Maria Josepha Karolina Eleonore Franziska Xaveria von Sachsen (1731 - 1767) MP

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Birthplace: Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany
Death: Died in Versailles, Yvelines, Île-de-France, France
Cause of death: Tuberculose
Occupation: Dauphin of France, Princess of Saxony, Dauphine of France
Managed by: George J. Homs
Last Updated:

About Maria Josepha Karolina Eleonore Franziska Xaveria von Sachsen

Marie-Josèphe de Saxe (Maria Josepha Carolina Eleonore Françoise Xavière von Sachsen, 1731 - 1767), fille d'Auguste III de Saxe et de Marie-Josèphe d'Autriche. Elle épousa en 1747 le Dauphin Louis-Ferdinand de France, fils de Louis XV, jeune et inconsolable veuf de l'infante d'Espagne Marie-Thérèse Raphaëlle de Bourbon dont il avait eu une fille, Marie-Thérèse en 1746.

Marie-Josèphe de SaxeSommaire 1 Une famille déchirée 2 La mère des derniers rois de France 3 La triste Pépa 4 Victime de l'Amour


Une famille déchirée Elle arriva, à quinze ans, dans une Cour dominée par Mme de Pompadour, favorite du roi et artisan de son mariage que lui a suggéré le populaire héros de Fontenoy, le maréchal de Saxe, oncle "par la main gauche" de Marie-Josèphe.

La nouvelle dauphine, surnommée Pépa, sut se concilier à la fois la Pompadour et son beau-père Louis XV, mais dut aussi compter avec la haine de son mari et de ses belle-sœurs pour la favorite.

Elle trouvait une belle-famille déchirée par les haines et les tensions : le roi et son épouse ne vivaient plus ensemble depuis dix ans. La pieuse reine Marie Leszczyńska vieillissait, recluse au milieu de vieux amis vieillissant mais elle n'oubliait pas que son père Stanislas Leszczynski avait été le concurrent malheureux au trône de Pologne face au grand père puis au père de Marie-Josèphe.

Ses filles, "Mesdames", célibataires, ne cessaient de blâmer la vie de leur père.

Le Dauphin, veuf de dix-sept ans, souffrant des souffrances de sa mère et "divinisé" par ses sœurs, ne savait dissimuler sa désapprobation et ne s'entendait pas non plus avec son père.

C'est dans ce contexte difficile que la Dauphine parvint à se faire aimer de tous, tant elle était intelligente, douce et aimante.

La mère des derniers rois de France Après trois ans de stérilité (et de critiques de la cour), entre 1750 et 1764 elle mit au monde huit enfants :

Marie-Zéphyrine (1750-1755) dite Madame Louis, duc de Bourgogne (1751-1761) Louis-Xavier, duc d'Aquitaine (1753-1754) Louis-Auguste, duc de Berry puis Dauphin puis Louis XVI (1754-1793) Louis-Stanislas, comte de Provence puis Louis XVIII (1755-1824) Charles-Philippe, comte d'Artois puis Charles X (1757-1836) Marie-Clotilde, princesse de Piémont puis reine de Sardaigne (1759-1802) Élisabeth, Fille de France (1764-1794) Son fils aîné, le duc de Bourgogne, enfant précoce, la comblait de fierté. Elle débordait pour lui d'amour maternel. De même que le dauphin, son mari, elle ne pouvait s'empêcher de le préférer à ses autres enfants (ce dont le futur Louis XVI souffrit). Sa mort, en 1761 fut pour elle une épreuve que, seule, sa piété lui permit d'accepter.

Elle eut aussi à conquérir son mari, qui tout à son veuvage, la fuyait.A force de patience et d'attentions, mais aussi avec la complicité de sa belle-sœur, Henriette, elle réussit à former avec son époux un couple très uni.

Elle contribua ensuite à rapprocher le roi de son fils.

Louis XV adorait sa belle-fille, en qui il avait grande confiance.

