Josip Juraj Franjo Jelačić Bužimski, BR (1801 - 1859) MP

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Birthplace: Petrovaradin, Vojvodina, Serbia
Death: Died in City of Zagreb, Croatia
Occupation: hrvatski ban 1848-1859
Managed by: Jadra (c)
Last Updated:

About Josip Juraj Franjo Jelačić Bužimski, BR

http://www.moljac.hr/biografije/jelacic.htm

http://bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josip_Jela%C4%8Di%C4%87 Josip Jelačić Bužimski (Petrovaradin, 16. oktobar 1801. - Zagreb, 20. maj 1859.), general i hrvatski ban od 1848. do 1859., član plemićke porodice Jelačić. Ukinuo je kmetstvo i sazvao prve izbore za Hrvatski Sabor. Kao vojskovođa je pobijedio u nizu bitaka protiv ustanika u Habsburškoj Monarhiji za vrijeme Revolucije u Mađarskoj 1848. U Hrvatskoj se slavi kao nacionalni junak.

Rođen je u Petrovaradinu u Srijemu, gdje mu je otac Franjo bio zapovjednik slavonske Vojne krajine. Istoga dana 16. oktobra kršten je u župnoj crkvi sv. Jurja u Petrovaradinu.

Prošlost roda Jelačića tijesno je povezana s historijom hrvatskog naroda. Četiri vijeka pripadnici toga roda bijahu ratnici, istaknuti krajiški časnici, visoki vojni zapovjednici, državnici, svećenici, prosvjetitelji, dobrotvori i pisci.

Josip Jelačić s osam godina započinje svoje školovanje u bečkom Therezianumu, najelitnijoj plemićkoj školi svoga vremena, gdje se sinovi plemića i velikaša odgajaju za administrativnu, vojnu službu u Austro-Ugarskom carstvu.

Od 1819. godine, kada kao odličan diplomant napušta Therezianum, barun Jelačić vrtoglavo započinje uspon u činovima, častima i podvizima, ne samo u korist carstva kojem je služio, nego najprije svog hrvatskog naroda, njegovog interesa i promjene njegovog položaja.

Vojnička služba [uredi]

Vojničko službovanje započinje u Galiciji kao potporučnik u Trećoj konjaničkoj pukovniji kojom zapovijeda barun Vinko Knežević, ujak njegove majke Ane. Zatim službuje u Beču, Galiciji, Ogulinskoj pukovniji: Drežnička i Ogulinska kumpanija, Italiji, opet u Ogulinu (često posjećuje u Zagrebu majku i prijatelje narodnjake koji se postavljaju na čelo hrvatskog narodnog pokreta u borbi protiv madžarizacije), Zadru (često putuje po Dalmaciji i Crnoj Gori, te prati po Velebitu poznatoga botaničara saskoga kralja Fridrika Augusta), Glini i u skladu s tim napreduje u činovima. Pisma pretpostavljenih mu, navode da govori i piše njemački, hrvatski, francuski i mađarski i prilično dobro italijanski i latinski, da je upućen u vojničke znanosti i da teži višoj naobrazbi, da je dobar mačevalac, izvrstan strijelac i izvanredan jahač, strateg, organizator, vojskovođa, da je spretan, radin, uslužan, blag, pravedan, brižan, šaljiv i vesele naravi. U predasima vojnih pohoda piše pjesme od kojih su neke toliko popularne da se pjevaju kao koračnice u Habsburškoj monarhiji, a i velik broj ih je spjevan njemu u čast. Prvu zbirku pjesama pod naslovom "Eine Stunde der Erinnerung" (Trenutak uspomene) objavljuje u Zagrebu 1825. godine na njemačkom jeziku. U Ogulinu u salonu svog pukovnika Schneckela širi narodnjačke ideje među časnicima i graničarima i često pjeva najpoznatije hrvatske budnice i prati se na glasoviru. Kao zapovjednik banske pukovnije u Glini, često ratuje s Turcima, a s nekima i prijateljuje. Od Mahmud-bega Bašić iz Bihaća dobija na dar rasnog konja bijelca (na tom konju ide na bansko ustoličenje i poslije na Mađarsku).

Banska čast [uredi]

Kralj Ferdinand I (V) Habsburgovac (1835-1848) imenuje ga 23. marta 1848. godine u Beču hrvatskim banom i tajnim kraljevskim savjetnikom i unapređuje u čin generalmajora i zapovjednika obiju banskih pukovnija, glinske i petrinjske, a Jelačić 8. aprila 1848. godine u Beču polaže bansku prisegu i biva imenovan feldmaršallajtnantom i vojničkim zapovjednikom u banskoj i krajiškoj Hrvatskoj, te biva svečano ustoličen 5. juna 1848. godine u Zagrebu.

Svečanost njegova ustoličenja prati svečanost otvaranja Hrvatskog Sabora 6. juna, prvoga hrvatskog građanskog Sabora na osnovi izbornog reda utemeljenog po načelima građanskog liberalizma, s ukupno 191 zastupnikom, kojem prethode skupštine s preko nekoliko stotina predstavnika hrvatskog naroda održane 17., 22. i 25. marta 1848. godine u Zagrebu s donešenim narodnim programom - Zahtjevanje naroda u 30 tačaka, koje poklonstvena deputacija, "do četiri stotine osoba, obučeni u narodnom odijelu, u surke, bijele ili modre hlače, s kalpakom ili crven-kapom i sabljama, jedini nacionalgardisti i varaždinski grenadiri u svojim uniformama, a svećenici u svom odijelu", odnosi u Beč kralju Ferdinandu V koji obećaje potvrđenje tih Zahtjeva.

