kirke in the pay of the English. Giffard is taken prisoner but manages to get back to France: Kirke seems to have agreed to return two vessels to the French to let them get home.

So Robert Giffard is back in Mortagne that autumn for the birth of his first daughter, Marie, baptized on December 28. This happy event barely conceals his disappointment, the end of his dream of settling in New France. Having lost La Rochelle, the English are now occupying Quebec, where Champlain has been obliged to capitulate.

Robert Giffard now settles at Mortagne, where he plies his trade with a heart full of nostalgia for this country of Canada. His first biographer, Alfred Cambray, gives us a picture tinged with lyricism of a Robert Giffard who "in the long fall and winter evenings, even facing his mortars and his jars...relived his travels overseas, went fishing across from La Canardière, travelled the Beauport shore where the hunt carried him," and had only one desire: "to see Quebec again and live there."

And very probably on many occasions, in his family circle, in the inns and on the public squares at Mortagne, Tourouvre and wherever his occupation took him, he did not fail to describe the country of Canada and the banks of the St. Lawrence of a thousand promises.

However, the event now arrives that suddenly makes this crazy dream possible again: on March 29, 1632, the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye restores Canada to France. This news is completely unexpected.

Robert Giffard renews contact with the Company of One Hundred Associates, of which his friend Jean Juchereau is a member. On January 15, 1634, the company grants him a seigniory at Beauport on condition that he settle citizens and colonists there. Local feelings about the plan are made clear by the financial support of Pierre Le Bouyer de Saint-Gervais, Criminal Lieutenant for the bailliage of Mortagne, who lends Robert Giffard 1,800 pounds.

In agreement to leave in the spring are Henry Pinguet with his wife and children; Jean Guyon, master mason at Mortagne (an ancestor of Céline Dion) and his family; Zacharie Cloutier, carpenter and his family, Jean's brother Noël Juchereau; Robert Drouin, tile maker from Jugué in the Parish of Le Pin, and others for a total of about thirty.

At last the great day dawns. Let us imagine this departure in early March from the foot of the church tower of Notre-Dame de Mortagne, completed only a few years before and much taller than it is now. No doubt many take to the road on foot. Jostling one another are a few carts loaded with meagre possessions on which women and children have found places. Quite probably, this convoy makes a first stop at Tourouvre and is then joined by the party of Jean Bourdon, Abbé Le Sueur and a few parishioners from Saint-Sauveur in Thury-Harcourt. A few days later, having slogged through the mud of the roads, they embark at Dieppe on board four ships. The Percherons, many of them seeing the sea for the first time, take their places on the vessel commanded by Mr. Duplessis-Bochard.

We do not know about the sailing conditions. We may assume that all went well. The annals of the Jes Date naissance: vers 1595

Zacharie Cloutier est né dans la paroisse de Mortagne au Perche en 1590, fils de Denis Cloutier et Renée Brière. Charpentier de son métier, il épouse à Mortagne, le 18 juillet 1616, Xainte ou Sainte Dupont, qui est de six ans sa cadette.

Tous les Cloutier d’Amérique sont d’une seule souche. Le couple a six enfants, tous nés à Mortagne entre 1617 et 1632, mais une fille décède à l’âge de dix ans.

Jean Guyon futur sieur du Buisson, est, avec Zacharie, cosignataire d’un contrat d’engagement, le 14 mars 1634, pour partir vers la lointaine Nouvelle-France. Au début juin, nul autre que Samuel de Champlain, est là pour accueillir toute la famille Cloutier.

Une concession de mille arpents lui est concédée officiellement le 3 février 1637 et s’appelle le fief de la Clouterie, ou Cloutièrerie, à Beauport.

Les cinq enfants Cloutier ont une belle et vaste progéniture, et tous ont un lien dans la présente généalogie.