La triste Pépa Les épreuves ne furent pas épargnées à cette princesse que son beau-père surnomma "la triste Pépa": en 1757 son pays natal, la Saxe, est envahie et pillée par les armées de roi Frédéric II de Prusse. La mère de Marie-Josèphe, fille de l'Empereur Joseph Ier, brisée par la douleur, en meurt.En 1764, cédant au parlementaires, Louis XV fit expulser les jésuites au grand dam du couple delphinal.

Au cours de ces années également, les deuils de la famille royale de France se multiplient:

1752 : mort de Mme Henriette, sa belle-sœur à 25 ans, 1755 : mort de sa fille aînée, Marie-Zéphyrine à 5 ans, 1757 : mort de sa mère et pillage de la Saxe(cf ci-desssus).Louis XV victime d'un attentat, survivra, 1759 : mort de Mme Elisabeth, duchesse de Parme, sœur jumelle d'Henriette, 1761 : mort de son fils aîné, 1763 : mort de son père, le roi Auguste III de Pologne et de sa nièce Isabelle de Parme à 22 ans, sa nièce, élevée à Versailles.Aînée des petits enfants du roi, elle avait épousé le futur Empereur Joseph II, 1764 : mort de la marquise de Pompadour, 1765 : mort de son époux le dauphin Louis-Ferdinand à 36 ans de tuberculose et de son beau-frère, Philippe Ier, duc de Parme, 1766 : mort accidentelle du roi Stanislas Leszczynski, son grand père par alliance.

Victime de l'Amour

Marie-Josèphe ne se remit jamais de la mort du dauphin qu'elle avait soigné elle-même jusqu'à la fin. Elle contracta son mal et mourut de tuberculose en 1767, âgée de 36 ans, laissant orphelins ses enfants aux tragiques destins...

Récupérée de « http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie-Jos%C3%A8phe_de_Saxe »

-------------------- http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_J%C3%B3zefa_Wettyn_(1731-1767) -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duchess_Marie-Jos%C3%A8phe_of_Saxony Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony (1731–1767) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Duchess Marie-Josèphe of Saxony)

Jump to: navigation, search Maria Josepha of Saxony Dauphine of France Portrait by Jean-Martial Frédou, 1760 Spouse Louis-Ferdinand, Dauphin of France Detail Issue Louis XVI of France Louis XVIII of France Charles X of France Clothilde, Queen of Sardinia Madame Élisabeth Full name German: Maria Josepha Carolina Eleonore Franziska Xaveria French: Marie Josèphe Caroline Eléonore Françoise Xavière Father Augustus III of Poland Mother Maria Josepha of Austria Born 4 November 1731(1731-11-04) Dresden Castle, Dresden, Saxony, modern-day Germany Died 13 March 1767 (aged 35) Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France

Maria Josepha of Saxony (French: Marie Josèphe de Saxe; 4 November 1731 – 13 March 1767) was a Duchess of Saxony and the Dauphine of France. She became Dauphine at the age of fifteen through her marriage to Louis Ferdinand de France, the son and heir of Louis XV.

Marie Josèphe was the mother of three kings of France, including the doomed Louis XVI, who died under the guillotine during the French Revolution. Her youngest daughter, Madame Élisabeth, also was beheaded during the Revolution. Contents [show]

   * 1 Family
   * 2 Marriage negotiations
   * 3 Marie-Josèphe de Saxe
   * 4 Widowhood
   * 5 Issue
   * 6 Ancestry
   * 7 See also
   * 8 Titles, styles, honours and arms
         o 8.1 Titles and styles
   * 9 References
   * 10 Titles

[edit] Family

Maria Josepha Carolina Eleonore Franziska Xaveria was born on 4 November, 1731 in Dresden Castle to Frederick Augustus II, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, and Maria Josepha of Austria, the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. As a daughter of the Electoral Prince, she was a Duchess in Saxony. Her mother was a first cousin of Maria Theresa of Austria, who in turn was the mother of Marie Antoinette, Maria Josepha's future daughter-in-law.

