Alexandre Edouard de Valois (1551 - 1589) MP

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Nicknames: "Alexandre-Édouard de Valois-Angoulême", "крал Анри III Валоа"
Birthplace: Château de Fontainebleau, France
Death: Died in Saint-Cloud, France
Occupation: Henri III, roi de France, Roi de Pologne, Roi de France (1574-1589), King of France 1574-1589
Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Alexandre Edouard de Valois

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_III_of_France

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henryk_III_Walezy

Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589, born Alexandre-Édouard de Valois-Angoulême

was King of France from 1574 to 1589. As Henry of Valois, he was the first elected monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with the dual titles of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1573 to 1575.

Life

Early years

Henry was born at the Royal Château de Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, third son of King Henry II and Catherine de' Medici, grandson of Francis I of France and Claude of France, and brother of Francis II of France and Charles IX of France. He was made Duke of Angoulême and Duke of Orleans in 1560, and Duke of Anjou in 1566.

In 1564, his name became Henri. He was his mother's favourite; she called him chers yeux ("Precious Eyes") and lavished fondness and affection upon him for most of his life. His elder brother, Charles, grew to detest him, resenting Henry's greater health and activity.

Youth

In his youth, he was considered the best of the sons of Catherine de' Medici and Henry II. Unlike his father and elder brothers, he had little interest in the traditional Valois pastimes of hunting and physical exercise. Although he was both fond of fencing and skilled in it, he preferred to indulge his tastes for the arts and reading. These predilections were attributed to his Italian mother.

At one point in his youth he showed a tendency towards Protestantism as a means of rebelling. At the age of nine, calling himself un petit Huguenot, he refused to attend Mass, sang Protestant psalms to his sister Margaret (exhorting her all the while to change her religion and cast her Book of Hours into the fire), and even bit the nose off a statue of Saint Paul. His mother firmly cautioned her children against such behaviour, and he would never again show any Protestant tendencies—instead becoming nominally Roman Catholic.[1]

Prior to ascending the throne, he was a leader of the royal army in the French Wars of Religion against the Huguenots, and took part in the victories over them at Battle of Jarnac and Battle of Moncontour. While still Duke, he was involved in the plot for the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (but did not participate), in which thousands of Huguenots were killed; his reign as King, like the ones of his elder brothers Francis II and Charles IX, would see France in constant turmoil over religion.

Homosexuality

For a long time after his death, Henry was assumed to have been homosexual or at least bisexual[2]. Although there are many credible references which document Henry's homosexuality, it is still disputed[3]. For example, some modern historians, such as P. Erlanger[citation needed][4], J.F. Solnon, Nicolas Le Roux [5] and J. Boucher [6], found evidence to support the idea that, not only was Henry not homosexual (though still perhaps bisexual), but he had many famous mistresses. They found that there were no men named with whom he could have had sex, and that he was well-known at the time for his taste in beautiful women. They concluded that the idea of his supposed homosexuality was based on his dislike of war and hunting being interpreted as effeminate, an image cultivated by political opponents (both Protestants and ultra-Catholics) to turn the opinion of the French people against him.

Elizabeth

In 1570, discussions commenced to arrange for Henry to court Elizabeth I of England. Elizabeth, almost 37, was in need of a husband in order to produce an heir. However, nothing came of these discussions. Elizabeth is viewed by historians as having intended only to arouse the concern of Spain, rather than to have seriously contemplated marriage. The chance of marriage was further blighted by their differing religious views—Henry was at least formally a Catholic while Elizabeth was a Protestant—and his opinion of Elizabeth. Henry tactlessly referred to Elizabeth as a putain publique (a "public whore") and made stinging remarks about their difference in age. Upon hearing (inaccurately) that she limped because of a varicose vein, he called her an "old creature with a sore leg".