La première à fonder une famille est Anne Cloutier, baptisée le 19 janvier 1626, à St-Jean de Mortagne. Elle devient l'épouse en 1637, âgée d'à peine 11 ans, du pionnier Robert Drouin, après avoir signé le 27 juillet 1636, le premier contrat de mariage, de la Nouvelle-France.

L’aîné, Zacharie Cloutier, baptisé le 16 août 1617, à Mortagne, du même prénom que son père, se marie lors d'un passage en France, en 1648, avec Madeleine Émard. Le couple revient dans la colonie avec deux soeurs de celle-ci, Barbe Émard qui se marie au fondateur de Beaupré, l'ancêtre Olivier LeTardif et, Anne Émard avec l'ancêtre Guillaume Cousture. Le couple Cloutier/Émard a huit enfants dont quatre enfants forment des branches nous reliant à l’ancêtre. Barbe Cloutier épouse Charles Bélanger, en 1663; René Cloutier, né en 1651, épouse Marie-Élisabeth Leblanc, en 1672; Marie-Madeleine Cloutier avec Jean Bouchard, dit Dorval, en 1676. Et le quatrième, Charles Cloutier, né en 1662, épouse Anne Thibault, en 1685.

Le deuxième fils, Jean Cloutier, baptisé le 13 mai 1620, à St-Jean de Mortagne, épouse en 1648, Marie Martin, née en 1635, fille de l’ancêtre Abraham Martin et Marguerite Langlois. Trois enfants du couple forment des liens. Un fils, Jean Cloutier en 1679, avec Louise Bélanger; et deux filles, Marie Cloutier, en 1671 avec Jean-François Bélanger, puis le troisième enfant, Xainte Cloutier avec Charles Fortin, en 1681.

Un troisième fils du couple Zacharie et Sainte Dupont, Charles Cloutier, baptisé le 3 mai 1629, à Mortagne, épouse en 1659, Louise Morin, née en 1643, fille de l’ancêtre Noël Morin et de Hélène Desportes. Trois enfants nous concernent, Élisabeth-Ursule Cloutier avec Nicolas Gamache, en 1676; Jeanne Cloutier avec Claude Gravel, en 1687, puis; Joseph Cloutier en 1733, avec Madeleine Lefebvre.

La cinquième enfant, Marie-Louise Cloutier baptisée le 18 mars 1632, à Mortagne, veuve de François Marguerie, noyé en face de Trois-Rivières avec Jean Amyot, épouse en secondes noces, en 1648, l'ancêtre Jean Mignault, dit Châtillon, né en 1630, à Paris.

L’ancêtre Zacharie décède en 1677, âgé de 87 ans et Xainte Dupont, trois ans plus tard. L’avenir de leurs descendants est assurés ainsi que la légende qui veut que dans toutes les familles Québecoises et francophones d'Amérique, il y a un peu de son sang, qui coule dans leurs veines.

http://membres.lycos.fr/ancetre/LefebvreC.htm

Cloutier", in French, means nail maker or nail dealer.

The ancestor of all Cloutiers in North America is Zacharie Cloutier arrived in Quebec city in 1634 with his family. He was a carpenter born and brought up in Mortagne, Perche province (nowadays Orne department). Mortagne is about 80 miles east-south-east of Paris.

the original Cloutiers seem to have disappeared in France. Those found there today, originated recently from North America.

Cloutiers and other French Canadians found in US and Mexico today, came from Quebec, mostly between 1850 and 1910. [thetardifs.ged]