1848. [uredi]

Ban Jelačić proglašava 25. aprila 1848. godine ukidanje kmetstva, 28. aprila 1848. godine izdaje se Hrvatski forint, a 9. juna 1848. godine Hrvatski sabor u 18. tačaka određuje odnos Kraljevina Hrvatske, Dalmacije i Slavonije prema Ugarskoj, ustrojenje Banskog vijeća - hrvatske vlade, korištenje hrvatskog kao službenog jezika, što dovodi da madžarskim nastojanjima kralj Ferdinand V manifestom od 10. juna 1848. godine lišava bana Jelačića svih služba i časti. Taj manifest ne bijaše objavljen i za njega ban Jelačić nije znao kad je 19. juna 1848. godine predavao kralju Ferdinandu V "reprezentaciju" u kojoj Hrvatski Sabor zahtijeva "uređenje Austrije kao federacije ravnopravnih naroda" i da u Hrvatskoj Trojednici bude obnovljena banska vlast od Drave do mora, slijedom koje kralj postavlja nadvojvodu Ivana za posrednika između Trojedne Kraljevine i Ugarske. Za manifest se doznaje 20. juna 1848. godine, te se na izvanrednoj sjednici Sabora 21. juna 1848. godine donose zaključci da se sav narod digne na oružje i pozove natrag 35.000 graničara iz Italije, a na prijedlog zastupnika Andrije Črnog 23. juna 1848. godine trg Harmice proziva se Trgom bana Jelačića. Ban Jelačić iz Celovca, gdje je zastao na putu u Zagreb, pismom smiruje stanje. Hrvatski Sabor 29. juna 1848. godine zalaganjem bana Jelačića prihvaća posredovanje nadvojvode Ivana i traži opoziv manifesta. Na zasjedanju 1. jula 1848. godine Sabor raspravlja o pismu nadvojvode Ivana kojim se ban Jelačić poziva u Beč na pregovore i upućuje kralju zahtjev u 11 tačaka. To sve dovodi do madžarskih prijetnji ratom i u Hrvatskom Saboru 4. jula 1848. godine ban Jelačić dobija novac i dragocjenosti prisutnih, i kasnije drugih domoljuba, za opremanje vojske za otpor madžarskoj provali.

Narodni zastupnici Trojedne Kraljevine Hrvatske, Slavonije i Dalmacije 6. jula 1848. godine upućuju proglas narodu u kojem upozoravaju na sve okolnosti u vezi s pregovorima s Madžarima. Da bi oslabio uticaj madžarskih agenata po Slavoniji i Srijemu ban Jelačić odlazi u posjetu na 12 dana u te krajeva (u Iloku na skupštini Srijemskog kantona drži govor koji oslikava njegov odnos prema rodnom kraju). 29. jula 1848. godine ban Jelačić u Beču vodi pregovore s predsjednikom ugarske vlade Batthyanyjem na kojima ne postiže prihvaćanje hrvatskih zahtjeva. 6. septembra 1848. godine banu Jelačiću stiže pismo kralja Ferdinanda V kojim opoziva manifest o smjenjivanju bana Jelačića od 10. juna 1848. godine. Aktivnosti Mađara na destabilizaciji Trojedne Kraljevine i njihova oružana aktivnost nad pučanstvom, rezultiraju 11. septembra 1848. godine prelaskom hrvatske vojske pod carskim barjakom preko rijeke Drave preko mosta kraj Varaždina (52.000 vojnika) i u Slavoniji (10.000 vojnika).

U Pešti 28. septembra 1848. godine dolazi do otvorene pobune protiv kraljevskog dvora i ubistva grofa Lamberga, imenovanog u drugoj polovini septembra kraljevskim povjerenikom i vrhovnim zapovjednikom sve vojske u Ugarskoj, pa i Jelačićeve, pa hrvatska vojska po zapovijedi vojnog ministra Latoura kreće na sjeverozapad u smjeru austrijske granice gdje su joj se trebale pridružiti carsko-kraljevske čete u zapadnim krajevima Ugarske, u Slovačkoj i Češkoj. 3. oktobra 1848. godine kralj Ferdinand V imenuje bana Jelačića guvernerom i vrhovnim zapovjednikom sve carsko-kraljevske vojske u Ugarskoj.

U Beču 6. oktobra 1848. godine izbija revolucija kojoj cilj bijaše stvaranje velike jedinstvene Njemačke pod uticajem Svenjemačkog parlamenta u Frankfurtu n/M, a bijaše povezana s političkom djelatnošću Mađara u Ugarskoj i inicirana na njihov poticaj da bi carsko-kraljevske čete odvojili od bana Jelačića. Ban Jelačić 7. oktobra 1848. godine uvečer dobija vijest o izbijanju revolucije u Beču, o ubistvu ministra rata Latoura i bijegu kralja Ferdinanda V i odmah mijenja odluku da ide na Peštu i kreće na Beč kojeg opkoljuje sa 60.000 ljudi (do 20. oktobra 1848. godine s carskim četama iz Češke i drugih krajeva Austrije taj broj se penje na 80.000 ljudi). 16. oktobra 1848. godine kralj Ferdinand V na zagovor njemačkih konzervativnih građanskih krugova promiče kneza Windischgraetza, vrhovnog zapovjednika u Češkoj, u čin feldmaršala i imenuje zapovjednikom sve carsko-kraljevske vojske, osim one koja se nalazila u Italiji pod zapovjedništvom maršala Radetzkoga.