Reign

In 1573, Henry was elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. As conditions for his free election, he was compelled to sign the pacta conventa and the Henrician Articles, pledging religious tolerance in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[7] Henry chafed at the restrictions on monarchic power under the Polish-Lithuanian political system of "Golden Liberty".[7] The Polish-Lithuanian parliament had been urged by Anna Jagiellon, the sister of the recently deceased king Sigismund II Augustus, to elect him based on the understanding that Henry would wed Anna afterward.[8]

His brother, Charles IX of France, died three months after Henry's coronation as king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Henry secretly departed and returned to France. [7] He was crowned king of France on 13 February 1575, at Reims Cathedral.

Marriage

Although he was expected to produce an heir after he married Louise of Lorraine (14 February 1575), they were unable to conceive a child.

In 1576, Henry signed the Edict of Beaulieu, granting many concessions to the Huguenots. His action resulted in the Catholic activist, Henry I, Duke of Guise, forming the Catholic League. After much posturing and negotiations, Henry was forced to rescind most of the concessions that had been made to the Protestants in the Edict of Beaulieu.

In 1584, the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, Francis, Duke of Anjou, died. Under Salic Law, the next heir to the throne was Protestant Henry III of Navarre, a descendant of St. Louis IX. Under pressure from the Duke of Guise, Henry III issued an edict suppressing Protestantism and annulling Henry III of Navarre's right to the throne.

Henry began a great friendship with the Feuillant reformer Jean de la Barrière and built a monastery for him and his followers to commemorate their friendship in 1587.

On 12 May 1588, when Henry I, Duke of Guise, entered Paris, Henry III fled the city.

On 23 December 1588, at the Château de Blois, the Duke of Guise arrived in the council chamber where his brother Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, waited. The Duke was told that the King wished to see him in the private room adjoining the royal bedroom. There guardsmen murdered the Duke, then the Cardinal. To make sure that no contender for the French throne was free to act against him, the King had the Duke's son imprisoned.

Henry I, Duke of Guise, had been highly popular in France, and the citizenry turned against King Henry for the murders. The Parlement instituted criminal charges against the King, and he joined forces with his heir, the protestant Henry of Navarre, setting up the Parliament of Tours.

Assassination

On 1 August 1589, Henry III lodged with his army at Saint-Cloud, Hauts-de-Seine, prepared to attack Paris, when a young fanatical Dominican friar, Jacques Clément, carrying false papers, was granted access to deliver important documents to the King. The monk gave the King a bundle of papers and stated that he had a secret message to deliver. The King signaled for his attendants to step back for privacy, and Clément whispered in his ear while plunging a knife into his abdomen. Clément was killed on the spot by the guards.

At first the King's wound did not appear fatal, but he enjoined all the officers around him, in the event that he did not survive, to be loyal to Henry of Navarre as their new king. The following morning—the day that he was to have launched his assault to retake Paris—Henry III died.

Chaos swept the attacking army, most of it quickly melting away; the proposed attack on Paris was postponed. Inside the city, joy at the news of Henry III's death was near delirium; some hailed the assassination as an act of God.[9]

Burial

Henry III was interred at the Saint Denis Basilica. Childless, he was the last of the Valois kings. Henry III of Navarre succeeded him as Henry IV, the first of the Bourbon kings.

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

On 16 May 1573 Polish nobles elected Henry, as the first elected monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, the Lithuanian nobles, boycotted this election, and it was the Lithuanian ducal council who confirmed his election.[11] Poland elected Henry, rather than Habsburg candidates, partly in order to be more agreable to the Ottoman Empire, with which a Polish-Ottoman alliance was in effect.[12]

In Paris, on 10 September, a Polish delegation met with Henry and he took an oath, at Notre Dame Cathedral, to "respect traditional Polish liberties and the law on religious freedom that had been passed during the interregnum".[13] It was at a ceremony before the Paris parlement on 13 September that the Polish delegation handed over the "certificate of election to the throne of Poland-Lithuania".[13] Henry also gave up any claims to succession and he "recognized the principle of free election" under the Henrician Articles and the pacta conventa.[13]

It was not until January of 1574 that Henry was to reach the borders of Poland. On 21 February, Henry's coronation was held.[14] It was in mid June of 1574 that Henry would take leave of Poland and head back to France, upon hearing of his brother, Charles IX's death.[14] Henry's absence 'provoked a constitutional crisis' which Parliament attempted to resolve by notifiying Henry that his throne would be lost if he did not return from France by 12 May 1575.[14] His failure to return caused Parliament to declare his throne vacant.[14]