Zacharie Cloutier est né dans la paroisse de Mortagne au Perche en 1590 , fils de Denis Cloutier et Renée Brière. Charpentier de son métier, il é pouse à Mortagne, le 18 juillet 1616, Xainte ou Sainte Dupont, qui est d e six ans sa cadette. Tous les Cloutier d’Amérique sont d’une seule souche. Le couple a six enf ants, tous nés à Mortagne entre 1617 et 1632, mais une fille décède à l’â ge de dix ans. Jean Guyon futur sieur du Buisson, est, avec Zacharie, cosignataire d’u n contrat d’engagement, le 14 mars 1634, pour partir vers la lointaine No uvelle-France. Au début juin, nul autre que Samuel de Champlain, est là p our accueillir toute la famille Cloutier. Une concession de mille arpents lui est concédée officiellement le 3 févr ier 1637 et s’appelle le fief de la Clouterie, ou Cloutièrerie, à Beaupor t. Les cinq enfants Cloutier ont une belle et vaste progéniture, et tous on t un lien dans la présente généalogie. La première à fonder une famille est Anne Cloutier, baptisée le 19 janvie r 1626, à St-Jean de Mortagne. Elle devient l'épouse en 1637, âgée d'à pe ine 11 ans, du pionnier Robert Drouin, après avoir signé le 27 juillet 16 36, le premier contrat de mariage, de la Nouvelle-France. L’aîné, Zacharie Cloutier, baptisé le 16 août 1617, à Mortagne, du même p rénom que son père, se marie lors d'un passage en France, en 1648, avec M adeleine Émard. Le couple revient dans la colonie avec deux soeurs de cel le-ci, Barbe Émard qui se marie au fondateur de Beaupré, l'ancêtre Olivie r LeTardif et, Anne Émard avec l'ancêtre Guillaume Cousture. Le couple Cl outier/Émard a huit enfants dont quatre enfants forment des branches nou s reliant à l’ancêtre. Barbe Cloutier épouse Charles Bélanger, en 1663; R ené Cloutier, né en 1651, épouse Marie-Élisabeth Leblanc, en 1672; Marie- Madeleine Cloutier avec Jean Bouchard, dit Dorval, en 1676. Et le quatriè me, Charles Cloutier, né en 1662, épouse Anne Thibault, en 1685. Le deuxième fils, Jean Cloutier, baptisé le 13 mai 1620, à St-Jean de Mor tagne, épouse en 1648, Marie Martin, née en 1635, fille de l’ancêtre Abra ham Martin et Marguerite Langlois. Trois enfants du couple forment des li ens. Un fils, Jean Cloutier en 1679, avec Louise Bélanger; et deux filles , Marie Cloutier, en 1671 avec Jean-François Bélanger, puis le troisièm e enfant, Xainte Cloutier avec Charles Fortin, en 1681. Un troisième fils du couple Zacharie et Sainte Dupont, Charles Cloutier , baptisé le 3 mai 1629, à Mortagne, épouse en 1659, Louise Morin, née e n 1643, fille de l’ancêtre Noël Morin et de Hélène Desportes. Trois enfan ts nous concernent, Élisabeth-Ursule Cloutier avec Nicolas Gamache, en 16 76; Jeanne Cloutier avec Claude Gravel, en 1687, puis; Joseph Cloutier e n 1733, avec Madeleine Lefebvre. La cinquième enfant, Marie-Louise Cloutier baptisée le 18 mars 1632, à Mo rtagne, veuve de François Marguerie, noyé en face de Trois-Rivières ave c Jean Amyot, épouse en secondes noces, en 1648, l'ancêtre Jean Mignault , dit Châtillon, né en 1630, à Paris. L’ancêtre Zacharie décède en 1677, âgé de 87 ans et Xainte Dupont, troi s ans plus tard. L’avenir de leurs descendants est assurés ainsi que la l égende qui veut que dans toutes les familles Québecoises et francophone s d'Amérique, il y a un peu de son sang, qui coule dans leurs veines. -------------------- www.delmars.com/family/perrault/1898.htm

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Zachary arrived in New France (Canada) in 1634. -------------------- For France, Sanual de Champlain founded a french settlement in Quebec in 1608. Accompanying Champlain and serving as his surgeon and apothecary (dispenser of medicines and drugs) was a man by the name of Robert Giffard a former resident of Mortagne. The name 'Cloutier', itself, supports the contention that Zacharie was a skilled person. It appears the name is a contraction of the French word "clou" meaning nail and "metier" meaning to make; thus a Cloutier being a 'maker of nails'. Jean Guyon, Master Mason, were signed to special contracts as witnessed by the notary Mathurin Roussel at La Rochelle on the 14th day of March 1634. The Seigneur agreed to give each man a few head of livestock to get started farming plus 1,000 arpents of land (one arpent equals 1-1/4 acre) or 1,250 acres. (http://www.naples.net/~clutchy/zach.htm).