Mađari dolaze revolucionarima u Beču u pomoć sa 33.000 vojnika, te 28., 29. i 30. oktobra 1848. godine vodi se bitka između bana Jelačića i Mađara. 31. oktobra 1848. godine u Beču prestaju sukobi.

Banu Jelačiću 2. novembra 1848. godine priređen je svečani doček u Beču. 10. novembra 1848. godine ruski car Nikola I. odlikuje ga Ordenom sv. Andrije i imenuje vitezom Reda sv. Vladimira I. stupnja, a 24. novembra 1848. godine kralj Ferdinand V iz Olomouca u Moravskoj dodijeljuje mu križ Leopoldova reda I. stupnja. Slična priznanja prima i iz Saske i Berlina. Dobiva Spomenicu bečkog dvora i spomen-medalju u bronci kojoj se tekst na naličju "Za kralja, zakon i jednakopravnost narodima", mijenja u "Za Austriju, zakon, slobodu i jednakopravnost" na intervenciju bečkog dvora.

Pod zapovjedništvom kneza Windischgraetza 16. decembra 1848. godine pokrenuta je vojna na Ugarsku. Vojska bijaše podijeljena na tri zbora, a prvim je zapovijedao ban Jelačić s kojim je ušao u Budim i Peštu 5. januara 1849. godine.

Novi vladar car i kralj Franjo Josip I imenuje bana Jelačića 2. decembra 1848. godine gubernatorom Rijeke s pripadajućom zemljom, te civilnim i vojnim gubernatorom Dalmacije čime se većina hrvatskih historijskih i etničkih područja ujedinjuje pod upravom jedne osobe, bana Jelačića.

U Habsburškoj monarhiji 4. marta 1848. godine donosi se oktroirani (nametnuti) ustav, koji se u Hrvatskoj proglašava temeljnim državnim zakonom 6. septembra 1849. godine. Ukida se sve što je postignuto u 1848. godini, ukida se sloboda tiska, zabranjuje svaki politički život, organizira oružništvo i policijski nazor. Naporima bana Jelačića na očuvanju hrvatske autonomije, potkraj 1849. godine Međimurje se priključuje Hrvatskoj, hrvatski jezik postaje službeni jezik, a u dopisivanju sa središnjim organima službeni je njemački jezik.

Za ratne zasluge ban Jelačić imenuje se 13. marta 1849. godine generalom topništva i vrhovnim zapovjednikom Južne armije u jugoistočnom području Monarhije koja broji 72.000 vojnika. Nakon devet mjeseci izbivanja iz Hrvatske 26. aprila 1849. godine ban Jelačić vraća se u Osijek i nastavlja s oslobađanjem zaposjednutih područja od Mađara. Dekretom od 5. februara 1851. godine imenuje se vlasnikom nove erdeljske infanterijske pukovnije.

Počasnim građaninom Pešte ban Jelačić proglašava se 1849. godine, počasnim građaninom Beča 4. septembra 1849. godine, Požuna 21. septembra 1849. godine i Oedenburga 2. oktobra 1849. godine.

Ban Josip Jelačić nazoči dvanaest ministarskih konferencija i na dvanaestoj se oprašta od ministara jer se njihov rad protivi njegovim uvjerenjima i njegovoj savjesti.

Društveno djelovanje [uredi]

Prije polaska na vojnu, u Varaždinskom kantonu osniva Zavod bana Jelačića za nemoćne vojnike, a poslije rata na njegov prijedlog 17. decembra 1849. godine osniva se Ozljeđenička zaklada za Trojednu Kraljevinu i Vojvodinu. Bansko vijeće utemeljuje Zakladu Jelačića bana u Zagrebu za nemoćne vojnike i njihove obitelji i ban Jelačić u fond te zaklade daje sve prihode od svog pjesničkog djela "Eine Stunde der Erinnerung".

Njegovim zalaganjem 1850. godine osniva se Društvo za povjestnicu jugoslavensku, Kukuljeviću se omogućuje istraživački rad arhivske građe u Dubrovniku, značajne za hrvatsku historiju, te vladarevim patentom 7. septembra 1850. godine Zagreb biva spojen u jedinstvenu općinu i time se postavlja temelj modernoga grada Zagreba.

Smatrajući seljačke zadruge velikom blagodati seljaka, inzistira na registriranju u zemljišnim knjigama urbarijalne zemlje zadruga kao zajedničkog vlasništva, uvođenju mirovnih sudova za rješavanje sporova među članovima zadruga i 1851. godine šalje u Beč jedan memorandum u vezi s diobom seljačkih zadruga.