The short reign of Henry at Wawel Castle in Poland was marked by a clash of cultures between the Polish and the French. The young king and his followers were astonished by several Polish practices and disappointed by the rural poverty and harsh climate of the country.[7] The Polish, on the other hand, wondered if all Frenchmen were as concerned with their appearance as their new King appeared to be.[7]

In many aspects, Polish culture had a positive influence on France. At Wawel, the French were introduced to new methods of septic facilities, in which litter (excrement) was taken outside the castle walls.[15] On returning to France, Henry ordered the construction of such facilities at the Louvre and other palaces.[15] Other inventions introduced to the French by the Polish included a bath with regulated hot and cold water and the fork.[16]

Notes

1.^ a b Frieda, Leonie, Catherine de Medici, pp.179-180

2.^ Henri III-->

3.^ Henri III était homosexuel - Tatoufaux.com

4.^ Philippe Erlanger, ||Henri III||, Gallimard, 1935

5.^ Nicolas Le Roux, ||Un régicide au nom de Dieu, l'assassinat d'Henri III||, Gallimard, 2006 Template:ISBN 2-07-073529

6.^ Jacqueline Boucher, ||La cour de Henri III||, Ouest-France, 1986 Template:ISBN 2-7373-0019-3

7.^ a b c d e f (Polish) Paweł Jasienica (1982). Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów (The Commonwealth of the Both Nations). Warsaw. ISBN 83-06007-88-3. http://books.google.pl/books?id=ltseAAAAMAAJ&q=Rzeczpospolita+Obojga+Narod%C3%B3w+Jasienica&dq=Rzeczpospolita+Obojga+Narod%C3%B3w+Jasienica&lr=&pgis=1. Retrieved 2009-01-05.

8.^ (Polish) Zbigniew Satała (1990). Poczet polskich królowych, księżnych i metres. Warsaw. ISBN 83-70072-57-7. http://books.google.pl/books?id=HBI1AAAAIAAJ&q=anna+jagiellonka&dq=anna+jagiellonka&lr=&hl=en&pgis=1.

9.^ Durant, Will, The Age of Reason Begins, vol. VII, (Simon and Schuster, 1961), p. 361.

10.^ (Polish) Stanisław Grzybowski (1985 publisher=). Henryk Walezy. Warsaw. ISBN 83-04001-18-7.

11.^ Stone, Daniel (2001). The Polish-Lithuanian state, 1386–1795 [A History of East Central Europe, Volume IV.]. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 118. ISBN 0295980931.

12.^ Warfare, state and society on the Black Sea steppe, 1500-1700 by Brian L. Davies p.25-26 [1]

13.^ a b c Stone, Daniel (2001). The Polish-Lithuanian state, 1386-1795 [A History of East Central Europe, Volume IV.]. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 119. ISBN 0295980931.

14.^ a b c d Stone, Daniel (2001). The Polish-Lithuanian state, 1386–1795 [A History of East Central Europe, Volume IV.]. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 0295980931.

15.^ a b (Polish) Krzysztof Prendecki (2006-10-30). "Kuracja wiedzą". placet.pl. http://placet.pl/?mod=Artykuly&id=85. Retrieved 2009-01-05.

16.^ (Polish) Matylda Selwa (2002-12-01). "Łyżka łyżce nierówna". placet.pl. http://www.sztuka.pl/index.php?id=111&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=257&tx_ttnews%5Bcat%5D=98&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=713&cHash=93d752b2e2. Retrieved 2009-01-05.

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Henry III of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Henry III (French: Henri III, Polish: Henryk) (September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), born Alexandre-Édouard, was King of France from 1574 to 1589, and as Henry of Valois, King of Poland from 1573 to 1574.

Early years

Henri was born at the Royal Château of Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, fourth son of King Henri II and Catherine de' Medici, grandson of François I and Claude de France, and brother of François II and Charles IX of France. He was made Duke of Angoulême and Duke of Orleans in 1560, and Duke of Anjou in 1566. In 1564 his name became Henri.