On March 14, 1634, Zacharie signed a contract with Robert Giffard to work in Canada. Robert got seigniory in that same year. On June 4, 1634, Zachary arrives in Quebec with his wife and five children. (Http://www3.telus.net/public/cloutiem/Cloutier/touslesE.htm).

Chateau-Richer is a delightful little community situated on the northern bank of the St. Lawrence River about 25 Km east of Quebec City, and not far from Montmorency Falls which tumble over the Laurentide escarpment and empty into the St. Lawrence River. Opposite Chateau-Richer in the Ile d'Orleans (island of Orleans). Originally the farms were long narrow lots fronting on the banks of the river giving each farmer good arable bottom land and access to the river for fishing, and transportation. The lots extended to the escarpment thus providing wooded areas, from which lumber and firewood could be obtained. (http://www.naples.net/~clutchy/chatrich.htm).

Zacharie left the port of Dieppe, France in the spring of 1634. The trip took approximately two months. (Http://www3.telus.net/public/cloutiem/Cloutier/ent_03E.htm).

Zacharie and his family arrived in Quebec on June 4, 1634. The was a flotilla of the "Cent-Associes" made up of four boats, his was the first to arrive. The last one reached in August. They were created by Samuel de Champlain himself. Zacharie worked with Jean Guyon to construct the Giffard manor, build the Quebbec church, and the Fort St. Louis. Zacharie had many "disputes" with Giffard over the next ten years.

Zacharie put an end to associating with Giffard. He built houses and "thatched cottages" for those who wanted to in the area of Quebec City and the cote de Beaupre. He also worked on the construction of the fort Saint-Denis under the Governor Huault de Montmagy. Zacharie was granted 1,000 acres of beautiful praires and woodland later called "fief de la Clouterie". In 1670, he sold it to Nicolas Dupont de Neuville. He later moved in with his son Jean in Chateau-Richer. He also once lived in Quebec City at the Cote de la Montagne, translated "on the hill of the mountain". He was given the title of "bourgeois seigneur". (Http://www3.telus.net/public/cloutiem/Cloutier/ent_04E.htm).

Zacharie and Xainte were the first couple in Canada to celebrate its diamond and golden wedding. (Http://www3.telus.net/public/cloutiem/Cloutier/ent_05E.htm).

At first, those who had a right to the name Cloutier were the nailmakers of the specialized drop forges. However, by the 16th century, when Zacharie Cloutier came into the world, the name had become a patronym. The genealogist Gabriel Drouin exaggerates only a little bit when he states that Zacharie Cloutier is the ancestor of all the French Canadians. However, one fact is certain: If Zacharie was not yet the universal forefather, he was in the process of becoming so. Therefore, those of us so descended might do well to beware of ocular myopathy.

In 1965, Madame Pierre Montagne wrote a book in which she told us about the French origins of the Cloutiers. This great friend of Canada, by her persistent *and systematic research in the state archives and parish records of the Perche of long ago, taught us a great deal about all those families which comprised the first significant wave of Canadian settlement, beginning in 1634.

The earliest records available from the parish of Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-Mortagne date from the year 1600. The Cloutier family patriarch was father Denis, married to Renee Briere. We learn that after 1600, they had three children: Jacques, baptized 16 March 1601; Claude, baptized 17 March 1605; and Loyse, christened 22 February 1608 and buried on 3 March of the same year. Mother Renee herself, died and was buried on 1 May 1608. On 3 November of that year, the banns of marriage between father Denis Cloutier and Jeanne Rahir-Gaultier were published. From this second union were born: Le'onard, baptized 18 October 1609; Denis, baptized 29 February 1612 and buried three days later; then the twins Pierre and Michelle, named on 27 March 1613.