Maria Josepha was the eighth of fifteen children and the fourth daughter. Her oldest sister Maria Amalia Christina married the future Charles III of Spain in 1738 and had a large family. Her second sister, Maria Margaretha, died in infancy; Maria Anna Sophia became the Electress of Bavaria in 1747. Her eldest surviving brother Frederick Christian became the Elector of Saxony in 1763 and reigned for only 74 days.

Her younger sisters Maria Christina of Saxony and Maria Kunigunde of Saxony were Princess-abbesses of prestigious religious institutions. [edit] Marriage negotiations

As noted, her oldest sister Maria Amalia had married a Spanish prince, Infante Carlos, in 1738. He was a member of the House of Bourbon. The Dauphin of France had been married to the Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain since February 1745. The couple had been very happy together and deeply in love. The Infanta, known as Marie-Thérèse-Raphaëlle in France, died on 22 July 1746 after giving birth to a daughter, the couple's only child, Princess Marie-Thérèse of France. Ferdinand VI of Spain, half-brother of the deceased Marie-Thérèse-Raphaëlle, had offered the Dauphine another Bourbon princess, Infanta Maria Antonietta. Instead, Louis XV and his all-powerful mistress Madame de Pompadour wanted to open up diplomatic channels.

The marriage between Maria Josepha and the Dauphin of France had first been suggested by Maria Josepha's uncle Maurice de Saxe, an illegitimate son of Maria Josepha's grandfather Augustus II. Louis XV and his mistress, were convinced that the marriage would be advantageous to French foreign affairs. France and Saxony had been on opposing sides in the recent War of the Austrian Succession and thus the marriage between the Saxon princess and the Dauphin of France would form a new alliance between the two nations.

There was one problem with the suggested bride: Maria Josepha's grandfather Augustus II had dethroned Stanisław Leszczyński (then the Duke of Lorraine). Stanisław was the father of the then Queen of France Maria Leszczyńska. The marriage was said to have humiliated the simple-living Queen, even though the Queen and Dauphine would later get on well.

Other proposals came from Savoy in the form of Princess Eleonora of Savoy or her sister Princess Maria Luisa of Savoy.[1] Both were refused.

Despite the disapproval of the Queen, the two were married on 9 February 1747, Maria Josepha of Saxony married Louis Ferdinand de France, Dauphin of France and Fils de France. Her marriage to a Fils de France ("Son of France") allowed Maria Josepha the style of Royal Highness, the right to travel and lodge wherever the king did, as well as the coveted right of dining with him in an armchair in his presence. However in practice, the Dauphine was addressed as Madame la Dauphine, the more traditional French style prevailing at Versailles till the Revolution. [edit] Marie-Josèphe de Saxe

In France the Saxon princess was known as Marie-Josèphe de Saxe. Portrait by Jean Marc Nattier, 1751 Allegory of Maria Josepha and her daughter Marie Zéphyrine, by Charles-Joseph Natoire, c.1751.

Prior to the marriage, tradition demanded that the bride wear a bracelet which had a picture of her father on it; the Queen seeing the Dauphine asked to see the bracelet. The witty Marie-Josèphe then revealing the bracelet to the Queen showed a portrait of the Queen's father. The Dauphine said that the portrait represented the fact that the Duke of Lorraine was Marie-Josèphe's grandfather by marriage. The Queen and the court were strongly impressed by the tact of this girl of 15 years. The Dauphine was also very close to her father-in-law Louis XV.

At the time of the marriage, the Dauphin was still grieving for his Spanish wife. This grief was very public on the part of the Dauphin but Marie-Josèphe was praised greatly for her conquering the heart of the Dauphin "bit by bit". Despite Marie-Josèphe being the patient wife, the Dauphin's grief worsened in April 1748 when his only child with the Infanta died at the age of two.