He was his mother's favorite; she called him chers yeux ("Precious Eyes") and lavished her fondness and affection upon him for most of his life. His elder brother Charles grew to detest him, resenting Henry's greater health and activity.

In his youth, he was considered the best of the sons of Catherine de' Medici and Henry II. Unlike his father and elder brothers, he had little interest in the traditional Valois pastimes of hunting and physical exercise (although he was both fond of and skilled in fencing), preferring instead to indulge his tastes for the arts and reading – leanings which were attributed to his Italian mother.

He also, at one point in his youth, showed a tendency towards Protestantism as a means of rebelling - at the age of nine, calling himself un petit Huguenot, he refused to attend Mass, sang Protestant psalms to his sister Margot (exhorting her all the while to change her religion and cast her Book of Hours into the fire), and even bit the nose off a statue of Saint Paul. His mother firmly cautioned her children against such behaviour, and he would never again show any Protestant tendencies - instead becoming nominally Catholic.[1]

His artistic tastes were a source of concern to the court. Unlike the other men of his family, he showed a marked interest in clothes and fabrics, jewels, lapdogs, and toys. He also had a keen eye for fashions and beauty which in his later years would become an obsession, and constantly appeared elegant and sophisticated, although not always appropriate – on festive occasions, he was known to dress more richly and fantastically than the ladies of the court, adorning himself with jewels and fantastic costumes, prompting the Spanish ambassador, Zuniga, to write to Philip II of Spain, "With all of this he shows who he really is". On another occasion, a ball given by Catherine de' Medici at Chenonceau in June 1577, the King whole-heartedly participated in the theme - transvestism - by wearing "diamonds, emeralds and pearls. His hair was tinted with violet powder and wearing a dress of superb brocade, he made a definite contrast to his wife", who had chosen not to dress in men's clothing.[2] Such appearances earned Henry blunt epithets such as "Prince of Sodom". Henry is still widely assumed to have been homosexual or at least bisexual[3], though this is disputed[4].

In 1570, discussions commenced to arrange for Henri to court Elizabeth I of England. Elizabeth, almost 37, was in need of a husband and needed to produce an heir. However, nothing came of these discussions: Elizabeth, on her part, is viewed by historians as having intended only to concern Spain, rather than to have seriously intended marriage; and the chances of such a marriage were further blighted by their differing religious views (Henri was at least formally a Catholic, Elizabeth a firm Protestant), and his opinion of Elizabeth (he tactlessly referred to her as a putain publique (a "public whore"), made stinging remarks about their difference in age, and upon hearing she limped because of a varicose vein, called her an "old creature with a sore leg").[2]

Prior to ascending the throne, he was a leader of the royal army in the French Wars of Religion against the Huguenots, and took part in the victories over them at Battle of Jarnac and Battle of Moncontour. While still Duke, he instigated the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, in which thousands of Huguenots were killed; his reign as King would see France in constant turmoil over religion.

Reign

In 1573, Henri was elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. As prerequisite to his free election, he was compelled to sign the Pacta conventa and the Henrician Articles, pledging religious tolerance in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Henri chafed at the restrictions on monarchic power under the Polish-Lithuanian political system of "Golden Liberty".

Three months after his coronation as King of Poland, upon the death of his brother Charles IX, Henri secretly left Poland and returned to France, where he was crowned King on February 13, 1575, at Rheims Cathedral.

Although he married Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont (February 14, 1575) and was expected to produce an heir, he did not.

In 1576, Henri signed the Edict of Beaulieu, granting many concessions to the Huguenots. His action resulted in the Catholic activist, Henry I, Duke of Guise, forming the Catholic League. After much posturing and negotiations, Henri was forced to rescind most of the concessions that had been made to the Protestants in the Edict of Beaulieu.

In 1584, the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, François, Duke of Anjou, died. Under Salic Law, the next heir to the throne was Protestant Henri III of Navarre, a descendant of St. Louis IX. Under pressure from the Duke of Guise, Henri III issued an edict suppressing Protestantism and annulling Henri III of Navarre's right to the throne.