But where do we find Zacharie in this family? Since he does not appear in the records of Saint-Jean-Baptiste parish, it must be assumed that he was born prior to 1600 and was therefore, one of several other children of Denis and Rene'e, such as: Michel, married to Jeanne Commanche; Rene'e, bonded to Claude Noe; Nicolas, joined to Catherine Roussel; Louis, linked to Madeleine Truchet and Catherine, coupled to Francois Noe'.

PEACEMAKER AND HEAD OF FAMILY Zacharie Cloutier first saw the light of day about the year 1590. On 13 July 1616, in the parish of his birth, he married Xainte Dupont from the locality of Feings. She had been born in 1596 and was the widow of Michel Ler-musier. In Mortagne, on 2 March 1633, the notary Mathurin Roussel wrote an agreement which demonstrated how the future Canadian played the role of family peacemaker between his father and one of his brothers: "Furent presents Zacharie Cloustier, carpentier, demeurant a Mortagne; paroisse Saint-Jean, d'une part, et Jacques Cloustier, son frere, cordier, demeurant au dit lieu et paroisse d'autre part, et encore le dit Zacharie Cloustier se faisant et portant fort de Denis Cloustier, son pere, promettant qu'il aura ses presentes plus agre'ables et les lui faire ratifier...et heritiers de defunts Renee Briere, leur mere, femme en premieres noces du dit Denis, et a Jeanne Gaultier, sa femme en second mariage,... This was obviously a dispute concerning a family inheritance. Zacharie and Xainte had six children while still living in Mortagne. They were: Zacharie, 1617; Jean,1620; Xaintes, 1622; Anne, 1626; Charles, 1629; and Louise, 1632. The little Xaintes died on 19 September, 1632. Thus the Cloutiers had five living children and would have no more.

IN NEW FRANCE FROM 1634 On 15 January 1634, Surgeon Robert Giffard, a notable proponent of a Canadian community, was soliciting potential emigrants, when he received notice that he had been awarded the seigneury of Beauport from the One Hundred Associates. Giffard had been in New France before: From 1621 to 1626, and again in 1628. In 1634 he successfully recruited several citizens of Perche as prospective residents for his newly acquired realm: One of whom was Zacharie Cloutier.

This contract of servitude, signed by Cloutier and Guyon in joinder, in favor of Giffard, was written up by the notary Mathurin Roussel at LaRochelle on 14 March 1634. It stipulated that Giffard would pay the passage plus food and lodging in Canada (to the extent that the land permitted), for Cloutier and Guyon plus one family member each, for a period of three years, to date from 24 June 1634. After two years the two men would be allowed to send for the rest of their families, also at the expense of the Seigneur of Beauport. Giffard agreed to give each man a few head of livestock to get started farming, plus one thousand arpents of land with the right to build on it, in addition to the right to hunt, fish and trade with the savages. And so it was done. However, according to Raoul Cloutier, author of a voluminous essay on his ancestors, even though Zacharie had agreed to leave France with his seventeen year old son only, he changed his mind and decided to bring the entire family out to Canada. By 22 July 1634, master-carpenter Zacharie Cloutier and master-mason Jean Guyon were hard at work on construction of a manor house for their lord as well as the parish church and Fort Saint-Louis in Que'bec.

FIRST MARRIAGE CONTRACT IN CANADA As soon as the Cloutier family was settled down, Zacharie did not waste any time getting organized. He had already begun to plan for the future of his children and on 27 July 1636, he arranged for his daughter Anne to take a husband. This was unusual for two reasons: The marriage contract with Robert Drouin was the first of it's kind in Canada and Anne was only ten and a half years old! A stipulation in the agreement provided that Anne was to continue to live at home with her parents until she was thirteen. The religious ceremony took place when Anne was eleven but Robert had to content himself with non-conjugal visits for two more years.