The Dauphin was deeply affected by the death of Marie-Thérèse, known as Madame Royale, as she was his only link to her deceased mother. Marie-Josèphe, her stepmother, later commissioned a painting (now lost)[2] of the infant to be left over her cradle.

The new Dauphine was very grateful to Madame de Pompadour for helping arrange her marriage, and always maintained a good relationship with the royal mistress. Although it was an arranged marriage, Marie-Josèphe fell in love with the Dauphin.

Like her husband, Marie-Josèphe was very devout. Together with Queen Maria Leszczyńska, she formed a counterbalance to the libertine behaviour of her father-in-law and his court. The couple were not fond of the various entertainments held at Versailles every week, preferring to stay in their apartments which can still be seen on the ground floor of Versailles overlooking the Orangerie.

The couple's first child was a daughter, born in 1750 on the feast day of Saint Zephyrinus and named Marie Zéphyrine. The birth of the Princess, known as Madame Royale, was greeted with much joy by her parents even though Louis XV naturally had been disappointed the child was not a male. This princess died in 1755 without being mourned; in France, a princess had to live at least five years to be formally mourned.[3] Their second child, Louis Joseph Xavier de France, a son born on 15 September 1751, was given the title of duc de Bourgogne, a title traditionally given to the eldest son of the Dauphin of France. Bourgogne was the apple of his parents' eye. His talents appeared early and inspired hope for the future in the hearts of the entire court. He was adored by his older sister Marie Zéphyrine and he adored her too.

Unfortunately, the royal couple concentrated so much time and energy on this eldest son that their other children suffered from neglect. He died on 22 March 1761 at the age of nine at Versailles after having fallen from a toy horse. He started limping and a tumour began to grow on his hip. This was operated on, but he never recovered the use of his legs. He was buried at the Basilica of St Denis.

The couple's second son, Xavier de France, duc d'Aquitaine, born in 1753, died a year later. As a result, their third son, Louis Auguste de France, duc de Berry, born on 23 August 1754, became second in line to the French throne after his father. A strong and healthy boy, although very shy, he excelled in his studies and had a strong taste for Latin, history, geography, and astronomy, and became fluent in Italian and English. Louis Auguste would later become King of France being orphaned at the age of 12.

Thanks to Marie-Josèphe's close relationship with the King and Dauphin, the relationship between father and son soon repaired itself. The Dauphin was at the center of the Dévots, a group of religious-minded men who hoped to gain power when he succeeded to the throne. They were against the way of Louis XV who openly had affairs at court in blatant view of the Queen. Naturally they were not popular with Louis XV.

Her father-in-law named his loving daughter-in-law la triste Pepe; in 1754 Frederick II of Prussia invaded her native Saxony and that started the Seven Years' War in which France later joined. Saxony was pillaged by Frederick. Then in 1757 her mother died aged 58 in Dresden. Her father would die in 1763.

Politically reserved, she exerted herself only once, in 1762, in vain, for the preservation of the Society of Jesus in France. The Society had been dissolved by the King on the initiative of the duc de Choiseul and Madame de Pompadour. [edit] Widowhood

The death of her husband, on 20 December, 1765, dealt Marie-Josèphe a devastating blow from which she never recovered, sinking into a deep depression for the rest of her life. Her sisters by marriage, Mesdames Adélaïde, Victoire, and Sophie mourned intensely. The Queen grieved greatly.

To save her the torment of remaining with bittersweet memories of her dead husband, Louis XV allowed her to move at Versailles from the apartments she had shared with her deceased spouse into the apartments of the late Madame de Pompadour, who had died in 1764. There, he visited her more than he had in the past and discussed with her the possible wedding of her son, the new dauphin. Marie-Josèphe was not pleased with the idea of her eldest son marrying Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria, the future Marie Antoinette. Their mothers were first cousins, and Marie Antoinette's mother had seized the inheritance of the Habsburg Empire from Marie-Josèphe's mother.