Henri began a great friendship with the Feuillant reformer Jean de la Barrière and built a monastery for him and his followers to commemorate their friendship in 1587.

On May 12, 1588, when the Duke of Guise entered Paris, Henri III fled the city.

On December 23, 1588, at the Château de Blois, the Duke of Guise arrived in the council chamber where his brother Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, waited. The Duke was told that the King wished to see him in the private room adjoining the royal bedroom. There guardsmen murdered the Duke, then the Cardinal. To make sure that no contender for the French throne was free to act against him, the King had the Duke's son imprisoned. The Duke of Guise had been highly popular in France, and the citizenry turned against King Henri for the murders. The Parlement instituted criminal charges against the King, and he fled Paris to join forces with Henri III of Navarre.

[edit]Assassination

On August 1, 1589, Henry III lodged with his army at Saint-Cloud, Hauts-de-Seine, prepared to attack Paris, when a young fanatical Dominican friar, Jacques Clément, carrying false papers, was granted access to deliver important documents to the King. The monk gave the King a bundle of papers and stated that he had a secret message to deliver. The King signaled for his attendants to step back for privacy, and Clément whispered in his ear while plunging a knife into his abdomen. Clément was killed on the spot by the guards.

At first the wound did not appear fatal, but the King enjoined all the officers around him, in the event that he did not survive, to be loyal to Henri of Navarre as their new king. The following morning — the day that he was to have launched his assault to retake Paris — Henri III died.

Chaos swept the attacking army, most of it quickly melting away; the proposed attack on Paris was postponed. Inside the city the joy on news of Henri III's death was almost delirium; some hailed the assassination as an act of God.[5]

Henri III was interred at the Saint Denis Basilica. Childless, he was the last of the Valois kings. Henri III of Navarre succeeded him as Henri IV, the first of the Bourbon kings.

[edit]Additional viewing

The French movies, La Reine Margot (1954) and La Reine Margot (1994), both based on Alexandre Dumas' novel of the same title, are fictional depictions of the lives of Henri III's family, his sister Margot, and her Protestant husband Henri around the time of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Henri is played by the actor Pascal Greggory. In Dumas' novel, Henri was not portrayed as homosexual, whereas, in the 1954 film, he was shown as an effeminate, comical queen. In the 1994 film, he was portrayed as a more sinister character, bisexual and showing sexual interest for his sister. His brother dies by being accidentally poisoned by his mother, who had intended to kill Henri of Navarre instead.

The film Elizabeth, released in 1998, depicts the historical courtship between Elizabeth I of England and François, Duke of Anjou, Henry III's youngest brother. The film borrows some of the aspects of Henry III's life and features Anjou as a comical foolish transvestite. The role is portrayed by French actor Vincent Cassel.

In the film Dangerous Beauty he has a short affair with the main character, venetian courtesan Veronica Franco. He appears masculine, although he declared to Veronica that the "rumors" about him were true. He is played by British actor Jake Weber.

In an episode of Animaniacs, entitled The Three Muska-Warners, an Elmer Fudd-like Henri III is protected by Yakko, Wakko and Dot. In this version, Henri is portrayed by Jeff Bennett as nervous and jumpy, and for no apparent reason speaks with an English accent.

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Henry de Valois

M, #25197, b. 1535, d. 1590

Last Edited=3 Oct 2003

    Henry de Valois was born in 1535 at Paris, France. He was the son of Henri II, Roi de France. 

He died in 1590 at Paris, France. He was buried at Paris, France.

    Henry de Valois also went by the nick-name of Batard d'Angoulême. He gained the title of Baron de Fontette.

Forrás / Source:

http://thepeerage.com/p2520.htm#i25197 -------------------- King of France (1574-1589)

Probably gay

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Henri III de Valois, roi de France's Timeline

1551
September 19, 1551
Château de Fontainebleau, France
December 5, 1551
Fontainebleau, France
1575
February 15, 1575
Age 23
Cathedral of Reims, France
1589
August 2, 1589
Age 37
Saint-Cloud, France
????
????
Basilique Saint-Denis, France