THE FIEF ON THE RIVER BUISSON A ruling drawn up by Jean de Lespinasse on 3 February 1637, reveals that Jean Guyon and Zacharie Cloutier, who seem to have done nothing one without the other, finally took possession of the fiefs promised to them by Giffard. That of Guyon was named "du Buisson" and that of Zacharie was called "La Cloutierie". It is in this act that we first observe the signature of Zacharie Cloutier in the form of an axe, the mark of his trade. A facsimile is reproduced at the end of this Chapter. In 1641, a map made by the engineer-surveyor Jean Bourdon, shows the layout of these lands "from Kebec to Cap Tourmente". We may note thereon that the sons of Zacharie, as well as other colonists, were settled on the territory extending from the river at Petit Pre' to- the river at Chiens, which became the future parish of Chateau-Richer. On 29 May 1644, notary Guillaume Tronquet recorded that "Giffard, Sieur de Beauport, visited the Buisson river in company with Jean Guyon, Zacharie Cloutier, Adrien du Chesne, Jean Bourdon and Abraham Martin", and that he gave them the land "from this river up to the first point, running along the length of the Saint Lawrence river."

DISPUTES BETWEEN GIFFARD AND HIS VASSELS Historian Marcel Trudel reports that things did not always go well between Seigneur Giffard and his habitants. On 18 December 1636, the Lord of Beauport obtained a judgment against Cloutier and Guyon concerning certain work which was due him. Then after the division of the land on 10 December 1637, certain boundary disputes occurred. Governor Montmagny delayed making his decision until 4 May 1642. On 2 July 1646, Giffard sued Guyon and Cloutier for refusing to render him "faith and homage" as all good vassels were required to do with regard to their seigneur. On the 19th of the same month the Governor ordered them to comply. The two recalcitrants got even in their own way by refusing to present the inventory (aveu et denombrement) as required from all landowners in a seigneury. On 20 August, the Governor compelled the rebels to comply once and for all. It is necessary to understand them, they who had always considered Giffard as an equal. Their pride having blinded them, they found it difficult to accept their former friend as their superior in the hierarchy.

BOURGEOIS SEIGNEUR AND MASTER CARPENTER In 1651, the family Cloutier lived on Cote de la Montagne in the town of Quelbec. Twelve years later Zacharie was described as a bourgeois seigneur working as a master-carpenter. In addition to his fief'of 693 arpents, he owned a lot measuring 41.4 toises. By this time he was 73 years old and his wife was 67. He also owned a lot in the lower town Quebec, between those of Pascal Lemaistre and Jean Guyon. The census ol 1666 indicates that both Zacharies, father and son, lived on the Beaupre coast. Then the next census, that of 1681, fails to mention either the venerable pioneer or his wife. What became of them?

In order to remain to his land at Chateau-Richer, Zacharie sold his fief to Nicolas Dupont of Neuville on 20 December 1620. Prior to this however, on 19 January 1668, he had assembled his children before notary Michel Fillon, and prepared an agreement designed to minimize the difficulties which could arise from the inheritance after his and Xaintes deaths. Once all had been settled, the children promised to assist their parents and to attend to all of their needs. The following year, on 12 May 1669, Zacharie and Xainte made their will and placed themselves in the hands of son Zacharie. Old patriarch Zacharie died first at about 87 years of age. He fell into his last sleep on 17 November 1677. Xainte was taken in her turn less than three years later, on 14 July 1680. They both lie at rest in their favorite place, Chateau-Richer.