13. decembra 1851. godine upućuje poziv za izgradnju Hrvatskog pozorišta, jer "bez narodnog pozorišta ne ima nade da će se razviti naša književnost, dakle ni napredak našega duševnog izobraženja". Vlada prikupljenim prilozima otkupljuje Stankovićevo pozorište (na križanju Ćirilometodske i Freudenreichove ulice) i prva predstava se priređuje 29. siječnja 1852. godine u tom u pravom smislu narodnom teatru u Hrvata. 1894. godine u njoj se među posljednjim predstavama izvodi romantičarska drama Roderik i Elvira bana Jelačića.

Ban Jelačić zdušno podupire izdavanje školskih udžbenika na hrvatskom jeziku i stimulira rad autora, a kada carsko-kraljevskim dekretom biva zabranjena upotreba hrvatske trobojnice, a dozvoljena upotreba crveno-bijele zastave za Kraljevinu Hrvatsku i modro-bijele za Kraljevinu Slavoniju, ban Jelačić se tome oštro protivi. Njegovim nastojanjem 11. decembra 1852. godine Zagrebačka biskupija podiže se na stepen nadbiskupije i tim činom Crkva u Hrvata postaje neovisna od ugarskog episkopata.

Ban Jelačić ne posustaje u borbi za hrvatski jezik i u dopisu ministru pravde u Beču Karlu Krausu od 8. aprila 1853. godine zalaže se za njega "jer jedna od najljepših osobina hrvatskog naroda jest, da on svoj jezik nadasve ljubi... i baš ograničenja u jezičnom pogledu koja je htio madžarski sabor Hrvatima nametnuti, bili su jedan od glavnih uzroka otpora hrvatskog naroda protiv Madžara". Podupire osnivanje i povezivanje trgovačko-obrtničkih komora na području sjeverne Hrvatske i 1854. godine osniva Hrvatsko-slavonsko privredno društvo. Protivi se uvođenju žandarmerije, zalaže se za izgradnju cesta i željeznica i unaprijeđenje privredne djelatnosti.

Obitelj [uredi]

Ban Josip Jelačić ženi se 22. jula 1850. godine s groficom Sofijom Stockau u Napajedlu u Moravskoj i 16. jula 1851. godine kupuje vlastelinstvo Novi dvori u Zaprešiću (kupoprodajni ugovor biva naknadno sastavljen).

Prigodom vjenčanja kralja Franje Josipa 1854. godine, ban Jelačić biva odlikovan grofovskom plemićkom titulom, a banica Sofija imenovana je kraljičinom dvorskom damom.

Ban Jelačić bijaše vrlo vezan sa svoje dvoje braće Jurom i Antunom, te sestrom Cecilijom što svjedoče brojna pisma koja su razmjenjivali.

Ban Josip Jelačić umire u Zagrebu, 19./20. maja 1859. godine u ponoć, poslije duge i teške bolesti i sahranjuje se 26. maja 1859. godine u Novim Dvorima.

Posthumne počasti [uredi]

Spomenik mu se podiže i otkriva 16. decembra 1866. godine na glavnom trgu u Zagrebu koje nosi njegovo ime, Trg bana Jelačića, i ostaje tamo osamdeset godina do rušenja u noći 25/26. jula 1947. godine, zatim se 43 godine čuva u zagrebačkoj gliptoteci i ponovo vraća 16. oktobra 1991. na njegov rođendan. U Austro-Ugarskoj monarhiji najljepša ulica u Petrovaradinu bijaše Jelačić Gasse, a nakon njene propasti ulica dobija naziv Jelačićeva ulica. Jedan od trgova petrovaradinskih uz Dunav također nosiše prezime Jelačićevo. Od 1948. godine u Petrovaradinu niti jedna ulica ni trg ne nose više prezime bana Jelačića, iako historija bilježi velika djela koja on učini narodu toga kraja.

U Republici Hrvatskoj od 31. oktobra 1993. godine u čast bana Josipa Jelačića novčanica od 20 kuna nosi njegov portret.

Na 200. obljetnicu rođenja bana Josipa Jelačića 16. oktobra 2001. godine, Hrvatske pošte izdaju set poštanskih maraka i dopisnicu sa spomenikom bana Jelačića, a u Petrovaradinu Odbor za proslavu organizira svečanu misu za bana Jelačića, otkrivanje spomen ploče na rodnoj mu kući, kulturno-umjetnički program i izdaje publikaciju.

Umjetnička udruga "Plemićka mladež" iz Zaprešića čuva uspomenu na hrvatskog bana Josipa Jelačića i kompleks Novih Dvora i organizira:"Dane plemstva" u junu, te "Jelačić bal" u zagrebačkom hotelu The Regent Esplanade povodom obilježavanja obljetnice rođenja bana Josipa Jelačića.

Grad Zaprešić organizira obilježavanje obljetnice smrti bana Josipa Jelačića 20. maja, te "Dane Jelačića" u oktobru, odnosno manifestaciju kojom se obilježava obljetnica rođenja bana Jelačića. Dan njegovog rođenja, 16. oktobar, ujedno se slavi i kao Dan grada Zaprešića.

U Novim dvorima u Zaprešiću također se obilježava Dan Ratne škole Ban Josip Jelačić u kojoj se školuju hrvatski vojni kadrovi, a srednja škola u Zaprešiću također nosi ime Ban Josip Jelačić.

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Count Josip Jelačić of Bužim (16 October 1801, Peterwaradein – 20 May 1859, Zagreb); also spelled Jellachich, Jellačić or Jellasics) was the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 May 1859. He was a member of the House of Jelačić and a noted army general, remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia.

