Rev. John Knox (c.1514 - 1572) MP

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Reverend John Knox's Geni Profile

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Birthplace: Giffordgate, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland
Death: Died in Edinburgh?/St.Andrews, Midlothian, Scotland
Occupation: Founder of presbyterianism, Preacher, The Reformer, Founder of Presbyterian Church
Managed by: Emily Florence Middleton
Last Updated:

About Rev. John Knox

John Knox (c. 1510 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination. He was educated at the University of St Andrews and worked as a notary-priest. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church. He was caught up in the ecclesiastical and political events that involved the murder of Cardinal Beaton in 1546 and the intervention of the regent of Scotland, Mary of Guise. He was taken prisoner by French forces the following year and exiled to England on his release in 1549.

While in exile, Knox was licensed to work in the Church of England, where he quickly rose in the ranks to serve King Edward VI of England as a royal chaplain. In this position, he exerted a reforming influence on the text of the Book of Common Prayer. In England he met and married his first wife, Marjorie. When Mary Tudor ascended the throne and re-established Roman Catholicism, Knox was forced to resign his position and leave the country.

Knox first moved to Geneva and then to Frankfurt. In Geneva, he met John Calvin, from whom he gained experience and knowledge of Reformed theology and Presbyterian polity. He created a new order of service, which was eventually adopted by the reformed church in Scotland. He left Geneva to head the English refugee church in Frankfurt but he was forced to leave over differences concerning the liturgy, thus ending his association with the Church of England.

On his return to Scotland, he led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in partnership with the Scottish Protestant nobility. The movement may be seen as a revolution, since it led to the ousting of Mary of Guise, who governed the country in the name of her young daughter, Mary, Queen of Scots. Knox helped write the new confession of faith and the ecclesiastical order for the newly created reformed church, the Kirk. He continued to serve as the religious leader of the Protestants throughout Mary's reign. In several interviews with the queen, Knox admonished her for supporting Catholic practices. Eventually, when she was imprisoned for her alleged role in the murder of her husband, Lord Darnley, and James VI enthroned in her stead, he openly called for her execution. He continued to preach until his final days.

John Knox was born sometime between 1505 and 1515 in or near Haddington, the county town of East Lothian. His father, William Knox, was a farmer. All that is known of his mother is that her maiden name was Sinclair and that she died when John Knox was a child.

On 26 March 1564 Knox stirred controversy again, when he married Margaret Stewart, the daughter of an old friend, Andrew Stewart, a member of the Stuart family and a distant relative of the queen, Mary Stuart. The marriage was unusual because he was a widower of fifty, while the bride was only seventeen.] Very few details are known of their domestic life. They had three daughters, Martha, Margaret, and Elizabeth.

Knox was survived by his five children and his second wife. Nathaniel and Eleazar, his two sons by his first wife, attended Cambridge University, and died at a young age without issue. His second wife, Margaret, remarried to Andrew Ker, one of those involved in the murder of David Rizzio. Knox's three daughters also married: Martha to Alexander Fairlie; Margaret to Zachary Pont, son of Robert Pont and brother of Timothy Pont; and Elizabeth to John Welsh, a minister of the Kirk.

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http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mysouthernfamily/myff/d0042/g0000014.html#I57184

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Reverend John Knox's Timeline

1514
1514
Giffordgate, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland
1551
1551
Age 37
Berwick, Scotland, United Kingdom
1557
May, 1557
Age 43
Geneva, Switzerland
1558
1558
Age 44
Geneva, Switzerland
1559
November, 1559
Age 45
Geneva, Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
1563
March, 1563
Age 49
Edinburgh, Scotland
1565
November, 1565
Age 51
Geneva, Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
1567
1567
Age 53
1569
1569
Age 55
Dumfries, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, United Kingdom
1572
November 16, 1572
Age 58
Edinburgh, Scotland