THE NEXT GENERATION When the Cloutier family arrived in Quebec on 4 June 1634, it was already complete: Father, mother and five children and no others would be born on Canadian soil. Here is some additional information on the first generation:

1) Zacharie, 16 August 1617, married Madeleine-Barbe Esmard (Aymard, Emard, Esmart, Eymard) on 4 April 1648 at Saint-Barthelemi in LaRochelle, France. She was the daughter of Jean and of Marie Bineau (Bureau) of Niort in Poitou, France. According to Raoul Cloutier, young Zacharie was a level headed man, charitable, friendly and a good farmer. They had 8 children, 5 boys and 3 girls, all of whom married neighbors. Zacharie died 3 February 1708. Barbe followed him on 28 May of the same year. They were both interred at Chateau-Richer.

2) Jean, 13 May 1620, became a carpenter like his father. He married Marie Martin on 21 January 1648 at Quebec. She was the daughter of Abraham Martin dit 1'Ecossais and Marguerite Langlois. Jean and Marie had 14 children, 10 of whom were girls. Jean died on 16 October 1690 and Marie followed him on 26 April 1699. It was his descendants who kept the ancestral home for nearly three centuries.

3) Anne, 19 January 1626, married the brickmaker Robert Drouin in 1637. They had six children, of whom, all but two died in infancy. Anne herself died on 4 February 1648. Robert remarried in 1649 to the widow Marie Chapelier who was not accepted by the Cloutiers and, as a result, Zacharie and Xainte raised their granddaughters, Genevieve and Jeanne Drouin, as their own.

4) Charles, 3 May 1629, was not interested in farming, so he too became a carpenter. On 20 April 1659, he married Louise Morin, the daughter of Noel and of Helene Desportes who, as Helene Langlois, was generally recognized to have been the first white child born in New France. Charles and Louise had 13 children, 6 boys and 7 girls. Charles died on 5 June 1709 and Louise on 29 April 1713.

5) Louise, 18 March 1632, married Fran9ois Marguerie, Sieur de la Haye, at age fourteen. He was one of the most colorful men of early New France. A guide and interpreter of Indian languages, he lived and worked among the tribes and even survived capture and imprisonment by the Iroquois. They were married on 26 October 1645 and went to live at Trois-Rivieres. Shortly thereafter he was drowned in a canoe accident. Childless and widowed at seventeen, Louise returned to Quebec where, five months later, on 10 November 1648, she married the tailor Jean Mignot dit Chatillon: They had 14 children. Mignot died about 1680 and in 1689 Louise married for a third time to the saddlemaker Jean-Pierre Mataux (Mataut, Matteau). They were childless and Louise died on 22 January 1699 at age 68.

MANY NAME VARIATIONS

The surname Cloutier was sometime Cloustier in the days of our ancestor. Succeeding generations have added the following: Gary, Cluchier, Clukey, Clurkey, Cluquet, Clouter, Lapensee and Nailer. (Chapter 6)

From Nosorigines.qc.ca (French): Zacharie Cloutier peut être considéré à juste titre comme l’ancêtre de tous les francophonesd’Amérique.

Il est né en 1590 à Mortagne, dans le Perche, en France.

Il y épousa Xainte Dupont et ils émigrèrent en Nouvelle-France en 1634 avec leurs cinq enfants.

A son arrivée au pays, Zacharie est âgé de quarante-quatre ans. Il s’établit, avec sa famille, dans la seigneurie de Robert Giffard, à Beauport.

Il y prend possession d’une terre le 29 mai 1644.

Peu de temps après, il déménage à Château-Richer où il vivra le reste de ses jours.

Occasionnellement, Zacharie Cloutier viendra prêter main-forte pour effectuer des travaux de maçonnerie et de menuiserie dans de gros ouvrages.

Au recensement de 1667, il a 77 ans, Xainte en a 71 et ils ont deux bestiaux.

Il trépassa à l’automne de l’année 1677. Il était âgé de 87 ans. Son fils Zacharie continuera la culture de la terre paternelle.

Des cinq enfants Cloutier, trois fils se marièrent à Château-Richer. Les générations suivantes se dispersèrent peu à peu et s’étendirent à travers toute l’Amérique.