Contents [hide] 1 Early Life and Military 2 Hungarian Revolution of 1848 3 Croatian Parliament, the Sabor 4 Intermediary discussions 5 War against the Kingdom of Hungary 5.1 Battle of Pákozd 5.2 Vienna Revolt 5.3 The winter campaign of Windisch-Grätz 5.4 Later military campaigns 5.5 Battles in Slavonia 6 After the Revolution 7 Death and legacy 8 Awards 9 References 10 External links


[edit] Early Life and MilitaryThe son of Croatian Baron Franjo Jelačić Bužimski (or in other documents, Franz Freiherr Jelačić von Bužim) (1746 – 1810) a lieutenant Field Marshal and Austrian mother Anna Portner von Höflein, Jelačić was born in the town of Petrovaradin, at the time part of the Slavonian Krajina in the Military Frontier of the Habsburg Empire, which encompasses present Vojvodina, in Serbia. He was educated in Vienna at the Theresian Military Academy, where he received a versatile education, showing particular interest in history and foreign languages. He entrained in the Austrian army on 11 March 1819 with the rank of lieutenant Vinko Freiherr von Knežević Regiment, named for his uncle. He was fluent in all South-Slavic languages, as well as German, Italian, and French.

On 1 May 1825 he was promoted to First Lieutenant, and to Captain by 1 September 1830 in Karlovac, Croatia.

On 17 October 1835, he led a military campaign against the Bosnian Ottoman troops in Velika Kladuša for which he received a medal[which?]. He was promoted to Major on 20 February 1837 in the Freiherr von Gollner regiment, and on the first of May in 1841 to Lieutenant Colonel in the 1st Croatian Frontier Guard Regiment in Glina, Croatia, then promoted to Colonel on October the 18th. As colonel, the administrative commander in the region, he won the sympathy of the nations bordering his own, which would prove to be advantageous in his future exploits.[citation needed]

On the 22nd of March, Jelačić was promoted to Major-general, and simultaneously the Sabor (the National Assembly of Croatia, which was subservient to the Kingdom of Hungary) elected him as Ban of Croatia. The Sabor also declared that the first elections or representatives to the assembly would be held in May 1848.

Jelačić was promoted to Lieutenant Field Marshal on 7 April 1848, becoming the commander of all Habsburg troops in Croatia.

[edit] Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Flag of Ban Josip Jelačić, 1848Main article: Hungarian Revolution of 1848 See also: Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas Jelačić was against the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 – 49, and so his reputation is different in Austria, Croatia, and Hungary.[why?]

He traveled to Vienna to take oaths to become counsel of Austrian Emperor, Ferdinand I of Austria, but refused to take the oath as Ban of Croatia, because it was a Hungarian dependent territory. The relations between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Austrian Empire deteriorated after the outbreak of the Hungarian Revolution on 15 March 1848. But he later took the oath as Ban of Croatia on 5 June 1848. Because of the absence of Bishop Juraj Haulik, he took the oath before the Serbian Orthodox Patriarch Josif Rajačić.[1]

Jelačić, now Ban, supported the Croatian aim to maintain autonomy from the Kingdom of Hungary. Jelačić proceeded to sever all official ties of Croatia from Hungary. The Austrian Imperial Court initially opposed this act as one of disobedience and separatism, declaring him to be a rebel and the Sabor to be illegitimate. But the court soon realized Jelačić and his Croatian army were a support against the newly-formed Batthyány Government. Traveling back to Zagreb in April, Jelačić refused to cede to this new government, refused any cooperation, and called for elections to the Sabor on 25 March 1848.

[edit] Croatian Parliament, the Sabor Ban Josip Jelačić's proclamation abolishing serfdom.The Sabor – now acting as the National Assembly – declared the following demands to the Habsburg emperor:

1.The union of all Croatian provinces (Croatian-Slavonian Kingdom, Istria and Dalmatia). 2.Separation from the Kingdom of Hungary. 3.Abolition of serfdom. 4.Full civil rights. 5.Affirmation of the equality of nations. The Sabor strongly opposed the "massive nationalist Magyarization politics of the Kingdom of Hungary from theCarpathians to Adria, which the newly-formed government represents, especially Lajos Kossuth."

On 19 April 1848 Jelačić proclaimed the union of Croatian provinces, and the separation from the Kingdom of Hungary. At the same time, he proclaimed unconditional loyalty to the Habsburg monarchy. The Croatian Constitution of 24 April 1848 declared "languages of all ethnicities should be inviolable".

On serfdom, it was apparent that changing the status of the Croatian peasantry would have to wait until the end of the revolution. Jelačić kept up the institution of the Military Frontier so he could draft more soldiers. The people in the region protested to this, but Ban Jelačić quashed the dissent by summary courts martial and by executing many dissenters.

In the May, Jelačić established the Bansko Vijeće ("Ban Council"). Its scope of authority covered ministerial tasks including Internal Affairs, Justice, Schools and Education, Religion, Finance, and Defense, so this council was acting as a governing body in Croatia.

[edit] Intermediary discussionsThe Austrian emperor called Jelačić to Innsbruck, to which the Imperial Court had fled, and the Emperor there told him that the Croatian and Slavonian troops in the Italian provinces wanted to join forces with those in Croatia, but that this would weaken the forces in Italy. So Jelačić called on all troops stationed in the Italian provinces to remain calm and to stay put.