Soon, her health declined. She died on 13 March 1767 of tuberculosis, and was buried in the royal crypt in Saint-Denis. The marriage of her son Louis Auguste with Maria Antonia was celebrated three years later. [edit] Issue Name Portrait Lifespan Notes Marie Zéphyrine de France Madame Royale Marie Zéphirine de France par Nattier.jpg 26 August 1750 - 1 September 1755 (aged 5) Born at Versailles, she was known as Madame Royale at court; died at Versailles aged 5 Louis Joseph Xavier de France Duke of Burgundy Louis Joseph Xavier of France, Duke of Burgundy.jpg 13 September 1751- 22 March 1761 (aged 9) Heir of the Dauphin, he died at Versailles aged 9 much to the distress of his family; Xavier Marie Joseph de France Duke of Aquitaine Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg 8 September 1753 – 22 February 1754 (aged 0) Born at the Palace of Versailles dying there aged 5 months; Louis Auguste de France King of France Duke of Berry Ludvig XVI av Frankrike porträtterad av AF Callet.jpg 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793 (aged 38) Born at Versailles, was later husband of Marie Antoinette and King of France; had issue; Louis Stanislas Xavier de France King of France Count of Provence JoungLouisXVIII.jpg 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824 (aged 68) Born at Versailles, he married Princess Marie Josephine Louise of Savoy and had no issue; later King of France; Charles Philippe de France King of France Count of Artois Charles X Roi de France et de Navarre.jpg 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836 (aged 79) Born at Versailles, he married Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy and had issue; was later King of France; Marie Adélaïde Clotilde Xavière de France Queen of Sardinia Madameclotilde.jpg 23 September 1759 – 7 March 1802 (aged 42) Born at Versailles, she married the future Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia and had no issue; Élisabeth Philippine Marie Hélène de France Madame Élisabeth Madame-elisabeth-2.jpg 3 May 1764 – 10 May 1794 (aged 30) Born at Versailles, she never married and was executed in the French Revolution aged 30;

Maria Josepha also had a stillborn son in 1748 and again in 1749. A stillborn daughter in 1752; Stillborn son in 1756. She also miscarried a son in 1762

See also

   * Nicolay

[edit] Titles, styles, honours and arms [edit] Titles and styles

   * 4 November, 1731 - September, 1733 Her Highness Duchess Maria Josepha of Saxony
   * 9 February 1747 – 20 December 1765 Her Royal Highness the Dauphine of France (Madame la Dauphine [de France])
   * 20 December 1765 – 13 March 1767 Her Royal Highness the Dowager Dauphine of France

Maria Josepha's father held the title of king of Poland. However, children of Polish kings were explicitly forbidden the use of the title of prince or princess of Poland. [edit] References Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Marie-Josèphe of Saxony

  1. ^ niece of the Queen of Spain of the same name
  2. ^ MARIE-THÉRÈSE, FILLE AÎNÉE DU DAUPHIN LOUIS-FERDINAND
  3. ^ Spawfourth. Tony, Versailles, New York, 2008, p.200-1

This page was last modified on 20 July 2010 at 06:54. -------------------- Marie-Josèphe of Saxony From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Princess Maria Josepha Carolina of Saxony, Dauphine of France, (4 November 1731 – 13 March 1767), was the daughter of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-elector of Saxony and king of Poland, and Maria Josepha of Austria, (1699-1757), the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the mother of three Kings of France, including the doomed Louis XVI, who died under the guillotine during the French Revolution. Her youngest daughter, Madame Élisabeth, also was beheaded during the Revolution. On February 9, 1747, Marie-Josèphe married Louis, Dauphin of France, son and heir of Louis XV. For the French prince it was his second marriage. His first wife, Maria Teresa of Spain, had died on July 22, 1746, after giving birth to a daughter, the couple's only child. The marriage came about on the suggestion of Maurice de Saxe, an uncle of the future bride. Louis XV and his mistress, Madame de Pompadour, were convinced that the marriage would be advantageous to French foreign affairs. The new Dauphine was very grateful to Madame de Pompadour for helping to arrange her marriage. She was always kind to her afterwards and had a good relationship with the royal mistress. Although an arranged marriage, Marie-Josèphe fell in love with the Dauphin. To a great extent, she was politically reserved and exerted herself in that arena only once, in 1762, in vain, for the preservation of the Society of Jesus in France. The Society had been dissolved by the King on the iniative of the Duc de Choiseul and Madame de Pompadour. Like her husband, Marie-Josèphe was very devout. Together with Queen Maria Leszczyńska, she formed a counterbalance to the immoral behavior of her father-in-law and his court.