From Genealogy.com:

LE PATRIARCHE ZACHARIE CLOUTIER

ANCETRE DE TOUS LES CANADIENS FRANCAIS

Zacharie Cloutier, Percheron, venu de Mortagne, est votre ancêtre et celui de presque tous les Canadiens français, soit en lignée masculine, soit en lignée féminine. Il n'est pas une généalogie qui n'en fasse rnention une ou plusieurs fois. Pendant l'hiver 1633 -1634, un rnédecin de Mortagne, Robert Giffard, devenu seigneur de Beauport, recruta des censitaires pour sa seigneurie. Par contrat passé en la ville de Mortagne, il donna le fief de "la Clouterie" à Beauport, à votre ancêtre, Zacharie Cloutier.

A la fin de mars 1634, quarante-deux personnes parrni lesquelles Z a c h a r i e Cloutier, sa femme Xainte et ses cinq enfants, s'embarquèrent à *Dieppe pour le Canada.

  • Il y a quelquefois confusion entre ce voyage et celui de Zacharie(fils) qui s'embarqua à La Rochelle avec son épouse en 1648.

Dès le 22 juillet 1634, Z a c h a r i e Cloutier, charpentier de son métier, commençait la construction de la résidence du seigneur de Beauport. Il s'occcupa aussi de celles de l'église paroissiale de Québec et du fort Saint-Louis. Jusqu'en 1670, il vécut sur son fief de la Clouterie, défrichant et cultivant avec ardeur; puis il vendit son fief à Nicolas Dupont de Neuville et alla habiter chez l'un de ses fils, au Château-Richer.

Zacharie Cloutier et son épouse purent célébrer leurs noces d'or et même de diamant. En effet Cloutier rnourut en 1677 et son épouse en 1680. Ils laissaient de nombreux enfants, petits-enfants et arrière petits-enfants.

Zacharie Cloutier avait une marque fort originale qui lui tenait lieu de signature. C'était une hache, emblème de son métier.

Notes

  • About Place of Death/Burial: In 1677, this place was : city=Château-Richer, County=[blank], Province=Québec, Country=Canada. "Montmorency" will be a county only from 1855 to 1981 and "La Côte-de-Beaupré Regional County Municipality" only from 1982.

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Zacharie Cloutier's Timeline

1590
December 1590
Mortagne, Perche, France
December 1590
Mortagne, Perche, France
1616
July 18, 1616
Age 25
Mortagne, Perche, France
1617
August 16, 1617
Age 26
Mortagne-au-Perche, Orne, Lower Normandy, France
August 16, 1617
Age 26
Mortagne, Perche, France
1617
- 1632
Age 26
France

SOURCE: Généalogie du Québec

Enfants de Cloutier Zacharie et/ou Dupont Sainte

Nom ----------------Naissance ---Décès --------Père ------Mère --------Époux(se)
**********************************************************************************************

Zacharie Cloutier 16 Août 1617 03 Fév 1708 Z. Cloutier S. Dupont Emard Madeleine

Jean Cloutier 13 Mai 1620 16 Oct 1690 Z. Cloutier S. Dupont Martin Marie

Xainte Cloutier 01 Nov 1622 19 Sept 1632 Z. Cloutier S. Dupont
Anne Cloutier 19 Jan 1626 04 Fév 1648 Z. Cloutier S. Dupont Drouin Robert

Charles Cloutier 03 Mai 1629 05 Juin 1709 Z. Cloutier S. Dupont Morin Louise

Louise Cloutier 18 Mars 1632 22 Jan 1699 Z. Cloutier S. Dupont Marguerie Francois
Migneault Jean
Mataut Jean

1620
May 13, 1620
Age 29
Mortagne, Perche, France
1622
November 1, 1622
Age 31
St Jean Mortagne-au-Perche Orne France,,,,,
1626
January 19, 1626
Age 35
Mortagne, Perche, France
1626
Age 35