The Austrian court did not grant the separation of Croatia from Hungary. During his travels back to Zagreb, Jelačić read in the Lienz railway station that on 10 June the Emperor had relieved him of all his positions. But Jelačić was still loyal to the Emperor, and kept relations with the Imperial Court, especially with Empress Sophia, the mother of Franz Joseph I of Austria.

Immediately after arriving at Zagreb, Jelačić got the order to join the discussions with the Hungarian government in Vienna. During these, Jelačić stated that his position was derived from the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, while Lajos Batthyány called him "a separatist" seeking to break away from the Habsburg Monarchy. Jelačić called this a "rebellion". Batthyány warned Jelačić that this could mean war. Jelačić stopped the discussions, saying that "civil war is the worst that could happen" – but that he "would not be intimidated by this, however shocking it might be to hear".

Jelačić returned to Croatia. Hungarian troops had gathered on the border and hostile proclamations were made against him.[who?]

[edit] War against the Kingdom of HungaryIn the August, Jelačić proclaimed a decree for the Croatians, where he denied accusations of separating Croatia in the name of Panslavism. In the decree he said

Being a son of the [Croatian] nation, being the supporter of liberty, and being subject to Austria, I am faithfully committed to the constitutional Emperor of the Empire and its Kings, and I long for a great, free Austria [citation needed]

His closing words were:

The Hungarian Government, as it is evident, would not like to agree on this; they insist on their separatist moves, which means they struggle to dismantle our Empire. It is the command of our duty and honour to go till the ultimate and to call for arms against them. And we, not sparing our wealth, blood and life, will stand for our rightful demands and sacred deeds. [citation needed]

Jelačić felt disorder growing in the Austrian Empire, and decided on immediate action. On 1 September at Varaždin he crossed the River Drava with 45,000 soldiers, and another 10,000 Croatian insurgents, led by Brigadier Roth[who?], crossed the Drava lower down.

Jelačić occupied Međimurje (Hungarian: Muraköz), which was mostly Croatian. The two forces were poorly armed because of the rapid engagement. Materiel was neither well organised, so the advance into Hungarian territory was difficult. Supplies were got by taking them from the people who lived there.

The Hungarian squadrons led by Count Wrbna[who?], Count Kress[who?] and Count Hardegg[who?] joined Jelačić's troops.

The enthusiasm of the Croatian troops grew when at Siófok the Ban received a letter from Ferdinand I cancelling the decree removing him from all positions, also promoting him to be general commander of all troops in Hungary.

During his march toward Pest and Buda (now conjoined as the towns of Budapest), Jelačić got a message from Archduke Stephen, situated in Veszprém, to inform him of the decision of the Emperor that Lajos Batthyány was approved to set up a new government, and calling him to stop the troops, and to discuss further actions at his office. Jelačić replied he could not stop his army then, but was prepared for discussions with the archduke at the port of Balatonszemes. The meeting did not take place. According to Austrian sources[citation needed], advisors to Jelačić persuaded him not to attend, because of a threat of assassination by agents of the Hungarian Government. After this fiasco, Palatine Stephen resigned and left Hungary, under the Emperor's orders.

[edit] Battle of Pákozd The battle in the Pákozd triangleMain article: Battle of Pákozd Jelačić's army occupied Székesfehérvár on 26 September 1848. The same day the Kaiser appointed lieutenant-general Count Franz Philipp von Lamberg as general commanding all troops in Hungary, but this was annulled by the Hungarian Parliament. Lajos Kossuth called the Hungarians for resistance, and the Országos Honvédelmi Bizottmány (National Homeguarding Committee) was given the power of execution. Lamberg, trying to take over the command of the Hungarian troops was identified and killed.

Jelačić advanced onward, reached Lake Velence on 29 September, where he met Hungarian troops. After the first strikes, lieutenant-general János Móga withdrew to north to Sukoró. Jelačić demanded Móga stand against the rebels, and "get back to the road of honour and duty", but Móga refused, and his army attacked Jelačić between his position and Pákozd..[2][3][4]

The day after, 30 September, Jelačić asked for a three-day ceasefire; he wanted to use these days to wait for Roth[who?]'s army. He assessed the greater numbers of the Hungarian troops and the poor armaments and tiredness of his own troops. On 1 October the supply routes to Croatia were cut by rebels, so he advanced toward Vienna. On 3 October Móga was pursuing after Jelačić, but did not want to make an attack.

On 4 October, Ferdinand I of Austria reappointed Jelačić as the general commander of all troops in Hungary, and dissolved the Hungarian Diet.

[edit] Vienna RevoltMain article: Vienna Uprising Austrian Minister of War Theodor Baillet von Latour called the guards in Vienna to join the troops of Jelačić, but this caused a riot in Vienna on 6 October. Latour was spotted in Mosonmagyaróvár and killed.

On 7 October Hungarian General Mór Perczel defeated the armies of General Roth and General Filipović, and took them prisoner. The Hungarian Parliament annulled the Emperor's decree of October 4.

Jelačić moved onward to Vienna to join the troops around the city. Under Lieutenant-General Todorović, he organised a body of 14,000 soldiers to move south to Stayer[where?] to protect Croatia.