The couple's first child was a daughter named Marie Zéphyrine who was born in 1750 and died in 1755. Their second child was a son who was born on September 15th, 1751, and received the name Louis Joseph Xavier. He was given the title of Duke of Burgundy|Duc de Bourgogne because Louis XV's father had previously held the same title. The duc became the apple of his parents' eye. His talents appeared early and inspired hope for the future in the hearts of the entire court. Unfortunately, though, the royal couple concentrated so much time and energy on this eldest son that their other children suffered from neglect. The Duc de Bourgogne died on March 22, 1761, of tuberculosis. Since the couple's second son, the Duc de Aquitaine, who had been born in 1753, had died one year later, their third son, Louis Auguste, Duc de Berry (future Louis XVI), born on August 23, 1754, became second in line to the French throne after his father.

The death of her husband on the December 20, 1765, dealt Marie-Josèphe a devastating blow from which she never recovered, sinking into a deep depression for the rest of her life. To save her the torment of remaining with bittersweet memories of her dead husband, Louis XV allowed her to move her apartments at Versailles from those she had shared with her deceased spouse into the apartments of the late Madame de Pompadour, who had died in 1764. There, he visited her more than he had in the past and discussed with her the possible wedding of her son, the new dauphin. Marie-Josèphe was not taken with the idea of her eldest son marrying Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria. Soon, her health quickly declined. She suffered from the same illness as her late husband, lung tuberculosis. She died on March 13, 1767, and was buried in the royal crypt in Saint-Denis. The marriage of her son with the Austrian archduchess, who became Marie Antoinette, was carried out three years later on May 16, 1770. [edit]Marriages and children

Marie-Josèphe married Louis, Dauphin of France, and they had eight children: Marie-Zéphyrine (26 August 1750–1 September 1755). Louis, Duc de Bourgogne (13 September 1751–22 March 1761). Xavier, Duc de Guyenne (8 September 1753–22 February 1754). Louis-Auguste, Duc de Berry, the future king Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) (guillotined). Louis-Stanislas, Comte de Provence, the future king Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824). Charles-Philippe, Comte d'Artois, the future king Charles X (9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836). Marie-Clotilde (23 September 1759 – 7 March 1802), married King Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia, Prince of Piedmont. Élisabeth-Philippine (3 May 1764 – 10 May 1794), known as Madame Élisabeth (guillotined).

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princess_Maria_Josepha_of_Saxony_(1731%E2%80%931767)

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Maria Josepha von Sachsen, dauphine de France's Timeline

1731
November 4, 1731
Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany
1747
February 9, 1747
Age 15
Versailles, France
1748
1748
Age 16
Versailles, Ile-de-France, France
1750
August 26, 1750
Age 18
Versailles, Seine-Et-Oise, France
1751
September 13, 1751
Age 19
Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France
1752
1752
Age 20
Versailles, Ile-de-France, France
1753
September 8, 1753
Age 21
Versailles, Seine-Et-Oise, France
1754
August 23, 1754
Age 22
Versailles, Yvelines, Île-de-France, France
1755
November 17, 1755
Age 24
Versailles, France
1756
1756
Age 24
Versailles, Ile-de-France, France