The Viennese revolution committee called for aid from the Hungarian Government. On 10 October at Laaer Berg near Vienna, Jelačić joined Austrian troops led by Auersperg, and the army was strengthened with troops from Bratislava, a regiment of Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn and Franz Joseph I of Austria's regiment. Jelačić's forces were soon under Field Marshal Windisch-Grätz. On 21 October, seeing trouble ahead, Móga stopped at the Austrian border, and the revolution in Vienna was suppressed. Jelačić's forces were fighting in the Landstrasse, Erdberg and Weissgerber suburbs.

[edit] The winter campaign of Windisch-Grätz Movements in the Winter CampaignMain article: Battle of Schwechat See also: Battle of Mór On 21 October – too late – Lajos Kossuth ordered Móga to turn back to Vienna, they met forces of Jelačić at Schwechat on 30 October. A day of artillery fighting broke out, and Jelačić initiated a counterattack in the evening. Led by General Zeisberg, the attack pushed back the Hungarian forces and defeated them. After this defeat, Móga stepped down as general commander, and Kossuth nominated general Artúr Görgey in his place.

On 2 December 1848 Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated, and Franz Joseph I of Austria was installed as Emperor. On 13 December Windisch-Grätz crossed the Hungarian border. On 16 December, Jelačić also crossed the border and defeated Hungarian troops at Parndorf, later occupying Mosonmagyaróvár and Győr. Being informed that Mór Perczel was stationed at Mór, Jelačić made a detour toward this city and defeated the Hungarian troops there, taking into custody 23 officers and 2,000 honvédség. With this battle, Pest-Buda became vulnerable, so the Hungarian government fled to Debrecen. Görgey could resist the march of Jelačić at Tétény for some time, but on 5 January Windisch-Grätz, together with Jelačić occupied Pest-Buda.

[edit] Later military campaignsMain article: Battle of Kápolna After the occupation of Pest and Buda the larger campaigns were over. Windischgrätz declared a military dictatorship, caught the Hungarian leader Lajos Batthyány and asked for surrender. He moved to Debrecen but was stopped by Perczel at Szolnok and Abony. Kossuth nominated Henryk Dembiński to replace Artúr Görgey, and started a strategic counterattack but was defeated near Kápolna.

Windisch-Grätz ordered Jelačić to quick march to Jászfényszaru. On 4 April Klapka attacked him but at Tápióbicske the bayonets of Jelačić pushed them back. On 5 March Damjanich reoccupied Szolnok. Jelačić now got a new order to turn from Jászfényszaru and head to Gödöllő. On 2 April Jelačić met János Damjanich at Tápióbicske and was defeated. On 6 April Windisch-Grätz and Jelačić, were defeated in the Battle of Isaszeg, retreating to Rákospatak, a suburb of Pest-Buda.

After the defeat, Windisch-Grätz was relieved of general command, and was replaced by General Welden and later Julius Jacob von Haynau. Jelačić was ordered to gather the scattered troops in southern Hungary and to organise an army. This consisted of 15,800 infantry, 5,100 cavalry and 74 cannon, and moved to Osijek immediately. During his march south, Jelačić had to suppress rebellions, esepcially in Pécs. After a series of wrong decisions, Jelačić's army could not join up with the Emperor's, so it was put to defensive fights.

[edit] Battles in SlavoniaSee also: Battle of Temesvár In May, 1849 Jelačić moved from Osijek to Vukovar, Ilok, Sremski Karlovci, Tovarnik and Irig. He set up base at Ruma.

He was in a bad situation, as the Austrians were calling for the help of Russian Empire to suppress the Hungarians and the support from Vienna dissolved. Jelačić was lacking proper materiel, and many of his troops died of cholera.

The Serbian troops, led by Kuzman Todorović, had to surrender strategic points to the honvédség (Hungarian Army). The Hungarians occupied and fortified Petrovaradin, where the troops received supplies because the population supported the Hungarian revolution. In April, Mór Perczel occupied Srbobran and broke up the encirclement of Petrovaradin, defeated Todorović so he could occupy Pančevo and finally, together with Józef Bem, occupied Temes County (now Timiş County, Romania).

Jelačić, cut off from all supplies, fortified his armies for defense and fought small battles in Slavonia. The supplies from the Austrian Empire were stuck at Stari Slankamen. In June he decided to break out and advance to Sombor – Dunaföldvár. During his march, on 6 June, Perczel attacked him near Kać and Žabalj. He defeated Perczel, marched forward, but could not occupy Novi Sad.

On 24 June he successfully occupied Óbecse, but was retaken by Hungarians on 28th. This way Jelačić could not dislodge the Hungarian forces from Bačka. On 6 July Richard Guyon drove out the Croatian troops at Mali Iđoš. On 14 July Hungarians took control over Feketić and Lovćenac. Jelačić had to retreat. This was the last battle in the region.

After Timişoara fell, Jelačić joined Haynau's troops, and after the end of revolution, he traveled to Vienna to take part in discussions of reorganising Croatia, Slavonia and the frontier regions.

[edit] After the RevolutionWhen peace was restored, Jelačić returned to Croatia where he was treated as national hero, the saviour of the homeland.


Funeral procession in Zagreb.After the war the Empire's new constitution stripped the local authorities in Hungary of their political power, but this punishment also affected Croatia despite its assistance to the imperial cause during the revolution. Nevertheless, Jelačić implemented the new Constitution (published 4 March 1849), and proceeded to outlaw various newspapers that published anti-Austrian opinions. In 1851, when Baron Alexander von Bach came to power in the Kingdom of Hungary, Jelačić worked under him and made no objections to the Germanization of Croatia. He remained in office until his death.

[edit] Death and legacy Statue of ban Jelačić in Zagreb.He died on 20 May 1859 in Zagreb, after an illness.

In his time and shortly after, Jelačić was a fairly unpopular figure among the Croatian political elite, including Ante Starčević and others, and especially among the people who suffered losses due to his military campaigns and had little benefit from his economic measures.

Today, Jelačić is considered an important and admirable figure in Croatian history, alongside Ante Starčević, the "Father of Croatia" and Stjepan Radić, the Croatian political leader until 1928. The central square of the city of Zagreb was named Ban Jelačić Square in 1848, and a statue of him by Anton Dominik Fernkorn was erected in 1866. Originally, the statue of Jelačić pointed his sword north towards Hungary; it was removed under Communist rule in 1947, and after Croatia gained independence it was reinstalled in 1990, but facing south.

The patriotic song Ustani bane (Rise, Ban) was written to glorify Jelačić. Along with Doša si nam Bane, written and performed by Croatian Patriotic singer Mate Kolakušić.[5]

Jelačić's portrait is depicted on the obverse of the Croatian 20 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2001.[6][7]

[edit] AwardsHe received the Military Order of Maria Theresa, the cross of order of Lipot from Franz Joseph. He was elected as Count on 24 April 1854 (as Jelačić von Bužim). He received medals from the Russian Tsar, the King of Saxony, King of Hanover, and Duke of Parma.[citation needed]

[edit] References This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (April 2009)

1.^ "Unity, Concord, and Homelands Defence". Serbian Unity Congress. 1997 – 1998. http://www.suc.org/culture/library/Krestic/files/2.htm. Retrieved December 18, 2009. [dead link] 2.^ Pákozd-Sukoró Battle 1848 Exhibition, 3.^ http://www.bolyai-erd.sulinet.hu/sokrates2/napszov/szeptem29.htm 4.^ http://masprogram.freeweb.hu/kep/kep6/pakoz.html 5.^ "Doša si nam Bane by Mate Kolakušić". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7li-5Mzr1Y. Retrieved 29 August 2010. 6.^ "Features of Kuna Banknotes: 20 kuna (1993 issue)". Croatian National Bank. http://www.hnb.hr/novcan/novcanice/e20k.htm?tsfsg=72c2ffab4bf1c37eca77ca1333e8e02b. Retrieved 30 March 2009. 7.^ "Features of Kuna Banknotes: 20 kuna (2001 issue)". Croatian National Bank. http://www.hnb.hr/novcan/novcanice/e20k-2izdanje.htm?tsfsg=911dce4dc2c1cd7de4e1a5b41fd53785. Retrieved 30 March 2009.

http://www.cro-eu.com/forum/index.php?action=printpage;topic=1195.0

Josip Jelačić, sin Franje Jelačića i Ane Portner rođen je 1801. u Petrovaradinu. Nakon završetka vojne škole u Terezianumu, upućen je 1819. u pukovniju u Galiciji. Zbog bolesti se 1822. povukao s dužnosti, te je živio u Zagrebu i na imanju u Kurilovcu. Za to vrijeme spjevao je svoje najbolje pjesme koje su objavljene 1825. u Zagrebu pod naslovom "Eine Stunde der Erinnerung". Iste se godine vratio u aktivnu vojnu službu, najprije u Beču i Galiciji do 1830., zatim u ogulinskoj pukovniji. Već 1825. bio je imenovan natporučnikom, a 1831. postao je kapetan. U razdoblju od 1831.–1835. boravio je sa svojom jedinicom u Italiji. Početkom 1837. unaprijeđen je u majora i djelovao je kao ađutant guvernera Lilienberga u Dalmaciji. Tijekom 1841. imenovan je pukovnikom u Glinskoj regimenti. Godine 1845. vodio je vojni pohod u Bosnu i kod Podzvizda postigao pobjedu nad Turcima. U ožujku 1848. postavljen je za bana, a kralj ga je uskoro imenovao tajnim savjetnikom, generalom, komandantom obiju banskih regimenti, podmaršalom i vrhovnim zapovjednikom vojske u Hrvatskoj i Vojnoj Krajini. Nakon borbi s Mađarima i proglašenja Oktroiranog ustava, Josip Jelačić povukao se na svoje dobro u Nove Dvore. Grofovsku titulu dobio je 1854. Umro je u Novim Dvorima 1859., nakon duge i teške bolesti. Josip Jelačić se 1850. oženio barunicom Sofijom Stockau (1834.–1877). Godine 1855. rodila im se kći Anica. Ona je već 1856. umrla u Napajedlu (u Mađarskoj) od kolere. Sahranjena je u Novim Dvorima.

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ban Josip Jelačić's Timeline

1801
October 16, 1801
Petrovaradin, Vojvodina, Serbia
October 16, 1801
Petrovaradin, Vojvodina, Serbia
1850
July 7, 1850
Age 48
Zlínský, Czech Republic
1854
December 20, 1854
Age 53
1859
May 20, 1859
Age 57
City of Zagreb, Croatia
May 26, 1859
Age 57
Klanjec, Krapina-Zagorje, Croatia